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17.12.

2008

Computer aided production planning and control (Lecture #11)

Computer Computer-aided production planning & control


l Production planning & control l MRP and MRP II l Just in time principles l The Kanban system

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Computer Computer-aided production planning & control


The scope of production planning and control within a company is to plan manufacturing process for control v the flow of materials v tools work in production (WIP) v

Computer Computer-aided production planning & control


Computer-aided production planning & Computercontrol (CAPP&C) systems rely on the data generated by all other areas of CAE. CAPP&C can be seen as being dominant in the structure of a CIM environment.

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Production Planning
It involves a number of activities related to
the preperation of the manufacturing the modification of the manufacturing the master production schedule

Production Planning
It includes a number of activities such as
v v v

selecting the most appropriate process process planning factory layout

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Production Planning
Weekly Planning: The initial planning was rere -structured to accommodate both the existing delays as well as the shortened schedule. Weekly plans were developed based on the new work plan. These weekly plans, however, were designed considering the possible future change orders and engineering delays.

Production Planning
Daily Planning: Based on the weekly planning, a daily planning was developed. This considered all the field problems and delays, in order to adjust the next day planning. Changes were so frequent during the project, that it was impossible to think that planning could be developed even for a few days, without a major change.

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Production Planning
Work Orders/Information Retrieval: The daily planning was transformed into daily work orders. This order included the responsible foremen, the location of the work to be realized, the crew leader , the equipment required, the volume of work and, the time at which the work shall be started an finished.

Production Planning
Initial planning Weekly planning Productivity measurement Productiviy Improvement Team Daily planning Field engineer Production report Feedback Summary reports Work orders Information retrieval

PW,CW,NCW Optimum crews Optimum procedure Productivity Velocity

Foreman

Information analysis

Management

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Master Production Schedule sets out an aggregate plan for production. is the statement of its expected production output over the long term. term.

Master Production Schedule


is effectively the plan that the company has developed for production, staffing, inventory, etc. has as input a variety of data, e.g. (forecast demand, production costs, inventory costs,
etc and as output a production plan detailing amounts to be produced, staffing levels, etc for each of a number of time periods.)

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Master Production Schedule


This production plan: operates at an aggregate level (that is it does not usually go into great detail about parts to be used, etc - hence the name aggregate planning); and is cost driven, that is it attempts to meet the specified requirements at minimum cost.

Master Production Schedule


The diagram below illustrates the situation and the types of factor. Hire
Manhours (regular/overtime

People

Shifts

Fine
Subconstractors

Cost Production Inventory Demand

Revenue

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Master Production Schedule


This is the most general of the options allowed by the package. LP stands for linear programming and is a generalised way of modelling decision problems.

Process planning
Planning the processes for a particular component / assembly is vital to the costcosteffectiveness of a product in the marketplace. Manual process planning involves generating a set of instructions to the manufacturing plant for the production of a component / an effective order for assembly.

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Process planning
Computer Computer-aided process planning tools fully utilize the computers data storage and retrieval capabilities to manage a database of this information. More complex CAPP packages are known as generative type systems.

Scheduling
An important aspect of planning the effecient manufacture of components and products within the factory is that they are scheduled.
v Shortest processing time (SPT) v Earliest due data (EDD) v Moores algorithm v Johnsons algorithm

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Production Control
Production control does not only have to ensure the correct implementation of production planning but must also provide the means to dynamically change the planning to suit such fluctuations. In a computer computer-aided system, the correct and timely delivery of materials can be carried out by automated materials handling devices.

Materials Requirements Planning


It is a more a statement of how the company wishes or even needs to affect the market rather than how the market is actually performed. The master production schedule is set up by the materials requirements planning (MRP) system.

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Materials Requirements Planning


Materials requirements planning, referred to by the initials MRP, is a technique which assists a company in the detailed planning of its production. MRP was developed in the 1960s in the US to provide a computerized means of controlling the availability of materials for production.

MRP Operation
The operation of a materials requirements planning system is key to that of a CIM system as it utilitize data from a wide range of the CAE facilities within a company.

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Materials Requirements Planning


Conceptually therefore two related decisions about ordering are : timing - when to order quantity - how much to order With respect to the timing decision as late as possible, but never planned a stockout. This is a driving principle in MRP, Never order before you need to, never plan to stockout.

