Sie sind auf Seite 1von 97

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

A PROJECT REPORT ON EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT AT THYSSENKRUPP INDUSTRIES INDIA PVT. LTD. PIMPRI, PUNE

SUBMITTED TO PUNE UNIVERSITY In Partial Fulfillment of Requirements for the award of Masters of Business Administration SUMITTED BY MBA III

PROJECT GUIDE ACADEMIC YEAR 2010-2011 DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT, KONDHWA,PUNE-48

CERTIFICATE FROM THE COMPANY

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

Certificate of the Institute

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

Completion of any project report is the milestone in the life of every management student and the success of live project then enhances the self confidence of the student. The successful completion of any task is the outcome of the invaluable aggregate contribution of the personal efforts in all directions, explicitly or implicitly. At the onset, I owe my sincere gratitude to Mr. P. Dave - Vice President (Corporate Planning & HRD) and Mr. R. S. Nageshkar - Senior General Manager (Personnel & HRD) for giving me the opportunity of uniting with ThyssenKrupp Industries India Private Limited. I would like to express my gratitude towards my industry guide, Mr. Sagar Saraf Executive (Personnel & HRD) for his continuous support, efforts and encouragement along with his knowledge and experience about the industry, enriched me with conceptual understanding and practical approach needed to work efficiently for this project. The project would not have reached to its destination without his guidance. His willingness to make me a part of the organization and sharing his knowledge with me has helped me to understand Human Resource in a better and simple way. I would like to thank the entire team of Personnel & HRD department for their support and cooperation throughout the tenure of the project and for giving me an in-depth knowledge on the various processes related to the Human Resource and Personnel department in the company. I also thank the employees of TKII for giving their precious time and cooperation. The key to the acknowledgement of the summer internship program lies in the hands of the faculty guide. I would like to offer my sincere thanks to Prof. Deepa Hosur (SAE Faculty) for her benevolent and expertise guidance without which this project would not have seen the life of today.

DECLARATION

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

I herby declare that the project titled Effectiveness Of Training and Development in ThyssenKrupp Industries India Pvt. Ltd is an original piece of research work carried out by me under the guidance and supervision of Prof.Deepa Hosur .The information has been collected from genuine & authentic sources. The work has been submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement of _____________(Name of Course) to Pune University.

Place: Date:

Signature: Name of the student

SUMMARY
The project of Effectiveness Of Training and Development in ThyssenKrupp Industries India Pvt. Ltd started with ThyssenKrupp India Pvt. Ltd. on June 1st 2010. The project duration was 8 weeks and the project dealt with studying the training and development process in the Company.The project started with the induction program which acquainted me with the concept of HR Functions and gave me the overview

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

regarding various aspects of the company. After having an overview as to how the company works, I started with the research on various dimensions of the organization. Documents were provided to know about the company business divisions, location of offices, hierarchies, reporting relationship, welfare activities, safety measures followed, five decades journey of the company etc. After acquiring an insight about the organization, I prepared questionnaires to identify and analyze individual and organizational training needs. The questionnaire covered questions related to:
Training identification and evaluation Preferable method of learning of every individual Organizational need apart from individual needs Organizational strengths and also areas of improvements

Before starting the final survey, I had done a sample testing at Personnel and HRD department so that I could find the flaws in the questionnaire with respect to various parameters like interpretation of the questions, time taken by the employees to give their response etc. After capturing the responses of the identified participants on the finalized questionnaire and after conducting one-to-one interactions with them, individual and organizational training needs were identified & analyzed using Regression analysis. Apart from identifying the training needs, I also identified: Perception of the employees about MDPs Factors affecting the MDPs
Areas of improvement for MDPs Strengths and areas of improvement of the organization

On the basis of the findings from the analysis, various suggestions and recommendations were given which will help Personnel and HRD department to formulate the strategies in near future. The findings and analysis were filed and recorded so that it could be used for future reference.

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTENTS


Acknowledgements Declaration Executive Summary Chapter 1 : Introduction 1.1 1.2 1.3 Introduction of the Topic Objectives of the Study Significance of the Study

PAGE NO.
iv v vi-vii 1-7 1-2 3 4-5

Effectiveness of Training and Development 1.4 1.5 Limitations of the Study Hypothesis 6 7

2010

Chapter 2 : Research Methodology 2.1 Methodology Used 2.2 Design and Details of survey conducted 2.3 Collection of Data Chapter 3 : Company Profile 3.1 About the Company 3.2 Products 3.3 Factories and Offices in India 3.4 Milestones at a Glance 3.5 Organization Structure 3.6 HR Functions Chapter 4 : Training Process 4.1 Training Process 4.2 Training Need Identification 4.3 Training Evaluation 4.4 Benefits of Training Need Identification and Training Evaluation. 4.5 Steps followed in the project Chapter 5 : Data Analysis Chapter 6 : Findings and Observations 6.1 Strengths of the Organization 6.2 Areas of Improvement desired in the Organization 6.3 Areas of Improvement desired in T & D 6.4 Recommendations Chapter 7

8-10 8 9 9-10 11-16 11-12 13 13 14 15 16 17-28 17 18-22 23-26 27

28 27-56 57-64 58-59 60-61 62 63-64 65-66

Effectiveness of Training and Development 7.1 Conclusion 7.2 References Appendix Questionnaire Project Schedule

2010 65 66

67-72 73

LIST OF TABLES
TABLE NO. 2.1 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 TABLE NAME Details of the Survey Conducted Percentage of Skills required at the Junior Level Percentage of Skills required at the Middle Level Percentage of Skills required at the Senior Level 7 important skills needed at different levels Briefing Sessions Debriefing Sessions Training Opportunities to Employees Interest shown by Superiors Training Programs Improvement Training Need Identification PAGE NO. 9 30 32 34 36 38 39 40 41 42 43

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 8.1

Organizations Support to Self Learning Statement Of Duty for Job Accuracy of Duty Statement Degree of Technical Knowledge Method of Working Overall MDP Rating Factors responsible for overall success of MDPs Regression Test Sheet Degree of Usage of Skills Factors creating difficulty in applying new Skills Methods of Training Method of Effective Learning Project Schedule

44 45 46 47 48 49 50 52 53 54 55 56 73

LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE NO. 2.1 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.5 4.6 NAME OF THE FIGURE Collection of Data Mission of the Company Process flow of Trunkey Project Pimpri Office Milestones of the Company Training Process Type of Needs Job Analysis Matrix Kirkpatricks 4 level Model Overall Project Steps PAGE NO. 10 11 12 13 14 17 19 21 25 28

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22

Chart showing percentage of various skills required at Junior Level Chart showing percentage of various skills required at Middle Level Chart showing percentage of various skills required at Senior Level Chart showing percentage of most important skills required at all the levels Briefing Sessions Debriefing Sessions Training Opportunities to Employees Interest shown by Superiors Training Programs Improvement Training Need Identification Organizations Support to Self Learning Statement Of Duty for Job Accuracy of Duty Statement Degree of Technical Knowledge Method of Working Overall MDP Rating Factors responsible for overall success of MDPs Regression Test Sheet Degree of Usage of Skills Factors creating difficulty in applying new Skills Methods of Training Method of Effective Learning

31 33 35 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 52 53 54 55 56

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1: Introduction of the Topic 1.2: Objectives of the Study 1.3: Significance of the Study 1.4: Limitations of the Study 1.5: Hypothesis

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

1.1 INTRODUCTION
Manufacturing confronts a negative public image. Characteristic notions that are synonymous with this industry include: low pay, no scope for growth and so on. Consequently, few highly skilled workers seriously consider manufacturing careers. But now the general perception is changing dramatically. Apart from providing a more structured career growth path, one of the reasons for this change in the mindset would be the nature of training and coaching provided to new entrants once they are taken on board. Employers are quickly realizing that the quality of their manpower is directly proportional to the final bottom line, bringing forward the need to train and coach employees appropriately. While an assessment process and competency-based interviews help identify talent, coaching and training are initiatives that aim at grooming and nurturing the talent. Training provides theoretical support to an individual development whereas coaching provides a more practical and personal form of support. The combination of both creates a powerful foundation stone for future development and potential identification. Every organization has different processes, and at times, a different approach to work as well, leading to the need for process-driven training and coaching to facilitate relevant learning. Most hires may have the theoretical knowledge required for the job, but they need to be taught the tricks of applying that knowledge in the fashion that best suits the process. A company-specific structured training program is extremely essential. Fresh engineers recruited straight off campuses cannot be put on the job straight away, as they have very little knowledge about the actual dynamics at shop floor level. They need to be introduced to Engineering Management skills in a systematic manner.

