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# Length and time Physical quantities The foundation of physics rests upon physical quantities in terms of which the

laws of physics are expressed. Among these are mass, length, time velocity, force, density, temperature, electric current, and numerous others. Physical quantities are often divided into two categories: base quantities and derived quantities. Derived quantities are those whose definitions are based on other physical quantities. Velocity acceleration and force etc. are usually viewed as derived quantities. Base quantities are not defined in terms of other physical quantities. The base quantities are the minimum number of those physical quantities in terms of which other physical quantities can be defined. Typical examples of base quantities are length, mass and time.

Length 1 kilometer (km) 1 meter (m) 1 centimeter (cm) 1 millimeter (mm) Area 1m2 1 cm2 Volume 1cm3 1000cm3 1m3 Mass 1 tonne (t) 1 kilogram (kg) 1 gram (g) Time 1000 kilogram (kg) 1000 grams (gm) 1000 milligram (mg) 1ml 1000 ml = 1 liter 1000000 cm3 10000 cm2 100 mm2 1000 meter (m) 100 centimeter (cm) 10 millimeter (mm) 1000 micrometer (m)

## 1 day 1 hour (h) 1 minute (min) 1 second (s) 1 milli second

24 hours (h) 60 minute (min) 60 second (s) 1000 millisecond (ms) 1000 microsecond (s)

Length Length is the distance between two points. S.I. unit of the length is meter (m). Note: Length is a scalar quantity. Length-Measurement Length can be measured using micrometers, vernier calipers, rulers and measuring tapes. Length to be measured Measuring instrument Measuring tape Meter rule Vernier calliper Micrometer screwgauge

Example

Long length Length of the (Several class room meters) Medium length Length of table

External or internal Short length diameter of the test tube Very short length Diameter of the wire

Micrometer

Micrometer is used for more accurate measurements of the small lengths. e.g measuring the diameter of a wire or thickness of a small plate. A micrometer screw gauge consists of a fine screw

of usually 1 ot 0.5 mm pitch, which moves when rotated through a nut as shown in the fig. There are two scales, the linear millimeter scale is parallel to the axis of the screw and the circular scale at the end of the screw is divided in to 100 or 50 equal parts, so that when the screw is turned through one division, it moves through 100th or 50th part of its pitch as the case may be. To use the micrometer we have to know the following things. Pitch of the micrometer screwgauge Least count of the micrometer screwgauge Zero error How to make the data table to record the values Micrometer - Pitch It is defined as "the distance on the linear scale through which the circular scale moves during one revolution, either clockwise or anticlockwise". It can be calculated by using the following relation Pitch of the micrometer screwgauge = Distance on linear scale / One revolution Pitch of the micrometer screwgauge = 1 mm / 1 Pitch of the micrometer screwgauge = 1mm

Micrometer - Least count It is the smallest value which can be measured with the help of micrometer. Least count of the micrometer can be determined by using the following relation Least count = pitch of micrometer / Total number of divisions on the circular scale Micrometer - Zero error Zero Error: The error arising out of the non-coincidence of the zero of the circular scale with the horizontal line engraved along the linear scale, when the jaws are closed is called its zero error. Zero error correction: If the vernier zero stands, say 6 divisions above this line ( negative zero error ), one must add 6 X 0.01 = 0.06 mm to the final reading, but if the zero stands, say 3 divisions below this line ( positive zero error ), we must substract 3 X 0.01 = 0.03 mm from the final reading, to get the accurate the result.

Micrometer - Data Table When we are finding the diameter of the wire, we proceed according to the following table.

Diameter (mm)

X 5 1.0

## X+ Y * L.C 5 + 0.25 = 5.25 1 + 0.65 = 1.65

Time The S.I. unit of time is second. Initially a second was taken as 1/86400 of a mean solar day of the whole year of 1900 AD. In the General Conference on Weight and Measure in 1967 the second was redfined as "the time interval taken by 9192631770 vibrations of cesium-133 atom under specified condition". Multiples / submultiples of time

## 1 day 1 hour (h) 1 minute (min) 1 second (s) 1 milli second

24 hours (h) 60 minute (min) 60 second (s) 1000 millisecond (ms) 1000 microsecond (s)

Stop-clock It is a specially designed watch by which time of an event can be measured accurately in minutes

and seconds. It consists of two hands , a small minutes hand and a long second hand. Both the hands are set at zero by pressing the button "Reset". When the second handle completes one rotation equal to sixty seconds , the minute hand advances by one division. When we want to start the watch we press the button "start/stop" and when we we want to stop it, we press the button again "start/stop". This makes the position of the minutes and second hand stationary and record the time interval lapsed by noting the positions of the hands.

Standard form Standard form is a way of writing down very large or very small numbers easily. 10 = 1000, so 5 10 = 5000 So 5000 can be written as 5 10 This idea can be used to write even larger numbers down easily in standard form. Small numbers can also be written in standard form. However, instead of the index being positive (in the above example, the index was 3), it will be negative. The rules when writing a number in standard form is that first you write down a number between 1 and 10, then you write 10 (to the power of a number). 12 000 m 0.002 mm 0.000 002 m 1.2000 X 104 m (to 5 sig. fig.) m 2 X 10-3 mm= 2 X 10-6 m (to 1 sig. fig.) 2 X 10-6 m (to 1 sig. fig.)

Parallalax error Whenever using a metre ruler or anyother similar instrument for measurement a common experimental error, called parallas error, should be avoided. Parallax error occurs because the markings of the scale is not physically touching the object ( there

exist some distance between markings and object ) and the marking is not viewed directly from above. This will bring about relative movement between the object and markings on the scale when an observers eye is moved from side to side. Parallax error exists at position(b), but not at position (a). Reading taken from position (b) = 4.8cm Reading taken from postion(a) = 5.0cm

Simple pendulum

A point mass attached with an inextensible and weightless string whose other end is connected with some rigid support (e.g. stand) is called simple pendulum.

Amplitude of simple pendulum It is the maximum displacement from the equilibrium position. Its unit is cm (centimeter or meter).

Time period of simple pendulum It is the time taken to complete one oscilation of the simple pendulum. It is measured in seconds (s). If pendulum has brought at position 'A' and then released freely, it passes through 'O' and reaches to B, then returns back and after passing through 'O' reaches at 'A'. In this way pendulum completes one oscilation. Determination of time period: Calculate the time for ten oscilations with the help of stop watch and

then use the following relation to determine the time period. Time Period = Time taken / number of oscilations Remember: 1- Time period of simple pendulum depends only upon its length. 2- Time period is represented by T.

Frequency of simple pendulum It is the total number of oscilations in one second. It is measured in Hertz (Hz). Time period and frequency are related with each other by the formula Frequency = 1 / Time period OR Time Period = 1 / Frequency Acceleration, Speed & Velocity Scalar The quantities which are completely specified by their magnitude (a number and a unit associated with it) , are called scalar quantities. Examples:

## Distance Speed Time Energy Resistance

Vector The quantities which are completely specified by their magnitude (a number and a unit associated with it) and direction, are called vector quantities. Examples:

## Displacement Velocity Acceleration Force Moment of force

Distance It is the path followed by the body during its motion. It is a scalar quantity. S.I. unit of distance is meter. Displacement It is the shortest distance from the initial point to the final point in the motion of the body. It is a vector quantity. The direction of the displacement is always directed from initial point to the final point. S.I. unit of displacement is meter. Speed It is the distance covered in unit time. It is a scalar quantity. It is measured in m/s. Speed = Distance / Time or v=s/t The average speed of the object can be determined by using the following relation Average speed = Total distance covered / Total time taken

Velocity The velocity of a body is a vector quantity and helps to detrmine, how fast or slow a body is moving in a given direction. Therefore, velocity of a body is defined as "Speed of a body in a particular diretion". In SI Units velocity is measured in meters per second (m/s), the same as the unit of speed. Velocity is also defined as "Time rate of change of displacement"

Average Velocity Average velocity is defined as, "the ratio of total displacement to the total time taken". The average velocity of a body is obtained by dividing the total displacement by the total time taken. Thus average velocity = Total displacement / Total time taken Average velocity can be denoted by or Vav. If d denotes the total displacement produced in time t, then Vav = d / t The concept of average velocity is useful when velocity varies with time. Note: Bolded letters show vector quantities.

Instantaneous Velocity The velocity of a body at a particular instant during its motion is called instantaneous velocity. In order to determine the instantaneous velocity of a body the change in displacement d of the body during an extremely short interval of time t is noted . The instantaneous velocity is measured in in the limit when the time inetrval t approaches to zero. It is given by the equation Vins = limit t -- 0 ( d / t ) Since t is an extremely short interval of time therefore, velocity of the body is considered to be constant during this interval.

Uniform Velocity If a body covers equal displacements in equal time intervals, however small the interval may be, then its velocity is said to be uniform velocity. A car moving at constant speed in straight line possesses uniform velocity as long as its magnitude and direction of motion remain unchanged. Hence, in case of a body travelling with uniform velocity the average and instantaneous velocities become equal.

Variable Velocity If a body covers different displacement in equal time inetrvals, it is said to be moving with variable velocity. The change in a velocity of a body may be caused due to change in its magnitude or direction or both. A body moving in a curved or a circular path at a constant speed possesses variable velocity as its direction of motion changes continuously. Graphs It is a pictorial form of data. In IGCSE Physics, we always plot the graph between two sets of values (2D graph). Independent set of value is always taken along x-axis. Dependent set of value is always taken along y- axis. If graph is straight line and passes through the origin then the quantities along both the axes are proportional to each other. Distance - time graph Time always runs horizontally (along x-axis). Distance always runs vertically (along y-axis). The slope of distance time graph gives us speed. Speed is a scalar quantity. The unit of speed is m / s.

Displacement - time graph Time always runs horizontally (along x-axis). Distance always runs vertically (along y-axis). The slope of displacement - time graph give us velocity. Velocity is a vector quantity. It is measured in m / s.

Speed - time graph The area under the speed time - graph gives us distance. Distance is a scalar quantity. The unit if distance is meters (m).

Velocity - time graph The slope of velocity - time graph gives us acceleration. Acceleration is a vector quantity. The unit of accleration is m / s2.

