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SUMMER TRAINING REPORT ON

EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION (UNDERTAKEN AT LEADER VALVES LTD JALANDHAR)


SUBMITTED TO DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT, GNDU COLLEGE, JALANDHAR IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF DEGREE OF GNDU COLLEGE, JALANDHAR MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (2011-2013)

SUPERVISED BY: Mr. ASHISH ARORA Lect. In Dept. Of Mgt. GNDU College jalandhar 1

SUBMITTED BY:RAMANJITKAUR R.NO- 449 M.B.A 2ND SEM

PREFACE

The project work entitled A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES OF LEADER VALVES LIMITED, JALANDHAR. employee Satisfaction is favorableness or unfavorableness with which the employee views his work. It expresses the amount of agreement between ones expectation of the job and the rewards that the job provides. Job Satisfaction is a part of life satisfaction. The nature of ones environment of job is an important part of life as Job Satisfaction influences ones general life satisfaction. Job Satisfaction, thus, is a result of various attitudes possessed by an employee. In a narrow sense, these attitudes are related to the job under condition with such specific factors such as wages, supervisors of employment, conditions of work, social relation on the job, prompt settlement of grievances and fair treatment by employer. However, more comprehensive approach requires that many factors are to be included before a complete understanding of job satisfaction can be obtained. Such factors as employees age, health temperature, desire and level of aspiration should be considered. Further his family relationship, social status, recreational outlets, activity in the organizations etc. contribute ultimately to job satisfaction

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
With an introduction of the professional courses the students are getting an opportunity to get the practical knowledge along with the theoretical knowledge. Such kinds of projects help us in getting the practical knowledge of the workings. Therefore, I would like to thank all the persons who have been instrumental in the completion of my project. It gives me pleasure in acknowledging invaluable assistance extended to me by various personalities in the successful completion of this learning. I express my deep gratitude and sincere thanks to Mr. Rohit Jaiswal, Manager (HRD) in Leader Valves Ltd. Jalandhar, Mr. ASHISH ARORA (project in charge), for inspiration and guidance that has encouraged me a lot in the successful completion of this research report.

AMANJOT KAUR

DECLARATION

I, "Amanjot Kaur hereby declare that the work presented herein is genuine work done originally by me and has not been published or submitted elsewhere for the requirement of a MBA program me. Any literature, data or works done by others and cited within this research project has been given due acknowledgement and listed in the reference section.

AMANJOT KAUR Gndu College Jalandhar

TABLE OF CONTENTS SR.NO. 1 PARTICULARS


INTRODUCTION OF THE COMPANY 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 About the Company Board of Directors Products Quality Assurance Plant and Machinery Research and Development Manufacturing Facilities Organization Chart

PAGE NO. 7 8 9 9 10 12 13 13 15 17 18 18 18 19 20 24 26 30 31

INTRODUCTION OF THE TOPIC 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Employee Satisfaction Definition of Employee Satisfaction Importance of Employee Satisfaction History of Employee Satisfaction Theories of Employee Satisfaction Factors that Influence Employee Satisfaction 2.7 Determinants of Employee Satisfaction 2.8 2.9 Measuring Employee Satisfaction The impact of Satisfied and

Dissatisfied Employees on Workplace

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Meaning Definitions Objectives of the study Scope of the study Research Design Sample Size Collection of Data Formation of Questionnaire Limitations of study

36 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 40 41 42 43 59 63 6

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA 4.1 Analysis of Questionnaire

5 6 7

FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS and CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY ANNEXURE

INTRODUCTION OF THE COMPANY

INTRODUCTION OF THE COMPANY 1.1 About the Company

Leader Valves Limited is a leading valve manufacturing company of India. We are a totally integrated valves manufacturing unit with our own Ferrous & Non Ferrous Foundries, Forging units, state of art Machining and Testing facilities. The company was set - up more than six decades ago when India was on the threshold of industrial revolution and there were no good valve manufacturers in the country. It has over the years built up an excellent track record by following the policy of customer satisfaction through continual improvement in Designs, Manufacturing Processes and marketing products that are highly competitive, Safe and Harmless to the environment. We are an ISO-9001: 2000 company since Jan 1996 certified by LRQA, India. The company is also licensed to use API Spec 6D (Certificate no 6D-0346), and API 600 (Certificate No. 6000018) monograms our Ferrous & Non-Ferrous foundries are PED certified by M/s. LRQA India & AD 2000-Merkblatt WO certified by TUV India. The Foundries are also adjudged as "Well Known FOUNDRY" under Indian Boiler Regulation 4C (2) of Central Boiler Board, Govt. of India. We are registered with all major clients in India and abroad. We are also recipient of National award for Indigenization for the year 19961997 by the Ministry of Defense India for our contribution in indigenous ship building activities of Indian Navy. Leader High Pressure is a Ferrous Forging unit which is equipped with Friction Drop Forging Hammer for producing Forge Fittings from 2000 to 9000 PSI, as well as valves up to 50 NB.Leader Exports Besides being a merchant exporter of valves is equipped with modern CNC machining centers and SPM's to carry out job work for the leading international manufacturer of valves. Leader Valves has entered into an agreement with M/s. ENOLGAS s.p.a. Italy for marketing of their entire range of products in India. This agreement also facilitate export of our product to world market

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through M/s. ENOLGAS. M/s. ENOLGAS is a world leader in wide range of gas safety devices, Manually, Electrically & Pneumatically operated valves in Brass, Carbon Steel & Stainless Steel for Plumbing & Industrial applications.

1.2 Board of Directors


NAMES
Mr. J.K.Beri Ms. Purnima Beri Mr. Hemant Beri Ms. Ambika Beri Ms. Ayushi Beri

DESIGNATION
Chairman & Managing Director Vice Chairperson & Jt. Managing Director Dy. Managing Director Exec. Director Materials & Management Exec. Director Personal, HRD & Environment

1.3 Products

Cast Steel

Forged Steel

Cast Iron

Gun Metal / IS

Boiler Mounting

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1.4 Quality Assurance


We maintain strict control on Quality in all stages of production right from raw material to shipment. We have in-house quality control Lab. which is equipped with UTM, SPECTRO analyzer, Impact testing machine, Hardness testing machine. We have in house facility of all NDT equipment such as Radiography, UT, and MPI & DP. Added to this qualified level II professional that carry out NDT operations. We have facility for radiography of castings, Die penetrant and magnetic particle inspection of material, NDT, In house Spectrometer for Physical analysis & specialized tests are furnished on demand. Our 10 Q.A. Personnels are trained and qualified in accordance to SNT-TC-1A for carrying out non destructive examination of jobs. Company has its own Standard Room for calibration of measuring instruments, Gauges & temperature Recorders etc.Quality Control and Quality Assurance Functions of Leader Valves Limited. Broadly the function can be classified into three groups: Incoming Inspection In process Inspection Testing and Final Inspection Standard Room Incoming Inspection Apart from inspecting all the incoming materials like bar stock, raw materials for our own ferrous and non-ferrous foundries in our laboratories and from other approved sources, standard proprietary items like fasteners etc.; we have a Vendor Development Cell manned by inspection personnel to control the quality of the components at our ancillaries' premises. Our laboratories have Spectrometer, Universal Testing Machines, Spring Testing Machines, facilities for Chemical analysis of all elements, Sand Testing Facilities etc. We have the system of vendor evaluation and vendor rating as a support service for ensuring entry of right quality material. Undoubtedly all the instruments are calibrated in time in order to maintain their accuracy.

