It is assumed for the PurPOse of the calculation that water encroachment only
takes place along the northeast flank.
The aquifer is assumed to be one of semiinfinite extension, since it is not pos
sible to assign to it ~ priori any dimensions because of the fact that, even in wells
drilled at great distances from the center of the oil field, salt water has been found.
Furthermore, the conclusion r e a c h e ~ in the present work, in which the formula ;for
infinite or non....limited reservoirs is used, supports !. posteriori the hypothesis
that the aquifer may be considered as infinite.
Since no pressure surveys were made between 1930 and 1941, it is assumed that the
pressure drop is linear during this period. From 1942 to 1949 seven pressure SUl!Vey$
were made, and pressures were measured at a 2,100 m subsea datum plane. The pressure
history is shown in Figure 2.
The choice of the 2,100 m datum plane was made only because the wells drilled in
the early years of field development were completed at that average depth. In recent
years many wells have been drilled to greater depths and; }n diverse areas, thus leading
to a broadening of the limits and rock volume of the field. Furthermore an application
of the materialbalance equation taking the datum plane at that level leads to com
pletely unacceptable results.
The difficulty encountered in locating the datum plane for a high relief pool is
well known. This difficulty is even greater for Poza Rica because of the great thi.ck
ness of the producing formation. Previous to the present paper we had proposed to
measure bottom hole pressures at the level corresponding to the mean pressure obtained
l14G AN APPLICATION OF D!WUSITY AND Ml\.TERIALB1\LA!!lCE EQUATIOliS
:3
by weighing volumetrically the variable (with depth) pressure of th.e reservoir. The
thus obtained is 2,.300 m. It will be seen that by reducing pressures to this level
for the purpose of applying the materialbalance equation no inconsistency is obtained
in the results and the pool performance is better described when this 2,.300 m datum
plane is taken.
Calculations by means of the diffusity equation are independent of the datum plane
level since pressure enters only as pressure declines (in time) and these are assumed to
be the same for similar intervals of time, the variation (between a reasonable range)
of depth notwithstanding. This amounts to saying that a constant pressure gradient is
assumed. Of course, this is not true, but the way in which the datum plane level is
determined justifies this assumption.Pressures at 2,.300 m are given in Table 1 as
calculated from those for 2,100 m, and assuming a constant pressure gradient of
0.07.38 kg/cm2/m as prertously estimated.
FUNDAMENTAL THEORY
The theoretical basis on which this work is founded is to be found in reference 2,
Chapter XI, mainly in Sections 11.3 and 11.5, and in the paper cited in reference 1, where
use is made of the Laplace transform to find solutions of the diffusityequations under
various initial and boundary conditions.
The fundamental equation that governs the flow of a fluid in a porous medium, or
diffusity equation, obtained by means of Darcy's equation and the continuity equation is
the following:*
ff
I<
.e.
aT
.
)
(1)
If the equation of the state is
CP
_ e
Equation (1) transforms into
(2)
_dP

dT
(3)
The equation for the pressure can be shown to be
2 2
\1 P + c ('\7 P) =
fflC
f(
dP

aT
(4)
or, if the fluid is slightly compressible, one obtains for radial flaw,
where t = aT, R = a = K
* Nomenclature given at end of paper.
dP
dt
J
(5)
4 l1.4G AN APPLICATION OF DIFFUSI'l'Y AND MATERIALBALANCE EQUATIONS
The solution of Equation (5) for the case of constant pressure at the border Iq,
can be found by means of the Laplace transform,2,3 and from here the following
formula for the volume influx of water through Iq, into the oil field is found:
(6)
where
4 J00 I _ e_v.
2
t
du
rr2. 0 .u.z,[ J@h" 1" Y.,2(AJ)r
The foregoing formula for ~ can be extended to the case of variable (in time)
pressure at the boundary; the formula is the following:
(8)
and is given in the paper of van Everdingen and Hurst cited in reference 1. In the same
paper a table of Qt is given, of which we have made extensive use. (We have made an
application of these tables and have, by no means, repeated those calculations.)
We write Equation (8) in the form,
Q1" == 2 0( feR: h [ ~ P Q + Ll'P Q + ... +~ P QJ (9)
() t'\ I 1'\1 rtt I
where n is the number of years in time T.
