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Promoting Sanitation in Bangladesh: Issues and Challenges Abstract

This paper explores the present scenario of sanitation in Bangladesh. At this moment, present situation is not favorable to achieve 100% sanitation coverage. This study shows that most of the know about sanitation is necessary for good health but some people are beyond the sanitation. Unawareness, lack of land, poverty are the causes of having no sanitary latrine. To prevent these problem, Government and NGOs have devoted their attention to implement sanitation program. They also have designed motivation campaign to change attitudes of the population through mass awareness about the dangers of unhygienic practices. The target of promotional activities is to change attitudes and behavior of society toward sanitation. Any positive change, in the society requires massive awareness among people. So, Government and NGOs jointly should undertake promotional activities in various forms. This report, presenting the findings of the study, accounts for a number of perceptions and assumptions that exist within the community about sanitation. More specifically, it uncovers general ideas about the reasons why sanitation progress is not up to the expectation, as well as associated ideas about what should be done to address the situation. This report also offers a brief analysis of findings and a discussion about how different perceptions might lead to different kinds of action.

Promoting Sanitation in Bangladesh: Issues and Challenges


CHAPTER-ONE

INTRODUCTION 1.Introduction Sanitation is an important issue for good health. Sanitation facilities are basic human needs for maintaining health and efficiency. To be more specific, in a country, like Bangladesh where illiteracy problem at its peak and even literate persons are ignoring the most sensitive dimension of healthcare management. This diverts the author's attention to sanitation. The perception of sanitation is different among different people. To some people, sanitation means simply sitting or squatting on a pit toilet or sitting on a toilet and flushing away the excreta to the environment as waste. In both cases the excreta is disposed of and forgotten in the quickest and most convenient way. But in a world which is becoming increasingly polluted from excreta, where many of the worlds population do not have access to a toilet at all, it does make sense to pay more attention to excreta management in a more meaningful way. Worldwide around 2.5 billion people are without improved sanitation and around 1.1 billion of those, mostly living in rural areas, still practice open defecation (Source: WHO, 2010). 1.1 Sanitation concept The concept of sanitation is 'related to the process of the safe disposal of human excreta. Jha (1999) described, sanitation as a safe device for the disposal human excreta which keeps environment clean, protects the sources of water, regulates contaminations of soil and is found technically sound. Rahman (2005) described, sanitation program comprises, to ensure the use of hygienic latrine for , each family, discouraging to defecate in open place, insisting to wash hand with
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Promoting Sanitation in Bangladesh: Issues and Challenges


soap after defecation, motivating healthcare system, disposal of human excreta as well as household wastage and maintain healthy environment. Hence the total sanitation activities linked with to achieve and maintain safe and healthy environment. The emphasis is on a number of basic human needs.

1.2 Sanitation in Bangladesh context: Sanitation needs are significant in Bangladesh, which is the most densely populated country in the world and one of the poorest. Adding to the challenge, about one-third of Bangladesh experiences annual floods and other parts of the country suffer seasonal water shortages. All of these factors have implications for the ability of rural people to construct and maintain latrines. Improving sanitation is a high priority national policy goal in Bangladesh. In 2003, the Government of Bangladesh (GoB) set a target of Sanitation for All by 2010 at the first South Asian Conference on Sanitation (SACOSAN). At that time, only 28.8% of rural households in the country were using latrines, and countrywide usage was 33.2%. Efforts toward Sanitation for All began with an historic campaign from 2003 to 2006 to establish all areas of Bangladesh as open defecation free (ODF) by promoting and rewarding 100% latrine coverage. Intent on building on these and other achievements since 2003, the current government has extended the sanitation for All action period up to 2013. ( Source: Government of Bangladesh, National Sanitation
Secretariat 2010)