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In process Inspection Apart from inspecting all the incoming materials like bar stock, raw materials for our own ferrous and non-ferrous foundries in our laboratories and from other approved sources, standard proprietary items like fasteners etc.; we have a Vendor Development Cell manned by inspection personnel to control the quality of the components at our ancillaries' premises. Our laboratories have Spectrometer, Universal Testing Machines, Spring Testing Machines, facilities for Chemical analysis of all elements, Sand Testing Facilities etc. We have the system of vendor evaluation and vendor rating as a support service for ensuring entry of right quality material. Undoubtedly all the instruments are calibrated in time in order to maintain their accuracy. Testing and Final Inspection We have all the facilities of Hydro, Air and in boiler testing. The test rings are equipped with calibrated pressure gauges. The pressure gauges are calibrated in our in-house Standard Room facility with the help of Sead Weight tester duly calibrated from accredited authority with National Traceability. Even after testing, the Final Inspector Stage takes care of visual, dimensional, painting and packaging requirements to ensure hundred percent customer satisfactions. We aim to achieve ideal values of Cp and Cpk of our processes. Standard Room As mentioned earlier, we have a well equipped Temperature controlled dust proof Standard Room as per ISO 9000 norms. We have master equipments duly calibrated with National Traceability. All the measuring instruments in the company are calibrated at any point of time. We have our own Heat Treatment Shops with calibrated thermocouples, Temperature controllers and Recorders. We strictly follow the Heat Treatment cycle as per National/International Standards, maintaining all the records. We have Brinell & Rockwell Hardness Testers. We have facilities for MMAW and GMAW (both MIG & TIG) of welding with duly qualified process and certified welders by renowned certifying authority like Lloyds. This
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apart, we have a certifying cell for preparation of documents like Material Test Certificates, Pressure Test Certificates, Guarantee Certificates etc., from our well maintained records so as to meet the requirements of our inspectors like IBR, NTPC, PDIL etc. This cell is equipped with latest Microsoft computer and inkjet printer to augment its efficiency. Efficiency. Our manpower in Quality Control department is vastly experienced with specialization in valve manufacturing having academic background with Graduation or Diploma in Mechanical &Metallurgical engineering. They are being trained from time to time on technical developments in their respective field so that the company can grow and compete in the national and international market. Finally, customer feedback is given due importance and analysis made and corrective and preventive action implemented to ensure customer delight.

1.5 Plant and Machinery


Foundry Our own foundries which are equipped with latest equipments and modern laboratories. Non-ferrous foundry is equipped with two Induction furnaces of twin crucible of 500 Kg. & 750 Kg capacity respectively. We can melt around 500 Tons copper alloy castings per month per shift basis. All our routine products in non-ferrous range are produced by shell molding process. We also use Co2 and Green Sand moulds. Ferrous foundry is equipped with twin crucible of 1 and 1.5 Ton capacity. We use machine molding process with ARPA1300 molding and Jolt Type mould machines. We also have a mechanized sand plant. With the ongoing modernization program, the output of the Ferrous foundry will increase to 3000 Tons per annum of Radiographic quality Steel and Alloy Steel castings. Forge shop Our forge shop is equipped with "ROVETTA ISGEC" 350 Ton capacity forging press for making brass forgings. 300 Ton extrusion press for manufacturing brass round & hexagonal bars. A 1000 Kg. Friction Drop Forging Hammer to produce carbon alloy and stainless steel forgings for valves and pipe fittings up to size 50NB.

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Workshop Work shops have more than 400 Machines including SPM's and CNC machines capable of carrying out all types of precise machining operations. We have installed state of the art CNC machines such as JUARISTI CNC Horizontal machining center for machining Gate, Globe & Check Valves up to 36 inch, PRAGA MITSUBISHI CNC Horizontal machining center Model MPA-H50A for machining Gate, Globe and Check valves up to 24 inch, and CNC SPM to machine Butterfly Valves. Two CNC machines of HESSAB Make Vertical turning machine & MAXMULLER Make horizontal turning machine. In addition to the above Five CNC machines were recently commissioned to augment our facility. Captive Power Generators: As a process of ongoing modernization we have commissioned a 1000 KW generator which is capable to take complete load of our Induction furnaces. We also have one 500 KW generator and other small generators which are capable to take complete load requirement of company.

1.6 Research and Development


Team of Qualified Design Engineers with computer aided design facility as well as a well equipped library are constantly developing new designs as per the stated needs of the customers as well as improvising existing products. All our designs/products are validated for the specified service by using in-house testing facilities or by using facilities at recognized test houses. Leader is committed to its Employee Development programs by imparting technical training on a regular basis to ensure that our staff is capable of rendering best possible support to our Customers at any time. Our 6 officials have successfully completed the course of Lead Auditors and 20 others as Internal Auditors of Quality Management System as per ISO 9000

1.7 Manufacturing Facilities


Electricity Load Sanctioned Load 4650 KW. We have Stand by generations of 2500 KVS for the entire Foundry & machine shops electricity department.
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Employee Strength We have over 1100 dedicated & motivated people who are working round the clock to produce best Quality Valves for the Industry. Casting Capacity a) Ferrous Foundry is equipped with Induction furnace with twin Crucibles with a capacity to produce 200 Tons/Month finished Radiographic Quality Steel & Alloy Steel, Grey Iron, DI & D2 casting. b) Non-Ferrous foundry has two Induction furnaces of 1000Kg. & 750 Kg. Capacity respectively. We can melt around 250 tons copper alloy castings per month. The nonferrous casting are produced by shell molding process. We are producing precision NAB castings in our foundry. Forge Shop It is equipped with ROVETTA" 350 Ton capacity forging press for making brass forging &300 Ton extrusion press besides other small capacity hammers & Induction heaters/furnaces. Machine Shop Machine shops are equipped with most modern Horizontal & Vertical machining centers for manufacturing valves up to 52". Machine shop is also equipped with SPM machines for manufacturing Butterfly valves. Our workshops are a good combination of latest & conventional machines. We also have over 300 conventional machines in the workshops to facilitate the production of quality valves. Continual Important Program All our designs / products are validated for the specified service conditions by using Inhouse testing facilities and at recognized test houses. The product development / Improvement is done under the supervision of highly experienced & Qualified engineers.The Management of LEADER is committed to its Staff Development Programs by imparting regular training to ensure that our staff is fully capable of rendering best possible support to our customers. Special Testing Facilities In addition to Hydrostatic, Steam Pressure & Air testing we have following additional testing facilities:

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Vacuum Testing Facility Helium Testing Facility Cryogenic Test Rig & Testing Facility Fire Safe Test Rig & Testing Facility Endurance Testing Pull Test as per API 591 PMI Testing Machine.