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

The manufacturing industry also boasts about the fact that it provides its workforce with competency enhancement training. This ensures that they become competent to take up different roles in the organization and have an insight into various managerial soft skills, which are almost as essential as the technical ones. Training programs have been put in place to address competency development at various levels by leading engineering companies like TKII, L&T and Essar. They are customized taking data from Assessment center reports and from interactions with domain experts in the area. Faculty members from reputed institutes conduct these programs on a regular basis. Programs like Leading high performance teams, Resource Optimization, Risk management, Project management etc have been put together to address managerial competencies by these leading companies. The one important resource that can build and transform any organization is its human resources. And this makes it essential to groom once workforce in order to ensure that maximum productivity is generated. In the fiercely competitive market, one can actually score above others if once workforce is well equipped and trained appropriately to meet industry requirements.

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

1.2 OBJECTIVES
The primary objective of the project is to act as a facilitator in identifying the organizational and individual training needs (sample size of 50) and to analyze the same to give feedback and suggestions to the organization for improving the training & development process of the organization. The objectives of the project are as follows:
To identify, study and analyze the training needs of the employees (sample size of

50). To study the training and development process carried on in the Company. To identify the knowledge and skills required to perform the job efficiently and effectively. To recommend appropriate interventions to bridge the gap in order to hone the training & development process. To identify the strengths and areas of improvement of the organization.

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY


Training and Development is very important and essential in every organization due to the following:
Training is required to cover essential work-related skills, techniques and

knowledge. It is the process used to reduce the gap between the desired performance and the actual performance which eventually results in increased Productivity, quality and healthy work environment.
Optimum Utilization of Human Resources Training and Development helps

in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals.
Training helps to eliminate obsolesce in work, it gives the employees a clear view

of what is needed and also helps in upgrading their skills and knowledge to keep in pace with the ever changing technology which is very essential in todays competitive market.
Development of Human Resources Training and Development helps to

provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources technical and behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth.
Team spirit Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team

work, team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees. Safety in work place is another important feature of training which helps to avoid accidents and injuries in the work place.
Organization Culture Training and Development helps to develop and

improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization.

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e. Organization

gets more effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and carrying out organizational policies Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display. For every employee to perform well especially Supervisors and Managers, there is need for constant training and development. The right employee training, development and education provides big payoffs for the employer in increased productivity, knowledge, loyalty, and contribution to general growth of the firm. In most cases external trainings for instance provide participants with the avenue to meet new set of people in the same field and network. The meeting will give them the chance to compare issues and find out what is obtainable in each others environment. This for sure will introduce positive changes where necessary. So I felt it is important to carefully identify the training needs, carefully plan a training process and evaluate this process. Hence the study on Effectiveness of Training and Development in ThyssenKrupp Industries India Pvt. Ltd.

1.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

Time constraint - While getting all the questionnaires filled, I faced that most of

the employees didnt want to respond because of the limited time they had. I faced a lot of problem while convincing them.

Sample size constraint - As the employee base of the organization is about 1350

employees, so it was very difficult to cover all the employees in this survey. Number of employee covered in this survey is limited to the sample size of 50 employees only. This limits the scope of the project study and the analysis may not represent the whole population.

Duration constraint - The time duration for the project is limited to nine weeks so

it was difficult to analyse the trainings needs at micro level.

Perception constraint - Also, Employees have a tendency to underestimate their

skills before training and over estimate their skills post training to validate their participation in the training program. In this way it is seen that it is difficult to comprehensively evaluate or capture the effectiveness of a training program.

Interpretation constraint - Due to the use of management words (eg: Change

Management, Work-life balance/issues, Inbasket exercise etc.), few questions in the questionnaire are difficult to interpret by employees. These questions needed to be explained to respondents every time so that they can understand and answer the question in best possible manner.

1.5 HYPOTHESIS
The project Effectiveness of Training and Development in ThyssenKrupp Industries India Pvt. Ltd. is based on the following Hypothesis:

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

ThyssenKrupp Industries India Pvt. Ltd. carries out training of the employees.

The Company aims at Effective Training and Development. Training is needed at the following levels : Junior Level-Shop Floor Workers Middle Level-Engineers, Design Engineers, Supervisors Senior Level-Assistant Departmental Managers, Departmental Managers Training Evaluation is carried out in order to check the effectiveness of the training and development process. The training and development process is structured, systematic, well defined and involves active participation of the employees. Feedback is available and this feedback can be used for analysis.

Effectiveness of Training and Development CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH METHODOOLOGY 2.1: Methodology Used 2.2: Details and Design of survey 2.3: Collection of Data

2010

2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
2.1 Methods used to identify training needs include: Analysis of existing strategies and plan to identify what skills are needed for deliveryAt first, the prevailing strategies of training were studied. Detailed information regarding the MDPs attended till date, the process of identifying training needs,

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

methods of training,etc was collected . HR executive provided me with the documents related to training & development of the employees.

Preparing questionnaires for employees Documents cannot be the wholesome criteria to be dependent upon for identifying training needs. Hence, questionnaires & one-to-one interviews are used as tools to reflect the individual & organizational training needs. The questionnaire covered questions related to training identification and evaluation, preferable method of learning of every individual, organizational needs apart from individual needs, organizational strengths and also areas of improvements. Questionnaire should be simple, direct, employee friendly so that employees could comprehend the questions in a better way.

One-to-one interviewsInterviews with officer grade employees are conducted to know their response to the questionnaire and thereby seek deep insight about the organizational needs apart from their individual training needs, organizational strengths and area of improvements etc.

2.2 A) SAMPLE DESIGN

Design of the Study The key phases of the project were: Phase I : Gather Preliminary Data- research Plan Questionnaire Analyze Data

Phase II : Phase III : Phase IV :

Effectiveness of Training and Development Phase V :


2.2 B)

2010

Prepare Report

Details of the Survey Conducted


50 Employees of ThyssenKrupp Industries India Pvt. Ltd. ThyssenKrupp Industries Convenience sampling Structured Around 20 questions Close as well as open ended Table 2.1: Details of the survey conducted

Sample Size Target Population Sample Area Sampling Type of questionnaire No. of Questions involved Type of questions

2.3

Collection of Data
1. Raw Data: Documents provided by the company Net Search 2. Primary Data Questionnaires One-on-one Interviews 3. Secondary Data Articles from Newspaper Company Website

RAW DATA

Qualitative data

COLLECTION PRIMARY DATA OF DATA

SECONDARY

DATA Quantitative data

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

Fig.2.1: Collection Of Data

CHAPTER 3: COMPANY PROFILE


3.1: About the Company 3.2: Products 3.3: Factories and Offices in India 3.4: Milestones at a Glance

Effectiveness of Training and Development 3.5: Organization Structure 3.6: HR Functions

2010

COMPANY PROFILE
3.1 ABOUT THE COMPANY Fig.3.1: Mission of the Company

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

ThyssenKrupp Industries India (formally Backau wolf India)was established in 1957 to manufacture world class sugar machinery based on Germany technology and has a presence of five decades in India. ThyssenKrupp Industries India is a member of ThyssenKrupp Technologies, a group company of ThyssenKrupp AG, of Germany. ThyssenKrupp is today, one of the world's largest powerhouses with three main lines of business activity: Steel, Capital Goods and Services, in which it holds top positions. Internationally acknowledged for excellence borne out of intensive research, careful market analysis and close collaboration with its customers; ThyssenKrupp pursues a strategy of globalization. Thyssenkrupp Industries India in the last five decades has grown to become one of the most trusted names in the fields of: Sugar Plant & Machinery Open Cast Mining & Bulk Material Handling Systems, Cement Plants & Machinery Boilers and Power Plant Division. Today with strong foundations and access to world class technology Thyssenkrupp Industries India's plant making capabilities are helping the industry become competitive world over. Thyssenkrupp Industries India's strategic vision as a EPC Contractor to execute turnkey projects is derived from its core strength of integrated engineering expertise & automation in manufacturing backed by an excellent team of project executives. The company firmly believes in delivering total customer satisfaction spanning from concept to commissioning to after sales service.

