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MRCP(UK) Part 2 Sample Questions

A 67-year-old woman was referred with a 3-month history of painful legs, malaise and weight loss. She had had type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension for 18 years. Her medication was gliclazide 160 mg twice daily, ramipril 2.5 mg daily and atorvastatin 20 mg daily. On examination, her blood pressure was 145/90 mmHg. There was some tenderness over her spine and lower legs. Investigations: serum sodium serum potassium serum creatinine serum corrected calcium serum phosphate plasma parathyroid hormone 138 mmol/L (137144) 5.5 mmol/L (3.54.9) 240 mol/L (60110) 1.80 mmol/L (2.202.60) 1.6 mmol/L (0.81.4) 22.2 pmol/L (0.95.4)

What therapy is most likely to correct the calcium and parathyroid hormone concentrations? A B C D E alendronic acid alfacalcidol calcitonin cinacalcet ergocalciferol

Answer Key: B

A 52-year-old man presented with a 4-month history of altered bowel habit with occasional bright-red blood per rectum. Colonoscopy revealed an annular sigmoid tumour and histology confirmed an adenocarcinoma. A staging CT scan of abdomen revealed two 1-cm adjacent lesions in the right lobe of the liver, highly suspicious for liver metastases. What is the most appropriate next management step? A B C D E biopsy of liver lesions palliative chemotherapy palliative radiotherapy stenting of colorectal carcinoma surgical resection of carcinoma and liver lesions

Answer Key: E

A 53-year-old man presented with a 2-week history of diarrhoea associated with cramping abdominal pain. He was passing up to 15 very loose and watery stools per day. There was no blood in stools. He had had a heart transplant 2 years previously, and his medication comprised ciclosporin, prednisolone, aspirin and ramipril. Investigations: haemoglobin white cell count serum urea serum creatinine serum C-reactive protein stool culture stool microscopy What is the most likely pathogen? A B C D E Cryptosporidium parvum Entamoeba histolytica Giardia lamblia Pneumocystis jirovecii Toxoplasma gondii 110 g/L (130180) 12.5 109/L (4.011.0) 14.4 mmol/L (2.57.0) 135 mol/L (60110) 35 mg/L (<10) negative cysts identified on modified acid-fast stain

Answer Key: A

An 82-year-old woman with hypertension presented with tiredness, ankle swelling and arthralgia. On examination, her pulse was 92 beats per minute and her blood pressure was 150/90 mmHg. She had bilateral ankle oedema. Her serum creatinine concentration had been normal 6 months previously. Urinalysis showed protein 2+, blood 2+. Investigations: haemoglobin white cell count platelet count serum creatinine 103 g/L (115165) 10.5 109/L (4.011.0) 410 109/L (150400) 252 mol/L (60110)

What is the most likely cause of her renal impairment? A B C D E amyloidosis crescentic glomerulonephritis IgA nephropathy membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis membranous nephropathy

Answer Key: B

A 60-year-old woman was admitted with a 2-day history of dysuria, loin pain and rigors. On admission, she was unwell and confused. She was also febrile and tachycardic. She was transferred to the medical high-dependency unit for invasive monitoring. Which set of haemodynamic values is most likely to be present? mean arterial pressure (mmHg) 85 80 110 85 66 60 mean right atrial pressure (mmHg) 3 8 18 6 20 2 mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mmHg) 15 22 20 16 22 15 mean pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (mmHg) 9 20 11 8 20 8 mean cardiac output (L/min) 5.0 3.0 4.0 2.5 2.0 4.5

normal A B C D E

Answer Key: E

A 78-year-old man presented to the emergency department with a 4-week history of breathlessness, dry cough and confusion. He also complained of headaches that were worse in the morning. He had a history of tuberculosis as a teenager. On examination, he was drowsy. His Glasgow coma score was 14. His pulse was 102 beats per minute and his respiratory rate was 24 breaths per minute. His oxygen saturation was 85%, breathing air (9499). Auscultation of his chest showed some crackles in the left lower zone and generally decreased breath sounds on the right. Investigations: arterial blood gases, breathing air: PO2 PCO2 pH H+ bicarbonate base excess chest X-ray 6.8 kPa (11.312.6) 9.8 kPa (4.76.0) 7.25 (7.357.45) 56 nmol/L (3545) 32 mmol/L (2129) 10 mmol/L (2) see image

What is the most appropriate treatment? A B C D E aminophylline continuous positive airways pressure doxapram furosemide non-invasive ventilation

Answer Key: E

A 34-year-old woman was admitted with shortness of breath, and found to have a pulmonary embolus. On systemic enquiry, she admitted to cold intolerance. She was taking no medication. On examination, she had a livedo reticularis rash on the thighs. Blood tests showed marked thrombocytopenia and a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. Antinuclear antibodies were negative and complement C3 and C4 levels were normal. The blood film was normal, with no evidence of haemolysis. What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E antiphospholipid antibody syndrome cryoglobulinaemia mixed connective tissue disease systemic lupus erythematosus thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

Answer Key: A

A 19-year-old woman presented with a widespread eruption 2 weeks after a sore throat. On examination, there were multiple 5-mm diameter, scaly, erythematous papules over her trunk and limbs. What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E atopic eczema dermatitis artefacta guttate psoriasis lichen planus pityriasis versicolor

.Answer Key: C

10

A 60-year-old man was admitted with a 3-day history of diarrhoea. A diagnosis of lung and peritoneal metastases from an unknown primary carcinoma had been made 4 months previously and he had been receiving platinum-based combination chemotherapy. He had been discharged from hospital 5 days earlier after an episode of neutropenic sepsis following his second cycle of chemotherapy. On examination, he was apyrexial, his pulse was 98 beats per minute and his lying blood pressure was 110/65 mmHg. He looked dehydrated. His abdomen was soft but tender over the left iliac fossa. Investigations: haemoglobin white cell count neutrophil count platelet count CT scan of abdomen What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E cryptosporidiosis flare-up of diverticular disease ischaemic colitis pseudomembranous colitis tumour progression 113 g/L (130180) 6.5 109/L (4.011.0) 5.4 109/L (1.57.0) 170 109/L (150400) thickened sigmoid colon

Answer Key: D

11

A 79-year-old woman was referred to the medical outpatient clinic with a 3-month history of low back pain. She was taking regular paracetamol and occasional ibuprofen. She was normally fit and active, with no other complaints. Examination was normal. Investigations: full blood count serum urea and electrolytes Serum calcium serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G serum IgA serum IgM serum protein electrophoresis X-ray of lumbar spine normal normal normal 15.2 g/L (6.013.0) 2.5 g/L (0.83.0) 1.0 g/L (0.42.5) IgG kappa paraprotein: 4.3 g/L generalised osteopenia; no focal collapse; mild degenerative change

What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E amyloidosis low-grade lymphoma monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance myeloma solitary plasmacytoma

Answer Key: C

12

A 24-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of fever and a generalised blistering rash. He was taking prednisolone 10 mg daily for asthma. His son had had chickenpox 2 weeks previously. On examination, he was low in mood. His temperature was 38.5C, his blood pressure was 118/76 mmHg and his respiratory rate was 14 breaths per minute. His oxygen saturation was 96%, breathing air (9499). He had a widespread eruption consisting of vesicles and pustules. Examination of his chest revealed a few wheezes but no crackles. Investigations: haemoglobin white cell count neutrophil count lymphocyte count platelet count chest X-ray What is the most appropriate next management step? A B C D E antipyretic intravenous aciclovir intravenous flucloxacillin oral valaciclovir varicella zoster hyperimmune globulin 128 g/L (130180) 15.2 109/L (4.011.0) 13.8 109/L (1.57.0) 1.0 109/L (1.54.0) 189 109/L (150400) normal

Answer Key: B

13

A 35-year-old man presented with widespread aches and pains. He was having regular haemodialysis for end-stage renal failure. An X-ray of his hand is shown (see image).