1.8 Organization Chart

ADMN DD&D FF HRD HOD NFF

ADMINISTRATION DESIGN DRAWING& DEVELOPMENT FERROUS FOUNDRY HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT HEAD OF DEPARTMENT NON FERROUS FOUNDRY

MNE MNM M&S MM PPE QA

MAINTENANCE ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE MECHANICAL MARKETING & SALES MATERIAL MANAGEMENT PRODUCTION PLANNING & EXECUTION QUALITY ASSURANCE

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Officials with Dual Responsibility PPE NFF = = PRODUCTION, PLANNING & EXECUTION NON-FERROUS FOUNDRY HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT DEVELOPMENT DESIGN DRAWING DEVELOPMENT MATERIAL MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE FERROUS FOUNDRY ADMINISTRATION HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT PERSONNEL; MAINTENANCE (ELECTRICAL) DEPUTY MANAGEMENT REPRESENTATIVE MARKETING & SALES MAINTENANCE (MECHANICAL) ENVIRONMENT ASSEMBLY

HOD = DEV = DD&D = MM QA FF = = =

ADMN= HRD = PS =

MNE = DMR = MS =

MNM = ENVT = ASY =

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INTRODUCTION OF THE TOPIC

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INTRODUCTION 2.1 Employee Satisfaction


Employee satisfaction describes how happy an individual is with his or her job. The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Employee satisfaction is the individual employees general attitude towards the job. It is also an employees cognitive and affective evaluation of his or her job. The term job satisfaction describes a positive feeling about a job, resulting from evaluation of its characteristics. When people speak of employee satisfaction they usually means job satisfaction. Job satisfaction refers to a persons feeling of satisfaction on the job, which acts as a motivation to work. It is not the self satisfaction, happiness or self contentment but the satisfaction on the job. The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. The term relates to the total relationship between an individual and the employer for which he is paid. Satisfaction does mean the simple feeling-state accompanying the attainment of any goal; the end-state is feeling accompanying the attainment by an impulse of its objectives. Job satisfaction does mean absence of motivation at work. Research workers differently described the factors contributing to job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction. Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. Job design aims to enhance job satisfaction and performance; methods include job rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment. Other influences on satisfaction include the management style and culture, employee involvement, empowerment and autonomous work groups.

2.2 Definition of Employee Satisfaction


Any combination of psychological, physiological and environmental circumstances that cause any person truthfully to say I am satisfied with my job. - Hoppock

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2.3 Importance of Employee Satisfaction


Basically employee satisfaction provides an employee with inner motivation and self encouragement so that he or she can give the best to his organization. Normally an employee who is satisfied with his work will facilitate in creating a positive working environment for people around. It will help in boosting the morale of the other employees in the organization. Its a fact that majority of us work for money but monetary benefits should not be the sole criteria while selecting a job. It is always recommended that you select a job which provides you with inner satisfaction and happiness. Life becomes happier and easier for an employee who is happy with his or her job. Majority of the well reputed companies these days give lot of importance to measure the level of employee satisfaction at the work place. Hence employers these days emphasize a lot on a good HR system in the organization. Job satisfaction is absolutely necessary and beneficial both for the organization as well as the career development of the employee.

2.4 History of Employee Satisfaction


One of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was the Hawthorne studies. These studies (19241933), primarily credited to Elton Mayo of the Harvard Business School, sought to find the effects of various conditions (most notably illumination) on workers productivity. These studies ultimately showed that novel changes in work conditions temporarily increase productivity (called the Hawthorne). It was later found that this increase resulted, not from the new conditions, but from the knowledge of being observed. This finding provided strong evidence that people work for purposes other than pay, which paved the way for researchers to investigate other factors in job satisfaction. Scientific management also had a significant impact on the study of job satisfaction. Frederick Winslow Taylors 1911 book, Principles of Scientific

Management, argued that there was a single best way to perform any given work task. This book contributed to a change in industrial production philosophies, causing a shift from skilled labor and piecework towards the more modern of assembly lines and hourly wages. The initial use of scientific management by industries greatly increased productivity because workers were forced to work at a faster pace. However, workers
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became exhausted and dissatisfied, thus leaving researchers with new questions to answer regarding job satisfaction. Some argue that Maslows hierarchy of needs theory, a motivation theory, laid the foundation for job satisfaction theory. This theory explains that people seek to satisfy five specific needs in life physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization. This model served as a good basis from which early researchers could develop job satisfaction theories. Job satisfaction can also be seen within the broader context of the range of issues which affect an individual's experience of work, or their quality of working life. Job satisfaction can be understood in terms of its relationships with other key factors, such as general well-being, stress at work, control at work, home-work interface, and working conditions.

2.5 Theories of Employee Satisfaction


1.Affect theory Edwin A. Lockes Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/arent met. When a person values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one who doesnt value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B. This theory also states that too much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet. 2. Dispositional theory Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory. It is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have
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tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of ones job. This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels of job satisfaction. A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the Core Self-evaluations Model, proposed by Timothy A. Judge, Edwin A. Locke, and Cathy C. Durham in 1997. Judge et al. argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine ones disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-

efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of selfesteem (the value one places on his/her self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in ones own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Having an internal locus of control (believing one has control over her\his own life, as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction. 3. Opponent process theory According to opponent process theory, emotional events, such as criticisms or rewards, elicits two sets of processes. Primary processes give way to emotions that are steady with the event in question. Events that seem negative in manner will give rise to the feelings of stress or anxiety. Events that are positive give rise to the feeling of content or relaxation. The other process is the opponent process, which induces feelings that contradict the feelings in the primary processes. Events that are negative give rise to feelings of relaxation while events that are positive give rise to feelings of anxiety. A variety of explanations have been suggested to explain the uniformity of mood or satisfaction. This theory shows that if you try to enhance the mood of individual it will more likely fail in doing so. The opponent process theory was formulated to explain these patterns of observations. 4.Equity theory Equity Theory shows how a person views fairness in regard to social relationships. During a social exchange, a person identifies the amount of input gained from a relationship compared to the output, as well as how much effort another person puts
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forth. Equity Theory suggests that if an individual thinks there is an inequality between two social groups or individuals, the person is likely to be distressed because the ratio between the input and the output are not equal. For example, consider two employees who work the same job and receive the same benefits. If one individual gets a pay raise for doing the same or less work than the other, then the less benefited individual will become distressed in his workplace. If, on the other hand, one individual gets a pay raise and new responsibilities, then the feeling of inequality is reduced.