Promoting Sanitation in Bangladesh: Issues and Challenges


CHAPTER-TWO LITERATURE REVIEW & OBJECTIVES 2.1 Literature Review The purpose of this section is to review the available studies related to sanitation. Not only in Bangladesh but also in different countries of the world there were conducted some studies on sanitation. Some literatures are considered for the purpose of conducting this research which are mentioned below: Rahman(January,2011) focused on peoples perception about sanitation and identified some major challenges like methodological problems, inappropriate technological options, faulty constructions of different structures, lack of community consultation, inadequate support by LGIs, lack of follow-up actions etc. The researcher emphasized on promotional activities but did not clearly define motivational programs. Hussain(November,2006) emphasized on sound health of people. They indicated three dimensions- status of current sanitation, immunization and contraception. They took data almost from female respondents but in sanitation both male and female respondents are equally important. They showed some key findings but did not give proper suggestions for maintaining the sound health. Bilqis (1994) assessed the effectiveness of a health promotion campaign on sanitation. They tried to promote sanitation by discussing with village doctors, local politicians, school teachers, health workers, religious leaders, school going children but did not motivate them. At that period, peoples on sanitation low but present perception is high. Suzanne(October, 2011) focused on some issues like current status of latrine facilities, perceived benefits, growth of sanitation products & services and sustainability of sanitation behavior etc. The main limitation of this research is absence of baseline data and ongoing monitoring information. This study showed only sanitation of rural people but did not show the sanitation situation of urban people in Bangladesh. Kappauf(August, 2011) analyzed the constraints and opportunities for more sustainable sanitation like district governments role and capacity in implementation of sanitation, private sectors capacity to provide sanitation technologies, capacities of communities to respond on sanitation through sanitation marketing. There are significant gap in the capacity of the district govt. private sectors suppliers and communities.

Sijbesma(April,2010) carried out a study to investigate the sustainability of rural sanitation marketing approach. They tried to promote the sanitation perception by local health workers, women union leaders, village heads and small providers. They did not clearly identify the objectives and methodology for their study 4

Promoting Sanitation in Bangladesh: Issues and Challenges


Allan(September,2003) explored three aspects of the water aid Bangladesh, VERC 100% sanitation approach. Avoiding the promotional activities this study emphasized on motivational factors like prestige, practical, well-being, aesthetic and factors. It also explored the way of sustainability of sanitation.

2.2 Research Gap


Some research reports and publications related to sanitation have found. These reports have shown that their works have been covered many aspects related to promoting sanitation. All of these studies are related to analysis of situation, perception, opportunities & constraints of sanitation and importance of implementation of sanitation programs. Most of them emphasize on promotional programs but did not clearly define the motivational factors. Some of studies were conducted on foreign countries perspectives and different areas of Bangladesh at different time.

2.3 Justification of the study


Sanitation needs are very significant in the most densely populated country like Bangladesh. Sanitation needs or facilities are basic human needs for maintaining sound health. Improving sanitation is a high priority national policy goal in Bangladesh. In 2003,the government of Bangladesh fixed a target of sanitation for all by 2010 at the first South Asian Conference on Sanitation. Efforts toward sanitation for all , the present ruling government of Bangladesh has expanded the sanitation for all action period up to 2013. We cannot negate even have not successful in solving sanitation problems. Hence it needs studies by experts and social scientists, how we can promote the access to reduce the morbidity due to the unsanitary condition. This study will provide policy planners understanding the phenomena.

Objective of the study


Generally every study is conducted to find one or more findings. The objectives of this study are as follows--1.To explore the present scenario of sanitation in Bangladesh. 2.To determine the issues and challenges of sanitation. 3.To motivate people toward sanitation. 4.To make some recommendations for promoting sanitation.

Promoting Sanitation in Bangladesh: Issues and Challenges


CHAPTER-THREE RESEARCH DESIGN& METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research design:


This research topic is related to exploratory research in nature which will be undertaken to explore issues and challenges of sanitation in Bangladesh.

3.2 Population:
There are 3,000 families at Nabagram Union Parishad in Manikgonj Shadar which will be considered as population. (Source: Chairman , Nabagram Union Parishad )

3.3 Population size:


Population size will be 50 families.

3.4 Sampling technique:


To select the sample convenience sampling technique will be applied which is mainly categorized under the head of Non probability sampling method.

3.5 Method of data collection:


There are two types of data -primary and secondary data. For conducting this research both primary and secondary data will be used.

(a) Primary data:


For collecting the primary data there will be used a structured questionnaire. For administering the questionnaire there will be followed face to face interview method.

(b) Secondary data:


Secondary data will be collected from various sources such as-various research reports and publications conducted by Government and NGO-BRAC, UNICEF, WHO, DPHE etc. Journals, Internet, annual report on sanitation in Bangladesh.

3.6 Analysis of data:


Various statistical tools and techniques (SPSS) will be used to analyze the collected data.

Promoting Sanitation in Bangladesh: Issues and Challenges