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

Fig.3.2: Process Flow of Trunkey Project Thyssenkrupp Industries India's highly competent project management capabilities are a result of its tradition of anticipating and fulfilling specific customer requirements. A highly qualified team of engineers and technicians, supported by the most modern IT infrastructure ensures the brand of quality, Thyssenkrupp is known for worldwide. The emergence of a true market leader speaks volumes about the world class technology inherent in the company's products.

3.2 PRODUCTS

Sugar and plant and

Cement

Material Handling Systems

Boiler Power plant

Effectiveness of Training and Development Machinery Power plant 1. Refineries 2. Fiberiser 3. Shredder 4. Rotary screen 5. 3roller mill 6. 4roller mill 7. 5roller mill 8. 6roller mill 1. Sampling Systems 2. Expert Systems 3. Kiln temp. Scanner 4. Master process and Control System 1. Spreaders 2. Bucket Wheel Excavators 3. Tripper Cars 4. Transport Crawlers 5. Crushing Plants 6. Stackers 7. Pipe Conyers

2010

1.CFBC 2.Gas/oil fired Boilers

3.3 FACTORIES AND OFFICES IN INDIA


Manufacturing plant: Pimpri, Pune Hyderabad Branch Office: Kolkata Chennai Dehli Lucknow Mumbai

Fig.3.3: Pimpri Office

Registered Office: Mumbai

3.4 MILESTONES AT A GLANCE


ThyssenKrupp are in India at the beginning, in these fifty years, TKII has transformed itself from an Indian engineering powerhouse to a global solution provider. Its been a

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

journey of many engineering firsts and pioneering initiatives where, along the way, we have added the whos who of the industrial firmament to our list of customers.

Fig.3.4: Milestones of the Company

3.5 ORGANISATION STRUCTURE

Sl. No.

Designation

Grade of the employees

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

VICE CHAIRMAN MANAGING DIRECTOR DIRECTOR VICE PRESIDENT SENIOR GENERAL MANAGER GENERAL MANAGER DEPUTY GENERAL MANAGER SENIOR MANAGER MANAGER DEPUTY MANAGER SENIOR EXECUTICE EXECUTIVE OFFICERS / ENGINEERS

M9 M8 M7 M6 M5 M4 M3 M2 M1 E4 E2 E1 O1

3.6 HR FUNCTIONS

Training And

Time Office

Employee Benefits

Recruitment and

I.R.

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

Development

Administration

Selection

Payroll

Canteen

Transport Discipline Welfare Law

CHAPTER 4: TRAINING PROCESS


4.1: Training Process

Effectiveness of Training and Development 4.2: Training Need Identification 4.3: Training Evaluation 4.4: Benefits of Training Need Identification and Training Evaluation. 4.5: Steps followed in the project

2010

4.1 TRAINING PROCESS


Training focuses on learning the skills, knowledge, and attitudes required to initially perform a job or task or to improve upon the performance of a current job or task, while development activities are not job related, but concentrate on broadening the employee's horizons.

Organizational Objectives and Strategies

Departmental Objectives and Strategies

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

Individual Goals (KRAs)

Training Need Identification

Devising and Implementation Training Program

Evaluation of Results

Fig. 4.1: Training Process 4.2 TRAINING NEED IDENTIFICATION INTRODUCTION OF TRAINING NEED IDENTIFICATION
Training need identification is a tool utilized to identify what educational courses or activities should be provided to employees to improve their work productivity. Here the focus should be placed on needs as opposed to desires of the employees for a constructive outcome. In order to emphasize the importance of training need identification we can focus on the following areas:

To pinpoint if training will make a difference in productivity and the bottom line. To decide what specific training each employee needs and what will improve his or her job performance.

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

To differentiate between the need for training and organizational issues and bring about a match between individual aspirations and organizational goals.

Identification of training needs (TNI), if done properly, provides the basis on which all other training activities can be considered. Also requiring careful thought and analysis, it is a process that needs to be carried out with sensitivity as people's learning is important to them, and the reputation of the organization is also at stake. Identification of training needs is important from both the organizational point of view as well as from an individual's point of view. From an organizations point of view it is important because an organization has objectives that it wants to achieve for the benefit of all stakeholders or members, including owners, employees, customers, suppliers, and neighbours. These objectives can be achieved only through harnessing the abilities of its people, releasing potential and maximizing opportunities for development. Therefore people must know what they need to learn in order to achieve organizational goals. Similarly if seen from an individual's point of view, people have aspirations, they want to develop and in order to learn and use new abilities, and people need appropriate opportunities, resources, and conditions. Therefore, to meet people's aspirations, the organization must provide effective and attractive learning resources and conditions. And it is also important to see that there is a suitable match between achieving organizational goals and providing attractive learning opportunities

DIFFERENT LEVELS AT WHICH TRAINING NEEDS ARE IDENTIFIED


Identification of training needs can be done at three levels to ascertain three kinds of needs: -

Organizational Needs
These concern the performance of the organization as a whole. Here identification of training needs is done to find out whether the organization is meeting its current performance standards and objectives and if not, exploring ways in which training or learning might help it to do so. Sometimes organizational training needs are also identified when the organization decides that it has to adopt a major new strategy,

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

create a new product or service, undergo a large-scale change program, or develop significant new relationships, such as joining with others to form new partnerships.

Fig. 4.2: Type of Needs

Group Needs
Since working in groups and teams have become very much prevalent in today's corporate world that is why nowadays there is increased emphasis given on team effectiveness and team performance. Therefore training needs are nowadays even identified at the group level. Training needs here are concerned basically with the performance of a particular group, which may be a team, department, function, subunit, or so on. Information about the performance of the group may identify areas of training need - which, again, may be further utilized for training or other interventions. It is used to find out how efficiently a particular team or group goes about its business and meets its current objectives.

Individual Needs

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

These concern the performance of one or more individuals (as individuals, rather than as members of a group). Here identification of training needs is about finding out to what extent individuals need to learn or be trained in order to bring their current performance up to the required level as a result of changes in methods and processes that call for new competencies and skills. It also sees to it that there is continuous improvement initiative taken by them. Moreover it also helps to find out whether individuals are comfortable in working across boundaries, with people from different backgrounds and different perspectives. This is especially important because there is so much work force diversity observed today in organizations that it has become impossible to retain workforce, which is not flexible enough to accommodate such changes into their daily work schedule.

SOURCES FOR IDENTIFYING TRAINING NEEDS


There are three sources for identifying training needs. Although they are independent sources for gathering the necessary data but it is usually beneficial if they are considered complementary to one another as the objective of the exercise is to prepare as consolidated data of training needs as possible. The three sources are as follows: -

Job Profile
It is a comprehensive description of all the functions and the responsibilities that a person has to carry out in due course of his job. It is very common for us sometimes to find that people of a particular department more or less perform the same kind of job and therefore a comparative study can be done on their performance to pinpoint on the training needs of those people who have not performed up to the mark. In here we can also include Job analysis in order to have a realistic and systematic appraisal of training

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

needs. In order to do this first we need to break up the functions and responsibilities into categories. Next we have to classify these tasks/activities on the basis of their relative importance to the nature of the job. And lastly we can compute a priority listing of these tasks in order to have a catalogue of knowledge, skills and attitudes required for effective performance of the job.

Fig. 4.3: Job Analysis Matrix

Experiences of the training agency


It is very common for organizations nowadays to hire professional training agencies in order to look into the training matters. The training agency and the trainers thus should also draw from their own experiences of organizing programs for comparable groups or in similar areas. However, earlier experiences can only serve to facilitate the process. It cannot be the sole basis, as training needs of majority of organizations are very specific. At ThyssenKrupp this method is used in a modified way, the training agency named SIBM along with the top management of the organization identify the training needs and decide the training modules for the employees of all levels.