5. Discrepancy theory The concept of self-discrepancy theory explains the ultimate source of anxiety and dejection. An individual, who has not fulfilled his responsibility feels the sense of anxiety and regret for not performing well, they will also feel dejection due to not being able to achieve their hopes and aspirations. According to this theory, all individuals will learn what their obligations and responsibilities for a particular function, over a time period, and if they fail to fulfill those obligations then they are punished. Over time, these duties and obligations consolidate to form an abstracted set of principles, designated as a selfguide. Agitation and anxiety are the main responses when an individual fails to achieve the obligation or responsibility. This theory also explains that if achievement of the obligations is obtained then the reward can be praise, approval, or love. These achievements and aspirations also form an abstracted set of principles, referred to as the ideal self guide. When the individual fails to obtain these rewards, they begin to have feelings of dejection, disappointment, or even depression. 6. two-factor theory (motivator-hygiene theory) Frederick Herzbergs Two-factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. An employees motivation to work is continually related to job satisfaction of a subordinate. Motivation can be seen as an inner force that drives individuals to attain personal and organizational goals. Motivating factors are those
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aspects of the job that make people want to perform, and provide people with satisfaction, for example achievement in work, recognition, promotion opportunities. These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job, or the work carried out. Hygiene factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay, company policies, supervisory practices, and other working conditions. The following table presents the top six factors causing dissatisfaction and the top six factors causing satisfaction, listed in the order of higher to lower importance. Factors Affecting Job Attitudes Leading to Dissatisfaction

Leading to Satisfaction

Company policy Supervision Relationship w/Boss Work conditions Salary Relationship w/Peers

Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth

7. Maslows need fulfillment theory If motivation is driven by the existence of unsatisfied needs, then it is worthwhile for a manager to understand which needs are the more important for individual employees. In this regard, Abraham Maslow developed a model in which basic, low-level needs such as physiological requirements and safety must be satisfied before higher-level needs such as self-fulfillment are pursued. In this hierarchical model, when a need is mostly satisfied it no longer motivates and the next higher need takes its place. Maslow's hierarchy of needs

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is shown in the following diagram.

If Maslow's theory holds, there are some important implications for management. There are opportunities to motivate employees through management style, job design, company events, and compensation packages, some examples of which follow:

Physiological needs: Provide lunch breaks, rest breaks, and wages that are sufficient to purchase the essentials of life.

Safety Needs: Provide a safe working environment, retirement benefits, and job security.

Social Needs: Create a sense of community via team-based projects and social events.

Esteem Needs: Recognize achievements to make employees feel appreciated and valued. Offer job titles that convey the importance of the position.

Self-Actualization: Provide employees a challenge and the opportunity to reach their full career potential.

However, not all people are driven by the same needs - at any time different people may be motivated by entirely different factors. It is important to understand the needs being pursued by each employee. To motivate an employee, the manager must be able to recognize the needs level at which the employee is operating, and use those needs as levers of motivation.

2.6 Factors that influence employee satisfaction


Environmental factors Communication overload and communication under load One of the most important aspects of an individuals work in a modern organization concerns the management of communication demands that he or she encounters on the job. Demands can be characterized as a communication load, which refers to the rate and complexity of communication inputs an individual must process in
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a particular time frame. Individuals in an organization can experience communication over-load and communication under- load which can affect their level of job satisfaction. Communication overload can occur when an individual receives too many messages in a short period of time which can result in unprocessed information or when an individual faces more complex messages that are more difficult to process. Due to this process, given an individuals style of work and motivation to complete a task, when more inputs exist than outputs, the individual perceives a condition of overload which can be positively or negatively related to job satisfaction. In comparison, communication under load can occur when messages or inputs are sent below the individuals ability to process them. According to the ideas of communication over-load and under-load, if an individual does not receive enough input on the job or is unsuccessful in processing these inputs, the individual is more likely to become dissatisfied, aggravated, and unhappy with their work which leads to a low level of job satisfaction. Superior-subordinate communication Superior-subordinate communication is an important influence on job satisfaction in the workplace. The way in which subordinates perceive a supervisor's behavior can positively or negatively influence job satisfaction. Communication behavior such as facial expression, eye contact, vocal expression, and body movement is crucial to the superior-subordinate relationship. Nonverbal messages play a central role in interpersonal interactions with respect to impression formation, deception, attraction, social influence, and emotional. Nonverbal immediacy from the supervisor helps to increase interpersonal involvement with their subordinates impacting job satisfaction. The manner in which supervisors communicate with their subordinates non-verbally may be more important than the verbal content. Individuals who dislike and think negatively about their supervisor are less willing to communicate or have motivation to work whereas individuals who like and think positively of their supervisor are more likely to communicate and are satisfied with their job and work environment. A supervisor who uses nonverbal immediacy, friendliness, and open communication lines is more likely to receive positive feedback and high job satisfaction from a subordinate. Conversely, a supervisor who is antisocial, unfriendly, and unwilling to communicate will naturally

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receive negative feedback and create low job satisfaction in their subordinates in the workplace. Individual factors Emotion Mood and emotions form the affective element of job satisfaction. Moods tend to be longer lasting but often weaker states of uncertain origin, while emotions are often more intense, short-lived and have a clear object or cause. Some research suggests moods are related to overall job satisfaction. Positive and negative emotions were also found to be significantly related to overall job satisfaction. Emotion management refers to various types of efforts to manage emotional states and displays. Emotion management includes all of the conscious and unconscious efforts to increase, maintain, or decrease one or more components of an emotion. Although early studies of the consequences of emotional work emphasized its harmful effects on workers, studies of workers in a variety of occupations suggest that the consequences of emotional work are not uniformly negative. Genetics It has been well documented that genetics influence a variety of individual differences. Some research suggests genetics also play a role in the intrinsic, direct experiences of job satisfaction like challenge or achievement (as opposed to extrinsic, environmental factors like working conditions). One experiment used sets of monozygotic twins, reared apart, to test for the existence of genetic influence on job satisfaction. While the results indicate the majority of the variance in job satisfaction was due to environmental factors (70%), genetic influence is still a minor factor. Genetic heritability was also suggested for several of the job characteristics measured in the experiment, such as complexity level, motor skill requirements, and physical demands. Personality Some research suggests an association between personality and job satisfaction. Specifically, this research describes the role of negative and positive affectivity. Negative affectivity is related strongly to the personality trait of neuroticism. Individuals high in
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negative affectivity are more prone to experience less job satisfaction. Positive affectivity is related strongly to the personality trait of extraversion. Those high in positive affectivity are more prone to be satisfied in most dimensions of their life, including their job. Differences in affectivity likely impact how individuals will perceive objective job circumstances like pay and working conditions, thus affecting their satisfaction in that job. 2.7 Determinants of Employee Satisfaction According to Abraham A. Korman, there are two types of variables which determine the job satisfaction of an individual. These are: Organizational variables, and Personal variables. Organizational Variables The organizational determinants of job satisfaction play a very important role. The employees spend major part of their time in organization so there are number of organizational factors that determine job satisfaction of the employees. The job satisfaction in the organizations can be increased by organizing and managing the organizational factors. The organization determinants of job satisfaction are as follows: Wages: Wage can be described as the amount of reward that a worker expects from the job. Wages are an instrument of fulfilling the needs as every worker expects to get an appropriate reward. The wages are supposed to be fair, reasonable and equitable. A feeling of job satisfaction is felt by attaining fair and equitable rewards. Nature of Work: The nature of work has significant impact on the job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is highly influenced by the nature of work. Employees are satisfied with job that involves intelligence, skills, abilities, challenges and scope

