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Overview of TPM

Total Productive Maintenance


Jubilant Organosys Ltd.

By : Mr. Snahil Kumar

Overview of TPM

Overview of Total Productive Maintenance

Overview 2

Overview of TPM

Progress of Equipment Management In Japan and Future Planning


Years Key-words Explanation Repairing after failure by the person in charge of repairs. Management of equipment is not considered Preventive maintenance of equipment by the person in charge of maintenance Economical maintenance control Management of total equipment life (equipment planning, maintenance, improvement, revision) by the person in charge of equipment from the economical point of view Production maintenance by all members related to equipment planning, operation and maintenance TPM activity by all members related to production, development, business, and management, etc. Global and general TPM activity including local production TPM development is unmanned operation plants by employing FA/CIM
Overview 3

Before 1950s Breakdown maintenance

1950s

Preventive maintenance

1960s

Production maintenance

1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s

TPM in production department (Manufacturing industry) Companywide TPM (whole industry) Global TPM TPM in unmanned operation plants

Overview of TPM

DEFINITION OF TPM ( PRODUCTION TPM )


What is TPM? 1. To set a goal to maximise equipment efficiency (overall efficiency).

2. By establishing a total system for PM for the


entire life of equipment. 3. Participation by all departments, including equipment planning, operating and maintenance departments. 4. Involving all personnel, including top personnel to first-line operators. 5. For promoting PM by motivation management, namely, by autonomous small-group activities.
Overview 4

Overview of TPM

TPM DEFINITION (contd)


TPM MEANS ..

1. Taking as a prime objective a company structure that pursues production efficiency to its ultimate limits. ( = Comprehensive efficiency) 2. Putting together a practical shop-floor system to prevent losses before they occur throughout the entire production systems life cycle: Zero accidents, Zero Defects, Zero Breakdown etc. 3. Involving all functions, including production, Development, Sales and Management. 4. Having all employees participate from top executives to front-line workers 5. Achieving Zero losses through overlapping small groups.
Overview 5

Overview of TPM

Effectiveness of TPM P..Productivity improvement ----------------------------------------------1.5 to 2 times


Reduction in Number of Sporadic Failures-----------------1/10 to 1/250 Equipment Operating--------------------------------------------1.5 to 2 times

Q..Reduction in Product Defects-----------------------------------------1/10


Reduction in Customer Claims--------------------------------------1/4

C..Reduction in Maintenance Cost---------------------------------------30% D..Reduction in Product Inventories--------------------------------------0 S..


Reduction in Accident, Elimination of Pollution------------------0

M..Increase in Number of Employee Suggestions--------------------5 to 10 times


Overview 6

Overview of TPM

Preventive Medicine for Equipment = Preventive Maintenance Preventive Medicine

Daily Prevention

Health checkups (diagnosis) Measures deterioration Inspection (diagnosis)

Early treatment Repair deterioration Make preventive repairs (advance replacements)

Prevents deterioration Daily maintenance (lubricate, clean, adjust, inspect)

Preventive Maintenance
Overview 7

Individual Improvement

Planned Maintenance

Development Management

Education & Training

TPM

Equipment Ownership

TPM 8 Pillar Approach

Quality Maintenance

Office TPM

Safety, Health & Environment


Overview 8

Overview of TPM

Overview of TPM

Purpose and Main Activities of the 8 Pillars of TPM


Overview 9

Overview of TPM

Individual Improvement
Purpose: Realize zero losses of all types, such as failure losses and defect losses Demonstrate ultimate production efficiency improvement Members: Staff Line Leader Activities: Understanding the 16 major losses Calculating and settling goals for overall equipment efficiency, productivity and production subsidiary resources Implementation of PM analysis Thorough pursuit of equipment and production as it should be.

Overview 10

Overview of TPM

Equipment Ownership
Purpose: Training of operators proficient in equipment Protecting ones own equipment by ones staff Members: Operator, Line Leader Activities: Implementation of 7 steps 1. Initial clean-up 2. Countermeasures for the source of problems and measures for difficult-toaccess locations 3. Creation of tentative Equipment Ownership standards 4. General inspection 5. Autonomous inspection 6. Standardization 7. All-out goals management
Overview 11

Overview of TPM

Planned Maintenance
Purpose: Improving efficiency of maintenance departments to prevent 8 major losses Members: Staff Leader and maintenance men of maintenance department Activities: Daily Maintenance Time Based Maintenance Condition Based Maintenance Improvement for increasing the service life expectancy Control of replacement parts Failure analysis and prevention of recurrence. Lubrication control
Overview 12

Overview of TPM

Quality Maintenance
Purpose: Achieve zero defects by supporting and maintaining equipment conditions Members: Quality assurance Staff, Production engineering staff, Line Group Manager Activities: Verify quality characteristics standards; understand defect phenomena and performance Investigating the conditions for building in quality, unit processes and raw materials, equipment and methods Investigating, analysing and improving the conditions of malfunctions Setting 3M conditions; setting standard values for inspection Creation of standards that can be followed; trend management

Overview 13

Overview of TPM

Development Management
Purpose: Reducing product development and prototyping time Reducing the development, design and fabrication time of equipment Improving 1-shot start-up stability of products and equipment Members: Research and development staff, Production engineering staff, Maintenance staff Activities: Setting development and design goals Ease of production Ease of QA Implementation Reflect in MP design Ease of use Ease of maintenance Reliability Investigate LCC Design release drawing Production: Identify problems in the prototype, trial run and initial-phase mass production control stages.
Overview 14