Pre-training survey of the participant's needs


This is suggested as the best way to conduct a training need identification .A pretraining survey is nothing but a survey of the needs and expectations of the participants

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

well in advance of the program. And in this exercise it is better to include the superiors also as they are in a good position to provide necessary data on the training needs of their subordinates, especially in context of their performance. This is generally done in a systematic manner with the help of a structured questionnaire in order to reflect the genuine desire to involve the participants and the organization in the planning process. However it might happen in certain cases that it is not possible to actively involve the superiors due to various reasons like lack of time etc but in that case at least they must be kept fully informed of the proceedings. In this project, Pre-training survey method is used to identifying the training needs of the employees.

4.3 EVALUATION OF TRAINING PROGRAM

INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE OF EVALUATION OF TRAINING PROGRAM:


The process of examining a training program is called training evaluation. Training evaluation checks whether training program has had the desired effect. Training evaluation ensures that whether candidates are able to implement their learning in their respective workplace, or to the regular work routines.

Purpose of Evaluation
Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives and linking it to learning outcomes. Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired knowledge, transfer of knowledge at the work place, and training. Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective, then it can be dealt with accordingly. Power games: At times, the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses the evaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits.

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the expected outcomes.

METHODS OF TRAINING EVALUATION:


As Organization spend a large amount of their time and resources in the training and development of their employees, it is important to evaluate these programs for their effectiveness. Cost-Benefit Analysis: A Cost- benefit analysis helps in analyzing and evaluating any development efforts. A Cost-benefit analysis measures the benefits from the development program, against the monetary costs of development. These costs include the costs of materials, supplies, lost work time, travel expenses, consultant fees, and the like. Though it is easy to calculate the monetary costs it is difficult to translate the benefits into economic terms. For example, an improvement in an individuals Leadership skills cannot be measured in monetary terms. Though the cost benefit analysis sounds appealing, it may not always be practically useful. Gap Analysis:

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

Another strategy to evaluate development efforts is to measure the extent to which the objectives of the program are met. Identifying the gap between the actual and desired level of performance helps in measuring the level of success of the development program. However this strategy depends on the quality of the objectives set. Kirkpatrick Model: In the late 1950s D.L Kirkpatrick developed a model for evaluating workplace education programs. Kirkpatricks system has four levels of evaluation. He proposed applying each level of evaluation to a program, which includes the participants reaction, participants learning, change in participants behavior and impact of the program on the organizational effectiveness.

KIRKPATRICKS MODEL IN BRIEF


ASSESSING TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS often entails using the four-level model developed by Donald Kirkpatrick (1994). According to this model, evaluation should always begin with level one, and then, as time and budget allows, should move sequentially through levels two, three, and four. Information from each prior level serves as a base for the next level's evaluation. Thus, each successive level represents a more precise measure of the effectiveness of the training program, but at the same time requires a more rigorous and time-consuming analysis. Fig. 4.5: Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Model

Level 1 - Reactions
Just as the word implies, evaluation at this level measures how participants in a training

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

program react to it. It attempts to answer questions regarding the participants' perceptions - Did they like it? Was the material relevant to their work? This type of evaluation is often called a smile sheet. According to Kirkpatrick, every program should at least be evaluated at this level to provide for the improvement of a training program. In addition, the participants' reactions have important consequences for learning (level two). Although a positive reaction does not guarantee learning, a negative reaction almost certainly reduces its possibility.

Level 2 - Learning
Assessing at this level moves the evaluation beyond learner satisfaction and attempts to assess the extent students have advanced in skills, knowledge, or attitude. Measurement at this level is more difficult and laborious than level one. Methods range from formal to informal testing to team assessment and self-assessment. If possible, participants take the test or assessment before the training (pretest) and after training (post test) to determine the amount of learning that has occurred.

Level 3 - Transfer
This level measures the transfer that has occurred in learners' behavior due to the training program. Evaluating at this level attempts to answer the question - Are the newly acquired skills, knowledge, or attitude being used in the everyday environment of the learner? For many trainers this level represents the true assessment of a program's effectiveness. However, measuring at this level is difficult as it is often impossible to predict when the change in behavior will occur, and thus requires important decisions in terms of when to evaluate, how often to evaluate, and how to evaluate.

Level 4 - Results
Frequently thought of as the bottom line, this level measures the success of the program in terms that managers and executives can understand -increased production, improved quality, decreased costs, reduced frequency of accidents, increased sales, and even

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

higher profits or return on investment. From a business and organizational perspective, this is the overall reason for a training program, yet level four results are not typically addressed. Determining results in financial terms is difficult to measure, and is hard to link directly with training.

4.4 BENEFITS OF TRAINING NEEDS IDENTIFICATION & TRAINING EVALUATION


Benefits of Training Need Identification and Training Evaluation are: The organization is informed about the broader needs of the participants. Through this process it may be possible that certain new training programs, which were, previously not in their list may come to the forefront. The organization is able to reduce the perception gap between the participant and his/her boss about their needs and expectations from the training program. The organization is also able to pitch its course input closer to the specific needs of the participants. Find out if the learning is being applied at the workplace. Ensure training improves continuously. Track the development of staff knowledge and skills. It also saves a lot of money for the organization as otherwise money is just unnecessarily wasted on those training programs, which are either not needed by the employees or they have no interest in undertaking them. Lastly, time, which is the most important resource today, is also saved, as the training programs conducted are the ones, which are actually needed by the participants.

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

4.5 OVERALL PROCESS IN BRIEF


Understand the working culture and structure of the Organization as well the Industry in which the organization is working

Prepare various data collection measures like questionnaire with the help of the various inputs provided by the Personnel & HRD department to collect both qualitative as well as quantitative data

After drafting the questionnaire, One-to-one interview with officer grade employees are conducted to gauge their response and needs

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

Analyze the entire data collected in order to find out causes of problem areas and prioritize areas, which need immediate attention

Prioritize the different training programs according to the responses collected

After completion of training evaluate the training program for checking its effectiveness

Record and file the entire data so that it can be used for future reference while designing the training programs / training calendar

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

Fig.4.6: Overall project steps

CHAPTER 5: DATA ANALYSIS

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

DATA ANALYSIS
The survey was conducted to identify the training needs of the employees and to know their perception about the Management Development Programs (MDPs). For this survey fifty employees were selected to know the response through a structured questionnaire. The employees selected for this survey are from Shop Floor Workers to Departmental Managers. Employees above Departmental Managers are not included in this survey. Of the 21 skills and behaviors tapped by the training need identification survey, the seven most important skills and behaviors required to perform the job efficiently and effectively are identified for each level. How important are the following skills & behaviors to your current job? 1. The participants are divided into two levels according to their designation i. e.

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

Junior level includes Shop Floor Workers Middle level includes Engineers, Design Engineers and Supervisors Senior level includes Departmental Managers and assistant departmental managers. 2. After dividing the participants according to their designations, average of each of the skills and behaviors are calculated separately for each level. These are the desired average of skills and behaviors required to perform the job. 3. Then percentages of importance on the basis of average of each of the skills and behaviors are calculated and based on the percentage, the seven most important skills and behaviors required to perform the job efficiently and effectively are identified for each level. These are shown in the table below:

1. Junior Level:
No. of participants=25 Table showing the percentage of skills required for this level is as follows, No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Skills and Behavior Score based on Questionnaire Presentation Skills 25 IT related Skills Supervisory Skills Marketing Skills Time Management Leadership Skills Technical Skills Quality related activities Team Work 25 30 26 104 25 119 85 101 Average 1 1 1.2 1.04 4.16 1 4.76 3.4 4.04 Percentage 2.43% 2.43% 2.9% 2.53% 10.11% 2.43% 11.57% 8.26% 9.82%

Effectiveness of Training and Development 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Decision Making Skills Coaching Skills Creativity and Innovation Change Management Interpersonal Skills Negotiating Skills Problem Solving Skills ISO knowledge Strategy and Planning Skills Stress Management Project Management 37 36 71 78 26 36 75 25 28 26 25 1.48 1.04 1.44 2.84 3.12 1.04 1.44 3 1 1.12 1

2010 3.59% 2.53% 3.52% 7% 7.59% 2.53% 3.51% 7.3% 2.43% 2.72% 2.43% 2.43%

Work Life 25 1 Balance/issues Table 5.1: Percentage of Skills required at Junior Level

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

12 10 8 6 4 2 0

p res enta tion S up ervis ory S kills tim em ana g em ent technica l tea mwork coa ching cha ng em ng t neg otiating IS O knowledg e s tres sm ng t worklife ba la nce

ITrela teds kills Marketing lead ers hip q ua lity related d ecis ion m a king crea tivity interpers ona l p robs olving s tra teg y p roject m ng t

X axis: Junior level Y axis: Percentage

Fig.5.1: Graph showing percentage of various skills required at junior level.