Equation (9) can be written as Qr =A F
n
, F
n
standing for the expression in brackets:
(10)
and A for the coefficient:
(ll)
PROCEDURE
A complete analytic treatment of the problem can not be continued further on
account of the great number of unknowns. These are K, JA ,or better still Kip ,
often referred to as the mobility, r , c ,N and ~ , but one can resort to graphical
methods.
In works written on the subject up to now the point of view is expressed that,
because of the simplifying assumptions underlying the diffusity theory, and because of the
inherent uncertainties in the geometrical characteristics of the reservoir, it is not
l14G
AN APPLICATION OF DIFFUSITY AND MATERIA.LBALA.!fCE EQUATIONS
possible to determine its physical constants and also that it is preferable to let the
"alue of a, the parameter given by Equation (5), be indeterminate to a certain extent;
if some value of a is chosen for specific application, values of geometric and physical
constants are adjusted as convenient.
We believe that it is possible to take further advantage of the diffusity method
than just predicting influx or pressure histories, and that some of the physical constants
of the reservoir can be determined when use is made of the values of other better known
constants.
In the present application we try to determine f and the constants reason
ably assumed to be better known are those of the aquifer, which are (1) its thickness,
which for our purpose should be taken as equal to the thickness h of the oil reservoir,
and (2) the compressibility c, which will be taken as that of water, equal to
4.56 x 10's 0.';,..
We have then proceeded in the following manner. Making use of Equation (9) of the
foregoing section we have calculated QT for several values of the parameter K//4 and the
porosity f; the calculations have been performed for every year during the period 193049.
Using production data and field constants given in Table 1, we have applied the
materialbalance equation to calculate Qr for each year of the period 194249, taking
again several values of thE:: porosity f; Qtr depends on f through the original oil in
place N. Figure 3 shows graphically the variation of QT against f and KIp for 1949 as
given by both the diffusity and materialbalance equations. The latter was applied taking
levels of the datum plane, that of 2,300 m corresponding to the volumetrically
Ireighted mean pressure, which is the one we propose, and that of 2,200 m, depth of the
volumetric center.
Silnilar calculations and graphs were made for 1942.
For a value of there corresponds a value of f, obtained as the abscissa of the
intersection of the straight line and the corresponding = constant curve; one value
of f for each of the two dates is obtained and it should be expected that the same
porosity would be found for both dates, though in general this is not actually the case;
this can be made to occur if the difference A f of f for the two dates is plotted
against K/I't and a value of KIp is determined for which Af is zero. In this way we
obtain = 0.125 taking the 2,300 m plane and K/J4. = 0.100 for the 2,200 m plane.
The value of f is the same for both planes, and is found to be f =0.082.
The method of least squares can be used when more than two dates are taken into
account.
Using the values of f and K/I't determined from the graphs, we recalculate the
values of water intrusion at different dates of the period 193G49 ; these are shown in
Table 2, where the results for the 2,200 m datum plane are included.
Original amount of oil is calculated by the formula
N = Vf (1  Sw)
u
o
; (12)
\r , the interstitial water saturation, being equal to 0.15, as determined from core
analysis, .and V, the rock volume of the producing formation from the initial
contact to the wateroil is estimated trom an isopach map to be 12,740 x 10 m
3
;
then we find =3604.1 x 10 m, or 3,391 x 10 bb1 for the 2,300 m datum plane and
N =602.0 x 10 m or 3,379 x 106 bbl with datum plane located at 2,200 m.
6 ll4G
AN APPLICATION OF DIFFUSITY AND MATERIALBALANCE EQUATIONS
Materialbalance calculations have been carried out using the equation in the form, 4
From these results we can calculate the waterdrive, depletiondrive and segregation
drive indices by means of the formulas
5
Waterdrive index
(W D I)
,
(14)
n
Depletiondrive index
( D D I )
(15)
Segregationdrive index
(S D I)
(16) .
respectively. We find i
l
=0.33,
The expansion of the gas cap divided by (1  Sw) gives the corresponding rock vol
ume, and from this and the rock volume VB. depth graph (not shown in this paper) we
determine the drop of the gasoil contact level to be 10 m (32.8 ft) until 1949, origi
nal contact (in 1930) being at 2,030 m.