## The area under the velocity - time graph gives us displacement.

Displacement is a vector quantity. The unit if displacement is meters (m). Acceleration A body moving with a variable velocity possesses accelaeration. Acceleration can be defined as, "the time rate of change of velocity of a body" or "the change in velocity of a body in unit time". If the velocity of body increases , its acceleration is positive and it is produced in the direction of the motion of the body. On the other hand , if the velocity of the body decreases, its acceleration is negative and is produced opposite to the direction of the motion of the body. The negative acceleration is also called deceleration or retardation. In case of a body moving in a straight line, the acceleration is produced due to change of speed. If the speed increases, the acceleration is positive and vice-versa. Acceleration is also produced in case of change of the direction of motion. If a body is moving in a curved path at constant speed, acceleration is produced in it due to change in the diection of motion. the acceleration is directed inward at right angles to the direction of velocity. In the present chapter, we restrict ourselves to the study of linear motion. Instantaneous acceleration: " The acceleration of a body at a particular instant during its motion is called the instantaneous

acceleration". The instantaneous acceleration of a body is determined by finding the change in its velocity in an extremely short interval of time t such that t approaches zero. A mathematical expression for instantaneous acceleration is, a = (v / t), Here t aproaches to zero (means t is very very small) The time interval t is so small that acceleration can be considered to remain constant during this time.

Average acceleration The average accelelration of a moving body is obtained by dividing the total change in its velocity by the total time taken for this change. Thus, Average acceleration = Total change in velocity / Total time taken If v represents the change in velocity of a body produced in time internal t, the average acceleration a is given by, a = v / t In SI units velocity is expressed in metre per second and time in seconds, therefore, acceleration is expressed in m/s2. Uniform acceleration A body is said to be moving with a uniform acceleration if its velocity changes by equal amounts in equal intervals of time however small the intervals may be. The uniform acceleration is genarally denoted by a. The average and instantaneous values of acceleration of a body become equal when it is moving with a uniform acceleration. Variable acceleration: If velocity of a moving body changes by different amount in equal intervals of time, it is said to be moving with a variable acceleration. A body is said to possess variable acceleration if the magnitude of its acceleration is changing or its direction is changing or both.

## Acceleration due to gravity

Earth pulls all the objects towards its centre.This force exerted by the earth on other objects is called gravity. Thus the motion of bodies falling freely under the influence of this force is termed as, the motion under gravity. The force of gravity produces uniform acceleration in the bodies falling freely. This acceleration is called acceleration due to gravity and it its denoted by the letter "g". It is the same as gravitational field strength. It is approximately 9.81 m / s2 (in IGCSE we can use 10 m / s2) on the surface of the earth. Mass The mass of a body is the amount of matter in the body. The S.I. unit of mass is kilogram (kg). Mass can be measured with the help of spring balance.

Spring balance A spring balance can be used to determine the mass of the objects. The upper end of the spring is hung from a hook and the spring is stetched by the weight of the pan attached to its lower end. The scale then can be adjusted so that the pointer is aligned with the zero mark. The balance can be graduated by placing known mass in the pan. If the spring balance shows 30 N then the mass would be W / g = 30 / 10 = 3 kg, Where g is the acceleration due to gravity. If this balance is moved to the moon the weight would be less and spring would not stretch so far. In fact the pointer would indicate a weight of 4.8 N (Because the value of g on the moon is 1.6 m / s2, which is the 1 / 6th of the gravitational acceleration of earth) So spring balance measures the weight of the object in Newtons. Remember: Mass of the object remains same every where (either on the moon or the earth)

Weight Weight is the force of gravity on the object. It is measured in Newtons (N). The weight of object depends upon its mass and the gravitational field strength (gravitational acceleration). Any mass near the surface of earth has weight due to the earth's gravitational pull. Weight can be calculated using the equation Weight = mass (m) X gravotational field strength (g) w = mg The value of the gravitational field strength on earth is 9.81 N/kg, through we roound it up to 10 N/kg or 10 m / s2 to make the calculations easier. Gravitational field is the region arround earth for any body, in which object enters will get the force of atarction towards the center of earth. If you will stand on the moon, you will feel the gravity of the moon pulling you downward towards the center of the earth. The gravitational field strengh on the moon is very less as compared to the earth. Gravitational Acceleration The earth exerts a costant gravitational pull on a body at any point on its surface. This gravitational pull will give an uniform acceleration to a free falling body (the body falling freely under the action of gravity ignoring air resistance), increasing its velocity by approximately 9.81 m/s (10m/s) every second.Hence the value of g is approximately 9.8m/s2 (10 m/s2) Difference between mass and weight 1. Mass is amount of matter in an object but weight is force of gravity on the object. 2. Mass is measured in kilograms but weight is measured in newtons as it is a force. 3. Mass is a scalar quantity but weight is the vector quantity. 4. Mass can be measured by using level(physical) balance while weight is measured by using spring balance. 5. Mass remains constant everywhere but weight varies from place to place. 2. Demonstrate understanding that mass is a property that resists change in motion.

This is the concept of inertia. If a force is applied to an object, it will not immediately reach a high speed because it requires time to accelerate, as shown by the formula F=ma. If the force is constantly applied then there is a constant acceleration. However if the force is not constant and only applied in an instant then there will be an instant of acceleration and then it will take time for the object to speed up. 3. Know that the Earth is the source of a gravitational field. Gravity is an attractive force created by the presence of mass. Any object with a mass with have a gravitational field. The more mass an object has the stronger the gravitational energy it holds.

Density Density of a substance is defined as "the mass of substance per unit volume". Density = Mass / Volume The S.I unit of density is kg/m3 or g/cm3 Mass of the substance can be found by using common level balance. Volume of a substance can either be found by calculation from linear measurements or by usning measuring cylinder. Density of water = 1 g / cm3 = 1000 kg / m3 Determination of density (Regular shaped objects) By measuring the dimentions of regular shaped object we can detremine the its volume by using mathematical formula. Volume = Length X Width X Height By using balance we can find mass of the object. Putting the values of mass and volume in the following formula, we can detrmine the density of the regular shaped object Density = mass / volume

Determination of density (Irregular shaped objects) To determine the density of irregular shaped objects, we use displacement method to calculate the volume of the iregular shaped object. Use the balance to find the mass (m) of object choose the measuring cylinder that will accept the object.add liquid to the cylinder to fill it enough,so that the object will be completely submerged.measure volume v1 of liquid. Lower the object into liquid and measure the new reading V2 so volume of

object is V=V1-V2 Density = mass ( m ) / volume ( V ) This method can only be used for the objects having densities greater than density of water. Density of different materials Denity of different materials are as under. Substance Air Fresh water Sea water Wood Magnesium Steel Mercury Silver Gold Density in g/cm3 1.0 1.03 1.03 0.5-1.3 1.74 7.8 13.6 10.5 19.3 Density kg/m3 1.24 1000 1030 500-1300 1740 7800 13600 10500 19300

Force Force is a push or pull. SI unit of force is kg m/s2 or Newton (N) According to the Newton's second law of motion Force = mass X acceleration F=ma To describe a force fully you must state the size of the force(magnitude) and also the direction in which it is trying to move the object. The direction can be described as left, right, upwards, downwards, north, south etc. Forces acting in one dricetion can be added to get the resultant force.

Forces acting in the opposite dricetion can be subtracted to get the resultant

force. Effect of force Forces are measure in newtons. They take many forms and have many effects including pushing, pulling, bending, stretching, squeezing and tearing etc. Forces can:

Change the speed of an object Change the direction of movement of an object Change the shape of an object

Friction Friction: It is the force that tries to stop movement between touching surfaces. Friction is caused by the roughness of the two surfaces.which produces resistance to movement. Advantages of friction:

Between brake pads and a bicycle when Screws and nails remain in places due to friction In movement of car on road

Produces heat Parts of machines reduce size due to friction Most energy is used in overcoming friction

Balanced forces Usually there are least two forces acting on an object. If these two forces are balanced then the object will either be stationary or moving at a constant speed (with zero acceleration).

Unbalanced forces If the forces acting on an object are unbalanced, then it will change its speed

or direction of movement it will accelerate. When a skydiver jumps from a plane, the weight will be much greater than the opposing force caused by air resistance. Air resistance increases as the speed of skydivers increases. Finally it will match the weight so the forces will be balanced and the speed of the skydiver will remain constant. This constant maximum speed is known as the terminal speed.

Addition of forces If two or more forces are pulling or pushing an object in the same direction the the effect of the forces will add up. If the forces pulling it in opposite directions then the backwards forces can be subtracted. If two forces are pulling an object in different direction, then their resultant can be found by using graphs. To calculate the single (resultatnt) force we draw the two forces in the correct direction and to a scale length that is suitable. e.g. 1 cm = 10 N or 1 cm = 5 N or 1 cm = 20 N etc. (depends on the size of force) Then we can find the resultant by completing the parallelogram. Then the resultant is the diagonal line across the parallelogram between the two forces. This gives the direction of resultant force and the magnitude is given by the length of the line.

Newton's firts law of motion This law states that a body at rest will remain at rest, and a body moving with uniform velocity continue to do so,unless acted on by some unbalanced external foce Explanation: A cup of tea will remain on the table unless someone remove it.

simliarly a car will continue its motion in a straight line even if its engine is off but practically this does not happen. Because of friction, air resistance and gravitational force, the car stops after some time. If it is possible to remove these forces, the car will continue its motion in a straight line.

Newton's second law of motion According to this law "a force applied on a body produces acceleration in its own direction. The acceleration produced varies directly with the applied force and inversely with the mass of the body". Mathematically it is expressed as F=ma

Newton's third law of motion This law states that "Action and reaction are equal and opposite in direction." Whenever an interaction occurs between two objects,each object exerts the same force on the others, but in the opposite direction and of the same length of time. Each force in action reaction pairs acts only on one of the two bodies. The action and reaction forces never act on the same body. Circular motion Moving in a circle means that the direction of motion is changing constantly. So, if an object is moving in a circle, it follows that there must be a force acting on it to change its direction. Therefore we can say that the direction of force is constantly changing. In order to move an object on a circular path,the force must always be acting towards the centre of the circle. This force which is always towards the centre of the circle is given the name of centripetal force. This centripetal force acts perpendicularly to the direction of motion of the

object at any instant. It can be calculated by the following formula Fc=mv2/r Fc = Centripetal force is N M = mass of object in kg V = Speed of object in m/s

Circular motion - Examples Few examples of circular motion are as under: Moon orbiting the earth A car turning a corner Being whiled in a horizontal circle centripetal force supplied by the gravitational force of the earth on the moon. by the sideways friction force of the road on the tyres. by the tension force in the string.