Overview of TPM

Office TPM
Purpose: Achieve zero function losses Creation of efficient offices Implementation of service support functions for production departments Members: Leaders and members of administration/Indirect departments Activities:
Equipment Ownership activities 1. Initial clean-up (personal space) 2. Work inventory 3. Countermeasure for problems 4. Standardization 5. Promotion of autonomous management activities of work Individual improvement through project activities 1. Shortening of settlement schedule 2. Improvement of distribution 3. Improvement of purchasing and subcontracting 4. Reform of production control system
Overview 15

Overview of TPM

Education and Training


Purpose: Establishment of technical education for operations and maintenance workers Members: Operators Maintenance workers Activities: Basic process of maintenance Tightening nuts and bolts Aligning keys Maintenance of bearings Maintenance of conductive parts Prevention of leaks Maintenance of oil pressure and air pressure equipment Maintenance of electrical control equipment
Overview 16

Overview of TPM

Safety and Health


Purpose: Achievement and support of zero failures Realization of a healthy and invigorating workplace that gives meaning to work Members: Safety, health and environment managers and specialised committee members Staff specialising in safety and health Activities: Measures to improve equipment safety Measures to improve work safety Improvement of work environment (noise, vibration and odors) Measures to prevent pollution Creation of healthy employees Promotion of invigorating activities
Overview 17

Overview of TPM

12 Steps for TPM Development Programs


Stage Preparation s for introduction Step 1. Declaration by top management to introduce TPM 2. Introductory education and campaign for TPM 3. Establishing TPM promotion organization 4. Setting basic principles and target for TPM 5. Creation of master plan for establishing TPM Beginning of introduction Actual introduction 6. Kick-off of TPM Essential Declared in TPM in-house seminar Carried in company magazine Managers : Trained in seminar camp at each level General employees : Seminar meeting using slides Committee and subcommittees Secretary Bench-mark and target Prediction of effects From preparations for introduction to examination Suppliers Related companies Affiliated companies are invited

7. Establishing systems for improving production efficiency 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 8. 9. 10. 11. Steady application 12. Individual improvement Equipment Ownership Planned maintenance
Operation and maintenance skills upgrading training

Pursuing maximum efficiency of production Project team activities and small group activities in the workshop Step system, diagnosis and qualification certification Improvement maintenance, periodic maintenance, predictive maintenance Group education of leaders and training members Development of easy-to-manufacture products and easy-tooperate equipment Setting conditions without defectives, and its maintenance and control Support for production, increasing efficiency in the department and of equipment Establishing zero accidents and zero pollution systems Application of PM award Challenge of a higher target Overview 18

Establishing initial control systems for new products and equipment Establishing quality maintenance organization Establishing systems to improve efficiency of administration and other indirect departments Establishing systems to control safety, sanitation and working environments Total application of TPM and raising its level

Overview of TPM

PILLAR Kobetsu Kaizen or Focussed Improvements


KK -19

Overview of TPM

KAIZEN
Kaizen Levels Restoration Betterment Kaizen Revolution Renovation

Kaizen = Fill difference between present status and goal


- Aim at good condition in the past.
Restorative Difference Past Level Present Level Difference First, bring to a condition of the past, another line or another company Copying is also technology Develop new ideas by changing conception Importance is to train people who can maintain

-Aim at achieving what the equipment and the operation must be in the future.
Renovating Kaizen

Future Level Present Level

KK -20

Overview of TPM

Kobetsu Kaizen Pillar


Target: 8 Major Plant losses
1. 2. 3. 4. Shutdown loss: Time lost when production stops for planned annual shutdown maintenance or periodic service Production adjustment loss: Time lost when changes in supply and demand require adjustments to production plans Equipment failure loss: Time lost when equipment suddenly loses its specified functions Process failure loss: Time lost in shut down due to external factors such as changes in chemical or physical properties of materials being processed, operating errors, defective raw materials etc.
KK -21

Overview of TPM

Kobetsu Kaizen Pillar


Target: 8 Major Plant losses
5. 6. 7. 8. Normal production loss: Rate and time losses at plant start up, shut down, or change over. Abnormal production loss: Rate loss occuring when plant underperforms due to malfunctions and abnormalities. Quality defect loss: Losses due to producing rejected product, financial loss, physical loss Reprocessing loss: Recycling losses due to passing material back through the process.

KK -22

Overview of TPM

Kobetsu Kaizen Pillar


9. Raw Material losses 10. Energy losses 11. Manual work loss 12. Management losses 13. Transportation losses 14. Reducing maintenance material losses 15. Reducing administration losses 16. Testing and analysis losses
KK -23

Overview of TPM

The structure of losses


Calender time: calender time is the number of hours on the calender: 365 X 24 = 8760 hrs in a year 30 x 24 = 720 hrs in a 30 days month Working Time: actual number of hours that a plant is expected to operate in a year or a month. To calculate working time, subtract from the calender time the time lost as a result of closing the plant for production adjustment or for periodic servicing such as shutdown maintenance.
KK -24

Overview of TPM

The structure of losses


Operating time : The time when plant actually operates Working time (equipment failure + process failure time) Net Operating Time: The time during is the time during which a plant is producing at the standard production rate. To calculate net operating, subtract performance time losses from the operating time. Performance time losses consists of normal production losses ( start up, shutdown, change over) and abnormal production losses ( production rate reduction due to abnormalities.)
KK -25