What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E dialysis-related amyloidosis gout primary hyperparathyroidism scleroderma secondary hyperparathyroidism

Answer Key: E

14

A 72-year-old man presented with a 4-year history of acute intermittent pain and swelling of the knees. The problem affected one knee at a time and each episode lasted about a week. He took naproxen for the pain. His serum urate was measured during one of the attacks and was found to be normal. He had drunk 2428 units of alcohol per week for 30 years. There was no family history of diabetes mellitus. On examination, his body mass index was 34 kg/m 2 (9499). His pulse was 64 beats per minute and his blood pressure was 110/70 mmHg. His liver was enlarged to 5 cm below the costal margin and his spleen to 3 cm. The metacarpophalangeal joints of the index and middle fingers in both hands were swollen. Urinalysis showed glucose 3+. Investigations: haemoglobin white cell count platelet count serum sodium serum potassium serum urea serum creatinine serum albumin serum total bilirubin serum alanine aminotransferase serum aspartate aminotransferase fasting plasma glucose What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E alcoholic cirrhosis haemochromatosis palindromic rheumatism rheumatoid arthritis sarcoidosis 165 g/L (130180) 9.5 109/L (4.011.0) 135 109/L (150400) 128 mmol/L (137144) 3.1 mmol/L (3.54.9) 3.5 mmol/L (2.57.0) 56 mol/L (60110) 31 g/L (3749) 32 mol/L (122) 133 U/L (535) 110 U/L (131) 13.4 mmol/L (3.06.0)

Answer Key: B

15

A frail 85-year-old man presented with a 2-week history of diarrhoea and faecal incontinence. There had been no rectal bleeding. He had a history of Parkinsons disease, osteoarthrosis of the hips and knees, and diverticular disease of the colon. His medication comprised cobeneldopa, co-codamol and bendroflumethiazide. On examination of his abdomen, the sigmoid colon was palpable but non-tender. There was no distension and his bowel sounds were normal. Digital rectal examination revealed an empty rectum. Investigations: haemoglobin white cell count platelet count erythrocyte sedimentation rate serum sodium serum potassium serum urea serum creatinine What is the most appropriate next investigation? A B C D E barium enema CT scan of abdomen faecal occult blood flexible sigmoidoscopy plain X-ray of abdomen 110 g/L (130180) 9.5 109 /L (4.011.0) 250 109/L (150400) 25 mm/1st h (<20) 130 mmol/L (137144) 2.9 mmol/L (3.54.9) 15.3 mmol/L (2.57.0) 120 mol/L (60110)

Answer Key: E

16

A 75-year-old man presented with a painful left leg (see image).

What is the most appropriate treatment for the underlying disease? A B C D E bisphosphonate corticosteroid flucloxacillin furosemide vitamin D

Answer Key: A

17

A 42-year-old man was admitted to hospital with severe abdominal pain. His alcohol intake was 18 units per week. His serum amylase level was raised at 1346 U/L (60180) and a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was made. There was no evidence of gallstones. He made an uncomplicated recovery. Investigations (after recovery): fasting plasma glucose serum cholesterol serum LDL cholesterol serum HDL cholesterol fasting serum triglycerides 5.7 mmol/L (3.06.0) 5.8 mmol/L (<5.2) 3.41 mmol/L (<3.36) 0.96 mmol/L (>1.55) 22.63 mmol/L (0.451.69)

What is the most appropriate treatment to reduce his risk of recurrent pancreatitis? A B C D E atorvastatin ciprofibrate ezetimibe nicotinic acid omega-3-marine triglycerides

Answer Key: B

18

A 43-year-old woman was investigated for increasing abdominal girth, nausea and alteration of bowel habit. On examination, her abdomen was distended and generally dull to percussion. Investigations: CT scan of abdomen see image

What is the most likely explanation for the CT appearance? A B C D E ascites constipation hepatocellular carcinoma pseudomyxoma peritonei retroperitoneal haemorrhage

Answer Key: D

19

A 65-year-old man had a 10-year history of dialysis-dependent renal failure caused by renovascular disease. He began taking warfarin because of recurrent arteriovenous fistula thrombosis. One month later, he presented with livedo reticularis on his trunk, and areas of painful ulceration on his shins. Investigations: haemoglobin white cell count eosinophil count platelet count international normalised ratio serum corrected calcium serum phosphate plasma parathyroid hormone anticardiolipin antibodies: immunoglobulin G immunoglobulin M What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E antiphospholipid antibody syndrome calciphylaxis cholesterol embolisation coumarin necrosis thromboembolism from arteriovenous fistula 102 g/L (130180) 5.4 109/L (4.011.0) 0.78 109/L (0.040.40) 478 109/L (150400) 1.9 (<1.4) 2.58 mmol/L (2.202.60) 1.9 mmol/L (0.81.4) 18.5 pmol/L (0.95.4) 32 U/mL (<23) 24 U/mL (<11)

Answer key C

20

A 27-year-old woman attended the emergency department with a 1-week history of progressive dyspnoea and cough, and a 2-day history of left basal thoracic pain on inspiration and haemoptysis. She had a history of bronchiectasis. She was a nonsmoker. She had recently returned from a holiday in New Zealand, and was taking co-amoxiclav and prednisolone prescribed by her general practitioner for an exacerbation of her bronchiectasis. On examination, she was thin. Her temperature was 37.3C, her pulse was 115 beats per minute and regular, her blood pressure was 128/78 mmHg and her respiratory rate was 22 breaths per minute. Further examination was normal. Investigations: haemoglobin white cell count serum C-reactive protein arterial blood gases, breathing air: PO2 PCO2 pH H+ bicarbonate ECG chest X-ray What is the most appropriate next investigation? A B C D E CT pulmonary angiography D-dimer echocardiography ultrasound scan of legs and pelvis ventilation/perfusion isotope lung scan 157 g/L (115165) 18.0 109/L (4.011.0) 68 mg/L (<10) 8.9 kPa (11.312.6) 4.9 kPa (4.76.0) 7.40 (7.357.45) 40 nmol/L (3545) 22 mmol/L (2129) sinus tachycardia cystic changes at left base

Answer Key: A

21

A 30-year-old woman had a 3-year history of Crohns disease, which had required the formation of an ileostomy. She presented with a sore area around the stoma (see image). This was causing problems with adhesion of the stoma pouch.