The centripetal force is always towards the centre of the circle and perpendicular to the direction in which the object is travelling at that instant. Consider the example of stone at the end of string.

Center of mass The centre of mass is the point where we can assume all the mass of the object is concentrated. As the gravity only acts at a single point in the object. So a single arrow on diagram can represent the weight of the object. The centre of mass for regularly shaped objects is in the centre. For irregular shaped objects,we can find the centre of mass by following steps. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Hang up the object. Suspend a plumb line from the same place. Mark the position of the thread. The centre of mass is along the line of thread. Repeat the above steps with object suspended from different places.

6. The centre of mass is where these lines cross. Centre of mass links stability: It is important to know where the centre of mass of a body is, as its position determines the stability of the body. A body is stable if, when it is tilted slightly, the line of action of its weight passes through its base. Hook's law The law states at "the extentsion of a spring (or any elastic body) is directly proportional to the applied load (stretching force), provided that elastic limit is not excceded. The graph of load and extention is a straight line which passes through the origin. The gradient of the line is the measure of the stiffness of the spring, which is called spring constant. Hook's law (Elastic behaviors) If the applied force or load is removed the spring returns to its original length. This behavior is called elastic behavior. This behavior is upto a particular point or limit called elastic limit. Hook's law (Plastic behaviors) If the applied force or load is removed the spring does not return to its original length. This behavior is called plastic behavior. This behavior is after a particular point or limit called elastic limit.

Hook's law - Elastic limit Elastic limit: If you stretch the spring too far, the line (Force-extension graph) no longer straight, and hooks law is no longer true. The point at the end of the straight line is known as the limit of proportionality or elastic limit. If the material (spring) is stretched beyond the elastic limit, there is a

permanent change in its shape. After elastic limit different materials behave differently. Effect of applied force on the materials: 1)A music wire will behave as shown in the graph. It will break shortly after the limit of proportionality is reached. Effects of applied force on the materials Whenever force is applied on the material, It bring the change either in its length, area or volume. Hook's law explains the the effect of applied force on the length of the material. Moment of force The turning effect of force is called moment of force. The moment of force depends on the following factors.

The size (magnitude) of the force The perpendicular distance between the line of action of the force and the turning point which is called the pivot.

We calculate the moment of force by using the following formula Moment of force = force * perpendicular distance from pivot to the line of action of the force Moment=F * d Moment is measured in newton meters(Nm). Types of Moments: Anticlockwise moments Clockwise moments

Priciple of moment of force This principle states that "if a system of force is not turning (or if the system is in equilibrium) then the algebaric sum of the all clockwise moments is equal to the algebaric the sum of all anticlockwise moments about any point". Sum of clockwise moments = sum of anticlockwise moments Equilibrium If a body under the action of a number of forces is at rest or moving with uniform velocity, it is said to be in equilibrium.

Conditions of equilibrium There are two conditions of equilibrium. First condition of equilibrium: Vector sum of all the forces acting on the object is zero. Second condition of equilibrium: The algebaric sum of all the moment of forces acting on an object iz zero. i.e. Sum of anticlock wise moment of forces = Sum of clock wise moment of forces 5. State and use Hookes Law and recall and use the expression Force = constant x extension (F = k x). Basically, the graph above follows something called Hookes Law, which basically states that the force is proportional to the extension. The equation for Force is therefore F = kx where k = constant and x= extension.

6. Recognise the significance of the term limit of proportionality for an extension/load graph. Hookes Law states that the Force is proportional to the Extension. HOWEVER, this is only up to a certain limit. Proportionality means that if you were to plot this on a graph, you would get a straight line, and if you look above, the graph is linear (straight line), but if you notice, when Extension reaches a certain value, the graph starts to curve a bit. Yes, I didnt draw this wrong. After a certain amount of extension, the string reaches the limit of proportionally, where if you extend the spring any further, Force will no longer be proportional to extension, and on a graph, you will see just like the one above, a curve indicating that the limit of proportionality has been reached.

7 Recall and use the relation between force, mass and acceleration (including the direction). The relationship between this was actually discovered by this guy called Issac Newton.

## F= Force (N) m = mass a= acceleration

8. Find the resultant of two or more forces acting along the same line. Force is assigned a magnitude with value x Newtons, x being the actual magnitude. We often see two forces acting against each other. We want to find the Resultant Force of these two forces acting together, and we can simply do this by subtracting the smaller force from the larger one. Here is an example below:

The larger force = 350N The smaller force= 50N Resultant force = larger force smaller force = 350N-50N = 300N, pointing to the right, as the larger forces arrow is pointing to the right.

9. Explain how a system is in equilibrium when there is no resultant force A system is in equilibrium mainly when both opposing forces are equal in magnitude and the resultant force is 0. An example below:

The force on the left = force on right, so if you were to subtract the two vectors to find a resultant force, as they are both 350N, you will get: Resultant Force = 350N-350N =0N Which basically means the system is in equilibrium and there is no resultant/overall force and both the vectors cancel each other out.

Energy It is the ability of a system to do work. Energy exists in different forms. It can not be created or destroyed. It always remains conserve. It can be converted from one form to another form. All the energies are measured in Joules (J) in S.I. Remember, WattsSecond or KiloWattsHours are also units of energy. Kinetic energy It is the energy of a body due to its motion. Kinetic energy can be calculated by using the following formula Kinetic Energy = (1/2) m v2 Kinetic enery is also measured in Joules.

Potential energy Different types of fuels store energy for doing work. This stored or hidden energy is called potential energy(P.E.)

If a spring or rubber is stretched the spring will have potential energy. This is called elastic potential energy(or strain energy). If a load is raised above the ground, it will have gravitational P.E .

Gravitational potential energy can be calculated using the formula Gravitational P.E= mass X gravitational field streght X height P.E = m X g X h Gravitational potential energy is energy an object possesses because of its position in a gravitational field. Different types of energy Strain energy:

The word strain means stretched. Strain energy can be stored in stretched springs and rubbers etc. Chemical energy: In any object the atoms are held together by forces, that are called bonds. In some materials such as fuels and explosives these bond are found to be shorter or longer. This store energy can be released by breaking up these bonds. Nuclear energy: The energy in a nucleus of an atom is stored in strong bond between the particles of nucleus. This energy can be released by splitting the nucleus into two small nuclei. This is done in nuclear power stations. Internal energy: This is continued within an object and makes the difference between the object being hot or cold. Hot object has more internal energy. Electrical energy: Electrical currents carry electrical energy from one place to another. It can be turned into kinetic internal energy in heaters / resistors etc. Light energy: Light carries energy as it travels. This will be turned into internal energy if it strikes most objects. It can also be used to generate electrical energy. Sound waves: These carry a very small amount of energy from the source of noise. Law of conservation of energy This law states that energy can not be created or destroyed. It can be changed from one form to another form, but total energy is always canserved. The total energy at the start and at the end of any system must have the same value. For example, the train takes electrical energy and converts it mainly into K.E, but

also into sound and internal energy. We can also use this principal to observe what happens when K.E and P.E are converted from either one to the other. Energy resources Fossil-fuels Most of the energy we use is obtained from fossil-fuel coal, oil and natural gas. Wind The wind is used to turn windmill like turbine which generate electricity directly from the rotating motion of their blades. Motion of waves This can be used to move large floats and generate electricity. A very large number of floats is needed to produce a significant amount of electricity. Dams Dams on tide estuaries trap the water at high tide. when the water is allowed to flow back at low tide, it can turn turbines to generate electrical energy. Dams can be used to store water, which is allowed to fall in a controlled way that generate electricity.This is done in hydroelectric power. Geothermal power Geothermal power is obtained using the heat of earth. In certain parts of the world, water forms hot springs which can be used directly for heating. Nuclear fusion During this process the small nuclei of hydrogen atoms join to make larger nuclei (helium nuclei) and an enormous amount of energy is released. This is the source of energy in sun. Work Work is done when a force displaces an object. Work can only be done if the system has energy when work is done energy is transferred either to the system or by the system. Work done = force * distance moved in the direction of the force

W=FxS The SI unit of work is Joule. If something is lifted up against the gravitational field then work done is equal to gravitational potential energy Work done=mgh Power Power is defined as "the rate of doing work or the rate of transforming energy". Power can be calculated as Power = work done / time taken Power = Energy transferred / Time taken Power = Work / Time or Power = Energy / Time Power is measured in J/s or watt (w) Pressure Definition of pressure: Pressure is defined as force per unit area Pressure=force/area (P=F/A) When force is in newtons(N) and area is in m2, then pressure P is in N / m2 or pascal (Pa). The following numerical example compares the pressure exerted on the floor by a girl of weight 400N, when she wears a pair of shoes with high heels(having small area of contact with floor) and when she wears a pair of slippers with large area of contact with floor.

## Force=400N Area of heels=100X10-6m2 (assumed) Pressure=400/100X10-6

=4X106 N/m2 or Pa

With slippers.

Force=400N Area of slippers=3000X10-6m2 Pressure=400/3000X10-6 =0.13X106 N/m2 or Pa Area of slippers is 30 times greater than area of heels. So pressure is 30 times greater in case of heels. Hence when area is small pressure will be higher. Atmospheric pressure We are living in a sea of gases,which we call the atmosphere. It exerts a great pressure on our bodies. It pushes us inwards from all sides. Our lungs do not collapse,because the same air pressure flows into our lungs and presses outwards. The atmospheric pressure is sometimes called one atmosphere or one bar. 1 bar = 100000 Pa = 100 K Pa 1 atm = 101.325 X 103 Pa = 101 K Pa 1 Torr = 133.32 Pa Pressure in case of liquid If you dive below the water the height of water above you also puts pressure on you. At a depth of 10m of water the pressure has increased by 100 K Pa (1bar) and for each further 10m of depth the pressure increases by another 100 k Pa. The increase in pressure below the surface of liquid depends on 1. The depth below the surface (h) 2. The density of the liquid (d) 3. The gravitational field strength ( g = 10 m / s2).

