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MOOD Mood is a grammatical category which indicates the attitude of the speaker towards the action expressed by the predicate verb. The action may be represented as a real fact, a problematic action or as something unreal that does not exist. There are the following moods in English: the direct moods - the Indicative and the Imperative; the oblique moods the Subjunctive and the Conditional. DIRECT MOODS I. The Indicative Mood The Indicative mood shows that the speaker considers the action or state denoted by the predicate as a real fact and affirms or negates its existence in the present, past or future. The verb in the Indicative mo0d has the category of tense, aspect and voice. I haven't yet looked at the newspaper. We are studying oblique moods now. If it rains, Ill stay at home. The doctor was sent for. II. The Imperative Mood The Imperative mood expresses commands and requests generally addressed to the second person singular or plural. The Imperative mood has only one form which coincides with the infinitive of the verb without the particle "to": Listen to him. Be careful. The negative form is built up by means of the auxiliary "do": Don't listen to him. Don't be late. The auxiliary "do" may also be used in affirmative sentences to make the request or command more emphatic: Do be careful. Do listen to him. In commands and requests addressed to the first and third person combination "let + infinitive" is used: Let him do it. Let us do it together. The negative forms are: Let's not talk about it. Dont let's talk about it. the

OBLIQUE MOODS If I had a garden, I should grow tulips in it. had - the subjunctive mood should grow - the conditional mood The oblique moods represent actions or states as desired, imaginary, or contradicting reality. Tenses Indefinite Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous The Forms of the Infinitive Active to write to be writing to have written to have been writing Passive to be written to have been written -

I. The Subjunctive Mood The Subjunctive mood represents an action as absolutely unreal. The Subjunctive mood is a synthetical mood and it has two tenses: the present tense (The Present Subjunctive mood) and the Past tense (the Past Subjunctive mood). The form of the Present Subjunctive mood coincides with the Past Indefinite (It is a grammatical homonym of the Past Indefinite tense). The verb to be has the form were for all persons: If I knew If she lived If I (she, it, they, etc) were The Present Subjunctive mood expresses an unreal action at present. The Present Subjunctive mood may also refer an action to the future or to no particular time. The form of the Past Subjunctive mood coincides with the form of the Past Perfect tense (It is a grammatical homonym of the Past Perfect tense) If I had known If she had lived If they had been The Past Subjunctive mood expresses an unreal action in the past. II. The Conditional Mood. The Conditional mood is n analytical mood. It has two tenses, the present tense (The Present Conditional mood) and the past tense (The Past Conditional mood). The Present Conditional mood refers the action to the present (or to the future)

and is built up by means of the auxiliary verbs "should" or "would" and the Indefinite infinitive of the notional verb (or sometimes the continuous infinitive): I should read... He would be reading ... The Past Conditional mood refers the action to the Past and is built up by means of the auxiliary verbs "should" or "would" and the perfect infinitive of the notional verb (or sometimes the Perfect continuous infinitive): I should have told you They would have helped him ... The meaning of the Conditional mood is very close to the meaning of the Subjunctive mood. It also expresses an unreal action but this unreality always depends on some condition. If I were ten years younger, I should go to the disco. If I were ten years younger this is absolutely unreal I should go to the disco the unreality of this action depends on the first clause The Conditional mood expresses an unreal consequence out of some unreal condition.
the Pr. Subj. m. the Pr Cond. m.

If I were in your place I shouldn't think so.


the Past Cond. m. the Past Subj. m

I should have gone with you if you had invited me. Sentences the Mixed Type Sentences of the Mixed Type The actions in the principal and subordinate clauses may have different timereference. The unreal condition may refer to the past and the consequence - to the present or future: If you had read the newspaper yesterday, you would know the news. The Condition may refer to no particular time and the consequence may refer to the past: She would not have told me the story if she disliked me. The Use of the Subjunctive Mood The Subjunctive mood may be used in simple sentences; of unreal wish and in complex sentences. In simple sentences:

If it were not so dark! - ! If only I knew it for sure! ! If only I had told he the truth! - ! In complex sentences: 1) in subordinate clauses of unreal condition which are usually introduced by the conjunction "if (the use of tenses is absolute in this case: when reference is made to the present or future the Present Subjunctive and the Present Conditional are used; when reference is made to the past the Past Subjunctive and the Past Conditional are used): If I had more time I should learn French. Note 1: The modal verbs "can" and "may" have no special forms for the Conditional mood. They have only one form of the oblique mood - the form of the Subjunctive mood present: If he came now he could help us. could help - the Present Subjunctive mood of the modal verb "can" and the indefinite infinitive of the verb "to help" If the whole situation refers to the past the perfect Infinitive is used: If he had come yesterday he could have helped us. could have helped - the Present Subjunctive mood of the modal verb "can" and the perfect infinitive of the verb "to help" could do it () (to the present or future) might could have done it () (to the past) might Note 2: The conjunction "if "may be omitted and the inversion is used: a) for the Present Subjunctive with the verbs "be", "have" and modal verbs: If she were here she would help us. Were she here she would help us. If I could swim I should go to the river with you. Could I swim I should go... If we had time we should go to the cinema. Had we time we should go... b) for the Past Subjunctive it is also possible: If we had known about it yesterday we should have informed you. Had we known about it yesterday we... Note 3: The unreal condition can also be expressed by the phrase "but for + a noun/a pronoun" But for the rain (if it were not for the rain) they would go to the country.