What is the most appropriate treatment? A B C D E oral flucloxacillin oral prednisolone radiotherapy surgical debridement topical terbinafine

Answer Key: B

22

A 48-year-old woman complained of leg weakness and tenderness, which was worse on exercise. Her serum creatine kinase was elevated, but a muscle biopsy was inconclusive. Antinuclear antibodies were negative, but antibodies to gastric parietal cells and thyroid peroxidase were both detected. There was no anaemia but the MCV was raised. What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E alcohol abuse folate deficiency hypothyroidism pernicious anaemia polymyositis

Answer Key: C

23

An 82-year-old woman presented to the emergency department following a fall. She denied any loss of consciousness. She had a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis of the hips and spine, diverticular disease and a hiatus hernia. Her medication comprised gliclazide, ibuprofen, omeprazole, ispaghula husk and paracetamol. On examination, she appeared well and there were no signs of injury. A 24-h ECG showed normal sinus rhythm throughout, with a daytime heart rate of 60 100 beats per minute and a night-time heart rate of 4258 beats per minute. There were frequent ventricular and supraventricular ectopics, one short run (five beats) of atrial fibrillation and one pause of 2 seconds duration at 05.30 h. No symptoms were noted. What is the most appropriate management? A B C D E amiodarone digoxin no intervention permanent pacemaker warfarin

.Answer Key: C

24

A 25-year-old woman was reviewed 6 weeks after stopping anticoagulant therapy. She had received anticoagulants for 3 months following a right iliofemoral vein thrombosis that had developed 7 days post partum. Investigations: protein C protein S antithrombin prothrombin 20210A allele factor V Leiden mutation What is the most appropriate further management? A anticoagulation for an indefinite period with target international normalised ratio (INR) 2.5 B anticoagulation for an indefinite period with target INR 3.5 C anticoagulation for another 3 months with target INR 2.5 D long-term aspirin E no further anticoagulation Answer Key: E 85 IU/dL (80135) 110 IU/dL (80120) 95 IU/dL (80120) negative heterozygous

25

A 21-year-old man was admitted to hospital with a 5-day history of fevers and vomiting. He also complained of knee and ankle pains. He was homosexual, and had last had receptive anal intercourse 6 weeks previously. On examination, he had a widespread erythematous macular rash. His temperature was 37.5C, his pulse was 85 beats per minute and his blood pressure was 115/60 mmHg. There was no joint swelling. Investigations: haemoglobin white cell count serum urea serum total bilirubin serum alanine aminotransferase serum alkaline phosphatase serum gamma glutamyl transferase What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E acute hepatitis B acute hepatitis C acute HIV infection gonococcal bacteraemia secondary syphilis 147 g/L (130180) 6.5 109/L (4.011.0) 4.3 mmol/L (2.57.0) 50 mol/L (122) 687 U/L (535) 110 U/L (45105) 89 U/L (<50)

Answer Key: A

26

A 62-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of pleuritic right lower chest pain associated with a cough productive of redbrown sputum. He had a 1-year history of microscopic polyangiitis which had initially presented with pulmonary haemorrhage and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. He had responded well to plasma exchange, methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide before being switched to azathioprine at 3 months. At his clinic visit 3 weeks previously, his serum C-reactive protein had been 5 mg/L (<10) and his eGFR 28 mL/min (>60). His current medication was prednisolone 7.5 mg daily and azathioprine 100 mg daily. On examination, he was comfortable at rest. His temperature was 37.8C, his blood pressure was 106/78 mmHg and his respiratory rate was 18 breaths per minute. There was bronchial breathing and a pleural rub at the right lung base but no crackles. Investigations: haemoglobin white cell count platelet count serum C-reactive protein estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) arterial blood gases, breathing air: PO2 PCO2 pH H+ bicarbonate chest X-ray What is the most appropriate treatment? A B C D E intravenous cefotaxime and clarithromycin intravenous cefotaxime, clarithromycin and co-trimoxazole intravenous clarithromycin, amoxicillin and co-trimoxazole oral amoxicillin and clarithromycin oral amoxicillin, clarithromycin and co-trimoxazole 120 g/L (130180) 9.4 109/L (4.011.0) 256 109/L (150400) 56 mg/L (<10) 26 mL/min (>60) 10.6 kPa (11.312.6) 4.2 kPa (4.76.0) 7.44 (7.357.45) 36 nmol/L (3545) 18 mmol/L (2129) patchy shadowing at right base

Answer key: D

27

A 32-year-old cyclist had noticed increasingly frequent flickering of his limb muscles, particularly the calves, and reported occasional cramps over 3 months. On examination, he had widespread fasciculations in his arms, forearms and calves. His deep tendon reflexes were normal, and there were no sensory signs. What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E benign fasciculations McArdles syndrome motor neurone disease myotonic dystrophy polymyositis

Answer Key: A

28

A 45-year-old woman was admitted with breathlessness and malaise. She had a 5-year history of rheumatoid arthritis and was taking a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. She had a 20 pack-year smoking history. Over the next 10 days she had a persistent pyrexia, which was unresponsive to broad-spectrum antibiotics. On examination, there were rheumatoid changes in her hands and coarse inspiratory crackles over both lung fields. Investigations 10 days after admission: haemoglobin white cell count platelet count erythrocyte sedimentation rate serum albumin arterial blood gases, breathing air: PO2 PCO2 pH H+ bicarbonate chest X-ray 92 g/L (115165) 12.8 109/L (4.011.0) 472 109/L (150400) 83 mm/1st h (<20) 33 g/L (37-49) 8.8 kPa (11.312.6) 4.5 kPa (4.76.0) 7.40 (7.357.45) 40 nmol/L (35-45) 22 mmol/L (2129) right mid-zone and left lower -zone consolidation (unchanged since admission)

What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E aspiration pneumonia cryptogenic organising pneumonia pulmonary tuberculosis rheumatoid lung thromboembolic disease

Answer Key: B

29

A 46-year-old man with profuse diarrhoea was admitted to measure his daily stool weight for 3 days, with a further measurement on day 4 when fasting. He had previously had a normal colonoscopy and small bowel meal. Investigations: serum sodium serum potassium serum urea serum creatinine daily stool weight: day 1 day 2 day 3 day 4 (fasting) What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E coeliac disease irritable bowel syndrome lactose intolerance pancreatic insufficiency VIPoma 135 mmol/L (137144) 2.4 mmol/L (3.54.9) 5.8 mmol/L (2.57.0) 78 mol/L (60110) 1450 g (<200) 1200 g 1560 g 1400 g

Answer Key: E

30

A 20-year-old Chinese woman presented with a 2-week history of ankle swelling. She had suffered from asthma since childhood and was taking paracetamol regularly for pains in her wrists and knees. She was also taking an oral contraceptive. Examination showed bilateral pitting oedema to mid-shin level. Her blood pressure was 148/92 mmHg and her heart sounds were normal. Chest, abdominal and neurological examinations were normal. Urinalysis showed blood 1+ and protein 4+, but was negative for glucose. Investigations: haemoglobin MCV white cell count serum sodium serum potassium serum urea serum creatinine 24-h urinary protein What is the most important diagnostic investigation? A B C D E anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies antinuclear antibodies antistreptolysin O titre serum complement levels 118 g/L (115165) 79 fL (8096) 3.3 109/L (4.011.0) 136 mmol/L (137144) 4.1 mmol/L (3.54.9) 5.7 mmol/L (2.57.0) 73 mol/L (60110) 7.8 g (<0.2)

Answer Key: C

31

A 22-year-old man presented with acute pain and swelling of his left knee 4 weeks after a holiday in Spain. On examination, his temperature was 38.1C and he had a rash on the soles of his feet. His right foot is shown (see image).