It does not depend on anything else. The pressure below the surface of a fluid is given as: Pressure = (Density) X (Height) X (Gravitiational field strength) P=d X g X h = dgh Mercury barometer It is used to measure atmospheric pressure. It is made up of a glass tube sealed at the top. It contains mercury and the opened base of the tube dips into a beaker and below the surface of the mercury in the beaker. Atmospheric pressure pushes down the mercury in the beaker which pushes the mercury up the inside the tube. In the space above the mercury in the tube is a vacum, so nothing is pushing down the top of the mercury in the tube and atmospheric pressure will push the mercury up until the pressure of the column of mercury balances the atmospheric pressure. The height h is approximately 760mm or 76cm of mercury. Manometer Manometers are used to measure the pressure difference between two regions. It consists of a tube of plastic or glass, bent into the U-shape and filled with a liquid that is often oil. If there is a pressure difference between the ends of the manometer, the liquid moves until the pressure difference is balanced by the difference in heights of the ends of the liquid. The greater the pressure the greater the difference in heights. Oil is often used rather than water because water evaporates and also oil is less dense which makes the manometer more sensitive. Pressure difference between two regions is given by P=d X g X h This is basically the same equation as P=d X g X h Solids 1. In solids the molecules are closely packed by the forces between them. 2. They vibrate constantly about the fixed positions.

3. Solids have definite shape and volume. Liquids 1. In liquids the molecules are slightly farther apart than in solids. 2. Molecules vibrate, at the same move rapidly over short distances,slipping past eachother in all directions. 3. Liquids dont have difinate shape but have difinate volume.

Gases 1. The molecules in gases are much farther apart than in solids or liquids. 2. Molecules move randomly at very high speed in all the space available.They hit each other and collide with the wall of the container. 3. Gases dont have definite volume and shape. Molecular model The kinetic molecular model uses this idea that all materials are made up of atoms that behave rather like tiny balls. Kinetic Theory Of Solids: In solids the molecules are attached just as if springs representing the electric forces between molecules,hold the molecules together (as shown in figure)this enables the solid to keep a definite shape and volume. Kinetic Theory Of Liquids: A model to represent the liquid state can be made by covering about a third of the fitted tray with marbles that represents the molecules (as shown in figure)it is shaken to and from and the motion of the marbles observed.They are able to move around but most stay in the lower half of the tray,so the liquid has a fairly definite volume. Kinetic Theory Of Gases:

## The kinetic theory of gases is briefly given in the table below

Evaporation When particles break away from the surface of a liquid and form vapours, this process is known as evaporation. Evaporation depends upon the following factors

## Difference between boiling and evopartion

Boiling Occurs at only one temperature, which depends on the external pressure. Takes place at surface and with in the liquid(bubbles are formed).

## Takes place from surface only.

Rate of evaporation depends on the Rate of boiling depends on temperature,the area and the surface the rate of supply of heat. and the state of the air above the surface.

Boyle's law It states that the pressure of a fixed mass of gas is inversely proportional to its volume if the temperature is kept constant

P(1/V) P = constant (1 / V ) P=K/V PV = K = Constant Where K is constant. For two different cases p1V1 = P2V2

Charle's law According to this law the volume of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its temperature, if the pressure is kept constant VT V = constant X T V = kT V / T = Contsnt Where k is constant For two different cases V1 / T1 = V2 / T2

Pressure law It states that the pressure of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its temperature if the volume is kept constant PT P = constant (T) P = kT P / T = K = Constant Where k is constant. For two different cases P1 / T1 = P2 / T2

Thermal expansion Thermal Expansion of Solids , Liquids and Gases When matter is heated it expands and when cooled it contracts. According to the kinetic theory the molecules of solid and liquids are in constant vibration. When heated, they vibrate faster and force each other a little further apart. Expansion results , and this is greater for liquid , gases expand even more. Precautions against thermal expansion 1) Gaps must be left between lengths of railway track to allow the expansion of the steel rails in the hot seasons. 2) Metal bridges must be constructed to allow for expansion. One end of the bridge is usually fixed and the other end rests on rollers to allow movement due to expansion. Uses of expansion If equal lengths of two different metals, e.g. copper and iron , are fixed together so that they cannot move separately , they form a bimetallic strip. when the strip is heated it bends , copper expands more than iron and to allow this the strip bends with copper on the out side. Bimetallic strips have many uses, few of them are mentioned here. 1) Fire alarm:- Heat from the fire makes the bimetallic strip bend and complete the electrical circuit , so ringing the alarm bill. 2) Thermostat:- A thermostat keeps the temperature of a room or an appliance constant. Bimetallic strip can be used in thermostat to control the temperature in a heating system such as an electric iron.

Unusual expansion of water Unusual expansion of water As water is cooled to 4oC it contracts as we would expect. However between 4oC 0oC, it expands surprisingly. Water has a maximum density at 4oC. The unusual expansion of water between 4oC 0oC explains why fish survives in a frozen pond. 3 Identify and explain some of the everyday applications and consequences of thermal expansion. Solids:

Thermal expansion could be used to fit metal axles onto wheels. The metal axle is first cooled so that it contracts. It is then placed through the hole of wheel so that when it warms up and expands, it forms a tight grip on the wheel. Train tracks are built with gaps between each section of the track so that when it expands under hot weather, the train tracks wont warp as a result of the pressure of being squished together.

4 Describe qualitatively the effect of a change of temperature on the volume of a gas at constant pressure. Equation that links pressure, volume and temperature for a fixed mass of gas: (P1*V1) / T1 = (P2*V2) / T2 In essence, the pressure and volume of a fixed mass of gas is proportional to its temperature in Kelvin However, if P is kept constant, then our equation becomes: V1 / T1 = V2 / T2 Where the volume of the gas is directly proportional to its temperature in Kelvin. This is known as Charles Law.

Measurement of temperature The temperature of a body tells us how hot the body is. It is measured in degree Celsius (oC). The molecular kinetic theory explains that the temperature is a measure of average kinetic energy of the molecules of the body. Measurement of temperature The temperature of a body tells us how hot the body is. It is measured in degree Celsius (oC) or Kelvin (Base unit).. The molecular kinetic theory explains that the temperature is a measure of average kinetic energy of the molecules of the body. Temperature can be measured with the help of thermometer. There are different types of thermometers. 1. 2. 3. 4. liquid in glass thermometer. thermocouple thermometer. constant volume gas thermometer. resistance thermometer.

Liquid in glass thermometer In this type, the liquid in a glass bulb expands up a capillary tube when the bulb is heated. Mercury and coloured alcohol are in common use. Mercury freezes at -39oC and boils at 357oC and is suitable for high temperature. Alcohol freezes at -115oC and boils at 78oC and is therefore more suitable for low temperature. Thermometer - thermocouple A thermocouple consists of wires of two different materials, e.g. copper and iron , joined together. When one junction is at a higher temperature than the other an electric current flows and produces a reading on a sensitive voltmeter which depends on the temperature difference between the two junctions (hot junction and the cold junction).

A voltmeter can measure the voltage that develops by the thermocouple, and a table of calculated values can be looked at to determine the corresponding temperature.

It is used in industries to measure a wide range of temperatures from -250oC up to 1500oC. Another major advantage of using thermocouple is that it can be made very small, means that it will respond very quickly to a change in temperature. Use the terms latent heat of vaporisation and latent heat of fusion and give a molecular interpretation of latent heat. Latent Heat of Vaporisation: The change of phase from liquid to gas Latent heat of fusion: The change of phase from solid to liquid. Latent Heat: Amount of energy associated with phase change. The molecules in a liquid are nicely packed together, not as packed as the solids, but packed enough so they dont have complete freedom as in where to move around. However, if you apply some energy into the liquid, the molecules inside (internal energy) starts to become more energetic and move around more often. As you heat it for a longer period of time, some of its molecules will have enough energy to overcome the forces of attraction holding the liquid together, hence evaporating and changing phase to a gas. The concept is similar in the change of phase from solid to liquid. Lets say you have an ice cube. As we all know, the particles in the solid have little freedom to move around and can only vibrate around a fixed position. If you heat the ice cube, the particles will vibrate more rapidly, and as you heat it for a longer period of time, naturally, some of the molecules in the ice cube will have enough energy to overcome the forces of attraction holding the solid together, hence melting into a liquid. Obviously, this doesnt happen all at once, its a gradual process where more and more molecules have enough energy to overcome the forces of attraction between molecules. Thermal Equilibrium Two objects, in thermal contact, are said to be in thermal equilibrium with each other if there is no net heat flow between them.

In thermal contact, the hotter body becomes cooler while the cooler body becomes hotter until a point is reached where no more change occurs. The two objects are said to be at the same temperature if they are in thermal equilibrium.

Conduction 1 Describe experiments to demonstrate the properties of good and bad conductors of heat. A simple experiment can be conducted to find out whether something is a good or bad conductor of heat! Prepare a few rods made from different materials. Use wax to attach small pins to their ends and then heat the other end of the rods. The thermal energy will be transferred by conduction, from one end to the other. Eventually the wax will melt (due to the heat from the rod) and the pin falls off. The best conducting rod will have its pin dropped off fastest because it transfers the thermal energy the fastest! 2 Explain heat transfer in solids in terms of molecular motion.

Conduction is a type of thermal energy transfer that occurs mainly in solids. In any solid object/substance, its particles are fixed in regular structure and they cannot move. However, when the solid object is heated, its particles gain thermal and kinetic energy. But since they cannot move, they vibrate instead. As particles with more kinetic energy vibrate, they also pass on the vibration to other particles too. Consequently, the thermal energy is also passed on!

The right of the solid object is heated. The particles begin to vibrate. The vibration is passed on to the particles on the left. The thermal energy is also transferred when the vibrations are passed on.

Convection 1 Recognise convection as the main method of heat transfer in fluids. Fluids are often very poor conductors, but if they are free to circulate they can carry thermal energy through a process called Convection.

## 2 Relate convection in fluids to density changes.

Credit:Eyrian Above is an example of a convection current. If the bottom is gently heated, as the water above the flame becomes warmer, it expands and decreases in density. The less dense water rises as cooler, denser water sinks and takes its place, or we can say, Displaces it. This is a convection current. However, convection does not occur if the water is heated at the top as warmer, less dense water will simply just stay at the top. 3 Describe experiments to illustrate convection in liquids and gases. Convection in Air Convection doesnt only occur in liquids, they can also occur in gases. An example is the Convection Current in air. Heated by the sun, the warm air rises above the equator and cool air displaces the warm air. This results in a convection current in the earths atmosphere. Room Heating Warm air rises above the heater or radiator, and it is displaced by cool air.