Effectiveness of Training and Development 2. Middle Level: No. of participants=15

2010

Table showing the percentage of skills required for this level is as follows, No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Skills and Behavior Presentation Skills IT related Skills Supervisory Skills Marketing Skills Time Management Leadership Skills Technical Skills Quality related activities Team Work Decision Making Skills Coaching Skills Creativity and Innovation Change Management Interpersonal Skills Negotiating Skills Problem Solving Skills ISO knowledge Strategy and Planning Skills Stress Management Project Management Work Life Balance/issues Score based on Questionnaire 15 15 36 15 55 17 68 47 64 32 34 33 31 41 18 31 51 39 30 16 15 Average 1 1 2.4 1 3.6 1.13 4.53 3.13 4.26 2.13 2.26 2.2 2.06 2.73 1.2 2.06 3.4 2.6 2 1.06 1 Percentage 2.139% 2.139% 5.13% 2.139% 7.7% 2.42% 9.69% 6.69% 9.112% 4.56% 4.8% 4.71% 4.4% 5.84% 2.57% 4.4.06% 7.27% 5.6% 4.28% 2.26% 2.139%

Table 5.2: Percentage of Skills required at Middle Level

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

pres enta tion S upervis ory S kills tim em a na g em ent technica l tea mwork coaching chang em ng t neg otia ting IS O knowledg e s tres sm ng t worklife b a la nce

ITrela teds kills Ma rketing lea d ers hip q ua lity rela ted d ecis ionm a king crea tivity interpers onal p robs olving s tra teg y p roject m ng t

X axis: Middle level Y axis: Percentage

Fig.5.2: Graph showing percentage of various skills required at middle level.

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

3. Senior Level: No. of participants=10 Table showing the percentage of skills required for this level is as follows, No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Skills and Behavior Presentation Skills IT related Skills Supervisory Skills Marketing Skills Time Management Leadership Skills Technical Skills Quality related activities Team Work Decision Making Skills Coaching Skills Creativity and Innovation Change Management Interpersonal Skills Negotiating Skills Problem Solving Skills ISO knowledge Strategy and Planning Skills Stress Management Project Management Work Life Balance/issues Score based on Questionnaire 33 17 16 10 42 45 10 26 39 39 21 15 27 24 15 28 23 31 29 26 20 Average 3.3 1.7 1.6 1.0 4.2 4.5 1.0 2.6 3.9 3.9 2.1 1.5 2.7 2.4 1.5 2.8 2.3 3.1 2.9 2.6 2.0 Percentage 6.16% 3.17% 2.99% 1.86% 7.84% 8.39% 1.86% 4.85% 7.7% 7.27% 3.92% 2.8% 5% 4.47% 2.8% 5.22% 4.3% 5.78% 5.41% 4.85% 3.73%

Table 5.3: Percentage of Skills required at Senior Level

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

p res entation S up ervis ory S kills tim em anag em ent technical tea mwork coa ching cha ng em ng t neg otiating IS O knowled g e s tres sm ng t worklife ba lance

ITrela teds kills Ma rketing lea ders hip quality rela ted decis ionm a king creativity interp ers ona l probs olving s tra teg y project m ng t

X axis: Senior level Y axis: Percentage

Fig. 5.3:Graph showing percentage of various skills required at senior level.

Table showing the 7 most important skills needed at the different level

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

No. Levels

Junior Level

Middle Level

Senior Level

1. 2. 3. 4.

Technical Skills Time Management Team Work Quality Related Activities

` Technical Skills Team Work Time Management ISO Knowledge

Leadership Skills Time Management Team Work Decision Making

5.

Interpersonal Skills

Quality Related Activities

Presentation Skills

6.

ISO Knowledge

Interpersonal Skills

Strategy and Planning Skills

7.

Change Management

Strategy and Planning Skills

Stress and Conflict Management

Table 5.4: 7 most important Skills required at Different Level

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

12

10

technical s kills tim em anag em ent quality related pres entations kills decis ionm aking s trateg y

teamwork IS O knowledg e Interpers onal leaders hip chang em g t. s tres sm g t.


X axis: Different levels Y axis: Percentage

0 Junior L evel Middle L evel S enior L evel

Fig. 5.4:Graph showing the most important skills needed at the 3 levels

For identifying the existing situation of training and development process in the organization, questions about briefing and debriefing sessions are included. Briefing sessions are conducted for participants sponsored for training.

Effectiveness of Training and Development Category Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree No. of Participants 3 24 19 4 Table 5.5: Briefing Sessions

2010

Percentage 6% 48 % 38 % 8%

S trong lyAg ree D isa g ree


8%

Ag ree S trong lyD isa g ree


6%

38

48

Fig 5.5: Briefing Sessions Interpretation: From the response of the participants, it is evident that some of the departments in the organization are practicing briefing sessions before training program in an informal manner but there is no formal process of briefing.

De-briefing sessions are conducted for participants sponsored for training. Category Strongly Agree Agree No. of Participants 7 16 Percentage 14 % 32 %

Effectiveness of Training and Development Disagree Strongly Disagree 23 4 Table 5.6: Debriefing Sessions 46 % 8%

2010

S trong ly Ag ree Disag ree


8%

Ag ree S trong lyDisa g ree


14

46

32

Table 5.6: Debriefing Sessions Interpretation: It is evident from the result of this question that some of the departments in the organization are practicing de-briefing sessions after training program in an informal manner but there is no formal process of debriefing in the organization. 32% participants have agreed while 14% participants have strongly agreed
46% participants have disagreed while 8% participants have strongly disagreed

Training opportunities are provided to almost all levels of employees. This can be shown by the result of the I have training opportunities to upgrade my skills & knowledge. Category Strongly Agree Agree Disagree No. of Participants 12 34 4 Percentage 24 % 68 % 8%

Effectiveness of Training and Development Strongly Disagree 0 0%

2010

Table 5.7: Training Opportunities to Employees

S trong lyAg ree Disa g ree


8%

Ag ree S trong lyDisa g ree


24

68

Table 5.7: Training Opportunities to Employees Interpretation: Almost all levels of employees get training opportunities to upgrade their skills and knowledge. 68% participants have agreed while 24% participants have strongly agreed 8% participants have disagreed while 0% participants have strongly disagreed In the organization employees are satisfied with their superior. This can be shown by the result of the My superior is interested in my overall development. Category Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree No. of Participants 22 25 3 0 Table 5.8: Interest Shown by Superiors Percentage 44 % 50 % 6% 0%

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

S trong lyAg ree Disa g ree


6%

Ag ree S trong ly Disa g ree

44 %

50 %

Fig. 5.8: Interest Shown by Superiors Interpretation: From the result it is evident that participants believe that their superiors are interested in their overall development. 50% participants have agreed while 44% participants have strongly agreed 6% participants have disagreed while 0% participants have strongly disagree Training programs like MDPs is continuously improving from year to year; this can be shown by the result of the The Companys training programs are evaluated and improved upon, every year. Category Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree No. of Participants 7 33 9 1 Table 5.9: Training Programs Improvement Percentage 14 % 66 % 18 % 2%

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

S trong lyAg ree D isa g ree


18 2% 14

Ag ree S trong lyD isa g ree

66

Fig. 5.9: Training Programs Improvement Interpretation: Training program should be continuously improved so as to get maximum benefits out of it. Almost all the participants agreed that MDPs are continuously improving. Carefully identification of needs is required at the organization as many employees believe that their training needs are not carefully identified. This can be shown by the result of the Employees are sponsored for training programs on the basis of carefully identified needs. Category Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree No. of Participants 4 9 21 6 Table 5.10: Training Need Identification Percentage 8% 38% 42% 12%