Investigations: haemoglobin white cell count neutrophil count platelet count serum C-reactive protein What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E gonococcal arthritis HIV seroconversion illness psoriatic arthritis reactive arthritis syphilis 125 g/L (130180) 16.2 109/L (4.011.0) 14.8 109/L (1.57.0) 450 109/L (150400) 210 mg/L (<10)

Answer Key: D

32

A 23-year-old man presented to the emergency department with acute severe asthma. His regular medication was inhaled salbutamol and beclometasone, and oral theophylline. On examination, he was dyspnoeic and in distress. His pulse was 104 beats per minute, his blood pressure was 108/64 mmHg and his respiratory rate was 40 breaths per minute. Auscultation of his lungs revealed expiratory wheezes throughout. He was unable to perform a peak expiratory flow reading and he failed to respond to initial therapy with oxygen, nebulised salbutamol and ipratropium bromide, and oral prednisolone 40 mg. What is the most appropriate next step in treatment? A B C D E intravenous aminophylline intravenous hydrocortisone intravenous magnesium sulphate non-invasive ventilation subcutaneous terbutaline

Answer Key: C

33

A 60-year-old man with diet-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus gave a 3-month history of numbness and pins and needles sensations in his feet. He also felt unsteady. Two years previously, he had undergone surgery for carcinoma of the stomach. On examination, he had mild weakness of hip flexion. His ankle reflexes were absent and all of his other limb reflexes were diminished. His plantar responses were extensor. There was diminished sensation to pinprick and light touch below the knees, vibration sense was impaired at the ankles, but joint position sense was normal. Rombergs test was positive. What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E diabetic amyotrophy paraneoplastic sensory ataxic neuropathy spinal arteriovenous malformation subacute combined degeneration of the cord syringomyelia

Answer Key: D

34

A 72-year-old man attended his general practitioner with cough and breathlessness. He had coughed up one teaspoonful of mucoid phlegm daily for the past 12 years. He gave a 1-year history of breathlessness when walking his dog. He had hypertension and had been taking atenolol 50 mg once daily for 5 years. He had a 46 pack-year history of smoking and was a current smoker. His body mass index was 32 kg/m2 (1825). Investigations: ECG baseline spirometry: forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) forced vital capacity (FVC) 20 min post-exercise: FEV1 FVC What is the most likely cause of his breathlessness? A B C D E asthma bronchiectasis chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hypertensive left ventricular failure obesity left ventricular hypertrophy 90% predicted 91% predicted 63% predicted 84% predicted

Answer Key: A

35

A 42-year-old man presented with a 4-cm thyroid swelling. He had had an adrenalectomy for a benign phaeochromocytoma 6 years previously. Examination confirmed the thyroid swelling but showed no lymph node enlargement or skin lesions. Investigations: serum creatinine serum corrected calcium plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone 86 mol/L (60110) 2.15 mmol/L (2.202.60) 6.5 mU/L (0.45.0)

What is the most appropriate next test to confirm the diagnosis? A B C D E plasma calcitonin plasma parathyroid hormone serum 25-OH-cholecalciferol serum anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies serum thyroid receptor antibodies

Answer Key: A

36

A 66-year-old man who was recovering in the burns unit from a full-thickness burn to the left leg complained of right upper abdominal pain. On examination, he had a temperature of 37.8C and there was tenderness over the right hypochondrium. Investigations: haemoglobin white cell count erythrocyte sedimentation rate serum total bilirubin serum alanine aminotransferase serum alkaline phosphatase serum amylase ultrasound scan of abdomen 101 g/L (130180) 14.9 109/L ( 4.011.0) 50 mm/1st h (<20) 20 mol/L (122) 51 U/L (535) 100 U/L (45105) 500 U/L (60180) thickened gallbladder; pericholecystic fluid collection and sonographic-positive Murphys sign; no evidence of gallstones

What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E acalculous cholecystitis acute pancreatitis common bile duct stone mesenteric ischaemia perforated peptic ulcer

Answer Key: A

37

A 29-year-old man with Hodgkins lymphoma was admitted as an emergency with epistaxis and a petechial rash. He had recently been treated with combination chemotherapy. On admission, he was pale and breathless. He had a fine petechial rash on his legs, bruises on his trunk and two large blood blisters in his mouth. Investigations: haemoglobin white cell count neutrophil count platelet count One adult dose of platelets was requested. Which special platelet product is required? A B C D E cytomegalovirus-seronegative gamma-irradiated HLA-matched single-donor unit washed 104 g/L (130180) 0.9 109/L (4.011.0) 0.5 109/L (1.57.0) 5 109/L (150400)

Answer Key: B

38

A 63-year-old man presented with a 4-week history of fever, severe night sweats, anorexia and muscle pains. His family doctor had recorded persistent microscopic haematuria, but urine culture had been negative on three occasions. On examination, his temperature was 39.2C, his pulse was 105 beats per minute and his blood pressure was 140/75 mmHg. No cardiac murmurs were audible. Investigations: haemoglobin white cell count neutrophil count platelet count serum creatinine serum C-reactive protein blood cultures 3 87 g/L (130180) 23.5 109/L (4.011.0) 21.9 109/L (1.57.0) 523 109/L (150400) 135 mol/L (60110) 235 mg/L (<10) negative red cells 2+, no white cells; granular casts present normal no abnormality seen

urine microscopy ultrasound scan of abdomen transthoracic echocardiogram

What further investigation is most likely to be of help in establishing the diagnosis? A B C D E anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies CT scan of abdomen mycobacterial culture of early-morning urine radiolabelled white cell scan transoesophageal echocardiography

Answer Key: A

39

A 58-year-old heavy-goods vehicle driver presented to his general practitioner with thirst and nocturia. He had a past history of chronic renal failure, ischaemic heart disease and left ventricular failure. He was taking bisoprolol, aspirin, pravastatin, ramipril, spironolactone and furosemide. His body mass index was 35 kg/m2 (1825). Investigations: serum creatinine fasting plasma glucose haemoglobin A1c 230 mol/L (60110) 17.0 mmol/L (3.06.0) 10.5% (3.86.4); 91mmol/mol (2040)

A diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus was made. He was seen by the practice nurse and taught urine testing. The dietitian gave him advice on a diabetic diet. At review 6 weeks later, he complained that he felt no better. His urine tests continued to show glucose 3+, despite his adherence to his diabetic diet. What is the most appropriate additional treatment? A B C D E acarbose glibenclamide insulin metformin pioglitazone

Answer Key: C

40

A 46-year-old woman presented to the emergency department having had a generalised tonicclonic seizure. She had had recent headaches and nausea, with some left-sided weakness. Her family mentioned a recent change in personality, which they attributed to her stopping smoking. On examination, her Glasgow coma score was 6. She had a left hemiparesis. A chest X-ray was normal. An urgent MR scan of brain (T1 weighted) was performed (see image).

What intravenous treatment is the most appropriate next step? A B C D E aciclovir cefotaxime dexamethasone diazepam sodium valproate

Answer Key: C

41

A 55-year-old woman presented with a 4-week history of intermittent severe swelling affecting her face and tongue. Each episode lasted 12 days and slowly resolved spontaneously. Oral antihistamines were unhelpful. She had developed angina and had been found to be hypertensive 6 months previously, and appropriate medication had gradually been introduced. She was otherwise well, with no relevant previous medical or family history. What medication is the most likely cause of her symptoms? A B C D E amlodipine atenolol bendroflumethiazide enalapril simvastatin

Answer Key: D

42

A previously fit 35-year-old woman presented with headaches. On examination, her blood pressure was elevated at 180/94 mmHg. Her heart sounds were normal to auscultation. There was no peripheral oedema. Abdominal examination was normal. Investigations: serum sodium serum potassium serum chloride serum bicarbonate serum urea serum creatinine recumbent plasma aldosterone recumbent plasma renin activity plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (09.00 h) 24-h urinary free cortisol What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E Bartters syndrome Conns syndrome fibromuscular dysplasia of the renal artery laxative abuse liquorice excess 144 mmol/L (137144) 2.8 mmol/L (3.54.9) 87 mmol/L (95107) 34 mmol/L (2028) 5.6 mmol/L (2.57.0) 99 mol/L (60110) 1005 pmol/L (135400) 6.3 pmol/mL/h (1.12.7) 5 pmol/L (<18) 105 nmol (55250)