Place different materials of different colour under the sun, or close to a source heat radiation. After a period of time, measure their temperature. The dark surfaces should be warmer because they are better absorbers of infra-red radiation.

3 Identify infra-red radiation as the part of the electromagnetic spectrum often involved in heat transfer by radiation.

## All hot object emit radiation

Infra-red radiation is the most common type of heat transfer by radiation. Infra-red waves are a type of electro-magnetic waves and they are part of the electro-magnetic spectrum. It does not matter if you do not know what electro-magnetic waves and spectrum mean! You will learn about them later. Basically they are invisible waves that transfer energy.

Factors affecting the rate of radiation: Colour and texture of surface Black, matt surfaces are good in both absorbng and emitting radiation. Shiny or polished white surfaces are poor absorbers because they act better as reflectors, and hence, poor emitters. Surface temperature The hotter the object, the more energy it radiates Surface area The grater the area, the more energy it radiates. Consequences of Energy Transfer 1 Identify and explain some of the everyday applications and consequences of conduction, convection and radiation. Conduction, convection and radiation are constantly happening in our every-day environment. They have many applications and can be very useful, some examples include:

When we heat up pots and pans, the thermal energy is transferred through conduction Air condition uses convectional currents to cool the indoor environment. When heating up water, the heat is applied from below so it creates a convectional current, which heats up the whole body water Sea breezes are caused by convectional currents. This is due to the difference between the temperature of the sea and land. Radiation enters greenhouses through the glass and the heat is absorbed and trapped to maintain the temperature Solar panels produce electricity by absorbing the heat from sunlight by radiation

Wave It is the transferring of energy from one point to another point in the result of disturbance of the particles in the medium. For example, sound waves, infrared heat, televesion, mobile phone and radio waves are reaching us constantly. Types of waves There are two types of waves.

## Transverse Waves Longitudinal Waves

Transverse waves Those waves in which particles of the medium vibrate at right angle to the direction of motion of the wave are called transverse waves.

For example: Water waves, light, radio and all other electromagnetic waves. Transverse waves can be produced with the help of spring as shown below.

Longitudinal waves Those waves in which particles of the medium vibrate along the direction of motion of the wave are called longitudinal waves.

For example: Sound waves. Longitunal waves in terms of wavefronts can be shown as:

## Longitudnal wave consists of compressions and rarefactions.

Particles of medium Atoms or molecules of the medium are considered as particles of the medium, which are responsible for the transferring of energy during the motion of the wave. Medium Medium is a matter through which waves can move. In this syllabus of IGCSE, generally we will focus on air, water (shallow and deeper), and glass as medium. Electromagnetic waves do not need any medium or material to travell, they can pass through vacuum or space. Wavefront It is the locus of all those points which have the same phase of vibration. OR It is a moving line that joins all the points on the crest of a wave. Wavelength In case of transvrese waves, it is the distance between two adjacent crests or troughs.

In case of longitudinal waves, it is the distance between two points of maximum compression or the distance between two points of minimum rarefaction. The S.I. unit of wavelength is meter (m). Wavelength in terms of compressions and rarefactions can be shown as below.

Common features of the waves All the waves have the repeating pattern or shape. All the waves carry energy without moving material along. All the waves have wavelength, frequency, amplitude and time period. The speed of the wave depends on the medium, in which it is travelling. Amplitude of waves It is the maximum displacement of the particle in the medium from the central position.

The S.I. unit of amplitude is meter (m). Time period of the wave It is the time taken by the wave to pass through any point. It is repesented by T. Its unit is second(s).

Time period and frequency of the wave are closly linked by the relation

f=1/T

or T=1/f Speed of the wave It is the distance covered by the wave in one second. The speed of the wave in a given medium is always constant. The speed of the wave (v), frequency (f) and wavelength () are related by the relation V=f Speed of the wave is usually measured in meter/second (m/s). Wave equation Speed, fequency and wavelength of the wave are related by the equation v=f Reflection of wave It is the bouncing back of the wave from the boundry of the second medium. OR It is the bouncing back of the wave from the boundry of the medium in which it is travelling.

During reflection of the wave, wavelength, apeed and frequency remain same but direction changes. Law of reflection: Whenever the wave reflects from the boundry, it obeys the law of reflection, which is as under. 1- Angle of incidence is always equal to the reflection. Angle of incidence = Angle of reflection 2- Incident wave , reflected wave and the normal lie in the same plane.

Important to note: 1- Angle of incidence is the angle between the incident wave (ray) and normal to the boundry at

the point of incidence. 2- Angle of reflection is the angle between the reflected wave (ray) and normal to the boundry at the point of incidence. Refraction of waves When wave enters from one medium to the other medium, it changes its direction depending upon the angle of incidence because of the change in speed. When wave enters from denser medium to the rare medium, it bends away from the normal. Its speed and wavelength increases but frequency remains same. When wave enters from rare medium to the denser medium, it bends towards the normal. Its speed and wavelength decreases but frequency remains same. Direction of refracted wave depends upon the direction of incident wave. Law of refraction: When wave refracts, its obeys the law of refraction which is as under. 1- Sine of angle of incidence is directly proportional to the sine of angle of refraction. 2- Incident wave, refracted wave and normal all they lie in the same plane.

Important to note: 1- Angle of incidence is the angle between incident wave and the normal to the boundry of the first medium at the point of incidence. 2- Angle of refraction is the angle between the refracted wave and the normal to the boundry of the second medium at the point of incidence, in which wave enters. 3- In refraction phenomenon, direction, wavelength and speed changes but frequency remains same. 4- In refraction phenomenon, if angle of incidence is zero (means wave is coming along the normal) then angle of refraction will also be zero and the wave goes straight in the second medium without bending, but speed and wavelength change depending upon the nature of the second medium in which it is entering. 5- In this syllabus we study three media: glass, water and air. Glass is most dense medium, then water and and water is denser than air. In water we study two regions shallow and deeper, deeper is the rare medium as compare to the shallow region. Diffraction of waves The wave bends round the sides of an obstacle, or spread out as they pass through the gap. This effect is called diffraction. Diffraction is only significant if the size of the gap is about the same as the wavelength. Wider gaps produce less diffraction. Electromagnetic waves Those waves, which do not need any medium to travell are called electromagnetic waves. OR Those waves which can pass through the vacuum or space are called electromagnetic waves. Nature of light Light has dual nature. It has particle nature and can show wave nature as well. In this chapter we will study the wave nature of light. Wave evidence of the light: Light and radio signals all undergo reflection, refraction, and diffraction. This suggests that they travell as waves. For example: 1- Light reflects from mirrors like sound waves reflect from hard surfaces. 2- Light bends when it passes from air in to glass or water.

3- Light also exhibits the phenomenon of diffraction like sound waves. 4- Light spreads when it passes through tiny holes and slits. This suggests that light waves must have much shorter wavelength then sound. 5- Some radio signals can bend round very large obstacles such as hills. This suggests that radio waves must have long wavelengths. Important features of light Some important features of light are as under: 1- Light is a form of radiation. 2- Light travels in straight lines. 3- Light transfers energy. 4- Light travels as waves. 5- Light can travel through empty space. 6- Light is the fastest thing there is. 7- Light has visible and invisible region. Reflection of light When the ray of light strikes a mirror, it reflects as shown in the figure below.

The incoming ray is the incident ray, while the outgoing ray is called reflected ray, and the line at right angle to the mirror surface at the point of incidence is called a normal. The mirror in this case is a plane mirror. It means that it is a flat mirror, raher than a curved mirror. Law of reflection: There are two laws of reflection. They apply to all types of mirrors. 1- The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. i (Angle of incidence)= r (Angle of reflection) 2- The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal all lie in the same plane. Image through a plane mirror is a result of reflection of light. Use of mirror (Periscope) In a plane mirror the image is always the same size as the object. Examples of plane mirrors include household 'dressing' mirrors, dental mirrors for

examining teeth, security mirrors for checking under vehicles and periscope. Periscope:

A periscope uses reflection to allow you to see above your normal line of vision - or even round corners. Refraction of light When light ray enters from one medium to the other medium, it changes its direction in the second medium depending upon the angle of incidence because of the change in speed. When the light ray enters from denser medium to the rare medium, it bends away from the normal. Its speed and wavelength increases but frequency remains same. Direction of refracted wave depends upon the direction of incident wave.

When light ray enters from rare medium to the denser medium, it bends towards the normal. Its speed and wavelength decreases but frequency remains same.

Direction of refracted ray of light depends upon the direction of incident ray of light. Law of refraction:

When light ray refracts, it obeys the law of refraction which is as under. 1-Sine of Angle of incidence is directly proportional to the Sine of Angle of refraction. 2- Incident ray, refracted ray and normal all they lie in the same plane. Important to note: 1- Angle of incidence is the angle between incident ray and the normal to the boundry of the first medium 2- Angle of refraction is the angle between the refracted ray and the normal to the boundry of the second medium, in which light ray enters 3- In refraction phenomenon, direction, wavelength and the speed change but frequency remains same. 4- In refraction phenomenon, if angle of incidence is zero (means ray is coming along the normal) then angle of refraction will also be zero and the wave goes straight in the second medium without bending, but speed and wavelength changes depending upon the nature of the second medium in which it is entering. 5- In this syllabus we study three media, glass, water and air. Glass is most dense medium, then water and water which is denser than air. In water we study two regions shallow and deeper, deeper is the rare medium as compare to the shallow region. 6- Ratio of Sin i to the Sin r is always constant for a particular medium, which is called the refractive index. Refractive index The refractive index of a material indicates how strongly the material changes the direction of the light. It is calculated using the formula Refractive index = Sin i / Sin r Where i = angle of incidence r = angle of refraction Material Vacuum Air Water Refractive index 1 1.0 1.3

## 1.5 1.75 2.4

The refractive index can also be determined by using the following relation Refractive index = 1 / Sin C Where C is the critical angle. We can also use the following equation to determine the refractive index Refractive index = c / v Where c = speed of light in vacuum v = Speed of light in the material Critical angle It is the angle of incidence in the denser medium for which angle of refraction in the rare medium is 90o.