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for greater freedom. Job dissatisfaction arises with a feeling of boredom, poor variety of tasks, frustration and failures. Working Conditions: Employees are highly motivated with good working conditions as they provide a feeling of safety, comfort and motivation. On contrary, poor working conditions brings out a fear of bad health in employees. Job Content: Factors like recognition, responsibility, advancement, achievement etc can be referred to as job content. A job that involves variety of tasks and less monotonous results delivers greater job satisfaction. A job that involves poor content produces job dissatisfaction. Organizational Level: The jobs that are at higher levels are viewed as prestigious, esteemed and opportunity for self-control. The employees that are working at higher level jobs express greater job satisfaction than the ones working at lower level jobs. Opportunities for Promotion: Promotion can be reciprocated as a significant achievement in the life. It promises and delivers more pay, responsibility, authority, independence and status. So, the opportunities for promotion determine the degree of satisfaction to the employees.

Work Group: There is a natural desire of human beings to interact with others and so existence of groups in organizations is a common observable fact. This characteristic results in formation of work groups at the work place. Isolated workers dislike their jobs. The work groups make use of a remarkable influence on the satisfaction of employees. The satisfaction of an individual is dependent on largely on the relationship with the group members, group dynamics, group cohesiveness and his own need for affiliation.

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Leadership Styles: The satisfaction level on the job can be determined by the leadership styles. Job satisfaction is greatly enhanced by democratic style of leadership. It is because democratic leaders promote friendship, respect and warmth relationships among the employees. On contrary, employees working under authoritarian and dictatorial leaders express low level of job satisfaction.

Personal Variables The personal determinants also help a lot in maintaining the motivation and personal factors of the employees to work effectively and efficiently. Job satisfaction can be related to psychological factors and so numbers of personal factors determine the job satisfaction of the employees. They are as follows:-

Personality: The personality of an individual can be determined by observing his individual psychological conditions. The factors that determine the satisfaction of individuals and his psychological conditions is perception, attitudes and learning. Age: Age can be described as a noteworthy determinant of job satisfaction. It is because younger age employees possessing higher energy levels are likely to be having more job satisfaction. In older age, the aspiration levels in employees increase. They feel completely dissatisfied in a state where they are unable to find their aspiration fulfilled. Educational Levels: With occupational level held constant there is a negative relationship between the educational level and job satisfaction. The higher the educational, the higher the reference group which the individual looks to for guidance to evaluate his job rewards. Education plays a significant determinant of job satisfaction as it provides an opportunity for developing ones personality. The highly educated employees can understand the situation and asses it positively as they possess persistence, rationality and thinking power.

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Gender Differences: The gender and race of the employees plays important determinants of Job satisfaction. There is yet no confident evidence as to whether women are more satisfied with that their job than men. However, Women, the fairer sex, are more likely to be satisfied than their male counterpart even if they are employed in small jobs.

The job satisfaction can also be determined by other factors as follows: General working conditions Union-Management Relations General Quality of supervisors Type of work Co-workers Ease to communicating to work Advancement opportunities Security Supervision Company prestige Working hours Recognition Autonomy Fair evaluation of work done Job status

It is important for managers to consider all these factors in assessing the satisfaction of the employees and increasing their level of job satisfaction.

2.8 Measuring Employee satisfaction


Job satisfaction is a very important attribute which is frequently measured by organizations. A persons job is more than just the obvious activities of shuffling papers, writing programmed code, waiting on customers or driving on a truck. Job requires interacting with coworkers and bosses, following organizational rules and policies,
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meeting performance standards, living with working conditions that are often less than ideal, and the like. The two most widely used approaches are a single global rating and a summation score made up of a no of job facets. The single global rating method is nothing more than a response to one question, such as all things considered, how satisfied are you with your job? respondents circle a no between 1 to 5 that corresponds to answers from highly satisfied to highly dissatisfied. The other approach- a summation of job facets- is more sophisticated. It identifies key elements in a job and asks for employees feeling about each. Typical elements here are nature of work, supervision, present pay, promotion opportunities, and relation with coworkers. Respondents rate them on a standardized scale, and researchers add the ratings to create an overall job satisfaction score. Summation of job facets helps managers zero in on where problem exists, making it easier to deal with unhappy employees and solve problems faster and more accurately. Smith Kendall and Hulin have suggested that there are five job dimensions that represent the most important characteristics of a job about which people have affective responses, these are: The work itself: The extent to which the job provides the individual with the interesting task, opportunities for learning and the chance of accept responsibility. Pay: The amount of financial remuneration that is received and the degree to which this is viewed as equitable vis-a-vis that of others in the organization. Promotion opportunities: The chance for advancement in the hierarchy. Supervision: The ability is on the supervision to provide technical assistance and behavioral support. Co-workers: The degree to which follow workers are technically proficient and socially supportive. However, a comprehensive approach requires that may additional factors be included before a complete understanding of job satisfaction can be obtained. Such factors as the

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employees are, health, temperament, desires and levels of aspiration should be considered. Further, his family relationship, social status, recreational or purely social-contribute ultimately to job satisfaction.

2.9 The Impact of Satisfied and Dissatisfied Employees on Workplace


Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Job satisfaction has a variety of effects. These effects may be seen in the context of: Individuals physical and mental health Productivity Absenteeism, Turnover. Physical and Mental Health: The degree of job satisfaction affects an individuals physical and mental health. Since job satisfaction is a type of mental feeling, its favorableness or unfavourablesness affects the individual psychologically which ultimately affects his physical health. For example, Lawler has pointed out that drug abuse, alcoholism and mental and physical health result from psychologically harmful jobs. Further, since a job is an important part of life, job satisfaction influences general life satisfaction. The result is that there is spillover effect which occurs in both directions between job and life satisfaction. Productivity: There are two views about the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity: A happy worker is a productive worker, A happy worker is not necessarily a productive worker.