But for the rain (If it had not been for the rain) they would have gone to the country. "But for" in rendered in Russian as " c ". 2) In subordinate clauses of concession introduced by "even if", "even though" (the use of tenses is absolute in this case): Even if you were right I shouldn't defend you. Even if (even though) he had come he wouldn't have helped us. ... 3} in object clauses after the verb "to wish" the Present Subjunctive or the Past Subjunctive may be used to express a wish which cannot be fulfilled or a hardly realizable wish I wish it were true. I wish you had asked me anything but this. The use of tenses is relative in this case: a) If the action of the subordinate clause is simultaneous with the action of the principal clause the Present Subjunctive is used: I wish he were with us. - , . I wished he were with is. - , . I I I wish wished shall wish I knew it for sure.

b) If the action of the subordinate clause precedes the action of the principal clause the Past Subjunctive is used: I wish you had stayed at home. - , . I wished you had stayed at home. - , . I I I wish wished shall wish nothing had happened.

c) If the action of the subordinate clause follows the action of the principal clause the Present Subjunctive is used: I I I wish wished shall wish you got there in good time.

To make the sentence more emphatic one can use "would + an infinitive" after an expression of wish, but only if the subjects in both clauses are different and if the

wish refers to the present or to the future. I I I wish wished shall wish he would (not) do it.

Note 1: When the verb in the object clause is affirmative in English it is negative in Russian and vice versa. I wish I had told him the truth. - , . I wish I had not told him the truth. - , . 4) in subordinate clauses of unreal comparison introduced by the conjunctions "as if, "as though" the Present Subjunctive or the Past Subjunctive may be used. The use of tenses is relative in this case: a) If the action of the subordinate clause is simultaneous with the action of the principal clause the Present Subjunctive is used in the subordinate clause: The house is so quiet as if there were nobody there. - , . The house was so quiet as if there were nobody there. - , . Her eyes are (were) sparkling as though she were laughing at us. - (), () . b) If the action of the subordinate clause precedes the action of the principal clause the Past Subjunctive is used in the subordinate clause: Our life goes on as if nothing had happened. - , . Our life went on as if nothing had happened. - , . Our life will go on as if nothing had happened. - , . She is breathing deep as if (as though) she had been running. , . She was breathing deep as if (as though) she had been running. - , . c) If the action of the subordinate clause follows the action of the principal clause "would + an infinitive" is used: He moved towards me as though he would strike me. - , . Note 1: Clauses introduced by "as if'", "as though" are treated as predicative

clauses when they follow the verbs "to look", "to feel", "to sound", "to seem", "to be": She looks as if she were ill. She looks as if she had been ill for a long time. She looked as if she would cry. He felt as if he didnt know her. It will be as if nothing had happened. 5) in attributive clauses after the phrases "It is time ...", "It is high time ..." only the Present Subjunctive is used: It is/was time smb did smth. It is time we had lunch. It was time we bad lunch. The Use of the Conditional Mood The Conditional mood is used: 1) in the principal clause of a complex sentence with a subordinate clause of unreal condition or concession. If I were you I should never do this. Even if he had been there he wouldn't have changed anything. 2) in compound sentences (mostly with the conjunctions "otherwise'', "or", "but", "or else"): I am very busy, otherwise I should go with you. The boy would study well, but he is often ill. 3) in simple sentences with implied condition: I should like to speak to vou. (If I got a chance.) 4) in simple sentences with the expression "but for". But for the moon it would be quite dark now. The Old Present Subjunctive The Old Present Subjunctive has only one form which is a homonym of the infinitive. The main meaning of the Old Present Subjunctive is to express a problematic action not as a real fact but as a wish, supposition, smth desirable, but not contrary to reality. The use of the Old Present Subjunctive is limited. It can be found in the following cases: 1) in a few set expressions rendering wish or concession: Wish I. Success attend you! - ! 2. God bless you! - ! 3. God save the king! - , !

4. Be you happy! - ! 5. Long live our friendship! - ! 6. Damn you! Curse you! - ! Concession 1. Come what may come. , . 2. Be it as it is. - , . 3. So be it. - .

2) It is a bookish style. It may be found in official and scientific articles and in poetry (after words expressing necessity, wish, demands such as "to insist", "to demand", "to require"): The doctor insisted that the boy remain in bed. I demand he do the job. The regulation is that manuscripts be written on one side only.