Materials Requirements Planning


Customer
Customer order Purchase Order

Supplier
Received Purchase Order

Received Order

MRP PROCESS

Result MRPprocess

Inventory

Purchase order

Check-status Inventory

Management

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Materials Requirements Planning


This quantity decision rule can be varied in MRP and some other rules are: Fixed order quantity rule (sometimes called FOQ or FO) FO) - the quantity ordered is an integer multiple of the same fixed amount each time an order is made Fixed period requirements rule (sometimes called FPR) FPR) - the quantity ordered should be enough for a fixed number of periods

MRP Operation
Multi Multi-layer hierarchical description of MRP activity.
Customer orders Plan and forecast Long-term production requirements

Medium-term: plan production for infinite capacity

Short-term: plan and investigare individual batch

Real-time system control

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MRP Operation
Medium Medium-term planning : The actual requirements for raw materials, component manufacture and boughtbought-in component acquisition can take place.

MRP Operation
Short-term planning : ShortGenerates shopfloor scheduling on a week week-by by-week or even a day day-by by-day basis, considering single batches of components/assemblies.

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MRP Operation
Real-time control : RealOf the manufacturing activities takes place. It is carried out by the machinery and personnel on the shopfloor but the vital link to the MRP system.

MRP System Structure


MRP software is essentially a database management system. The database at the heart of an MRP system is held in text form. The database management system for MRP presents the user with a series of functions for accessing, distributing and manipulating that data.

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MRP System Structure


A database can be defined as a collection of
one or more data files relating to a particular application and the database management system is the software used to access and manipulate that data.
File Record 1 Record 2 Record 3

Fields 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

MRP System Structure


The database controlled and managed by an MRP system consists of many files including part master file file, , the billbill-of ofmaterials and other data files such as the vendor file. file.

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MRP overview
In MRP two types of information are required: Structural information Tactical information

MRP overview
Structural information is information about the items (parts/components) that the company uses and how different items are related to one another. It includes information for each item such as lead time and lot (or batch) size rule. The key point about this information is that it changes relatively infrequently.

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MRP overview
The structural information required in MRP relates to: item information; and bill of materials.

Bill of materials
In order to show the make make-up (in terms of the parts needed for production) we have a Bill of Materials (BOM) for the endend-product (namely the chair). Chair

Seat (1)

Back (1)

Legs (4)

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Bill of materials
The BOM is best thought of as being divided into levels, with the final item (the chair) being at the top level and the items needed to make up a chair being at the second level.

MRP overview
Tactical information is information about the current state of the company - for example sales orders (real and forecast) pending, the master production schedule, onon-hand inventory levels and purchase orders. Obviously the key point about this information is that it changes frequently.

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MRP overview
The tactical information required in MRP relates to: outout -going inventory (sales) and planned production (master production schedule); and onon -hand inventory and inin-coming inventory (purchases).

MRP overview
The screen below is the initial screen to set up number of items, time units etc.

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MRP overview
An important point to note is that MRP is not cost driven i.e. it does not seek to minimise cost. Instead MRP is stockout driven - that is it will always order sufficient to avoid stockouts (using the lot size rule for each item) and order as late as possible.

MRP - Sensitivity
It is often important to conduct sensitivity (what(what-if) analysis in MRP. Considering the example above, for instance, the only actions we need to take now relate to the orders suggested for the current period. All other actions relate to orders that we may (or may not) place at future points in time.

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Materials Requirements Planning


Products Bill of materials Production planning Material explosion Allocations Management Reports Stock Take Routines Raw Materials Control Issues & Returns GRNs Production control Purchase orders Suppliers

Order Recommendations

Purchase Ordering

Receipts

Manufacturing Resources Planning


MRP II is (essentially) MRP but with more added. It may also include capacity requirements planning (essentially try and automatically include capacity restrictions in the planning process). By the 1970s, the system had developed into manufacturing resource planning (MRP II).

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Manufacturing Resources Planning


In order to generate the net material requirement plan, the software had to access the inventory control file file. . The inventory control part of the software enables the file to be kept up. The inventory of boughtbought-in parts is serviced by and also provides information for purchasing control. control.

Manufacturing Resources Planning


To confuse things MRP II stands for manufacturing resources planning, signifying that we are concentrating upon the planning of the manufacturing resources (e.g. people, machines, storage), storage), rather than limiting ourselves to the planning of the materials requirements.

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Enterprise Resource Planning


ERP is basically huge databases of information coupled with business rules rules, , logic and constraints that allow users to interact interact. . The scope of these systems encompass the entire company company. . Example functionality includes accounting accounting, , production production, , inventory, inventory, and customer management management. .