Critical angle and the refractive index are related by the relation Refractive index (n) = 1 / Sin C OR Sin C = 1 / Refractive index (n) Total internal reflection When ray of light enters from denser medium to the denser medium they move away from the normal. As the angle of incidence increases, an angle is reached at which the light rays will have to leave with an angle of refraction greater than 90o. These rays cannot refract, so they are entirely reflected back inside the medium. This process is known as total internal reflection.

In other words we can say that if angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle, total internal reflection takes place. Use of prism (Periscope) Fiber-optics Total internal reflection is used in fiber optic cables. A fiber optic cable is made of a bundle of very thin glass fibers. The light continues along the fiber by being constantly internally reflected.

Telephone and T.V. communications systems are increasingly relying on fibre optics istead of the more traditional copper cables. fibre optic cables do not use electricity and the signals are carried by infrared rays. The signals are very clear as they do not suffer from electrical interference. Other advantages are that they are cheaper than the copper cables and can carry thousands of different signals down the same fibre at the same time. Bundles of several thousands opticle fibres are use in medical endoscope for internal examination of the body. The bundle will carry an image from one end of the bundle to the other, each fibre carrying one tiny part (one pixel) of the image. Convex lens A Convex lens is used in many optical instruments like microscope, telescope, camera, etc. A convex lens is the thickest in the centre and is also called a converging lens because it bends the light inward. Pricipal axis: A spherical surface has a centre of curvature, which is the centre of the sphere from which it is drawn. A convex lens has two centres of curvature. A line passing through the centers of curvature and the opticle centre is called the principal axis.

Opticle centre: There is a paricular point 'C' (at the centre of the lens) in a lens called its opticle centre such that any ray passing through this point does not suffer any change in its direction. Opticle centre 'C' of a lens always lies on the principal axis. Principal focus: The point where all the rays parallel to the principal axis meet after passing through a convex lens is called the principal focus 'F'. Focal length: It is the distance 'f' between the optical centre 'C' and the principal focus 'F'. Behavior of standard rays after passing through convex lens Information about the images formed by a lens can be obtained by drawing any of two of the following standard rays from the top of the object. Standard rays:

If a ray of light is coming parallal to the principal axis, after refracting through the convex lens it passes through the focus point or principal focus.

If ray of light is passing through the optical centre, after refracting through the convex lens, it goes straight wihout bending or devitaing.

If a ray of ligh is coming from the focus point or principal focus, after refracting through convex lens, it becomes parallel to the principal axis.

Image formed by convex lens In each ray diagram, in the figure below two rays are drawn from the top of the object (a) When an oject is placed in front of a convex lens at distance greater than 2f, its image will be formed between F and 2F, as shown in the figure below. The image will be diminished real and inverted.

(b) When an object is placed at 2F in front of a convex lensThe image will be formed at 2F as shown in he figure below. The image will be of the same size, real but inverted.

(c) When object is placed in front of a convex lens between between F and 2F. The image will be formed at a distnce beyond 2F from the lens as shown in the figure below. The image will be magnified, real and inverted.

(d) When object is at F in front of the lens, its image will be at infinity, much enlarged, real and inverted as shown in the figure below.

(e) When the object is placed between the lens and its pricipal focus. Then the image will be formed on the same side behind the object. The image will be magnified, errect and virtual as shown in the figure below.

Nature and position of image produced by convex lens Object At infinity Beyond 2F At 2F Between F and 2F At F Between lens and F At F Between F and 2F At 2F Beyond 2F At infinity Behind the object Image Position Nature Real, Inverted Real, Inverted Real, Inverted Real, Inverted Real, Inverted Virtual, erect Size Diminished Diminished Same size Magnified Magnified Magnified

Note: F' is the principal focus on the object side and F is the principal focus on the other sde of the lens opposite to the object. Principle of camera A simple lens camera consistes of a light proof box fitted with a convex lens at one end as shown in the figure below.

The lens is adjusted to get a real and sharp image on the photographic film. The amount of light is controlled by an adjustable aperture and shutter. when the button is pressed, then the shutter opens for short interval. Image of the object before the camera is formed on the

photographic film. the exposed film is then developed to make the image visible. Most of the modern cameras uses a system of lenses nstead of a single lens. This improves the quality of teh image taken by such cameras. The quality of the image taken by such camera depends upon the following factors.

The quality of the lens or lens system Proper focusing of the camera proper illumination of the object or scene to the photograph Proper adjustment of the aperture size and shutter speed

Dispersion of light Light coming from the sun or electric bulb is called white light. If this light is allowed to fall on a prism it spits up into its constituent colours. Hence "splitting up of white light ito its constituent colours is called dispersion of light". Electromagnetic spectrum -

Newton's experiment for dispersion of light In order to observe spectrum of light Newton performed an experiment by making a small circular hole in one of the window of his room. When sunlight enetered in the room through this hole, aspot of white light was formed on the opposite wall. He intruduced a prism in the pah of narrow beam of white light as shown in the figure below. Light after passing through the prism formed a pattern of seven colors on the wall.

Newton explained the spectrum by the theory that white light consists of a mixture of light of seven colors. The refractive index of glass is different for light of each colour. So that white light falls on the prism each colour in it is refracted at a different angle so the colours are spread out to form a spectrum. ------------------------------

-----------------------------Improvement in Newton's experiment for dispersion of light The spectrum formed in Newton's first experiment was not pure. The spectrum obtained

consisted of series of circular coloured images ovelaping on each other. Later on Newton deviced the arrangement as shown in the figure below.

A converging lens 'L' is placed so as to form n image 'I' , of a narrow slit 'S' which is illiminated by a bulb of white light. A prism is placed between the screen and the lens 'L'. When light passe through teh prism, dispersion is produced and a pure spectrum is seen on a screen. This consists of series of coloured images of the slit, all very close to each other. If slit is made narrow, overlaping is reduced and the resulting spectrum will be more pure. The spectrum will be more clrear, if the position of the prism is set for the minimum deviation. ------------------------------

-----------------------------Recombination of colors The colours of the spectrum may be recombined to form white light by allowing spectrum to be formed on a row of small rectangular plane mirror as shown in the figure below.

A screen 'W' is adjusted at such an angle that all these mirrors reflect the light on the screen at the same point. The rersult is, a spot of white light is formed on the screen. Newton also performed an experiment regarding the recombination of components colours. He pianted the colours of the spectrum in sectors on a disc as shown in the figure below. When it is rotated with high speed, the disc appears white. This happens because of the persistence of vision. the impression of an image on the retina of an eye is retained for a fraction of a second after the image has disappeared. Consequently the brain sums up and mixes together the rapidly changing coloured images of the disc. thus the sensation of the stationary white image is produced. ------------------------------

-----------------------------Rainbow The rainbow is a natural phenomenon sometimes seen after a rain. In the seventeenth century a French mathematician Rene Descartes gave the idea that rainbow is produced by

the dispersin of light. According the Rene, after the rain showers, a number of droplets of water remain suspended high up in the air. When sun light falls on theses water droplets, it gets splitted, as each drop acts like a prism. So each ray of light after passing through the drop suffers refaction and total internal reflection. The violet colour is refractetd the most and the red colour, at least. Thus the red ray which emerges from each droplet makes greater angle with the horizontal than the violet ray. Simiillarly other coloured rays emerge at different angles to the horizontal. The droplets which are at the same angle from the observer will produce the same colour. Consequently an area of coloured bands called the rainbow appear in teh sky opposite to the sun as shown in the figure below.

The colour in the rainbow are distributed in such a way that violet lies on the inside of the bow, while the red light outside of the bow. ------------------------------

## -----------------------------Invisible components of electromagnetic spectrum

Component

Source

Detectors

Properties

Uses Treatment of cancer; Gamma rays (image inside the body); finds flaws in metals; sterilises bandages, prolongs shelf-life of food (e.g. ice-cream) Treatment of skin disorders; X-ray radiography; study of crystal structures; inspections of welds in steel joints or pipes Detect forgeries of signatures; Fluorescent tubes; Sterilisation; Sunbeds

Gammarays

Cobalt-60

X-rays

X-ray tubes

## Photographic plate; Fluorescent screen

Very penetrating; Very dangerous Absorbed by glass; Causes sunburn; damages and kills living cells

Ultraviolet (U.V.)light

Photo film; Sun; sparks and Photo cells; arcs; mercury Fluorescent lamps; UV lamps chemicals

-----------------Visible region----------------Radiators (Keeps occupants of room Special photo warm in winter); Sun; Warm and film; LDR (Light Causes heating Cooking food; Finding hot onjects (fires depenendent when burried warm bodies; IR or people) resistor); absorbed satellite photos reveal Photodiode diseased crops; Televesion controllers; Intruder alarms Microwavereceiving aerials Absorbed by water and fats in food and people, hence is dangerous Induces alternating currents in metal aerials Microwave communication links (Radio and televesion); Microwave cooking, Radar communication Radio; TV and satellite communi- cations

## Metal aerials; Tuned circuits

------------------------------

## -----------------------------Reflection through plane mirror

------------------------------

## -----------------------------Image through plane mirror

Nature of sound waves Sound is a form of energy produced by a vibrating body. Vibrations of the sounding body may be seen or felt. For example if a tuning fork is stuck by a rubber pad, it will start vibrating as shown in the figure. One can listen the sound and at the same time its vibrations can be felt, on touching any of its prong. Sound needs medium to travel and it cannot travel through vacuum.