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

S trong lyAg ree D isag ree


12 8%

Ag ree S trong lyD isa g ree

38

42 %

Fig. 5.10: Training Need Identification

Interpretation: Participants believe that there is a need of identifying the training needs according to the level, designation and job profile. Learning is a self directed- activity: employee development is self-development. The question related to this is: The organization encourages and supports self- learning and education by its officers. Category Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree No. of Participants 13 21 13 3 Percentage 26 % 42% 26% 6%

Table 5.11: Organizations Support to Self-Learning

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

S trong ly Ag ree D isa g ree


6% 26

Ag ree S trong lyD isag ree


26

42 %

Fig. 5.11: Organizations Support to Self-Learning Interpretation: Participants believe that organization encourages and supports self- learning and education as 42% participants have agreed while 26% participants have strongly agreed Job Profile is one of the important sources for identifying training needs. It is important that the employees have a duty statement with all the duties to be performed accurately mentioned in it. Do you have a statement of duty for your job? Table 5.12: Statement of Duty for Job No. of Participants Percentage 45 5 90% 10%

Category Yes No

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

Yes No

99%

10%

Fig. 5.12: Statement of Duty for Job

Interpretation:
The Company provides a statement on job to almost all Employees 90% agree that the Company provides a statement of job. 10% do not agree with this fact Q. Is your job accurately described in the duty statement? Category Yes No Table 5.13: Accuracy of duty statement No. of Participants Percentage 35 15 70% 30%

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

Yes No

70%

30%

Fig. 5.13: Accuracy of duty statement

Interpretation:
From the result it is evident that there are few extra duties that the employees perform that need to be added to the Statement Of Job and there are some duties that are no longer performed by the employee and need to be deleted from the Statement Of Job.

Do you require high degree of technical knowledge for your work? Category Yes No Table 5.14: Degree of technical knowledge needed No. of Participants Percentage 40 10 80% 20%

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

Yes No

80%

20%

Fig. 5.14: Degree of technical knowledge needed

Interpretation:
From the result it is evident that 80% of the participants agree that their work requires high degree of technical skills. These skills are needed only at the junior level for Shop floor workers, Engineers, Design Engineers, Supervisors.
The remaining 20% participants which comprises of managers do not need

technical skills.

How do you work? Category Alone Team Work Table 5.15: Method of Working No. of Participants 2 48 Percentage 4% 96%

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

Alone Team Work

96%

4%

Fig. 5.15: Method of Working

Interpretation:
From the result it is evident that almost all the work done is team work as Only 4% participants agreed that the work has to be done alone. 96% of the participants agreed that it is team-work. To know the response of the participants, here 5 point rating scale was used i.e. Excellent, Very Good, Good, Average and Poor. How would you rate the MDPs held in the organization till date? Category Poor Average Good Very Good Excellent No. of Participants 1 5 20 16 8 Table 5.16: Overall MDP Rating Percentage 2% 10% 40% 32% 16%

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
2% 10% 40% 32% 16%

Poor Average Good Very Good Excellent

Fig. 5.16: Overall MDP Rating Interpretation: Almost all of the participants have given above average rating to the training program as a whole.

For identifying the most important factors for MDPs success, participants were asked to rate some of the factors like Relevance to my work, Discussions, Structured, Use of time, Level of activities, Personal objectives achieved, Well organized, Training methodology used, Relevant training material and Communication and coordination. How do you feel about the MDPs that you have attended till date in the company? For the analysis of this question, Regression analysis is used as a tool for find the priority level of the factors and also there significance level. Regression analysis includes any techniques for modeling and analyzing several variables, when the focus is on the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. More specifically, regression analysis helps to understand how the typical value of the dependent variable

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

changes when any one of the independent variables is varied, while the other independent variables are held fixed. Regression models involve the following variables:

The unknown parameters denoted as ; this may be a scalar or a vector. The independent variables, X. The dependent variable, Y.

A regression model relates Y to a function of X and .

In the more general multiple regression model, there are p independent variables:

The least square parameter estimates are obtained by p normal equations. The residual can be written as

The normal equations are

Once a regression model has been constructed, it may be important to confirm the goodness of fit of the model and the statistical significance of the estimated parameters. Commonly used checks of goodness of fit include the R-squared, analyses of the pattern of residuals and hypothesis testing. Statistical significance can be checked by an F-test of the overall fit, followed by t-tests of individual parameters. An F-test is any statistical test in which the test statistic has an Fdistribution under the null hypothesis. It is most often used when comparing statistical models that have been fit to a data set, in order to identify the model that best fits the population from which the data were sampled. An F-test is any statistical test in which the test statistic has an F-distribution under the null hypothesis. It is most often used when comparing statistical models that have

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

been fit to a data set, in order to identify the model that best fits the population from which the data were sampled. The formula for the one-way ANOVA F-test statistic is

The "explained variance", or "between-group variability" is

The "unexplained variance", or "within-group variability" is

P-value is the probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true. T-test is a type of test for a statistical hypothesis. T-scores are the result of a t-test and follow Student's t distribution.

t = (x - X) / (s / n^2)
where, t is the t-score, x is the mean of the sample, X is the mean of the population, s is the sample's standard deviation and n is the size of the sample population. Analysis Level of significance is = 5% = 0.05 With the help of regression analysis, the three most important factors which are responsible for the overall success of MDPs at large are found out and shown in the table: S.No. Factors Coefficient P-Value

Effectiveness of Training and Development 1. 2. 3. Relevance to my work Well Organized Level of Activity 0.408382 0.288283 0.235741

2010

0.000506 0.00974 0.032417

Table 5.17: Factors Responsible for Overall Success of MDPs

The value of R Square is calculated by the regression analysis is = 0.843 and the value of F- significance = 9.64E-13 Interpretation: As the coefficients of the three factors shown in the above table are positive so it is positively related to overall rating of the MDPs, which means, that if Relevance to my work factor score is increased by 1 unit then the overall rating of MDPs will be increased by .408 units. With the help of the value of R Square = 0.843, 84 % variation in the overall rating is explained by the selected criteria (Ten factors), hence model is a good fit. And also the significance of the entire model can be further checked by the value of F- significance. The value of F- significance = 9.64E-13, which shows that the entire model (Ten Factors) are highly significant. Training also helps an individual in applying new skills on the job. For identifying the level of application of new skills on the job.

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

REGRESSION TEST
Regression Statistics Multiple R R Square Adjusted R Square Standard Error Observations ANOVA df Regression Residual Total 10 39 49 SS 37.549 6.951 44.5 Standard Error 0.317 0.108 0.136 0.107 t Stat 1.65 9 3.793 1.34 4 0.40 Pvalue 0.105 0.001 0.187 0.684 MS 3.75 5 0.178 F 21.06 9 Significance F 9.64918E13 0.919 0.844 0.804 0.422 50

Coefficients Intercept RELEVANT TO MY WORK DISCUSSION STRUCTURED -0.526 0.408 -0.183 -0.044

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

USE OF TIME LEVEL OF ACTIVITY PERSONAL OBJECTIVES ACHIEVED TRAINING METHODOLOGY WELL ORGANIZED TRAINING MATERIAL COMMUNICATION & COORDINATION

0.016 0.236 0.103 0.133 0.288 0.050 0.156

0.108 0.106 0.109 0.115 0.106 0.076 0.124

9 0.14 8 2.218 0.94 5 1.15 8 2.718 0.65 4 1.26 0

0.883 0.032 0.351 0.254 0.010 0.517 0.215

Table 5.18: Regression Test

Training also helps an individual in applying new skills on the job. For identifying the level of application of new skills on the job Degree to which you have used the skills you have learnt. Here four point rating scale was used. The categories are All, Some, Very few and No. Category All Skills Some Skills Very Few Skills No Skills No. of Participants 6 33 10 1 Table 5.19: Degree of Usage of Skills Percentage 12% 66% 20% 2%