Overview of TPM

The structure of losses


Valuable Operating time : The net time when plant actually produces acceptable product. To calculate this subtract the time for reprocessing and rejected products from net operating time. Availability is the operating time expressed as a percentage of the calender time. a= calender time-(shutdown maint. Loss+production adjustment loss+ equipment failure loss+process failure loss)
KK -26

Overview of TPM

The structure of losses


Availability is the operating time expressed as a percentage of the calender time. a = calender time-(shutdown maint. loss + production adjustment loss+ equipment failure loss + process failure loss) b = calender time Availability = (a/b) x 100 %

KK -27

Overview of TPM

The structure of losses


A plants performance rate expresses the actual production rate as a percentage of the standard production rate( intrinsic capacity of a particular plant) D = average actual production rate C = standard production rate Performance rate = D/C x 100 % The rates can be expressed in tons/hour or tons/day

KK -28

Overview of TPM

The structure of losses


The quality rate expresses the amount of acceptable product without rework. First time through rate E = production quantity (t) (quality defect loss + reprocessing loss) (t) D = production quantity Quality rate = E/D x 100 %

KK -29

Overview of TPM

Relationship between Six Major Losses on Equipment and Overall Equipment Effectiveness
Equipment Loading time Down time losses Operating time Net operating time Valuable operating time
Six major losses
Calculation of overall equipment effectiveness
Availability = (e.g) loadingtime downtime loadingtime 460mins 60mins. 460mins. 100

c d

Equipment Failure Set up and adjustment

Availability =

100 = 87%

eIdling and minor


stoppage

Performanc e theoretical cycle time x processedamount = 100 efficiency Operatingtime (e.g) Performanc e 0.5mins./unit x 400units = 100 = 50% efficiency 400mins

Speed losses

Reduced speed Defects in process Reduced yield

Defect losses

g h

Rate of quality processedamount - defect amount = 100 = 100 products processedamount (e.g) Rate of quality 400 units - 8 units = 100 = 98% products 400 units

Overall equipment = Availability Performance Rate of quality products efficiency effectiveness


(e.g.) 0.87 0.50 0.98100 = 42.6%
KK -30

Overview of TPM

Overall plant effectiveness


<Plant >
Calendar time (A)

<8 - major losses> c d e f g h


Planned maintenance Production adjustment Equipment failure Process failure Normal Production Abnormal Production Quality Defect

<Calculation of the overall plant efficiency>


Calenderho ur - ( ) 100% Availability = Calenderhour (C) Availability = 100% (A)

Working time (B)

Loss by suspension

Operation time(C) Net Operation time (D)


Valued operation time(E)

Loss by stoppage

(T/H) Performanc e = Actualaverageproduction 100% efficiency Standardproduction (T/H) Performanc e = (D)100 % efficiency (C)

Loss by capacity

Loss by deficiency

( (T ) ) Rateof quality =Production(T) 100% products Production(T) Rateof quality= (E) 100 % products (D)

Reprocessing
OPE= Availability x Performance x Rate of Quality pro ducts efficiency
KK -31

Overview of TPM

7 steps for carrying out the Kobetsu Kaizen activities


Step Step 0 Details Select improvement topic Activity 1. Select and register topic 2. Form project teams 3. Plan activities Step 1 Understand situation 1. Identify bottleneck process 2. Measure failures, defects and other losses 3. Use baselines (Bench Mark) to set targets Step 2 Expose and eliminate abnormalities 1. Thoroughly study and expose abnormalities 2. Restore deterioration and correct minor flaws 3. Establish basic equipment condition Step 3 Analyze causes 1. Stratify and analyze causes 2. Apply analytical techniques (why-why analysis, Why OK analysis etc.) 3. Conduct experiments, apply specific technology, fabricate prototypes
KK -32

Overview of TPM

Step
Step 4

Details
Plan improvements

Activity
1. Make improvement proposals and prepare drawings 2. Compare cost effectiveness of alternate proposals and make budget 3. Check for possible adverse effects and disadvantages

Step 5

Implement improvements

1. Carryout improvement plan 2. Perform tests, trial runs 3. Provide instructions to work on improved equipment, operating conditions.

Step 6

Check results

1. Evaluate results with time as improvement project goes on 2. Check whether targets have been achieved, if not start from step 3 again

Step 7

Consolidate gains

1. Prepare inspection and work standards 2. Make drawings and feed information to Development management Pillar 3. Train operators and or fitters to sustain the results
KK -33

Overview of TPM

Cost loss methodology


Cost loss methodology is used for identification of all losses across the cross-section of the company. This is a very powerful tool for pinpointing the areas of losses for which action needs to be taken. Examples of some of the topic are raw material cost loss, Energy cost loss, Maintenance cost loss, administrative and overhead loss, inventory carrying cost loss, etc.