The first view establishes a direct cause-effect relationship between job satisfaction and productivity; when job satisfaction increases, productivity increases; when satisfaction decreases, productivity decreases. The basic logic behind this is that a happy worker will put more efforts for job performance. However, this may not be true in all cases. For example, a worker having low expectations from his jobs may feel satisfied but he may not put his efforts more

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vigorously because of his low expectations from the job. Therefore, this view does not explain fully the complex relationship between job satisfaction and productivity. Another view: That is a satisfied worker is not necessarily a productive worker explains the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity. Various research studies also support this view. This relationship may be explained in terms of the operation of two factors: Effect of job performance on satisfaction and organizational expectations from individuals for job performance. Job performance leads to job satisfaction and not the other way round. The basic factor for this phenomenon is the rewards (a source of satisfaction) attached with performance. There are two types of rewards-intrinsic and extrinsic. The intrinsic reward stems from the job itself which may be in the form of growth potential, challenging job, etc. The satisfaction on such a type of reward may help to increase productivity. The extrinsic reward is subject to control by management such as salary, bonus, etc. Any increase in these factors does not help to increase productivity though these factors increase job satisfaction. A happy worker does not necessarily contribute to higher productivity because he has to operate under certain technological constraints and, therefore, he cannot go beyond certain output. Further, this constraint affects the managements expectations from the individual in the form of lower output. Thus, the work situation is pegged to minimally acceptable level of performance. However, it does not mean that the job satisfaction has no impact on productivity. A satisfied worker may not necessarily lead to increased productivity but a dissatisfied worker leads to lower productivity. Absenteeism: Absenteeism refers to the frequency of absence of job holder from the workplace either unexcused absence due to some avoidable reasons or long absence due to some unavoidable reasons. It is the former type of absence which is a matter of concern. This absence is due to lack of satisfaction from the job which produces a
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lack of will to work and alienate a worker form work as for as possible. Thus, job satisfaction is related to absenteeism. Employee turnover: Turnover of employees is the rate at which employees leave the organization within a given period of time. When an individual feels dissatisfaction in the organization, he tries to overcome this through the various ways of defense mechanism. If he is not able to do so, he opts to leave the organization. Thus, in general case, employee turnover is related to job satisfaction. However, job satisfaction is not the only cause of employee turnover, the other cause being better opportunity elsewhere. For example, in the present context,

the rate of turnover of computer software professionals is very high in India. However, these professionals leave their organizations not simply because they are not satisfied but because of the opportunities offered from other sources particularly from foreign companies located abroad. If employees are not satisfied with their job then they show their dissatisfaction by adopting some actions .One theoretical model- the exit-voice-loyalty-neglect framework is helpful in understanding the consequences of dissatisfaction. Following figure illustrates the frameworks four responses, which differ from one another along two dimensions: constructive/destructive and active/passive.

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The responses are defined as follows: Exit: the exit response involves directing behavior towards leaving the organization, including looking for new position as well as resigning. Voice: the voice response involves actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions, including suggesting improvements, discussing problems with superiors, and undertaking some form of union activity. Loyalty: the loyalty response involves passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve, including speaking up for the organization in the face of external criticism and trusting the organization and its management to do the right thing. Neglect: the neglect response involves passively allowing conditions to worsen, including chronic absenteeism or lateness, reduced effort, and increased error rate. Exit and neglect behaviors encompass our performance variables- productivity, absenteeism, and turnover. But this model expands employee response to include voice and loyalty-constructive behaviors that allow individuals to tolerate unpleasant situations or to revive satisfactory working conditions. It helps us to understand situations, such as those sometimes found among unionized workers, for who low job satisfaction is coupled with low turnover. Union members often express dissatisfaction through the grievance procedure or through formal contract negotiations. These voice mechanisms allow them to continue in their jobs while convincing themselves that they are acting to improve the situation. Job satisfaction and job performance: Its hard to tell that happy workers are more likely to be productive workers because we dont know which way the causality runs. Some researchers used to believe that relationship between job satisfaction and job performance was a management myth. But a review of 300 studies suggested that correlation is pretty strong. As we move from the individual level to that of the organization, we also find support for the satisfactionperformance relationship. The results of study conducted on 150 scientists revealed a significant positive relationship between performance and job satisfaction, which
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signifies that a satisfied workforce is more productive. When satisfaction and productivity data are gathered for the organization as a whole, we find that organizations with more satisfied employees tend to be more effective than organizations with fewer satisfied employees. Job satisfaction and customer satisfaction If your employees aren't happy, there's little chance they're going to make your customers happy. Employees in service jobs often interact with customers. Since the management of service organizations should be concerned with pleasing those customers, it is reasonable to ask: is employee satisfaction related to positive customer outcomes? For frontline employees who have regular contact with customers, the answer is yes. The evidence indicates that satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. Why? In service organizations, customer retention and defection are highly dependent on how frontline employees deal with customers. Satisfied employees are more likely to be friendly, upbeat, and responsive- which customers appreciate. And because satisfied employees are less prone to turnover, customers are more likely to encounter familiar faces and receive experienced service. These qualities build customer satisfaction and loyalty. The relationship also seems to apply in reverse: dissatisfied customers can increase an employees dissatisfaction. Employees who have regular contact with customers report that rude, thoughtless, or unreasonably demanding customers adversely affect the employees job satisfaction.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Meaning


Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. Once can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. The Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English lays down the meaning of research as a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. Redman and Moray define research as a systematized effort to gain new knowledge. Some people consider research as a movement, a movement from the known to the unknown. It is actually a voyage of discovery. We all possess the vital instinct of inquisitiveness for, when the unknown confronts us, we wonder and our inquisitiveness makes us probe and attain full and fuller understanding of the unknown. This inquisitiveness is the mother of all knowledge and the method, which man employs for obtaining the knowledge of whatever the unknown, can be termed as research. Research is an academic activity and as such the term should be used in a technical sense. According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions collecting, organizing and evaluating data making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. D. Slazenger and M. Stephenson in the Encyclopedia of Social Sciences define research as the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art. Research is, thus, an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement. It is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment. In short, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is research. The systematic approach concerning generalization and the formulation of a theory is also research. As such the term research refers to the systematic method consisting of enunciating the problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting the facts or data, analyzing the facts and reaching certain conclusions either in the form of solutions towards the concerned problem or in certain generalization for some theoretical formulation.

3.2 Definitions
According to John W. Best Research is considered to be more formal, systematic, intensive process of carrying on the scientific methods of analysis. It is intensive process of carrying on the scientific methods or analysis. It involves a more systematic structure of

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investigations; usually resulting is some of formal record of procedures and a report of results or conclusions.

According to James Harvey Robinson Research is the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extends correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art.

3.3 Objectives of the Study


To determine the level of satisfaction of the respondents regarding their job. To study the various factors influencing job satisfaction.

3.4 Scope of the Study


To identify the employees level of satisfaction upon that job. This study is helpful to the organization for identifying the area of dissatisfaction of job of the employees. This study will be helpful to the management for framing policies those satisfy needs of the employees.

3.5 Research Design


A research design is an arrangement of condition for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine the relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. A good research design has a characteristic viz problem definition, specific methods of data collection and data analysis, a research design is purely and simply the framework to deal with the problem and finding the proper solution for the same. Under this research topic, there is no control over variables and we have to report only what has happened or what is happening, i.e. characteristic of particular situation (employee satisfaction) and suggesting the improvement accordingly so the research method is descriptive and diagnostic. To collect data, a number of techniques are under the sample survey method i.e. questionnaire. The increasing use of questionnaire is probably due to increased emphasis by social scientists on quantitative measurement to uniformly accumulated data.