Answer Key: C

43

A 26-year-old woman was brought by ambulance to the emergency department. She developed ventricular fibrillation immediately upon arrival. DC cardioversion restored sinus rhythm. Her husband said she had complained of chest pain for about 60 minutes before he had phoned for an ambulance. She was 28 weeks pregnant and was a smoker. Investigations: 12-lead ECG see image

She was treated with aspirin and clopidogrel. What is the most appropriate next step in management? A B C D E coronary angiography diltiazem intravenous amiodarone low-molecular-weight heparin tenecteplase

Answer Key: A

44

A 19-year-old man first noticed right-sided shoulder weakness when his scapula stuck out painlessly during weightlifting. One year previously, he had experienced severe pain in his right shoulder, which had resolved in 3 weeks. He stated that his first cousin was wheelchairbound because of a muscle disease. On examination his weakness was limited to the right serratus anterior muscle. His tendon reflexes were intact and sensation was normal. What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E brachial neuritis cervical radiculopathy facioscapulohumeral dystrophy spinal muscular atrophy spinobulbar muscular atrophy

Answer key: A

45

A 63-year-old man attended a routine 6-monthly renal clinic appointment and reported the occurrence of two episodes of painless frank haematuria during the previous 2 months. He had a history of nephrotic syndrome due to idiopathic membranous nephropathy 9 years previously, for which he had received a 6-month course of alternate months of cyclophosphamide and prednisolone. This had resulted in complete remission from proteinuria and the serum creatinine had subsequently remained stable at around 160 mol/L (60110). His blood pressure had been elevated when he had the nephrotic syndrome but had settled to normal after he had entered remission. He was not taking any medication. He smoked 25 cigarettes per day. On examination, his blood pressure was 158/68 mmHg and there was no oedema. There was no abnormality on examination of the heart, lungs or abdomen. There was a right femoral bruit. Urinalysis showed blood 3+, protein 1+. Investigations: full blood count serum creatinine 24-h urinary total protein urine culture ultrasound scan of kidneys What is the most important investigation? A B C D E cystoscopy intravenous urography MR angiography of renal arteries MR venography of renal veins renal biopsy normal 168 mol/L (60110) 0.3 g (<0.2) negative right kidney 9.4 cm, left kidney 10.2 cm; no obstruction

Answer Key: A

46

A 50-year-old nursing sister presented with a purpuric rash over the lower legs preceded 2 weeks previously by tonsillitis. A diagnosis of post-viral thrombocytopenia was made and the symptoms resolved over a 4-week period. Four months later, she presented with numbness and weakness of her hands and feet and a recurrence of the purpuric rash. Investigations: haemoglobin white cell count platelet count erythrocyte sedimentation rate serum urea serum creatinine serum alanine aminotransferase serum aspartate aminotransferase serum complement C3 serum complement C4 serum C-reactive protein antinuclear antibodies anti double-stranded DNA antibodies (ELISA) p-ANCA c-ANCA chest X-ray urine microscopy What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E cryoglobulinaemia microscopic polyangiitis polyarteritis nodosa systemic lupus erythematosus Wegeners granulomatosis 125 g/L (115-165) 8.4 x 109/L (4.011.0) 120 x 109/L (150400) 80 mm/1st h (<30) 7.0 mmol/L (2.57.0) 105 mol/L (60110) 17 U/L (535) 26 U/L (131) 180 mg/dL (65190) 45 mg/dL (1550) 145 mg/L (<10) positive at 1:20 dilution negative positive negative normal lung fields no white cells or casts

Answer Key: B

47

A 72-year-old man developed sudden severe breathlessness and left-sided chest pain while working in his garden. A few minutes later, he collapsed and was taken to the accident and emergency department. Several years previously, he had been found to have a systolic murmur at a routine medical examination and an echocardiogram had shown mitral valve prolapse. There was no other significant medical history. On examination, he was very breathless and cyanosed, with an oxygen saturation of 88% (9499) breathing air. His pulse was 130 beats per minute and regular, and his blood pressure was 80/50 mmHg. His neck veins were markedly distended. There was no cardiomegaly. There were crackles up to the mid-zones of his lungs. His respiration was very noisy, and his heart sounds could not be easily heard. Investigations: ECG chest X-ray What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E acute mitral regurgitation acute myocardial infarction infective endocarditis pulmonary embolism rupture of sinus of Valsalva sinus tachycardia cardiothoracic ratio 15:30; pulmonary oedema

Answer Key: A

48

A 57-year-old woman, who lived alone, was found in a confused state by neighbours and brought to hospital. On examination her temperature was 36.8C, her pulse was 120 beats per minute and her blood pressure was 90/60 mmHg. There was no focal neurological deficit. Fundoscopy was normal. Investigations: haemoglobin white cell count platelet count serum sodium serum potassium serum urea serum creatinine serum corrected calcium serum total bilirubin serum alanine aminotransferase serum alkaline phosphatase serum gamma glutamyl transferase What is the most likely cause of the hypercalcaemia? A B C D E Addisons disease myeloma Pagets disease of bone primary hyperparathyroidism skeletal metastases 139 g/L (115165) 9.1 109/L (4.011.0) 390 109/L (150400) 131 mmol/L (137144) 5.2 mmol/L (3.54.9) 12.3 mmol/L (2.57.0) 132 mol/L (60110) 3.40 mmol/L (2.202.60) 17 mol/L (122) 129 U/L (535) 643 U/L (45105) 80 U/L (435)

Answer Key: E

49

A 17-year-old Indian boy, who had arrived in the UK 5 days previously, became generally unwell and developed a sore throat. On examination, his temperature was 38.1C and his pulse was 86 beats per minute. There were tender, enlarged cervical glands palpable and an adherent grey membrane over the soft palate and tonsils. What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E candidiasis diphtheria group A streptococcal tonsillitis infectious mononucleosis Vincents angina

Answer Key: B

50

A 51-year-old woman presented with a 4-month history of an itchy rash, which had begun on her feet and rapidly progressed to affect her forearms and lower back. She was otherwise well and was taking no systemic medication. On examination, there was a symmetrical papular rash (see image).

What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E atopic eczema dermatitis herpetiformis guttate psoriasis lichen planus tinea corporis

Answer Key: D

51

A 40-year-old man, with type 1 diabetes mellitus and a 20-year history of excessive alcohol intake, presented to the emergency department with a history of severe dull upper abdominal pain associated with nausea, anorexia and diarrhoea. A plain X-ray of abdomen was performed (see image).