Figure 4 shows the comparison between the diffusion and materialbalance methods;
we have plotted the values of R, the ratio of the cumulative water influx for any given
date to that at 1949, for the seven pressure surveys made. We observe from this graph
that (1) the 1945 and 1948 values are lower than those expected from the others and from
the general trend o:f R as given by the diffusion method; as has been said, the latter is
essentially unaffected by changes in the diffusity constants; and (2) taking the datum
plant at 2,200 m the values of R are still more scattered and for this reason we conclude
that the 2,300 m plane should be used to describe more correctly the reservoir per:for
mance. For the 2,100 m datum plane we find that R is sometimes a decreasing function
and the values for the water encroachment and the quantity of oil originally in place
are decidedly unacceptable.
Taking into account the large period covered and the small number of pressure surveys
made it is seen that the agreement between the two curves is satisfactory. If more
accuracy is wanted it is clearly apparent that a greater number of bottom hole pressure
surve:rs is necessary.
For this reason no attempt of applying any statistical analysis has been made to
solve the problem of locating the datum plane.
IJ.4G
AN APPLICATION OF DIFFUSITY A...?ID MA'l'muALBALANCE E;,JUATIONS 1
As a matter of fact, the lack of field data is a handicap for undertaking new
"."ngineering studies and. further research work in Poza Rica that may prevail for some
,rears. We strongly recommend making bottom hole pressure surveys at least once per year.
OTHER FORMULAS FOR WATER INTRUSION
Now we turn out attention to other for the estimation of water encroachment
that have been thus far proposed. These are:
1. Simplified form of Hurst's or Diffusion formula for radial influx:
2. Schilthuis equation:
Ap
1 n t
dt
3. Simple approximation:
T
=cl AP dt
o
Q.r = c T AP
Due to the rather troublesome calculation implied in the dif'fusity formula and the
simplicity of the above equations, use of' the latter is advised but it is desirable to
see how the results given by each one of them compares with those obtained from the diffu
sity theory. We present such a comparison for the concrete pressure historyof' the Poza
Rica field.
Of' course, none of the foregoing formulas is sufficient in itself to calculate the
'Water influx since the constant is unlmown; it is necessary to resort to other means to
determine its value; when the cumulative water intrusion for one date is lmown, c is
computed and the cumulative water influx may be calculated for any other date. Assuming
that Q49 has the value given by the dif'fusity method, that is, 30.0 x 10
6
m
3
, we find
for the constant in the simplified form of Hurst's equation,2
c =1,268 m
3
/ day
. cm
Integrals in formulas (1) and (2) were computed mechanically by means of a planimeter.
In Figure 5 results given by each of the above formulae are summarized. It may be
seen that maximum differences given by formulas (1), (2), and 0) from results obtained
from the diffusity theory are 4, 6, and 8 per cent respectively, of the cumulative water
influx for 1949.
FUTURE PRESSURES
Recently we have applied the simplified form of the diffusion formula (1) combined
with the material balance equation for predicting pressures. The usual way is to deter
mine, by trial and error, a value of P that satisfies both equations. We haYe
8 114G
\
AN APPLICATION OF DIFFUSrfi AND MATERI.AJ:,...BAL,ANCE EQUATIONS .. . .
followed a different procedure  Hurst's formula can be written in differential form
as follows:
~ = cAP
If InT
,
(
1 =d9r)
T dT
This and the materialbalance equation are taken simUltaneously and the method of
trajectories for step by step integration is applied. Values of pressures obtained by
this and other methods are in close agreement. DetailS and results of the method will be
presented elsewhere.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
The Poza Rica field is a partial waterdrive pool whose behavior can be described in
the radial flow scheme; extension of the aquifer can be considered infinite. The porosity
and mobility of the system have the values f =0.082 and K/p = 0.125 darcies/centipoises.
These values being obtained by a method that combines the diffusity and materialbalance
equations, for calculations by the latter the 2,300 m datum plane should be taken.
Water influx since 1930 until 1949 is 30.0 x 10
6
m
3
, or 189 x 10
6
bbl; the corres
ponding rate of flow at end of this period is 6,575 Jl3/daY or 41,360 bbl/day.
Amount of oil in place originally is 604.1 x 10
6
m.
3
or 3,800 x 10
6
bbl stock tank oil.
In view of the great rock volume of the field and the desirability of having more
data available, bottom hole pressure surveys are recommended to be made at least once
every year.