KK -34

Overview of TPM

Overall Plant efficiency


Calender time = 30 days Shut down maintenance loss = 1 day No plan for production = 1 days Equipment failure = day Process failure = day Standard performance rate = 1000t/day Actual production in the month = 23,900t Defects = .2% Reprocessing = .2 %
KK -35

Overview of TPM

PILLAR Hinshitsu Hozen or Quality Maintenance


QM - 36

Overview of TPM

Hinshitsu-Hozen
What is Hinshitsu-Hozen? To maintain integrity of quality (state of 100% non-defectives) * Condition setting : Set conditions for zero defects aimed at equipment and processes that do not produce quality defects. Daily and periodical inspections : Inspect and measure conditions in time series. Quality preventive maintenance : Prevent quality defects by maintaining measured values within the standard Trend control and predictive maintenance : Predict possibilities of quality defects occurring by observing trends of measured values. Prior countermeasures: Take measures beforehand

* * *

JIPM, 1994
QM - 37

Overview of TPM

Implementation Procedure for Quality Maintenance


Understanding quality defect phenomena. Setting of standard values for inspection items and confirmation of results Concentration of inspection items and

shortening of inspection time Drafting of QM (Quality Maintenance) matrix and reflection in standards
QM - 38

Overview of TPM

Implementation Procedure for Quality Maintenance (contd)


Master plan for QM 3M Analysis PM analysis for exposure and handling of malfunctions Kaizens and Poka Yoke for eliminating defects Maintaining Zero Defect Process capability improvement plan
QM - 39

Overview of TPM

QM Master plan
Master Plan for quality maintenance is planning of various activities in this pillar with respect to the time frame in months and years. According to the stage of TPM implementation it can start at various levels. In the beginning it will start with data collection on defects to improving conditions to sustaining zero defect conditions.
QM - 40

Overview of TPM

Brakes India (Sholinghur)

QM - 41

Overview of TPM

3M analysis
This analysis is a set of conditions with respect to machine, material and method for obtaining a good products. It helps in identifying 3M standards and checking is possible against these standards. Removing this variability can some times eliminate Quality Defects in the product.
QM - 42

Overview of TPM

3M CONDITION FOR NO BLISTER BUBBLES


3M COndition Machine Baffle plate Required value How to check Responsibility Frequency What to do

Both sheet should be seated Hand without gap Uniform Rotation 24010 V No jerking Visual

Comp.sup.

Daily

Dipper agitator Voltage Track Chain PROCESS

Prodn.sup

Daily Daily Shift once

Voltmeter Prodn.sup Visual Digitron Prodn.sup

Dipper temperature 282 C Latex circulation

Prod. Sup./operator Hourly


Prod. Sup./Comp.sup Weekly

No repelling of bubbles from Visual

dipper agitator Drying All teat end heaters should be switched off in I drier Visual Prod.Sup. Daily
QM - 43

Overview of TPM

3M CONDITION FOR NO BLISTER BUBBLES


How to check

3M Condition

Required value

Responsibility

Frequency What to do Hourly

No.1 product weight 0.75 - 0.80 Gms. Material(LATEX) S.I.Value Total alkalinity Sediments 2.0 - 2.4 0.35 - 0.50 % No sediments

Weighment Prodn.sup

S.I.check Titration Hand

Comp.sup/Lab.sup Comp.sup/Lab.sup Comp.sup/Lab.sup

Daily Daily Weekly

QM - 44

Overview of TPM

BILISTER BUBBLE -ANALYSIS


S No. 1 Phenomenon Latex Temperature above 30c Cause Chiller failure Solenoid failure Countermeasure Alarm provided Alarm provided (K) Based on EB voltage Tapping in Sub Station. Baffle plate misalignment. High Total Alkalinity Periodic check. Total Alkalinity checked once in a day and maintained below 0.5%.
QM - 45

Former temp above 60c. during II dipper

Voltage variation

3 4

Dipper latex agitation. Ammonia content above 0.5%

Overview of TPM

GOOD IN NO GOOD -3 M CONDITION


3M conditions
Loading Solenoid wing gap Disc play stripping Conductivity brush Voltage Carbon brush Sensor

Required value
Exactly on viton ring No gap No play Uniform stripping No worn out layers

How to check

ResponsiFrequency bility
Supervisor Operator Operator Operator Operator Every shift Twice in a shift Twice in a shift Twice in a shift Once in hour

What to do

Visual Visual Visual

Visual Visual

1200/900V +100V Voltmeter Electrician No powder LEDshould glow. No product in helmet Visual Visual Visual Fitter Electician Operator

Once in a shift Once in a shift Once in a shift Twice in a shift


QM - 46

Overview of TPM

Poka Yoke for eliminating defects


To err is Human. Human Beings are very forgetful and tend to make mistakes. Many times we end up saying Operator Carelessness / Negligence or Operator Inattentiveness. If we carefully look at such processes, we can reason out that these are a combination of many factors rather than just Operator Carelessness. Monotonous, mechanical and long tense working environment tend to make people commit mistakes. If we bracket these mistakes as carelessness, the people get demotivated and discouraged. Poka-Yoke is a technique for avoiding simple human errors at work. Poka is a Japanese word meaning inadvertent errors and Yoke comes from Japanese word Yokerie meaning to avoid. This has also been termed as Mistake / Fool Proofing or Fail Safing. The idea behind poka-yoke is to free a persons mind from maintaining repetitive vigil which may be practically infeasible. By doing so a person without the fear of making mistake can constructively do more value added activities.
QM - 47

Overview of TPM

ERRORS ARE INEVITABLE BUT CAN BE ELIMINATED

People always make mistakes. These can be reduced or even eliminated. Some of the Poke-Yoke devices, which can help avoid defects, are ; Guide Pins / Locators of different sizes. Error Detection Buzzers and Alarms Limit Switches, Proximity and Photosensors. Counters Checklists
QM - 48

Overview of TPM

Process Capability Improvement Plan


Sometimes capability of a process needs to be enhanced to obtain high Cp value for critical characteristics. This plant again follows the analysis for variation in the characteristics and taking countermeasure against all the sources.