What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E calcified gallstones chronic pancreatitis ischaemic colitis nephrocalcinosis tuberculous adenitis

Answer Key: B

52

A 68-year-old woman attended the movement disorder clinic, accompanied by her son. For 6 months, she had been bothered by a resting tremor affecting her right hand, associated with stiffness and slowness of movement. She and her son were informed that the symptoms were suggestive of idiopathic Parkinsons disease. Her son was worried about his own health and wanted some information regarding early signs of Parkinsons disease. Which symptom is most likely to be relevant? A B C D E excessive daytime sleepiness insomnia REM-sleep behaviour disorder sleep apnoea somnambulance

Answer Key: C

53

A previously well 64-year-old woman presented with haemoptysis. Biopsy of a right upperlobe endobronchial lesion confirmed the diagnosis of non-small cell bronchogenic carcinoma. Investigations: forced expiratory volume in 1 s forced vital capacity CT scan of chest and abdomen 61% of predicted 78% of predicted 3.5-cm mass in right upper lobe with ipsilateral hilar lymph node enlargement; no disease below the diaphragm increased uptake in right upper lobe and ipsilateral hilar nodes

PET scan What is the most appropriate management? A B C D E chemotherapy palliative radiotherapy pneumonectomy radical radiotherapy radiofrequency ablation

Answer Key: C

54

A 72-year-old woman presented with weakness of her right leg and numbness in her right hand. She had a 20-year history of rheumatoid arthritis and also had long-standing type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Her medication comprised gliclazide, amlodipine, simvastatin and sodium aurothiomalate. On examination, she had chronic rheumatoid changes in her hands and feet, and subcutaneous nodules at her elbows. She had bruises in the nailfolds, and her right index fingertip was cold and discoloured. Neurological examination revealed altered sensation in all of the fingers of her right hand. She was unable to dorsiflex her right ankle. Investigations: erythrocyte sedimentation rate antinuclear antibodies c-ANCA p-ANCA What is the most likely cause of her symptoms? A B C D E amyloidosis diabetes mellitus rheumatoid vasculitis systemic lupus erythematosus Wegeners granulomatosis 110 mm/1st h (<30) positive at 1:80 dilution negative positive

Answer Key: C

55

A 32-year-old African man was admitted with a 2-week history of fevers and intermittent haemoptysis. He was HIV positive. On examination, his temperature was 37.5C and he had generalised lymphadenopathy. There was patchy oral candidiasis and seborrhoeic dermatitis. His chest was clear and abdominal examination was normal. Investigations: haemoglobin white cell count neutrophil count platelet count serum alkaline phosphatase serum C-reactive protein chest X-ray 107 g/L (130180) 13.5 109/L (4.011.0) 11.9 109/L (1.57.0) 103 109/L (150400) 100 U/L (45105) 95 mg/L (<10) mediastinal lymphadenopathy; no focal lung infiltrate

What further investigation is most likely to identify the cause of this patients haemoptysis? A B C D E bronchoscopy CT scan of chest isotope ventilation/perfusion lung scan sputum cytology sputum microscopy and culture

Answer Key: A

56

A 65-year-old man presented with a 1-week history of increasing drowsiness and confusion. He rapidly deteriorated and was intubated, ventilated and transferred to the intensive care unit. He had a history of recurrent chest infections in the previous year, treated with several courses of oral antibiotics. He had developed progressive difficulty in climbing the stairs over the previous 5 years. His father had died of respiratory failure in his mid -fifties. On examination, he had bilateral ptosis and facial weakness. His eye movements were normal. His neck flexors were weak. He had predominantly distal weakness affecting his arms and legs. The deep tendon reflexes were absent. The plantar responses were flexor. Sensory examination was normal. What is the most likely underlying diagnosis? A B C D E Beckers muscular dystrophy GuillainBarr syndrome motor neurone disease myasthenia gravis myotonic dystrophy

Answer Key: E

57

A 75-year-old man presented to the outpatient clinic complaining of recurrent syncope. A dual-chamber pacemaker had been inserted 5 years previously. On examination, his pulse was irregular. A Holter 24-h ECG recording was obtained (see image).

What is the most likely explanation for the abnormality shown? A B C D E atrial arrhythmia atrial lead malfunction electromagnetic interference pacemaker syndrome ventricular lead malfunction

Answer Key: E

58

A 29-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with a 12-hour history of severe throbbing headache and right-sided weakness. She was otherwise well with no significant past medical history and was taking no medication apart from the oral combined contraceptive. She denied any regular illicit drug use but admitted to taking an ecstasy tablet 2 days previously. Examination confirmed decreased power on the right, with brisk tendon reflexes and an extensor plantar response. Her pupils were equal and reactive to light. Fundoscopy was normal. Investigations: CT scan of head (18 h after symptom onset) cerebrospinal fluid: opening pressure total protein What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E cerebral infarction cerebral venous thrombosis hemiplegic migraine idiopathic intracranial hypertension subarachnoid haemorrhage no evidence of haemorrhage 200 mmH2O (50180) 0.41 g/L (0.150.45)

Answer Key: B

59

A 45-year-old man who had undergone a liver transplant developed this feature on his arm (see image).

What medication is most likely to have been responsible? A B C D E aspirin ciclosporin mycophenolate mofetil prednisolone sodium valproate

Answer Key: B

60

A 75-year-old man presented to his general practitioner with worsening palpitations and dyspnoea on exercise. He had lost about 3 kg in weight during the past 2 months. He had developed a coarse tremor in both hands. His past medical history included ischaemic heart disease and recurrent supraventricular tachycardia. He was taking aspirin 75 mg daily, simvastatin 40 mg daily, bisoprolol 5 mg daily, ramipril 10 mg daily, amiodarone 200 mg daily, glyceryl trinitrate spray as required, and warfarin. On examination, there was a small palpable goitre. He had a tremor, warm hands, bilateral upper eyelid retraction and proptosis. Investigations: plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone plasma free T4 plasma free T3 ECG <0.1 mU/L (0.45.0) 95.0 pmol/L (10.022.0) 35.2 pmol/L (5.010.0) sinus tachycardia

What is the most likely cause of this patients thyroid dysfunction? A B C D E amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis Graves disease Reidels thyroiditis solitary toxic nodule toxic multi-nodular goitre

Answer Key: B

61

A 26-year-old woman was admitted as an emergency. She complained of right upper quadrant pain, fever and shaking. She was 30 weeks pregnant with her first child. On examination, her temperature was 39.5C, her pulse was 120 beats per minute and her blood pressure was 105/80 mmHg. She was jaundiced and tender over her liver. The uterine fundus was palpable above the umbilicus. Investigations: haemoglobin white cell count neutrophil count platelet count prothrombin time serum sodium serum potassium serum urea serum creatinine serum albumin serum total bilirubin serum alanine aminotransferase serum alkaline phosphatase serum gamma glutamyl transferase What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E autoimmune hepatitis common bile duct stone HELLP syndrome hepatitis A infection primary sclerosing cholangitis 107 g/L (115165) 14.9 109/L (4.011.0) 12.1 109/L (1.57.0) 257 109/L (150400) 15.5 s (11.515.5) 138 mmol/L (137144) 3.4 mmol/L (3.54.9) 8.7 mmol/L (2.57.0) 130 mol/L (60110) 34 g/L (3749) 118 mol/L (122) 204 U/L (535) 609 U/L (45105) 748 U/L (435)

Answer Key: B

62

A 42-year-old woman presented with a 1-week history of cough and worsening breathlessness. She had a history of asthma and was a cigarette-smoker. Her general practitioner requested a chest X-ray (see image a) and prescribed a course of antibiotics. Image a

63

A repeat chest X-ray was performed 6 weeks later (see image b). Image b

What is the most likely explanation for the appearance in the first chest X-ray? A B C D E aspergilloma bronchial carcinoma mucus plugging pleural effusion pneumonia

Answer Key: C

64

A 39-year-old South African man was admitted with a 3-week history of fever and night sweats. He had lost 8 kg in weight. He was HIV positive and had declined antiretroviral therapy. On examination, his temperature was 38.9C, his pulse was 92 beats per minute and of low volume, and his blood pressure was 120/75 mmHg. There was no rash or lymphadenopathy. The jugular venous pressure was 2 cm above the sternal angle. His heart sounds were normal. There was a soft pericardial rub at the left sternal border. His chest was clear. Abdominal examination was normal. Investigations: haemoglobin white cell count neutrophil count lymphocyte count erythrocyte sedimentation rate chest X-ray echocardiogram 110 g/L (130180) 15.2 109/L (4.011.0) 9.3 109/L (1.57.0) 4.9 109/L (1.54.0) 89 mm/1st h (<15) marked globular cardiomegaly 3-cm global pericardial effusion