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Area of study The area of the study is all employees of Leader Valves Ltd. organization of Jalandhar in order to collect the primary data. Study area Study area is Jalandhar.

3.6 Sample size


All the items consideration in any field of inquiry constitutes a universe of population. In this research only a few items can be selected from the population for our study purpose. The items selected constitute what is technically called a sample. Here out sample size is 50 employees from the total population. The samples are selected on the basis of convenience.

3.7 Collection of data


Data collection as the name suggests, is concerned with gathering all the relevant data and information that helps the researcher achieve the already formulated research objectives. The data collection may be either primary or secondary. Primary data is defined as the data, which is observed and recorded by the researcher for the first time to the best of their knowledge. Secondary data on the other hand, are statistics not gathered by the researcher for the immediate study at hand but for some other purpose. Such data is usually compiled by some agency other than actual user. Primary Data Sources

Questionnaires:

survey

was

conducted

amongst

employees

using

questionnaires. Primarily, the employees were reluctant to give their responses to the questions framed. But later on, they start giving information, once they were convinced that the information is being gathered only for academic purposes. General Information about the Respondent The following general information has been collected from the respondents about themselves: Age Gender
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Marital status Educational qualification Designation in the company Years working in the organization Monthly salary No of dependents in your family

Direct observation: there was number of things which were observed in order to draw conclusions regarding the training process taken up practically in the organization. These are classified as under: Work environment in the office Safety measures taken by organization at the site Welfare schemes provided by the organization Awards, recognition and other perks given to employees

Secondary Data Sources


Company manual and HR manual of the company HR books Internet Research Books ( business research methods)

Tools used in data analysis Statistical tools used in this research are: Pie-charts Columns

3.8 Formation of Questionnaire


Quite often the questionnaire is considered as the heart of a survey operation. Hence it should be carefully constructed. It is an investment that is widely used to collect various types of data and consists of long lists of questions designed to collect ant information. It has personally been found that people are more frank in giving replies to a questionnaire
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than to an interview schedule. Though being less expensive, it has certain limitations like incomplete entries and erroneous responses. But the educational qualification of the respondents is an additional factor which renders this technique the most relied upon. Formation of a good questionnaire involves intensive thinking and deliberation of the problem with predetermined objective and aims properly placed in the questionnaires. The questionnaires framed for the purpose of the study consist of a limited number of questions placed in logical order. So that the objective of the question is clear to the respondents. All the questions are centered on the problem keeping in the mind. The questions were both open and close ended as well as multiple choices.

3.9 Limitations of Study


The research was conducted within a limited duration. So a detailed and comprehensive study could not be made. The sample was confined to 50 respondents. So this study cannot be regarded as full proof one. Some respondents hesitated to give the actual situation; they feared that management would take any action against them. There was a fear of reprisal among the employees to reveal their personal feelings and the result may not reflect the actual satisfactions. The findings and conclusions are based on knowledge and experience of the respondents sometime may subject to bias.

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DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

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ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA 4.1 Analysis of Questionnaire


The study was conducted and primary data was collected through questionnaire method. Such an analysis helped me a lot in having a better insight about the job satisfaction of employees of the organization. For this purpose, around 50 respondents of the Jalandhar city were approached and analysis has been shown below: 1 (a) Age distribution of the employees of the company. AGE BELOW 30 31 TO 40 ABOVE 40 TOTAL NO. OF RESPONDENTS 11 23 16 50 PERCENTAGE (%) 22 46 32 100

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11 BELOW 30 31 TO 40 ABOVE 40 23

Interpretation: Majority of the respondents (46%) are in 31 to 40 years age group and 32% of the respondents are above 40 years age group and 22% of the respondents are below 30 years age group.

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(b) Gender distribution of the employees of the company.

GENDER MALE FEMALE TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 41 9 50

PERCENTAGE (%) 82 18 100

MALE FEMALE

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Interpretation: Majority of the respondents (82%) are male and 18% of the respondents are female

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(c) Educational qualification of the employees of the company.

EDUCATIONAL QULIFICATION MATERIC GRADUATE POST GRADUATE TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 5 33 12 50

PERCENTAGE (%) 10 66 24 100

MATERIC GRADUATE POST GRADUATE

Interpretation: Majority of the respondents 66% are graduate and 24% of the respondents are post graduate and 10% of the respondents have other qualifications.

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(d) Marital status of the employees of the company.

MARITAL STATUS MARRIED UNMARRIED TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 40 10 50

PERCENTAGE (%) 80 20 100

10

MARRIED UNMARRIED 40

Interpretation: Majority of the respondents (80%) are married and 20% of the respondents are unmarried.

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(e) Dependents in family of the employees of the company.

NO OF DEPENDENTS 1 2 3 AND ABOVE TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 4 15 31 50

PERCENTAGE (%) 8 30 62 100

1 15 2 3 AND ABOVE 31

Interpretation: Majority of the respondents (62%) have above 3 dependents in a family and 30% of the respondents have 2 dependents in family and 8% of the respondents have only 1 dependent in family.

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(f) Experience of the employees of the company.

EXPERIENCE 1-3 YEARS 3-5YEARS ABOVE 5YEARS TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 20 16 14 50

PERCENTAGE (%) 40 32 28 100

14 20

1-3 YEARS 3-5 YEARS ABOVE 5 YEARS

16

Interpretation: Majority of the respondents (40%) have 1-3 year experience and 32% of the respondents have 3-5 years and 28% of the respondents have above 5 years experience.

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(g) Monthly salary of the employees of the company.

SALARY PER MONTH BELOW 10000 10000-20000 20000-30000 ABOVE 30000 TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 5 9 17 19 50

PERCENTAGE (%) 10 18 34 38 100

5 19 9 BELOW 10000 10000-20000 20000-30000 ABOVE 30000 17

Interpretation: Majority of the respondents (38%) have above Rs.15, 000 as monthly salary and 34% of the respondents have 10,000 15,000 and 24% of the respondents have 5,000 10,000 and the remaining 4% of respondents have below 5,000 as monthly salary

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1. Are you satisfied with overall working conditions of the company?

RESPONSES Strongly satisfied satisfied neutral unsatisfied Strongly unsatisfied TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 16 24 10 0 0 50

PERCENTAGE (%) 32 48 20 0 0 100

strongly satisfied satisfied neutral

Interpretation: Majority of respondents are satisfied with overall working conditions of the company i.e. 40%.

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2. Are you satisfied with your salary package?

RESPONSES STRONGLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL DISSATISFIED STRONGLY DISSATISFIED TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 17 12 21 0 0 50

PERCENTAGE (%) 34 24 42 0 0 100

strongly satisfied satisfied neutral

Interpretation: Majority of respondents i.e. 68% are satisfied with the salary package.

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3. Are you satisfied with the bonus criteria of the company?