QM - 49

Overview of TPM

PILLAR Planned Maintenance

QM - 50

Overview of TPM

Concept of Equipment Maintenance


We must know the most appropriate maintenance method for all types of deterioration. And we must understand the characteristic of deterioration on every part of the equipment and equipment function.

Equipment Maintenance

Maintenance must be performed with clear roles. We must decide who will maintain what parts of equipment

Maintenance by the production department

Specialized maintenance by the maintenance department (Keikaku Hozen)

Outside contractor maintenance

(Jishu Hozen)

Overview of TPM

The Process of Equipment Maintenance


1

What equipment? Evaluate the criticality of the equipment based on P,Q,C,D,S and M criteria and classify the equipment

What parts? Practical decision making through step activity of Jishu Hozen and Keikaku Hozen . Logical decision making,through the application of FMEA, FTA, PM analysis, RCM (Reliability Centered Maintenance) etc BM (Breakdown maintenance) What maintenance method? Select from the following maintenance methods for each part. Selection depends on the criticality of the equipment. TBM (Periodic maintenance) Inspection and Repair (Overhaul) CBM (Predictive maintenance)

Draft the standard maintenance procedure

5W1 H method should be used to draft the standard maintenance procedure Carryout maintenance systematically Maintenance tasks must be performed systematically based on the maintenance calendar and standard maintenance procedure.

Overview of TPM

Analysis of Stress and Strength


Three major causes Factors of failure 1 Neglected Deterioration Inadequate compliance with basic requirements Cleaning, Oiling and tightening are not carried out properly. Strength analysis Operators perform routine maintenance improperly or not at all. Neglected deterioration Safety margin Detection of natural and accelerated deterioration and proper restoration Failure : a are neglected. In other words, inspection, examination and preventive repair to correctly restore the equipment are not carried out. Time Indifferent / no awareness to the stress 2 Uncontrolled stress Non-compliance with usage requirements Equipment and machinery posses operating limitations based on design considerations. Sometimes these are ignored. Failure : b Example: Current, Voltage,RPM, Velocity, Temperature etc. Lack of skill Repair error by maintenance personnel or operators. Equipment Time operation error (Parts replacement error, operation without license) Inherent design weaknesses Insufficient strength can be inherent due to poor design, fabrication and installation caused by lack of engineering skills or error.
Stress and strength

3 Insufficient Strength
Stress and strength

Stress and strength

Failure : c Time

Overview of TPM

Subdivision of Failure Factors

Uncontrolled stress

Inadequate compliance with basic requirements Neglected deterioration

Neglected deterioration

Non-compliance with usage requirements Lack of skill Inherent Design weaknesses

Insufficient strength

Overview of TPM

Five Countermeasures to Achieve Zero Failures

Five Factors
1

Five Countermeasures
1

Inadequate compliance with basic requirements Non-compliance with usage requirements Neglected deterioration Inherent design weaknesses Lack of skill

Adequate compliance with basic requirements Compliance with usage requirements Restoration of deteriorated equipment condition Rectification of design weaknesses Improvement of operation and maintenance skills

3 3

Overview of TPM

Concept of Keikaku Hozen


I Activities to enhance equipment availability * Activities to extend MTBF of equipment * Activities to curtail MTTR of equipment
1. Guidance and assistance activities for Jishu-Hozen

2. 7-step activities for planned maintenance

II. Activities to conduct maintenance efficiently

Maintenance work Planning and management

3. Corrective maintenance activities

5. Study on predictive maintenance

Maintenance information management

Management of maintenance spare parts

4. MP activities

Maintenance cost management

Improvement of output: Zero failures, zero defects and zero accidents

Establishment of planned maintenance structure

JIPM, 1994

Input Reduction
(Source : processing and Assembling New TPM Implementation Program, Page 244)

Overview of TPM

Keikaku Hozen Promotion Procedure

Failure reduction activity Rank equipment criticality Select the equipment parts to be maintained Select maintenance method Draft standard equipment maintenance procedure Practice preventive maintenance (PM) based on maintenance calendar

Overview of TPM

Building Keikaku Hozen System


Unexpected failure reduction activity Support to Jishu Hozen Restoration and improvement against visible deterioration Equipment ranking and consideration of Maintenance method KeikakuImprovement of design weaknesses Hozen Extension of inherent service-life Step-up activity Start of preventive maintenance Periodic Maintenance Predictive Maintenance Reinforcement of other maintenance activity Maintenance planning Maintenance records (Information management) Drawing control Lubrication control Spare parts control Recurrence prevention activity

Overview of TPM

A Model of Deployment Plan for Keikaku Hozen System Building


Kick-off in April of 1st year. Audit is planned in September of 4th year.
Problems 1st Year 2nd year Main activity and aims 3rd year 4th year Jishu Hozens Steps (Typical model line) 1. Support activity for the production department Early start-up of Jishu Hozen activity Support to improve Jishu Hozen skills 2. Zero breakdown activity Achieve one tenth no. of breakdowns Build the foundations for preventive maintenance Reform awareness of maintenance personnel You produce, I fix mentality

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Support for initial cleaning Red tag removal and support to deal with areas with difficult access Production skill Education Preliminary Education for total inspection skills (Preparation) Preliminary education for total inspection skills (implementation) Why-Why analysis (for the production department) Record and Analyse each breakdown Thorough restoration and improvement activities against deteriorated parts Activities to prevent recurrence of breakdowns Preliminary education for total inspection skills (implementation)

Review task sharing with Jishu Hozen side

Breakdown maintenance is widespread Breakdown repair is the primary job Many think zero breakdowns is impossible