What is the most likely aetiology of the pericardial effusion? A B C D E autoimmune disease lymphoma pyogenic infection tuberculosis viral infection

Answer Key: D

65

A 19-year-old man presented to the emergency department following a sudden collapse after taking some unidentified tablets at a nightclub. He complained of shivering and diarrhoea. On examination, his temperature was 40.2C, his pulse was 136 beats per minute and regular, and his blood pressure was 176/112 mmHg. He was tremulous and agitated. His abdomen was soft but he had increased bowel sounds. Neurological examination showed dilated pupils, hyper-reflexia and myoclonus of his limbs. His Glasgow coma score was 14. Investigations: serum sodium serum potassium serum urea serum creatinine serum creatine kinase What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E amfetamine poisoning anticholinergic poisoning malignant hyperthermia neuroleptic malignant syndrome serotonin syndrome 138 mmol/L (137144) 5.2 mmol/L (3.54.9) 7.8 mmol/L (2.57.0) 121 mol/L (60110) 31 000 U/L (24195)

Answer Key: E

66

A 65-year-old man was brought to the emergency department after falling downstairs. He was unconscious and there was no history available. His Glasgow coma score was 5. Both plantar responses were extensor. He was covered in bruises. Investigations: CT scan of head (unenhanced) see image

What is the most likely cause for this imaging appearance? A B C D E coagulopathy haemorrhage into tumour hypertensive haemorrhage subarachnoid haemorrhage traumatic haemorrhage

Answer Key: E

67

A 72-year-old man presented with increasing fatigue and sleepiness over the past week. He had a history of small cell lung cancer, which was in complete remission after combination chemotherapy. He had completed prophylactic cranial irradiation 10 days previously. Investigations: haemoglobin white cell count neutrophil count platelet count serum sodium serum corrected calcium What is the most likely cause of his symptoms? A B C D E anaemia brain metastases depression hyponatraemia side-effect of radiotherapy 91 g/L (130180) 3.1 109/L (4.011.0) 1.6 109/L (1.57.0) 100 109/L (150400) 132 mmol/L (137144) 2.41 mmol/L (2.202.60)

Answer Key: E

68

A 23-year-old man was admitted to hospital with a 3-day history of fever and breathlessness. On examination, his temperature was 38.9C, his pulse was 110 beats per minute, his blood pressure was 105/70 mmHg and his respiratory rate was 18 breaths per minute. Investigations: haemoglobin white cell count serum sodium serum urea chest X-ray 105 g/L (130180) 18.5 109/L (4.011.0) 128 mmol/L (137144) 9.5 mmol/L (2.57.0) consolidation of the left lower lobe with a pleural effusion on the same side

What finding is most indicative of severe pneumonia? A B C D E blood pressure of 105/70 mmHg pleural effusion on chest X-ray respiratory rate of 18 breaths per minute serum urea of 9.5 mmol/L white cell count of 18.0 109/L

Answer Key: D

69

A 63-year-old man who lived in a hostel for the homeless was brought to the emergency department after collapsing. Other hostel residents reported that he had been staggering and speaking in a slurred voice for several hours. He had a history of depression, epilepsy and type 2 diabetes mellitus. His medication comprised phenytoin and gliclazide. He had a high alcohol intake but it was not clear how much he had drunk that day. On examination, his Glasgow coma score was 12. His pulse was 96 beats per minute and regular, and his blood pressure was 97/64 mmHg. Examination of his heart, lungs and abdomen was normal. There was horizontal nystagmus. There were no other focal neurological signs. Urinalysis showed ketones 1+. Investigations: serum sodium serum potassium serum chloride serum bicarbonate serum urea serum creatinine random plasma glucose plasma osmolality 132 mmol/L (137144) 3.2 mmol/L (3.54.9) 110 mmol/L (95107) 18 mmol/L (2028) 2.9 mmol/L (2.57.0) 119 mol/L (60110) 19.1 mmol/L 295 mosmol/kg (278300)

The blood gas analyser was faulty and was being repaired, so blood gas results were delayed. What is the most likely cause of his present state? A B C D E diabetic ketoacidosis ethanol intoxication hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state methanol poisoning phenytoin overdose

Answer Key: E

70

A 75-year-old woman presented with fever and severe left iliac fossa pain. She was opening her bowels four times daily with semi-formed stool. She denied passing any blood. She smoked 20 cigarettes per day. On examination, she had a tachycardia and was tender in her left iliac fossa. Investigations: haemoglobin white cell count platelet count 133 g/L (115165) 18.5 x 109/L (4.011.0) 535 x 109/L (150400)

What is the most appropriate initial investigation? A B C D E barium enema colonoscopy CT scan of abdomen ultrasound scan of pelvis radiolabelled white cell scan

Answer Key: C

71

A 35-year-old woman was found to be hypertensive during her first pregnancy. At 30 weeks gestation her blood pressure was 150/102 mmHg. Two weeks later, the readings were 156/106 mmHg and 160/102 mmHg. The pregnancy was otherwise uncomplicated and she had no proteinuria. She had no other medical history of note and took no regular medication. Methyldopa was prescribed but caused depression, so was discontinued. What is the most appropriate anti-hypertensive drug? A B C D E atenolol bendroflumethiazide labetalol losartan ramipril

Answer Key: C

72

A 56-year-old woman with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was seen in the outpatient clinic following an admission for a chest infection 2 months previously. She had been treated with antibiotics, nebulised bronchodilators and a course of prednisolone: 40 mg daily for 7 days, reduced over a further 4 weeks to a daily maintenance dose of 5 mg. She had visited her grandson the previous day. He was unwell and had a rash that was typical of chickenpox. She had no personal history of chickenpox. What is the most appropriate next management step? A B C D E check serum varicella zoster antibody titre give oral aciclovir give varicella zoster immunoglobulin give varicella zoster vaccine no action required

Answer Key: A

73

A 61-year-old man was admitted with a 2-month history of progressive dyspnoea, recurrent haemoptysis and rhinorrhoea, and several episodes of epigastric pain. His medical history included coronary artery bypass grafting following a myocardial infarction with severe left ventricular failure. On examination, there was a purpuric rash on his feet. His temperature was 37.4 C, his blood pressure was 180/78 mmHg and his oxygen saturation was 92%, breathing air (9499). There was dullness to percussion at both lung bases. Investigations: haemoglobin white cell count neutrophil count serum urea serum creatinine serum C-reactive protein CT scan of chest 106 g/L (130180) 10.8 109/L (4.011.0) 9.7 109/L (1.57.0) 23.6 mmol/L (2.57.0) 248 mol/L (60110) 53 mg/L (<10) see image

74

What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E bronchial carcinoma Goodpastures syndrome polyarteritis nodosa pulmonary tuberculosis Wegeners granulomatosis

Answer Key: E

75

A 45-year-old man with haemophilia developed what was thought to be septic loosening of his prosthetic hip replacement 18 months after surgery. He had pain on walking but he was otherwise well, and had no fever or rigors. On examination, the wound was well healed, with no erythema. His temperature was 38.1C. There was some limitation of movement of the prosthetic joint, with associated pain. Examination revealed no other abnormalities. Investigations: haemoglobin white cell count serum aspartate aminotransferase serum alkaline phosphatase 121 g/L (130180) 12.5 109/L (4.011.0) 98 U/L (131) 65 U/L (45105)