Further study and research are going on and work of this kind should even be
encouraged.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We are indebted to Mr. J. Colomo, General SubDirector, and Mr. A. Barnetche, Produc
tion Manager of Petroleos :Mexicanos, for permission to publish this paper. The helpful
suggestions made by Professor V. C. TIling are also greatly appreciated.
NOMENCLATURE
~
~
c
f
G
h
il
i2
i3
K
m
One half of angular amplitude of oil field.
Formation volume factor at P.
Formation volume factor at original Pressure Po.
Compressibility of water.
Porosity.
Cumulative gas production at standard conditions.
Thickness of producing formation.
Waterdrive index: ratio of volume influx to volume of voids left in the reservoir
by production.
Dissolved gasdrive index: ratio of dissolved gas expansion to volume of voids
left in the reservoir.
Free gasdrive index: ratio of free gascap expansion to volume of voids left in
the reservoir.
Permeability.
Ratio of original gas cap volume in the reservoir to original oil volume in
the reservoir.
Viscosity.
Amount of stock tank oil in place originally.
114G
AN APPl.IC,A.'l'ION OF DIFFUSITY AND ft'l'ERIALBALANCE EQUATIONS 9
. n
'"
tiP
APk
Qtr
R
%
r
r
o
r
p
?
t
J'f
Po
v
v
V
o
z
Cumulative stock tank oil production. Number of years in time T
Pressure.
Pressure drop.
Difference between the k and k + 1 pressure values.
Cumulative water influx at time T.
Radial distance. Ratio of cumulative water intrusion to that at 1949.
Radius of oil field.
Dimensionless distance. Dissolved gasoil ratio at P.
Dissolved gasoil ratio at original reservoir p r e ~ s u r e .
Cumulative gasoil ratio =GIn.
Saturation of connate water.
Time.
Dimensionless time.
= fl + (r0  r) v.
= flo
Rock volume. .
Gas volume factor at P.
Gas volume factor at original reservoir pressure.
Cumulative water production.
REFERENCES
1. A. F. van Everdingen and W. Hurst: "The Application of the Laplace Transformation to
Flow Problems in Reservoirs." Pet. Tech. Dec. 1949, p. 305.
~ . M. Muskat: Physical Principles of Oil Production. New York, 1949. McGrawHill
Book Co., p. 540.  
McGr.mrHill
Trans., AIME, (1943), 151, p. 87.
New York, 1950.
"Analysis of Reservoir Performance." R. E. Old, Jr.:
s. J. Pirson: Elements of Oil Reservoir Engineering.
Book Co., p. 390.
3. J .C. Jaeger: An Introduction to the Laplace Transformation. London, 1949. Methuen & Co.
4.
5.
6. R. Woods and M. Muskat: "An Analysis of Material Balance Calculations," Trans., AM,
(1945) 160, p. 124.
10 l1L.G AN APPLICATION OF DlFFUSITl .AND EQUATIOW$
TABLE 1  FIELD CONSTANTS AND PRODUCTION DATA
Field Constants
(Nomenclature at end of paper)
P1930 = 3,589.8 Ib/in
2
= 252.8 kg / cm 2 at = 2,300 m.
m = 0.06750 Volumetrically determined.
r
o
= 160.31L. m
3
/ m
3
; V
o
= 4.379 x 10
3
m
3
/ m
3
; U
o
= 1.470 m
3
/ m
3
muo = 22.6605.
V
o
Production Data
Millions of m
3
Date P z n G r
p
 r
o
 2300
May 1, 1942 3097.0 0.065 25.115 4979 37.934
April 1, 1943 3071.5 0.071 28.341 5654 39.185
May 1, 1944 3013.2 0.077 31.736 6288 37.821
July 1, 1945 2932.3 0.088 35.556 7050 37.965
July 1, 1946 2902.5 0.103 39.514 7714 34.908
May 1, 1948 2781.8 0.149 48.514 9080 26.848
March 1, 1949 27n.8 0.175 53.189 9836 24.611
TABLE 2  CUMULATIVE WATER INFLUX
Qr (millions of m
3
)
Date
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1948
1949
Datum Plane at 2,300 m.
o
0.30
0.90
1.50
2.40
3.30
4.50
5.70
6.90
8.40
9.90
11.70
13.50
15.30
17.40
19.80
21.90
27.60
30.00
Datum plane at 2,200 m.
o
0.26
0.79
1.31
2.10
2.89
3.94
4.99
6.04
7.35
8.66
10.24
11.81
13.39
15.23
17.33
19.16
24.15
26.25
89.000
I I 98.000
'"
! !