Deploy all the three activities mentioned left-hand side to all the equipment

Rectify equipment weakness (Implement corrective maintenance) Review maintenance system Rank equipment based on criticality and select maintenance method
Draft the standard inspection and maintenance standard procedure

3. Establish maintenance planning Delay in building system management Lack of proper planning Establish Keikaku Hozen Breakdown maintenance management Classify equipment based on criticality and draft the maintenance standard 4. Maintenance information management system development Information management useful for preventive maintenance Computer management 5. Spare parts control Control to support preventive maintenance Reduce the cost of retrieving, replenishment and administration 6. Predictive maintenance system development Research the optimal maintenance time Strive to minimize maintenance cost 7. Lubrication management Eliminate failures caused by defective lubricant or working oil Reduce management cost 8. Maintenance skill education Improve failure prediction capabilities Establish maintenance system run by selected elite Only data collection is done Information is not used

Practice maintenance based on maintenance calendar Record Analyse each breakdown Prepare maintenance information computerization Implement maintenance information computerization

Lack of control or no control at all Response is given only when emergency Incapable of implementing predictive maintenance. Only simplified diagnosis is implemented Throwing responsibilities to the shop floor Only the total usage is controlled Education is focused mainly on repair skill Insufficient knowledge of diagnosis Low awareness

Carryout seiri-seiton for spare parts Determine what items and what quantity should be stoked Draft the spare parts control standard Study the needs of predictive maintenance Learn equipment diagnostic techniques
Model activity

Physical control of the stock (visual control system)

Systemize ordering method Research and develop equipment diagnostic techniques

Select the equipment and parts to be diagnosed Accumulate data based on simplified diagnosis

Apply to the shop floor

Investigate and integrate various types of oils Promote visual control system. Indicate oil level, oil type etc.
Review oil standard

Study the technical aspects of oils and select the optimal oils
Draft the lubricant control standard

Control the pollution level of working oil and lubricant

Enlighten and educate through practice (learn from breakdowns) Participate in seminar organised by JIPM Plan and implement skill evaluation and education for each individual

Overview of TPM

PILLAR

Jishu Hozen or Autonomous Maintenance


JH -60

Overview of TPM

Reasons Why Autonomous Maintenance is Required


No satisfactory increase in the performance record can be seen
d min e v ti osi f f p are o o ck c La take ne to achi m
n s ow los d e k g a ea pp Br ss or sto o l Min Reduced speed loss
Im co pro nd pe uc r p t in os sp itio ec n tio to n

Confirmation of working conditions Daily inspection Periodical inspection Activities to prevent equipment degradation

Activities to keep record on equipment degradation

Setu loss p and a d

justm ent

loss Defect quality

of ill k s or or Po erat op

ss Yield lo

Keep cleaning Inspection Additional tightening Activities to restore the machine conditions

Preventive Maintenance

Production Maintenance Japanese style of PM

TPM

U.S style of PM
Maintenance Departments sole responsibility

Frequent servicing Solution of abnormality Good communication

JH -61

Overview of TPM

Why Jishu Hozen


To prevent equipment deterioration To maintain equipment in optimal condition To establish basic equipment condition To eliminate equipment failure To make operator familiar with his equipment To eliminate Quality defect To eliminate cost losses
JH -62

Overview of TPM

The Mind set ..


Individual preserving ones own equipment Significant change from early theory of I manufacture You repair or I make - You Fix
PRODUCTION
Maintenance does not its job They take too long to fix the equipment This equipment is so old no wonder it breaks down again and again We are too busy to do vital daily checks

MAINTENANCE
Production do not know how to operate We get lot of r5epairs sew we dont have ample to do a real corrective action and are forced to do only temporary job We prepare the standards but they do not do the checks
JH -63

Overview of TPM

EQUIPMENT DETERIORATION
Natural Deterioration Extend Life Time Corrective Maintenance Prevent errors by improving operability Improve Maintainability & Repair Quality Improve safety & Reliability Accelerated Deterioration Eliminate Causes Establish Basic Condition Cleaning : Eliminate all dust & Dirt Lubricating : Keep lubricants clean and replenished Tightening : Keep nuts & bolts secure
JH -64

Overview of TPM

Classification of Maintenance Activities


A. Activities to prevent deterioration By correct operation, Improvement of basic conditions and adjustments to prevent quality defects B. Activities to measure deterioration By senses (touch, see, hear, smell) C. Activities to rectify deterioration By improving reliability, maintainability of machines (MTBF, MTTR)
ROLE OF PRODUCTION Play vital role in A. also records maintenance data for prevention of recurrences of problem and MP design. Play role in B by five senses Play role in C by prompt reporting and assisting in sporadic failure ROLE OF MAINTENANCE Play role in as a guide and educationist and providing help in identifying areas sources of problems and Hard to Clean Play in role B by vibration and fluid Analysis. Play major role in C by improving MTBF, MTTR. Besides that they maintain MIS, work for new equipment design and set up maintenance standards
JH -65

Overview of TPM

Classification of Maintenance and Responsibility


Implementation Classification Operation Prevention Measurement Restoration Assigned Maintenance

Proper Operation Normal Operation Set-up and adjustment Cleaning, Address Latent Defects
Lubrication

Preventive Maintenance Daily Maintenance

Retightening Operation Condition, Daily Inspection for Deterioration

Minor Check Time based Maintenance Productive Maintenance Time based Inspection Time based Inspection Time based Check Tend Check
Unscheduled Check