Experiment: Sound can not travell through vaccum An electric bell is suspended from wires passing through the cork in a bell jar with stands on the plate of an air pump. The bell is set ringing and teh air is pumped out of teh jar. As the air is removed, the sound becomes fainter untill it may become inaudible althoug the bell can still be seen ringing. As the air is readmitted, the sound becomes louder once again. Three things are necessary for the production, propagation, and observing the sound. 1- A vibrating body 2- Some material medium like air and water 3- Receiver like ear Production of sound Whenever a body is vibrating, it produces a disturbance in the surrounding air. this disturbance reaches our ear in the form of waves and hence produces sensation on the ear drum. In the absence of air (medium), the sound can not be heard, because sound can not travel through vacuum. Therefore a material medium must be continuous from the vibrating body to the ear. Characteristics of sound Loudness of sound waves Pitch of sound waves Quality of sound waves Medium to transmit sound waves Sound waves needs medium to transmit (to travell). Sound waves cannot travell through vaccum. Speed of sound waves in different media is different. Speed of sound in different media Speed of sound in air: Sound wave have a definite velocity of propagation in a given medium. A thunder of a cloud is usually heard a few seconds after lightning flash is seen. When a distant gun is fired, the flash of discharge is seen some time before the sound is heard. the time inetraval between the event occuring and it being heard by the observer is simply due to high velocity of ligh as it reaches the observer almost instantaneously. The simplest way of finding the velocity of sound is by arranging for a gun to be fired at a measured distance from an observer who measures the time between seeing the flash and hearing the sound. By using the following relation speed of sound can be measured

Speed (v) = distance (s) / time(t) The velocity of the sound in air at 0o C is 331.4 m / s. the velocity of sound increases with the increase in temerature. Experiment: Speed can not pass through vaccum Medium Rubber Air at 0 oC Air at 40 oC Air at 20 oC Lead Gold Glass Copper Aluminum At absolute zero Speed of sound 60 m/s 331.4 m/s or 332 m/s 355 m/s 343 m/s 1210 m/s 3240 m/s 4540 m/s 4600 m/s 6320 m/s 0 m/s

Echo When sound is incident on a big surface , part of the sound energy is rflected. The reflected sond waves heard after a silence, is called an echo. Human can distinguish an echo if the silent period is more than one tenth of a second. Clear good echos are produced if; (a) the distance between the refletor and the sound source is ore than 30 meters. (b) the area of a reflector is large compared to the wavelength of the incident sound. (c) the incident sound is high pitched i.e. of a high frequency. Echo sounding is used to survey the depth and nature of the seabed. Knowing the speed of sound in a prticular medium, one can calculate the distance between the sound source and the reflector by timing the echo. Audiable frequency range The sound having frequencies between 20 Hz to 20 000 Hz can be heard, this frequency range is called audiable frequency range. Properties of magnets A magnet can attract magnetic materials such as iron, steel, cobalt and nickel A magnet has two poles (i.e. North pole and South pole) A freely suspended magnet always points in a fixed direction

## Like poles repel and unlike poles attract each other

Magnetic and non-magnetic materials Magnetic materials can be attracted by the magnet. For example iron, cobalt, nickel, alnico, steel. Strongly magnetic metals are called ferromagnetic materials. Non magnetic materials can not be attracted by the magnet. For example cork, glass, plastic, rubber, wood. -----------------------

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Basic cause of magnetism In an atom tiny electrical particles called electrons move arround a central nucleus. Each electron has a magnetic effect as it spins and orbits the nucleus. In many types of atom , the magnetic effects of the electrons cancel, but in some they do not, so each atom acts as a tiny magnet. In an unmagnetised material, the atomic magnets point in random direction. But as the material becomes magnetised, more and more of its atomic magnets line up with each other. Together, billions of tiny atomic magnets act as one big magnet. -----------------------

-----------------------

Properties of magnetic lines of forces The magnetic lines have the follwing properties :

They originate from north pole and end at the south pole ( inside magnet thet drawn from south to north pole ). They originate and terminate normally from the surface of the pole of a magnet. They do not intersect eachother. The strenght of a magnetic field in a region depends on the concentration of the magnetic lines in that region.

Near the poles of a bar magnet , these lines are closer to one other. It shows that magnetic field is more strong at the pole than at other poles. -----------------------

-----------------------

Ferus and non-ferus materials Iron and alloys(mixtures) containing iron are called ferrous metal (ferrum is Latin for iron). Aluminium, copper, and the other non magnetic metals are non-ferrous. -----------------------

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Methods of magnetisations A piece of steel becomes permanently magnetised when placed near a magnet, but its magnetism is usually weak. It can be magnetised more strongly by stroking it with one end of a magnet, as on

the right. However, the most effective method of magnetising it is to place it in a long coil of wire and pass a large, direct(one way) crrent through the coil. The current has a magnetic effect which magnetizes the steel. The polarity of the magnet can be determined by (a) viewing from one end of the coil; if current flows in an anticlockwise direction, that end will be the North pole. (b) viewing from one end of the coil; if current flows in a clockwise direction, that end will be the South pole. -----------------------

-----------------------

Methods of demagnetisations Hammering: If a magnet is hammered, its atomic magnets are thrown out of line: it becomes demagnetised. Heating: Heating a magnet to a high temperature also demagnetise it. By using an alternating current: It is the most efficient method of demagnetisation. A magnet to be demagneised is placed inside a solenoid connected to an alternating current (a.c.) supply. The mgnet will be demagnetised when it is slowly removed from the solenoid with the alternating current flowing in it. -----------------------

-----------------------

Experiment - pattern of magnetic lines of forces arround a bar magnet The magnetic field lines can be tracced on a paper by a compass needle ( a tiny magnetic needle).

The compass needle is first placed near the north pole of magnet. The position of poles of needle are marked on paper. Then needle is moved to new position such that position of its south pole coincides with previous position of its north pole. This process is continued until the needle reaches south pole. BY joining these points we get to magnetic line of force. Then it is placed at some other position near north poile and above procedure id reapeated.

In this way number of magnetic lines are traced on whole of sheet of paper. -----------------------

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Properties of magnetic lines of forces The magnetic lines have the follwing properties :

They originate from north pole and end at the south pole ( inside magnet thet drawn from south to north pole ). They originate and terminate normally from the surface of the pole of a magnet. They do not intersect eachother.

The strenght of a magnetic field in a region depends on the concentration of the magnetic lines in that region.

Near the poles of a bar magnet , these lines are closer to one other. It shows that magnetic field is more strong at the pole than at other poles. -----------------------

-----------------------

Magnetic properties of iron and steel Iron gets magnetized faster but loses its magnetism as soon as the inducing magnet is removed. Hence soft iron is said to have high susceptibility but low retentivity. This property of soft iron is very useful in making temporary electromagnets where we need strong but temporary magnets. If the magnets used in these devices were to retain their magnetism for a longer period, the devices would not function properly. Core in the transformer is made up of soft iron material. Steel is slow to be magnetized but retains the acquired magnetism for a long time. Steel is said to have low susceptibility but high retentivity. Steel is used for making magnets. -----------------------

-----------------------

## Design of electromagnet Material

A large iron nail (about 3 inches) About three feet of copper wire (Thin coated) Battery

Proceedure

Leave about 8 inches of wire loose at one end and wrap most of the rest of the wire around the nail. Try not to overlap the wires. Cut the wire so that you are gettin 8 inches loose at the other end. Now make the connection of the two ends of the wire with the two terminals (positive and negative) of the battery. Your electromagnet is ready. Bring some clips near the nail, they will be attracted towards it. Do not keep the connection for long time (battery may get warm). Just disconnect it after exploring the fact.

## Uses of electromagnet 1- Magnetic Media

Magnetic media such as VHS tapes, hard drives and audio cassettes use a thin coating of magnetic material to record information. The reading device uses magnets to decode this information. 2- Cathode Ray Tubes

Devices such as televisions and monitors can contain a cathode ray tube (CRT). A CRT uses electromagnets to direct the flow of electrons to the screen.

3- Speakers

Speakers generally use a permanent magnet to convert an electrical signal into a physical movement that produces sound. 4- Magnetic Levitation

Magnetic levitation (MAGLEV) trains use many powerful electromagnets to lift the train about 15 mm above the tracks. This eliminates the friction between the train and the track. 5- Industrial Lifting

Large electromagnets are commonly used to move large metal objects such as crushed cars in a junkyard.

Introduction to Electricity 1. Demonstrate understanding of current, potential difference, e.m.f. and resistance, and use with their appropriate units. Electric Current:

Is the flow of electric charge within a circuit. Is measured in amperes or amps (A). Represents how much electric charge is passing a single point in the circuit in moment. Does not run out in a circuit i.e. current is the same at the beginning and end of a circuit.

Potential Difference:

Difference in potential between two points of a circuit. Potential represents how much energy (joules per coulomb) there is to drive a current through the wire and is measured in volts (v)

e.m.f:

Electro-motive force (e.m.f) is the voltage (potential) that a battery will supply. It is the driving force that gives the electrons the energy to move around the circuit.

Resistance:

## 2. State that charge is measured in coulombs (C)

Charge is a property that certain particles have that can have a force of repulsion or attraction (like electrons or ions). The unit for electrical charge is Coulombs (C). 3.Use and describe the use of an ammeter and a voltmeter Ammeter:

Is a device used to measure the amount of current flowing through the circuit (in amps) Has to connected in series to the circuit

Voltmeter:

Is a device used to measure the potential difference between two points in a circuit. Has to be connected in parallel to the component you want to measure.

Electric Charge 1. Describe and interpret simple experiments to show the production and detection of electrostatic charges Electrostatic Attraction can be reproduced and observed in a simple experiment: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Get a balloon. Inflate it. Rub the balloon quickly on any dry surface e.g. a carpet. Go to the nearest faucet/ water tap. Turn it on.

6. Place the balloon close to but not touching the running water. What do you notice? You should see that the water bends towards the balloon. 2. State that there are positive and negative charges. When two insulating materials are rubbed together (in this case a carpet and the balloon), the friction causes electrons on one material to be rubbed off and left stranded on the other. Normally, objects are neutrally charged, meaning that the atoms have an equal number of protons and electrons. However, when we rub two insulating materials together, what we end up is one material is left too much electrons, and as result becomes negatively charged due to more electrons than protons. Conversely, the other object is left with more protons than electron (loses it). Hence, it becomes positively charged. Due to the nature of water molecules, they are polar, meaning that their molecules have a positive and negative charged ends, much like a magnet. They are very weakly attracted to charged objects. 3. Describe an electric field as a region in which an electric charge experiences a force. An electric field is created when an electrically charged object is placed near another charged or polar object, creating a force of electrostatic attraction between the two. In our experiment, the water bends towards the negatively charged balloon because:

The positive pole of the water molecules are attracted to the negatively charged ions of the balloon. The positive pole of the water molecule aligns and rotates towards the balloon and is pulled towards it.

We also have to consider the fact that the water molecules have a negative pole as well, so shouldnt it repel each other as well?

The negative poles of the water molecule are repelled by the negatively charged ions of the balloon.

However, the water molecules still bend towards the stream. Much like a magnet, since the positive poles of the water molecules are closer to the balloon since they are attracted to it, the force of attraction between the positive ends is stronger than the repulsion between the negative ends. 4. State that unlike charges attract and that like charges repel In essence, in the above experiment we can see that:

Unlike (opposite) charges attract. ( + ) ( ) Like (same) charges repel. ( ) ( ) A good analogy would be magnets. Think of magnets.