98,000
97,000
FIGURE N9 I
OIL ZONE ISOPACH
ROCK VOLUM E
POZA RICA FIELD
CURVAS ISOPACAS
EN METROS
I
i
8
0
0
i'
I,
I
0
8
0
i
I
u
0
N'
g
I I I
I
I NoL, _ L1riFFIIGGIUJFRA A
ZA RIC H
PO , ..".,.
I' 'I I

rTI I I I 94,000
I I .
I I I I I
I I 1 1 """
.... 1 1
I I I
1 1 1_
I 1
I I 91,000 I I I I
I I I
I I I I I
I I I
I I 88,000 I I I
.4""1.... I
88,000
I
I +LlL
I
i'
82,000
81,000
a .
! ! i
! N
82.000
41,000
I
i J
i
i
i
I
s
:\l.
!2 !2 !
!TE' .m t fI 8'
IT J .,.111: .IL ! _
 t++,
 
Ht .   / 1j+ttt .t
c
ri'::r . ,    
04
"
 
,.
N
g
t
1 .
r=::JL
&
1
o
RESERVOIR PRESSURE
KG/CM1 AT 2100"".
t .  .
1.
1 ..
8
1
g
t
vn3M .:l0 l:t39wnN
<;
o
GAS OIL RATIO PERM1!
<;
.01 NOIJ.:JnOOl:ld '10
.01 <;IV!)
.+++ +f. 
  N
oSgggg
OIL PRODUCTION PER DAY
.. Ii
  j
_ .'" (    ;==;=' t  f j++++   t
z: I 1  }1 . f  +
0;  +
:::+   ... Ill f 2 iI II
1 ,  r   .  :'! : ..  .. ../
U    _.  i 2f      t
::. :_\ __  T \
\,10 \ ',_ J'TJ
1:\ 11 \ () r
:     1'1 0
 __ .1" .\1
1
,': ,,,. d' .:   t+;ItI=l=;1
'" = ..  ., {F' I
:::: __ 'p
o '..  .f> t
 ? ..  I
::: ,)\ .. +: tf
? \ 1
: .. __ ,' ).  t    z'  rr t 
: '"'  pb __ ,  '...     . c . T
'.  
: "fnl' ,i!'\ __ I\. 
I\) __I$ \ n t/> P
\' ...  .... 1  
 2 . l If= r ? g .
.=IJt; 1 ... + I
  \ 1 > i\ :;; I
:' f__l+; i \\ I
... I 0 i \\ l' r
1 0 1? I i. I \
::: +' ;'J + ''t. 1  ] . I
i =,i=JI ="j(
;f'  j ; {'\ ,l[: .. 
::,i ,\1 '1"' . l'i'ji:\J+. +
Q '" ," I I .. I'
'"    I \ '\
_ .... I \". h
g!::== = ! : t r LIT
 .\ 1
,'II, : ;;: ;;;'
==:= +=.
=f= f.++.
IE :::f__ rt I++r' 
,
DATE
,+
riGf./RCN!*.!j
fP
.... +
I
/
/
/1':/
1./[/17
111+ +1+
COMPARISON DIFFU!>LON AND ....ATERiAL BAL.A.NCE METHODS.
MA.TERIAL &ALANe: EQUATION
r::
II DISCARDED VALUE$,2.300t.t?LANE (1945ANO 1948)
C!lI DATUM PLANE AT2,2OO '"
.. DATUM PLANE AT 2JOO M
i TT I I I \l\ I J I I j
:>A 1 f 1949
CUM)LATtVE WATER INFLU)' Q. IN MILLION!!> Qf CU. METERS ..0.& f"LJNCTIQN
Cf" PO"lOS;T'o' f AN0 MOVILlTv  DArUM AT METERS, BELOW 5EA LEVEL.
 DATUM P... ANE AT 2.200 Mi::TERS BELOW SEA L.(V(L
"""
R=3L.
a..
,..
_ _/ .' =
, . /     .  1 
  !T  tr
Q
T
I
+ I, I 1++..,..11
o
19)0
'\
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