Predictive Maintenance Strength KAIZEN


Corrective Maintenance (Reliability)

Lightening of Loading Accuracy Improvement Conditions Monitoring KAIZEN of Check Operation


KAIZEN Of Check Operation

Corrective Maintenance

Corrective Maintenance (Maintain-ability)

Others Maintenance Prevention Breakdown Maintenance MP Activities Planned Breakdown Maintenance Emergency Maintenance

Check Quality KAIZEN

Earlier discovery of interior situation and positive and rapid report/remedy Sporadic Repair

JH -66

Overview of TPM

7 Steps for Evolving Autonomous Maintenance


Step 1 Name Initial clean-up All-around clean-up of dust and dirt, centering on equipment proper, and implementation of lubrication, and machine parts adjustment; discovery and repair of malfunctions in equipment Prevent causes of dust and dirt and scattering, improve places which are difficult to clean and lubricate and reduce the time required for clean-up and lubrication.

Measures against Sources

Formulation of clean-up and Formulate behavioral standards so that it is possible to steadily sustain clean-up, lubrication standards lubrication and machine parts adjustment in a short period (Necessary to indicate a time frame-work that can be used daily or periodically).

Overall inspection

Training in check-up skills through check-up manuals; exposure and restoration of minor equipment defects through overall check-ups Formulation and implementation of autonomous check-up sheets Standardize various types of on-the job management items and devise complete systematization of up-keep management. Standards for clean-up, check-ups and lubrication Standards for physical distribution in the workplace Standardization of data records Standardization of die management, jigs and tools

5 6

Autonomous check-up Orderliness and tidiness

All-out management

autonomous Development of corporate policies and goals, and making improvement activities routine : Steadily record MTBF analysis, analyze these, and carry out equipment improvements

JH -67

Overview of TPM

Preparations for JH Activities


Prepare a Cleaning & Lubrication map Arrange Tools Arrange Red & White Tags History of Failures Training on 7 steps of Jishu Hozen Gantt Chart Training on 7 types of abnormalities
JH -68

Overview of TPM

STEP 1 : Initial Clean up


CLEANING IS INSPECTION USE 5 SENSES FOR CLEANING FIND OUT 7 TYPE OF ABNORMALITIES PUT TAGS ON ABNORMALITIES PREPARE LIST OF UNFULFILLED BASIC CONDITIONS
JH -69

Overview of TPM

STEP 1 : Initial Clean up


Make the list of Hard to clean, hard to lubricate, hard to tighten, hard to inspect, hard to adjust Record cleaning time Carry out audit on 1st step Meeting after the daily activities Refer to the old history records
JH -70

Areas / Parts

Overview of TPM

7 types of abnormalities
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Minor Flaws Unfulfilled Basic Conditions Inaccessible places Contamination sources Quality Defect Sources Unnecessary and non-urgent items Unsafe places
JH -71

Overview of TPM

1.MINOR FLAWS
Contamination Damage Play Slackness Abnormal Phenomenon Adhesion Dust, Dirt, powder, oil, grease, rust, paint Cracking, crushing, deformation, chipping, bending, Shaking, falling out, tilting, eccentricity, wear, distortion, corrosion, Belts, Chains Unusual noise, overheating, Vibration, strange smells, discoloration, incorrect pressure or current Blocking, hardening, accumulation of debris, peeling, malfunction

JH -72

Overview of TPM

2. UNFULFILLED BASIC CONDITIONS


Lubrication Lubrication Supply Oil level gauges Tightening Insufficient, Dirty, Unidentified, unsuitable, Leaking Dirty, damaged or deformed lubricant inlets, faulty lubricant pipes Dirty, Damaged, leaking, No indication of correct level Nuts and Bolts slackness, Missing, Cross-threaded, Too long, Crushed, Corroded, Unsuitable washers, wing nuts on backward

JH -73

Overview of TPM

3. INACCESSABLE PLACES
Cleaning Checking Machine construction, Covers, Layout, footholds, Space Construction, Covers, Layout, footholds, Instrument position and Orientation, Operating Range display

Lubricating Tightening Operation Adjustment

Position of lubricant inlet, construction, height, footholds, lubricant outlets, space Covers, Construction, Layout size, Space Machine layout, Position of valves, Switches and leavers, Footholds Position of pressure gauges, thermometers, flow meters, moisture gauges, vacuum gauges, etc.
JH -74

Overview of TPM

4. CONTAMINATION SOURCES
Product Raw materials Lubricants Gases Liquids Scrap Others Leaks, Spills, Spurts, Scattering, Overflow Leaks, Spills, Spurts, Scattering, Overflow Leaking, Spills, Seeping oils, Hydraulic fluids, Fuel oils, etc. Leaking compressed air, gases, steam, vapors, exhaust fumes, etc. Leaking water, Hot, Cold, half finished products, Waste water, Leaking supply lines etc. Flashes, cuttings, packaging conforming products. materials, and non

Contaminants by people & Forklifts, Infiltration through cracked walls, broken windows etc.

JH -75

Overview of TPM

5. QUALITY DEFECT SOURCES


Foreign Matter Shock Moisture Grain Size Concentration Viscosity Dust, Rust, powder, chips, moisture, wire scraps, wood pieces, paper pieces, stones etc. Dropping, Jolting, collision, Vibration etc. Too little or Too much, infiltration Abnormalities in screens, Compressed air separators, centrifugal separators, Inadequate warming, heating, compounding, mixing, evaporation, stirring etc. Inadequate warming, heating, compounding, mixing, evaporation, stirring etc.