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
12% 66% 20% 2%

All Skills Some Skills Very few skills No Skills

Fig. 5.19: Degree of Usage of Skills

Interpretation: Training would be successful when there is efficient transfer of


learning to the job. 12 % participants perceive that they can apply all skills learnt used on the job 66% participants perceive that they can apply some skills learnt used on the job Participants are unable to use new skills on the job because of certain factors: In your opinion, what factor creates difficulty in applying new skills on the job? Category Lack of opportunity Lack of time Skills were not relevant No supervision Lack of coaching or No. Of Participants 16 17 7 1 9 Percentage 32% 34% 14% 2% 18%

feedback Table 5.20: Factors creating difficulty in applying New Skills

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
32% 34% 14% 2% 18%

Lack of opportunity Lack of time Skills irrelevant No supervision Lack of coaching

Fig. 5.20: Factors creating difficulty in applying New Skills Interpretation: Most of the participants feel that lack of opportunity and lack of time are the main factors creating difficulty in applying New Skills. Please rate the methods of training you feel would be most appropriate to achieve your learning goals: For this question 3 point scale is used i.e. Not effective, Somewhat effective and Very effective. Methods Of Training Percentage Classroom Lectures 8% Video 10% Workshops 11% On The Job 11% Computer Base 9% Case Study 10% Role Play 10% In the Basket 9% Outbound 10% Group Studies 11% Table 5.21: Methods of Training

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

Fig. 5.21: Methods of Training

Interpretation:
Workshops, On the job training and Group studies are the most effective methods Videos, Case Studies, Outbound and Role Playing are effective methods In-basket exercise and Classroom Lectures are somewhat effective methods How do you learn more effectively during the training programs? The options for this question are Studying underlying concept, Step-by-step instructions, Observing others and Active participation. Methods of Effective Learning Studying underlying concept Step-by-step instructions Observing others Active participation Table 5.22: Method of Effective Learning Percentage 8% 10% 8% 74%

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
8% 10% 8% 74%

Studying underlying concept Step by step instructions Observing others Active participation

Fig. 5.22: Method of Effective Learning

Interpretation:
From the result it is evident that participants can learn more effectively by Active Participation. 74% are in favor of Active participation 8% are in favor of Observing others 10% are in favor of Step-by-step instruction 8% are in favor of Studying underlying concepts

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

CHAPTER 6: FINDINGS AND OBSERVATIONS


6.1: Strengths of the Organization 6.2: Areas of Improvement desired in the Organization 6.3: Areas of Improvement desired in T & D 6.4: Recommendations

6 FINDINGS & OBSERVATIONS

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

The questionnaire was drawn up in a format consisting of both closed & open questions. Training methods and content may not be the same for different levels of employees. The participants were from junior to senior level at ThyssenKrupp Industries India Pvt. Ltd. The main purpose of the data collection and statistical calculation was to identify training needs of employees as well as organizational needs. Some of the findings from the survey (questionnaire) are listed below:
Training and development programs at ThyssenKrupp Industries India Pvt. Ltd

are aimed at systematic development of knowledge, skills, attitude and team work.
Satisfaction of the learner is the most important factor in training program. It

plays a major role in employees growth and development, commitment towards the job. All the participants have undergone a no. of MDPs and it is evident from the analysis that 88% participants have ranked MDPs as good and above.
For training, an organization has to follow some criteria for selection depending

on the need and to get each employee trained to achieve the desired results. The employees are not aware about the criteria of selection for training. 54% participants are not agreeing to the fact that a formal process for identification of training needs is being followed in the organization.
The participants have to know the objectives, benefits & learning that they will

gain from training before selection. Only 53% participants were aware about the objective, benefits & learning of training through briefing sessions when being selected. Also, some of the departments in the organization are practicing briefing and debriefing sessions before and after the training program respectively in an informal manner but there is no formal process of briefing and debriefing in the organization.

6.1 STRENGTHS OF THE ORGANIZATION

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

Modern business demand quickness of mind and action. System by them does not deliver; people do with the help of skills & initiatives. People hold the key to achieving organizational excellence. People decide the strengths & areas of improvement of an organization. According to the participants, the strengths of the organization are:

Supportive & encouraging work culture: 50% participants say that the
working environment in the organization is very encouraging & supportive. Employees are of the opinion that team work is of paramount importance for the success of the organization.

Exposure to world class technology: almost all the participants are


agreeing with the fact that strong system base & in depth technical knowhow is available at all corners of the organization which is enabling the organization to become one of the global market leaders.

Exposure to world class brand: 30% participants say that the strength of
the organization is in its brand image, relevant collaborations & strong market hold / share as far as turnkey projects are concerned.

Competent & committed work force: 26% participants say that the
organization has a good & relevant human resource base i.e. multi skilled man power.

Knowledge of four sectors under one roof: 18% participants given


their view point that diversification of business lines is one of the fundamental strengths of the organization.

Expertise in delivering customer satisfaction: 16% participants


believe that organizations long term relations with clients & excellence in delivering customer satisfaction is proving as one of the organizations strengths

Strong financial background: 16% participants believe that financial


soundness of the organization & its ability to stand the adverse situations has helped organization to become one of the global market leaders

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

6.2 AREAS OF IMPROVEMENTS

Intra & inter departmental communication: 40% participants

emphasized on improvement in communication & coordination among employees within the department & among the different departments so that the employees have a better understanding of the organization and at the same time the interpersonal relations among the employees enhances.

Performance management system: 24% participants are agreeing to the

fact that organization should have systematic, structured & transparent performance management system which inculcates performance-oriented culture in the organization.

Infrastructure & facilities: 38% participants say that there is need for

improvement in infrastructure & facilities provided to employees such as proper working conditions in summer, proper space arrangements for keeping papers as well as inventory, adequate sitting space in library, proper entertainment & cafeteria.

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

Job enlargement & rotation: 22% participants are agreeing to the fact

that employees should be given enhanced responsibilities along with authority as per their potential. Job rotation should also be practiced by each & every department so that employees can hone their cross functional knowledge & repetition of work can be reduced at an individual level which ultimately enhances motivation & productivity.

Enhancing team work:participants believe that team work is of utmost

importance for the success of the organization. Thus, the culture of team work should be encouraged by the management for achieving the organizational vision & mission.

Exposure to new technology: 12% participants are in the favor that

employees should get more exposure & training in latest technology available in the market so as to augment their efficiency, effectiveness & productivity.

Flexible timings: 12% participants are of the opinion that employees

belonging to the category of officer and above should have the option of flexible work timing so that they can work more productively in their preferred work timings.

Working with defined organizational goals (quantitative): Few

participants believe that the organizational vision, mission & goals should be cascaded down to the individual level and as a result employees should set SMART KRAs for evaluating their performance. Few participants are in favor of adopting business excellence model by the organization. Few participants are of the opinion that organization should thrust more on innovation & research & development activities so as to have an edge over the competitors & to grab the potential market.

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

Few participants have given suggestions that SELF INSPECTION methods can be used by employees so as to reduce supervisory hours.

6.3 AREAS OF IMPROVEMENT IN T & D PROCESS


According to the participants following improvements are required in training & development process:
55% participants are agreeing with the fact that the process of identification of

behavioral and functional / technical training needs should be carried out across the organization on yearly basis. Participants believe that training needs should be identified according to the level, designation and job profile and such training needs should be finalized only after conducting a joint discussion between HODs and their subordinates.
16% participants have opined that in-house training programs should be

conducted by internal trainers of the organization.


12% participants have given the suggestion that management should devise

methods for measurement of effectiveness of training imparted.


18% participants are of the opinion that case studies & examples shared with the

participants during the training programs should be more realistic and related to project industries so that the participants can successfully relate the same to their day-to-day job demands. Cross functional departmental training should be imparted in order to do away with the monotony and boredom of their routine work.

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

Regular training programs for GETs should be conducted during their training

period so that they get comprehensive knowledge about the business and information about the systems, processes & policies practiced by the organization.
The Management should implement suggestion scheme across the organization

so as to inculcate the culture of innovation & creativity.


The Organization should provide the facility of e-library to all employees

wherein technical and behavioral training material can be accessible to employees across the organization in order to promote the concept of self-learning.
SAP / refresher training should be conducted on regular basis so that employees

become SAP friendly.

6.4 RECOMMENDATIONS
Personnel & HRD department should be disintegrated into separate Personnel department & HRD department having separate Personnel Heads & HRD Heads reporting to a common Functional Head. The survey for identification of training needs should be conducted more frequently in order to gauge the perception of the employees regarding training & development process practiced by the organization.
The Management should implement Kirkpatricks model for evaluating the

effectiveness of training & development process across the organization.