A hip joint aspirate revealed straw-coloured fluid and the Gram stain showed Gram-positive bacilli. What organism is culture most likely to yield? A B C D E Bacillus anthracis Corynebacterium diphtheriae Propionibacterium acnes Staphylococcus epidermidis Streptococcus milleri

Answer Key: C

76

A 67-year-old woman presented with a history of wasting of the right side of her tongue. She was unsure how long this had been present. She had gradually become deaf in the right ear over the past 10 years. Examination revealed a right conductive deafness, a right palatal palsy, dysphonia, a nonexplosive (bovine) cough, and wasting of the right side of the tongue. What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E acoustic neurinoma cholesteatoma fourth ventricle ependymoma glomus jugulare tumour nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Answer Key: D

77

A 73-year-old retired man was admitted after he had been found to have renal impairment by his general practitioner. He gave a 3-month history of lethargy and back pain, with thirst and constipation over the past 4 weeks. He had noticed that he had passed less urine than normal in the past 3 days. Abdominal examination was normal. Investigations: haemoglobin white cell count platelet count erythrocyte sedimentation rate serum urea serum creatinine serum corrected calcium serum total protein serum albumin serum alkaline phosphatase What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E carcinoma of prostate myeloma primary hyperparathyroidism sarcoidosis tuberculosis 98 g/L (130180) 5.6 109/L (4.011.0) 380 109/L (150400) 115 mm/1st h (<20) 36.3 mmol/L (2.57.0) 651 mol/L (60110) 2.92 mmol/L (2.202.60) 85 g/L (6176) 34 g/L (3749) 99 U/L (45105)

Answer Key: B

78

A 66-year-old woman with metastatic colon cancer and ascites developed decreased appetite, continuous nausea and feelings of early satiety. Examination revealed a small volume of ascites and a succussion splash. There was no hepatomegaly and there were no abdominal masses palpable. What is the most appropriate treatment to relieve her symptoms? A B C D E oral dexamethasone oral metoclopramide oral morphine subcutaneous cyclizine subcutaneous levomepromazine

Answer Key: B

79

A 45-year-old man was referred to the outpatient clinic having been found to have a microcytosis at a well-man screen. He had no gastrointestinal symptoms. Abdominal examination and digital examination of the rectum were normal. Investigations: haemoglobin MCV MCH white cell count platelet count serum ferritin 132 g/L (130180) 76 fL (8096) 27 pg (2832) 3.6 109/L (4.011.0) 164 109/L (150400) 15 g/L (15300)

What is the most appropriate next management step? A B C D E barium enema colonoscopy faecal occult blood testing flexible sigmoidoscopy small bowel enema

Answer Key: B

80

A 56-year-old man was referred to the medical clinic from the psychiatric unit because of weight gain of 20 kg over 4 months. He had a 6-month history of severe depression with psychosis, which had required inpatient treatment. He was taking olanzapine 20 mg daily and fluoxetine 40 mg daily. On examination, he appeared Cushingoid, with centripetal obesity and a few abdominal striae. He had reasonable proximal muscle strength. His blood pressure was 170/100 mmHg. Investigations: fasting plasma glucose serum cholesterol serum LDL cholesterol serum HDL cholesterol fasting serum triglycerides 8.5 mmol/L (36) 6.4 mmol/L (<5.2) 5.01 mmol/L (<3.36) 0.75 mmol/L (>1.55) 2.42 mmol/L (0.451.69)

overnight dexamethasone suppression test (after 1 mg dexamethasone) serum cortisol 55 nmol/L (<50) 24-h urinary cortisol What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E adrenal Cushings syndrome ectopic ACTH syndrome metabolic syndrome pituitary-dependent Cushings disease pseudo-Cushings syndrome E 310 nmol (55250)

Answer Key

81

A 65-year-old man presented with history of chest wall pain and breathlessness. He had a smoking history of 40 pack-years. Investigations: serum corrected calcium CT scan of chest 3.11 mmol/L (2.202.60) 6-cm mass lesion extending to the pleural surface and a 3-cm subcarinal lymph node; small pleural effusion not visible on chest X-ray 1.7 L (60% of predicted)

forced expiratory volume in 1 s

A diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma was established by needle biopsy. What factor is most likely to preclude successful surgery in this case? A B C D E extension of the tumour to the pleural surface hypercalcaemia lung function lymphadenopathy pleural effusion

Answer Key: D

82

A 22-year-old man was admitted with pleuritic chest pain and swelling of both lower legs, worse on the right. Doppler ultrasonography revealed a right femoropopliteal thrombosis, whilst lung perfusion scans revealed a right basal perfusion defect with a high probability of a pulmonary thromboembolus. He was started on intravenous heparin. Further investigations: serum creatinine serum total protein serum albumin serum cholesterol 24-h urinary total protein 90 mol/L (60110) 53 g/L (6176) 15 g/L (3749) 7.0 mmol/L (<5.2) 9.3 g (<0.2)

A renal ultrasound scan was normal. A renal biopsy could not be performed, as the patient was anticoagulated. He was started on corticosteroids and 1 week later the 24-h urinary total protein was 1.5 g. What is the most likely renal diagnosis? A B C D E antiphospholipid antibody syndrome focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis membranous nephropathy minimal-change nephropathy renal vein thrombosis

Answer Key: D

83

A recent clinical trial assessed the effect of digoxin on morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF). In the trial, more than 7000 patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.45 or less were randomly assigned to receive digoxin or placebo. All patients were treated with diuretics and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. The patients were observed for an average of 37 months. During the clinical trial, 34.8% of patients treated with digoxin and 35.1% of patients treated with placebo died (relative risk=0.99; 95% confidence interval =0.911.07, p=0.80). Which is the most appropriate interpretation of these data? A B C D E digoxin has a small beneficial effect to reduce mortality in CHF digoxin has no effect on mortality in CHF digoxin is likely to reduce morbidity in CHF there is no clinically significant therapeutic effect of digoxin in patients with CHF there is no conclusive evidence of an effect of digoxin because of the limited power of the study

Answer Key: B

84

An asymptomatic 26-year-old man was referred for assessment after his brother suffered sudden cardiac death at the age of 32 years. His ECG is shown (see image).

What underlying diagnosis is suggested by the ECG appearances? A B C D E arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia Brugada syndrome hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy RomanoWard syndrome WolffParkinsonWhite syndrome

Answer Key: B

85

An 18-year-old woman was taken to the emergency department following an episode of blurred vision that had resulted in transient bilateral blindness. As her vision recovered she developed vertigo, with tingling in both hands and feet, and slurred speech lasting for 30 minutes. On examination, she was alert and orientated, but reported severe occipital headaches associated with nausea. Her temperature was 37.2C, her pulse was 88 beats per minute and her blood pressure was 140/80 mmHg. There was mild neck stiffness, but neurological examination was otherwise normal. Investigations: random plasma glucose CT scan of head cerebrospinal fluid: opening pressure total protein glucose cell count lymphocyte count What is the most likely diagnosis? A B C D E basilar migraine subarachnoid haemorrhage temporal lobe epilepsy vertebral artery dissection viral meningitis 6.1 mmol/L normal 190 mmH2O (50180) 0.52 g/L (0.150.45) 3.7 mmol/L (3.34.4) 10/L (<5) 100% (6070)

Answer Key: A

86