Enterprise Resource Planning


ERP systems are the highest level systems in a company that allow a customer to enter an order, track that order, build the order, ship the order to the customer, and then receive payment for the order. Typical ERP data would include product lists, inventory, customer lists, customer orders, invoices, purchase orders, etc. Typical ERP rules would be "check customer credit before sending order to MRP".

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JustJust-inin-time

JustJust-in in-Time
JustJust-in in-time (JIT) is easy to grasp conceptually, everything happens just just-in in-time. For example consider the journey to work this morning, We could have left my house, just just-in intime to catch a bus to the train station, just just-in intime to catch the train, just just-in in-time to arrive at my office, just just-in in-time to pick up my lecture notes, just just-in in-time to walk into this lecture theatre to start the lecture. Conceptually there is no problem about this, however achieving it in practice is likely to be difficult!

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JustJust-in in-Time
So too in a manufacturing operation component parts could conceptually arrive justjust-inin-time to be picked up by a worker and used. So we would at a stroke eliminate any inventory of parts, they would simply arrive just just-inin-time! Similarly we could produce finished goods just justinin -time to be handed to a customer who wants them. So, at a conceptual extreme, JIT has no need for inventory or stock, either of raw materials or work in progress or finished goods.

JustJust-in in-Time History


JIT originated in Japan. Its introduction as a recognised technique/philosophy/way of working is generally associated with the Toyota motor company, JIT being initially known as the "Toyota Production System System". ". Note the emphasis here - JIT is very much a mindset/way of looking at a production system that is distinctly different from what (traditionally) had been done previous to its conception.

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JustJust-in in-Time
Just Just-inin-time and MRP are two different systems for controlling production. It is often said that: MRP = a 'Push' system JIT = a 'Pull' system Really this is an incorrect analysis - MRP is a system based on fulfilling predicted usage in a set time period.

JustJust-in in-Time
JIT is a system based on actual usage parts of the production system are "linked" together via the use of Kanban's as the system runs. It is this linkage that is the distinguishing difference between MRP and JIT - JIT is a dynamic linked system, MRP is not. This implies that JIT can be used when lead times are short, MRP is more appropriate when lead times are long.

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Japanese View of Productivity


Reduce cost by eliminating waste any element of production that does not add value to the final product Waste is found in: v Overproduction v Inventory v Conveyance v Defects & correction v Waiting v Processing

Just in Time
Produce only the necessary parts/ products, in the necessary quantity, at the necessary time.

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J-I-T Objectives
Reduce cost by eliminating waste Make it easier to achieve & assure quality Attempt to create work sites that respond quickly to change Organize work sites to emphasize human resource

Japanese terms
There are a number of Japanese terms associated with JIT that you may encounter. I have listed some below for you: Andon - trouble lights which immediately signal to the production line that there is a problem to be resolved Jikoda - autonomation - enabling machines to be autonomous and able to automatically detect defects Muda - waste Mura - unevenness Muri - excess PokaPoka -yoke - "foolproof" machines and methods so as to prevent production mistakes Shojinka - a workforce flexible enough to cope with changes in production and using different machines Soikufu - thinking creatively, having inventive ideas

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JIT Approach
Integrated (systems) approach to production Efficiently use resources (facilities; materials; labor) Eliminate waste (muda), uneveness (mura), and overburden (muri) 3 ms Inventory

The Aims of JustJust-in in-time


The principles is envisaged in Waldner refer to as the five zeros attitude namely, Zero stock Zero lead time Zero defects Zero breakdowns Zero paperwork

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JustJust-in in-time
JIT is a suitable production system when: have steady production of clearly defined standard products a reasonable number of units made a high value product have flexible working practices and a disciplined workforce short setup times on machines quality can be assured, e.g. zero defects either though good working practices or though a cost penalty

"Just"Just-in in-time" and its Logistic


This new notion amplifies the role of transport merchandise particularly in trucking. It involves the delivery of a component of assemblage a few minutes before the assembly line requires it.

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"Just"Just-in in-time" and its Logistic


Consequences: transporters must respect tighter delivery schedules and must plan their operations accordingly in order to avoid strict penalties. The unit of production (the factory) no longer has to assume a storage service. Some analysts have pointed out that the trucks (vehicles) themselves have assumed the task of ambulatory storage units, thus increasing road traffic congestion.

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JustJust-In In-Time
Just Just-InIn-Time Programming has provided with much needed acceleration in operations in five vital areas: Generating toolpaths fast enough for highhighspeed machining. Handling lastlast-minute engineering changes. Training new machinists to be programmers as well. Reduced electrical discharge machining. Handling larger toolpath program files up to 80 MB.