The Management should initiate the process of mentoring by the senior

management for new employees to induce hand holding culture in the organization.
The HODs of different departments should compulsorily practice formal

process of briefing and debriefing before and after every training program respectively with an objective to inculcate learning culture into the organization.

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

The management should strengthen sports & cultural activities (e.g. celebration

of festivals, football & cricket matches, photography & drawing competition etc) to foster interpersonal relations within the organization.
The Management should enhance horizontal & vertical communication by

organizing monthly open feedback sessions, quarterly / monthly performance review meetings etc. with an objective to reduce the gap between the Management & the employees. The Management should change training vendors & faculties for conducting MDPs on yearly basis.
The Management should drive system-oriented and paperless culture in the

organization.
Job rotation policy should be formulated & practiced across the organization

depending upon the knowledge, skills and career aspirations of the employees in order to hone cross functional competencies of the employees.
Batch size for MDPs should be reduced so that the faculty can pay better

attention to each & every participant. The Management should conduct employee satisfaction surveys after every 2 years for gauging perception of the employees in relation to the parameters like overall employee satisfaction, advocacy & stability and finally to assess the employee engagement ratio of the organization. The Management should initiate other Organizational Development

interventions like 360 degree feedback, competency mapping, assessment & development centers, balanced score card, job evaluation etc only after streamlining the performance management system in the organization.

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

The Management should implement SAP HR module for inculcating system oriented culture and integration & standardization of all HR processes. ThyssenKrupp Industries India Pvt. Ltd. is a German based MNC and thus German language has a special importance for the organization. Therefore, Management should provide at least basic training on German language to top management and employees working in the Marketing department.
The entrance of the building should have departmental name plates and

employees should have their individual name plates on the desk.

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

CHAPTER 7
7.1: Conclusions 7.2: References

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

7.1 CONCLUSION
I would like to conclude by saying that it was great experience to be associated with ThyssenKrupp Industries India Pvt. Ltd. (TKII). I had learnt a lot as to how the Personnel & HRD department actually works at TKII. TKII gave us a full exposure to the manufacturing industry. I had a wonderful experience taking interviews of the Shop floor workers, engineers, design engineers,managers. This helped me in sharpen my skills in dealing with people in a professional manner. This project gave me an opportunity to have an insight of the working of the Personnel & HRD department. I have learnt how to identify the training needs of an employee, how to evaluate a training program and how to discover the strengths and areas of improvements of the organization, ways to keep employees motivated and the working environment happy, healthy and peaceful. Apart from the project, I got an opportunity to learn about maintenance of files & documents, as we had to give a helping hand in the process of HR audit and contributed in coordinating welfare activities like Medical checkup for the family members of the employees and summer camp for the children of the employees. I also got an opportunity to attend, manage and coordinate Management Development Program (MDP) on various topics which is very helpful for overall growth of a Management Student. At last I would conclude, TKII gave me opportunity to get involved in various HR activities apart from my project which gave me a taste of living an actual corporate life. The training had been really helpful throughout and everyday was a new challenge with new tasks to be performed. I enhanced my listening skills, learning skills, negotiation skills, convincing skills and various other behavioral skills which are really important for me to become real HRD professional.

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

7.2 REFERENCE Books

Gower handbook of training and development : Anthony Landale

How to identify your organization s training needs: John H McConnell Hiring and Keeping the Best People : Harvard Business School Press, 2002 Evaluating Training Programs: The Four Levels : Donald L. Kirkpatrick, James D. Kirkpatrick

Newspapers:
Economic Times The Times of India Hindustan Times

Websites

http://www.hr-guide.com/ http://www.hreonline.com/ http://www.managementparadise.com http://www.thyssenkruppindia.com http://images.google.com/

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

ANNEXURE
Questionnaire Project Schedule

ANNEXURE

QUESTIONNAIRE

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

General instructions for filling the questionnaire: 1) Please answer all questions. 2) Please tick mark ( ) the most appropriate option that most closely represents your views. 3) Please give your candid and unbiased feedback. 4) We assure you full confidentiality of your responses.

Personal Profile:
NAME

TOKEN NO.

DESIGNATION

DEPARTMENT EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS AGE (YEARS)

TOTAL EXPERIENCE (YEARS)

TKII EXPERIENCE (YEARS)

Effectiveness of Training and Development 1.

2010

How important are the following skills & behavior to your current

job? (1- Least Important & 5- Most Important): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.
16. 17.

SKILLS Presentation skills IT related skills Supervisory skills Marketing skills Time management Leadership skills Technical skills Quality related initiatives Team work Decision making skills Coaching skills Creativity & innovation Change management Interpersonal skills Negotiating skills Problem solving skills ISO knowledge

18. Strategy & planning skills 19. Stress & conflict management 20. Project Management 21. Work life balance / issues If others, please specify ______________________________________________
2. Briefing sessions are conducted for employees sponsored for training.

Effectiveness of Training and Development Strongly agree Strongly disagree Agree Disagree

2010

3.

Debriefing sessions are conducted for employees sponsored for training. Agree Disagree

Strongly agree Strongly disagree

4.

I have training opportunities to upgrade my skills & knowledge. Agree Disagree

Strongly agree Strongly disagree

5.

My superior is interested in my overall development. Agree Disagree

Strongly agree Strongly disagree

6. year.

The organizations training programs are evaluated, and improved upon, every

Strongly agree Strongly disagree

Agree Disagree

7.

Employees are sponsored for training programs on the basis of carefully

identified needs.

Effectiveness of Training and Development Strongly agree Strongly disagree Agree Disagree

2010

8.

The organization encourages and supports self- learning and

education by its officers. Strongly agree Strongly disagree Agree Disagree

9. Do you have a statement of duty for your job? Yes No

10. Is your job accurately mentioned in the duty statement? Yes No

11. Do you require a high degree of technical knowledge for your job? Yes 12. How do you work? Alone 13. Team Work No

In your opinion, what factor creates difficulty in applying new skills on the job?

Lack of opportunity to use skills Lack of time for use of skills Skills learnt were not relevant No supervision for skills practiced Lack of coaching or feedback If others, please specify _______________________________________________

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

__________________________________________________________________

14.

How do you feel about the MDPs that you have attended till date in the

organization? Excellen t Relevant to my work Discussions Structured Use of time Level of activity Personal objectives achieved Training methodology used Well organized Relevant training material Communication & coordination Very Good Good Averag e Poor

15. date?

How would you rate the MDPs that you have attended in the organization till Very Good Average Poor

Excellent Good

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

16. Degree to which you have used the skills you have learnt. All skills learnt used on the job Some skills learnt used on the job Very few skills learnt used on the job No skills learnt used on the job 17. How do you learn more effectively during the training programs?

Studying underlying concept Step-by-step instructions Observing others Active participation 18. Please rate the methods of training you feel would be most appropriate to Not Effective Somewhat Effective Very Effective

achieve your learning goals. Methods Classroom Lectures Videos Workshops On the Job Training Computer Base Training Case Study Method Role Playing In Basket Exercises Outbound Training Group Studies

19.

In your opinion, please enumerate any 3 strengths of the organization.

1.________________________________________________________ 2.______________________________________________________ 3._____________________________________________________


20. In your opinion, please enumerate any 3 areas of improvement desired in the

organization.

1._________________________________________________________

Effectiveness of Training and Development

2010

2._________________________________________________________ 3._________________________________________________________

21.

Please give any 3 suggestions to improve the overall process of training &

development in the organization.

1._________________________________________________________ 2._________________________________________________________ 3.________________________________________________________

8.2 PROJECT SCHEDULE


The project was of two months starting from 1st June 2010 to 1st August 2010. The schedule of the project was:

Weeks Activities

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

5th

6th

7th

8th

9th

Induction Project Decision Preliminary Research Preparation Questionnaire One-on-one Interactions Analysis of data so collected Report Presentation & of

Effectiveness of Training and Development Table 8.1: Project Schedule

2010

NOTE: Preparation of Questionnaire stage also includes sample testing and finalizing the questionnaire.