RESPONSES Strongly satisfied satisfied neutral unsatisfied Strongly unsatisfied TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 7 4 14 19 10 50

PERCENTAGE (%) 14 8 28 38 20 100

strongly satisfied satisfied neutral unsatisfied stronglu unsatisfied

Interpretation: Majority of respondents i.e. 58% are unsatisfied with bonus criteria of company.

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4. Are you satisfied with training programs of the company?

RESPONSES Highly satisfied satisfied neutral unsatisfied Highly unsatisfied TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONSES 15 25 7 3 0 50

PERCENTAGE (%) 30 50 14 6 0 100

highly satisfied satisfied neutral unsatisfied

Interpretation: Majority of respondents of the company i.e. 80% are satisfied with the training programs.

5. Are you satisfied with the working hours of the company?


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RESPONSES Highly satisfied Satisfied neutral unsatisfied Highly unsatisfied TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 0 18 22 10 0 50

PERCENTAGE (%) 0 36 44 20 0 100

strongly satisfied satisfied neutral unsatisfied

Interpretation: Majority of the respondents i.e. are having neutral response.

6. How do you feel about the relationship with your employers and co- workers?
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RESPONSES Strongly satisfied satisfied neutral unsatisfied Strongly unsatisfied TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 17 12 14 7 0 50

PERCENTAGE (%) 34 24 28 14 0 100

strongly satisfied satisfied neutral unsatisfied

Interpretation: Majority of the respondents are satisfied with the relationship i.e. 58%

7. Are you satisfied with the holidays package of the company?


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RESPONSES Strongly satisfied satisfied neutral unsatisfied Strongly unsatisfied TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 0 9 19 10 12 50

PERCENTAGE (%) 0 18 38 20 24 100

strongly satisfied satisfied neutral unsatisfied strongly unsatisfied

Interpretation: Majority of the respondents are unsatisfied i.e. 44%

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FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS

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FINDINGS
Satisfaction level - 56% of the respondents are satisfied with the company. The satisfied respondents 79% is more in group above 30000 salaries then the (67%) in the group Rs.10, 000-20000. HIGEST SALARY EARNER HAVING MORE SATISFACTION and lowest having less The respondents from ABOVE 5 years experience group (71%) have derived highest satisfaction. MORE EXPERIENCE MORE SATISFACTION The BELOW 30 YEAR age respondent having more satisfaction (73%). Female employees having more satisfaction than the male. 100% female are satisfied. Graduate employees are more satisfied than the others i.e. 55%. unmarried(70%) employees having more satisfied than the married 100% of the employees are satisfied having 1 dependent in the family

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SUGGESTIONS/ RECOMMENDATIONS
Working hours should be eight instead of nine. The day Saturday should be off or at least management should do it as half day so that employees could complete their pending work and spend some more time with family. Management should clearly communicate goals, responsibilities and expectations. Job description should be clear. Medical and other insurance of employee along with family members should be done. Introduction of reward and recognition for excellent performance at work. Introduction of overtime duty allowance. Arrangement of training programs and workshop to train staff with modern skills i.e. provide an environment where they can learn and grow. Retirement age should be 60 years and pension should be there. More sports and other recreational activities should take place. Management must conduct meeting with employees and staff once in a week or fortnight The company may provide loans and advances to its workers. Encourage participation in various planning and decision-making aspects Offer meaningful work and challenging assignments to effectively utilize staff skills Empower employees and ensure them of job security by. Provide legitimate feedback, genuinely listen to staff concerns and make their interests a management priority Management should celebrate success and milestone reached by company with employees.

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CONCLUSION
A sound measurement of overall job attitude is one of the most useful pieces of information an organization can have about its employees. At the end I would like to conclude that HR department is the heart of every organization and HR policies are its heart beats because if the heart will not beat at right intervals and at right times then it will affect the overall health of the individual. In the same way if the employees are not satisfied, it will affect the productivity and quality of work of the employees. In a business environment that requires employees who are flexible, creative, and willing to take risks, it is necessary to find ways to help employees feel fulfilled and empowered in their work. Managers should be interested in their employees attitudes because attitudes give warnings of potential problems and because they influence behavior. Satisfied and committed employees, for instance, have lower rates of turnover, absenteeism, and withdrawal behaviors. They also perform better on job. The study on employees satisfaction at Leader Valves Ltd. is cased out with full co-operation of the employees and management. As far as possible with in the given limits the study is completed with the satisfaction of many peoples. The data collected are analyzed scientifically with various statistical tools and the results obtained are free to nearly 80%. In my analysis, I found that the majority of the employees are satisfied in organization but at the same time they came out with their view point of the areas of the improvement to be made. It is assured that the company may got high boosted moral in the organization provided some of the suggestions made in the report in carried out. The most important thing managers can do to raise employee satisfaction is focus on the intrinsic parts of the job, such as making the work challenging and interesting and clear description of work employees have to perform. Although paying the employees poorly will likely not attract high quality employees to the organization, or keep high performers, managers should realize that high pay alone is unlikely to create a satisfying work environment. Creating a satisfied workforce is hardly a guarantee of successful organizational performance, but evidence strongly suggests that whatever managers can do to improve employee attitudes will like result in heightened organizational effectiveness.
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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Web pages http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/job-satisfaction http://humanresorces.about.com/od/employeesurvey1/employee-satisfactionsurveys.htm http://managementhelp.org/prsn_wll/job-stfy.htm www.citehr.com/68668-employee-satisfaction-survey.html www.employee-satisfaction.com/sample-survey-items.asp http://employeesatisfaction.wordpress.com/ www.exploreHR.org.

Books concerned Robbins, Stephen (2008); Organizational Behavior. C.R. Kothari; Research Methodology. VSP Rao, - Human Resource management.

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ANNEXURE

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QUESTIONNAIRE
This survey is designed to understand employees view about job satisfaction. Only summary measures and conclusions from this survey will be reported. Your participation in this survey is greatly appreciated. 1) Personal Information Name: _______________

Age: ________

Date of birth: dd\mm\yy

____\____\____

Gender:

Male Female

Qualification:

High School

Bachelor

Masters

PhD

Are you currently employed?

Yes

No

2) Are you satisfied with overall working conditions of the company? Strongly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Unsatisfied Strongly unsatisfied

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3) Are you satisfied with your salary package? Strongly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Unsatisfied Strongly unsatisfied

4) Are you satisfied with the bonus criteria of the company? Strongly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Unsatisfied Strongly unsatisfied

5) Are you satisfied with training programs of the company? Strongly satisfied Satisfied

Neutral Unsatisfied Strongly unsatisfied

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6) Are you satisfied with the working hours of the company?

Strongly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Unsatisfied Strongly unsatisfied

7) How do you feel about the relationship with your employers and co- workers?

Strongly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Unsatisfied Strongly unsatisfied

8) Are you satisfied with the holidays provided by the company?

Strongly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Unsatisfied Strongly unsatisfied

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