JustJust-In In-Time
The relationship between high high-speed machining and at at-the the-machine programming is crucial. HighHigh-speed machining chews through toolpaths so quickly that at at-the themachine programming is almost a requirement.

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JustJust-In In-Time
"In programming, we are never more than half a shift or one shift ahead of the machine tool," said Joseph Geerts, "The old way of overnight batch programming for toolpaths is long gone."

Elements of JustJust-In In-Time


regular meetings of the workforce (e.g. daily/weekly) discuss work practices, confront and solve problems an emphasis on consultation and cooperation (i.e. involving the workforce) rather than confrontation modify machinery, e.g. to reduce setup time reduce buffer stock expose problems, rather than have them covered up reveal bad practices take away the "security blanket" of stock

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Benefits of JIT
Increased productivity Better quality Reduced lead time Less scrap & rework (less resources) Less work in process (WIP) Higher worker motivation & more teamwork

Benefits of JIT (contd)


Saved space Increased worker & equipment efficiency Benefits across functional boundaries (e.g., manufacturing; manufacturing engineering; purchasing; sales & marketing; accounting; quality control; assembly)

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Benefits of JIT
Finally , Easy to talk about, difficult to implement Problems solved at root cause level Doesnt allow for labor or equipment disruption Doesnt consider market forecasting procedures Benefits outweigh challenges

WIP
The whole stock or inventory for a JIT company is in the work in progress (WIP). The principle of zero stock must also be reflected in how much of this there is. The amount of WIP can be reduced by the shortening of inter inter-operational transportation times.

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JIT
Value added, Kaizen, Six sigma, Quality at the Source, Problem Solving Tools, Planning Tools Empowerment Management support Training Quality circles Work teams Job rotation Job enlargement Job enrichment Profit sharing Kanban Poka Yoke Pull VHI TPM SMED 5S Jidoka Group Technology

TQM PI JIT
Manufacturing Techniques

manufacuting cell

Kanban
The Japanese world kanban means card or sign and it is by the use of cards or kanbans that continuous flow of production within this type of JIT system is regulated.

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Kanban
In order to have a method of controlling production (the flow of items) in this new environment Toyota introduced the kanban. The kanban is essentially information as to what has to be done. Within Toyota the most common form of kanban was a rectangular piece of paper within a transparent vinyl envelope.

Kanban
In Toyota two types of kanban are distinguished for controlling the flow of items: items : a withdrawal kanban - which details the items which should be withdrawn from the preceding step in the process a production ordering kanban - which details the items to be produced

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Kanban Types
Withdrawl kanban pass authorizes movement of parts from one work center to another; stays with parts until parts consumed, then returns for part replenishment.

Kanban Types
Production kanban kanban release order to preceding process to build specified number of parts.

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Withdrawl Kanban
Part Number Container capacity (number of parts) Raw materials and other part types used in manufacturing at the work center

Preceding work center number Stock location number

Production Kanban
Part number Subsequent work center number Stock location number Proceding work center number Stock location number

Container capacity (number of parts) Number of kanbans released

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Rules for Kanban


No withdrawal of parts without a kanban Subsequent process comes to withdraw only what is needed Do not send defective parts to subsequent process Preceding process should produce only exact quantity of parts withdrawn by subsequent process

Rules for Kanban (contd)


Smoothing (minimize fluctuations) of production Fine tuning of production using kanban Stop process if production requirements decrease Use overtime & improvements in processes if production requirements increase

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Kanban
a signal or message or communication, e.g. wave hands, shout, send a card, electronic used to control the flow of items though the production process

Other Important Concepts


Jidoka warning system to indicate production problems (minor to serious) Autonomation Autonomation manual or automatic stopping of production if defective part is produced Mixed production make all models at same time on same line Work improvement ideas of workers improve production

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Concepts (contd)
Multi Multi-work assignment workers shifted to other jobs as needed FoolFool -proof methods various techniques that prevent mismis-assembly or other defect causing actions Total quality control no defective part is passed on to next process/operation

Computer aided project planning & control


Questions : 1. What is the JIT approach to quality? 2. Show how Kanban is used to control work flow in repetitive manufacturing environments. 3. How does the JIT approach to manufacturing deal with the relationship between product and process variety? 4. List the five zeros aimed for in a JIT system and explain by what methods their achievement is attempted.

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