JH -76

Overview of TPM

6. UNNECCERY AND NON-URGENT ITEMS


Machinery Piping equipment Measuring instruments Electrical equipment Jigs & Tools Spare parts Makeshift repairs Pumps, fans, compressors, columns, tanks etc. Pipes, hoses, ducts, valves, dampers etc. Temperatures, pressure gauges, vacuum gauges, ammeters etc. Wiring, piping, power leads, switches, plugs etc. General tools, cutting tools, jigs, molds, dies, frames etc. Standby equipment, spares, permanent stocks, auxiliary materials, etc. Tape. String, wire, metal plates etc.

JH -77

Overview of TPM

7. UNSAFE PLACES
Floors Steps Lights Rotating machinery Lifting Devices Others Unevenness, cracked, holes, projections, peeling, wear of steel chucker plates, slipping. Too steep, irregular, slipping, missing handrails, etc. Dim, out of position, dirty or broken covers, no explosion proofing, etc. Displaced, fallen off or broken covers, not safe for emergency, missing emergency stop devices Wires, hooks, brakes and other parts of cranes and hoists etc. Special substances, solvents, toxic gases, insulating materials, danger signs, protective clothing etc.

JH -78

Overview of TPM

White tags for operators

Red Tags to be attended by Maint.

Equipment Name Control No.. Date of detection. Detected by.. Description of Minor defects . .. .

Equipment Name Control No.. Date of detection. Detected by.. Description of Minor defects . .. .

JH -79

Overview of TPM

List of Abnormalities in the Equipment


Equipment Name : ______________________ Unit Name : ___________________________ No. : ______________
No. Date of Detection Abnormality Detector Item Why is it Abnormality? (What will happen if it is left as it is?) Why did it become so? (What is the cause?) Contents of the Countermeasures Abnormality tag Executor Classification Planned Date Date of completion

JH -80

Overview of TPM

STEP 2

COUNTERMEASURES AGAINST SOURCES OF CONTEMINATION AND HARD TO DO CLRI

Countermeasures against sources of contamination Make approach easy for CLRI Make easy to do CLRI Shorten cleaning , lubricating time Adopt concepts of localized guards Ranking the priority places for daily cleaning
JH -81

Overview of TPM

STEP 3

Prepare Tentative Standards

Standards for cleaning, lubricating and tightening Standards are made by operators themselves with guidance by pm

Standards are made by using 5w 1h Standards should be easily understood by every one Introduce extensive visual controls

JH -82

Overview of TPM

JISHU-HOZEN CHECK SHEET


POINT NO. 3 HYDRAULIC TANK FRONT,LUB TANK,FRL AND WORK HEAD BACK MACHINE : C P BORING
SL. NO CHECK ITEM D W M

CELL : CONNECTING ROD


STND. VALUE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

PLANT : ENGINE PLANT

MONTH : JANUARY

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

1 1a 1b 1c 1d 2 2a 2b 2c 2d

HYDRAULIC TANK FRONT Outer body Pipe Joints Oil level indicator Oil pressure Gauge LUBRICATION TANK Tank outer body Level indicator El. Jn. Wiring Lub Pipe joints 3M
No Leak No dirt & dust btwn. Max & Min. No dirt & dust No Leak btwn. Max & Min. in Green Zone

Checked By : Sign. Of Supervisor REVISION NO.


1 2 3 4

LEGENDS - (

) - OK ,

) - NOT OK ,

) - NOT OK,RECTIFIED BY SELF ,

) - NOT OK, INFORMED SUPERVISOR P,

) - PLANNED.

JH -83

Overview of TPM

TENTATIVE CLEAN LUB INSPECT STANDARDS


Cell : Nozzle Cell Equipment description : Micromatic OD Grinding Machine

Jishu - Hozen ( Tentative Cleaning, Lubrication and Inspection ) Standards


Equipment number : M12045 Cirlce name : NOZH 1
Tools and Time Cycle handling sec (month) Person in charge During During

Illustration

Classification

No.

Place or section

Standards

Method

operation stoppage

Tail stock

Inspection

Tailstock

With in the indicated value range

Visual

1 , 1
3mm Allenkey

OP

b b b b

Cleaning Inspection

2 3

Tailstock Table Lubrication

Free from mist & dust With in the indicated value range

Waste cloth Visual

30 2

W W

OP OP

Inspection

Loader Pistion

No Damage

Remove the Pistion block

1200 1 M

OP

Keys : D : Daily; W : Weekly; SC : Setting change; PM : Maintenance staff; OP : Operator.


JH -84

Overview of TPM

Aiders : Visual controls

JH -85

Overview of TPM

VISUAL CONTROLS
Activity

Symbol

Tools

CLEAN

, 6 12&
JH -86

LUB

INSPECTION

Overview of TPM

Four Steps to Become An Operator Strong on Equipment And Autonomous Maintenance


Autonomous Maintenance 7 steps Four steps to become an operator strong on equipment

7 All-out autonomous management

4 Master how to repair the equipment Learn how to operate the equipment with the required 3 accuracy and how to evaluate the product quality Study the mechanism and 2 functions of equipment and machines Familiarize with the concept of equipment maintenance and improvement and with how to put the idea into practical realization

6 Orderliness and tidiness 5 Autonomous check-up 4 General inspection 3 Formulation of clean-up and lubrication standards 2 Measures against sources of outbreaks

1 1 Initial clean-up

JH -87