5 Distinguish between electrical conductors and insulators and give typical examples Conductors are materials in which an electric current can flow freely. Examples include metals such as steel and copper. Metals have the property of being conductors of electric. They generally have a low resistance. Conversely, insulators are materials in which an electric current cannot/will have a hard time flowing through. Examples include materials such as wood, plastic, and glass. You should notice that electric circuits are never built entirely from these materials. They generally have a high resistance. Current, Electromotive forces and Potential Difference 1. State that current is related to the flow of charge Current: is the flow of electrical charge within the circuit. 2. Demonstrate understanding that a current is a rate of flow of charge and recall and use the equation: I = Q/t More specifically, current is the rate of flow of charge in a given point of a circuit, measured in ampere, or amp (A). The general equation for working out current when you have steady flow of charge is: I = Q/t

## I = Current measured in amps Q = the charge carried measured in coulombs t = Time

1 Amp is equivalent to 1 coulomb of charge flowing through a fixed point per second. Amps = coulombs / seconds 3. Use the term potential difference (p.d.) to describe what drives the current between two points in a circuit. The potential in an electric circuit is a measure of how much joules per coulomb (Volts) there are in a specific point of a circuit. To move an electric current through a metal wire, it takes work/energy. If you think about it, when you run electricity through a wire, it gets HOT. The electric potential energy carried by the current is used to push the current through the wire and the energy is lost as heat. Therefore, potential represents how much energy there is to drive a current through the wire and is measured in volts (v). The potential difference is the difference in potential between two points of a circuit. It represents how much energy is given off when going through a specific point as it moves from a higher potential energy to a lower potential energy. For example, if the potential difference of a light bulb is 3v, it means that 3 joules of electric potential energy that each of coulomb is being lost as heat and light energy as it moves through the light bulb. In any electrical circuit, the potential at the end of the circuit is always 0 i.e. a potential of 0 volts. 4. Distinguish between the direction of flow of electrons and conventional current Normally, in a electrical circuit, the flow of electrons go from (-) pole of the battery to the (+) pole.

However, the conventional current flows in the opposite direction of the flow of electron. This is because the battery provides an electro-motive force (e.m.f) that pushes the electrons forward, making them do work.

5.Demonstrate understanding that e.m.f. is defined in terms of energy supplied by a source in driving charge round a complete circuit Electro-motive force (e.m.f) is the voltage (potential) that a battery will supply. It is the driving force that gives the electrons the energy to move around the circuit. For example, a 12V battery will provide a e.m.f of 12V. Resistance 1.State that resistance = p.d. / current and understand qualitatively how changes in p.d. or resistance affect current. Since resistance = potential difference / current: in Voltage = in resistance in Current = in resistance 2.Recall and use the equation R = V/I When you need to calculate resistance, Ohms law states that: R = V/I Resistance () = Voltage (V) / Current (I) For example, a light bulb has a potential resistance of 3 volts. If a current of 0.6 amps is flowing through the lightbulb, what is the resistance? R = V/I R = 3 / 0.6 Resistance = 5 3.Describe an experiment to determine resistance using a voltmeter and an ammeter. A simple experiment can be performed to find out the resistance across an object:

Set up an ammeter somewhere in the series circuit: this will give you the amount of current flowing in the circuit. Now, set up a voltmeter in parallel to the object, in this case a light bulb, to find the potential difference across it. Using theequation R = V/I , we can find the resistance. If the light bulb has a potential difference of 4V, and the circuit has a current of 2A, then the resistance is: 4/2 = 2 Ohms () Factors affecting the resistance of the conductor

## Length Cross-sectional area Temperature Nature of material

Affect of length of the conductor on resistance Resistance of the wire is directly proportional to its , if the length is doubled, the resistance would also be doubled. Affect of cross-sectional area on resistance Resistance of the wire is inversely proportioal to its cross-sectional area. If cross-sectional area of the wire is doubled the resistance of the wire will become half of the first. If diameter of the wire is doubled, its corss sectional area becomes four times, so resistance decreases by four times. Affect of temeprature on resistance For metal conductors (ohmic conductors), resistance of material is directly proportional to its resistance. If temperature of the material increases, its resistance increases. How nature of material affects the eresistance Substances that allow an electric current to flow through them are called conductors; those which do nor are called insulators. Metals are conductors. In a metal structure, the metal atoms exist as positive ions surrounded by an

electron cloud. If a potential difference is applied to the metal, the electrons in this cloud are able to move and a current flows. When the electron are moving the metal structure, they bump in to the metal ions and this causes resistance to the electron flow or current. In different conductors the ease of flow of the electrons is different and so the conductors have different resistances. For instance, copper is a better conductor than iron.

Electrical Energy 1 .Recall and use the equations: P = I V and E = I V t. Here are two equations you might need to know for the exam. First one is: P= IV (Unit: Watts) P is power, I is Electric Current (measured in Amps), and V is Potential difference (Voltage, measured in Volts). Units for power is Watts. This is also known as Joules Law. The second one is E= I V t (Units: Joules) E= Energy I= Electric Current t= time (sec)

Dangers of electricity 1. Identify electrical hazards including: damaged insulation, overheating of cables, damp conditions Damaged Insulation:

In a circuit, insulation is the plastic sheath that covers the wires. If you have damaged insulation, it means that the metal wires inside the cable are exposed.

The potential dangers of damaged insulation could be that if a person touches the exposed wire, they could be electrically shocked, which may lead to death.

Overheating of cables:

When you run a extremely high current through a cable, you run a risk of overheat the wire. This is because you are supplying too much energy and this causes to wire to heat up. If the wires overheat, this could lead to electrical fires.

2. Demonstrate understanding of the use of circuit-breakers A circuit breaker is a safety device that forces a circuit to open (switch off) when an extremely high level of current flows through the circuit.

Normally, electricity flows in the circuit breaker through the metal contacts. However, if an extremely high current flows through the circuit breaker, the electromagnet get stronger and pulls the iron catch towards it. This causes the spring to pull the metal contacts apart, causing the circuit to open/break. In order to make electricity flow again, you simply press the reset button to push the iron contacts together.

## 3. Demonstrate understanding of the use of fuses

Fuses work in a similar way to circuit breakers. They are meant to protect the components in a circuit from overheating by breaking the circuit. Fuses are integrated into the circuit they are meant to protect. A high level of current flowing through the circuit causes the wires inside the circuit to heat up. Inside the fuse is a metal wire with a low melting point. As a result of the running a high current through the circuit, the metal wire inside the fuse may melt. This causes the fuse and therefore the circuit to break. Fuses can only be used once, since the wires inside them melt away.

Series and Parallel Circuits 1. Demonstrate understanding that the current at every point in a series circuit is the same Current is the flow of electric charge within a circuit. Current does NOT ever change or run out in a series circuit. It is constant at ANY point in the circuit; it is the same at the beginning and at the end of a circuit.

2. Recall and use the fact that the sum of the p.d.s across the components in a series circuit is equal to the total p.d. across the supply Since we know that all the potential energy is used up by the components in the circuit, the potential difference at the end of a circuit is always 0. If the potential at the end of the circuit is 0, then we can say that the sum of potential difference across all components in a series circuit is equal to the e.m.f the supply provides or the potential difference across the supply. 3. Calculate the combined resistance of two or more resistors in series For a series circuit, the total resistance is the equal to the sum of the resistance of each component: RT = R1 + R2 + For example, if there are two resistors, each with 6 of resistance, then the total resistance will be: 6 + 6 = 12 4. State that, for a parallel circuit, the current from the source is larger than the current in each branch In a parallel circuit, the current in each branch of the circuit is less than the current at the beginning or end. Why? In order to for electricity to flow through multiple branches in a parallel circuit, the current has to split up. This means that the current is weaker in each branch compared to the source. Imagine a river when it splits. The amount of water flowing in each river branch is less than the original, larger river. 5. Recall and use the fact that the current from the source is the sum of the currents in the separate branches of a parallel circuit When circuit splits up into parallel so does the current. However, remember that the current at the beginning and at the end of the circuit is constant.

When the circuit rejoins again, the current at the before and after is the same. Therefore, we can say that the sum of the currents in the separate channels of the circuit is equal to the current from the source.

6. State that the combined resistance of two resistors in parallel is less than that of either resistor by itself It might seem illogical that when you add another branch to a circuit, that the total resistance of the resistance of the circuit decreases. You would expect it to remain the same The best way to explain it would be by adding an additional branch to the circuit, the total current flowing in the circuit increases. This is because the adding another branch gives the current another path which it could flow through. Using the equation: R = V/I V (Voltage) remains the same since our power source does not change in a parallel circuit. However, by adding more branches, our total current (I) increases in the circuit. And if current increases, our R (Resistance) then therefore decreases. 7. Calculate the effective resistance of two resistors in parallel Total Resistance in a parallel circuit is given by the equation: 1/RT = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 8. State the advantages of connecting lamps in parallel in a lighting circuit. In a series circuit, connecting two lamps together results in decreased brightness for both of the lamps. The lamps are not giving off light at their maximum brightness. This is because the electrical energy that the current carries is split between both lamps. However, connecting two lamps in parallel results in both lamps outputting at maximum brightness. This is because the energy carried by the current is not shared between the two lamps. The current split up and powers the lamp individually.

Electromagnetic Induction 1. Describe an experiment that shows that a changing magnetic field can induce an e.m.f. in a circuit The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction can be investigated through a simple experiment using a voltmeter, a coil of wire and a magnet:

Set up the apparatus like in the diagram above. Now move the magnet through the coil of wire. You should notice that a voltage is induced. When you move the magnet in one direction, you get a positive value for voltage. Likewise, when you move the magnet in the reverse direction, you get a negative value for voltage. However, you should notice that no voltage is induced when the magnet remains still inside the coil. For voltage to be induced the magnet must be moving. The induced voltage as a result of the magnet moving in and out of the coils of wire is called the Dynamo Effect. Voltage is generated whenever a wire is moved in a magnetic field. In addition, if it is in a complete circuit, then current will flow as well. 2. State the factors affecting the magnitude of an induced e.m.f The magnitude of the induced voltage can be increased by changing several factors:

The rate/speed in which the magnet moves The strength of the magnet The number of coils that the wire makes more coils means a bigger voltage.