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INTRODUCTION 1 The nature of the four skills 2 The purposes of the four skills 3 The roles of the four skills 4 Some learning / teaching strategies for skills implementation a) b) c) d) Listening Reading Speaking Writing


INTRODUCTION Language is a tool (means) we use to communicate, interact with other people for different reasons, in different contexts and in different ways. Language proficiency can be viewed in terms of accuracy and fluency; mastering a language successfully means that one can understand and produce it accurately (correctly) and fluently (receiving and conveying messages with ease i.e. without any effective obstacle). As such, when stress is led on accuracy, teacher and learners are mainly concerned with getting the language right. In terms of having correct sounds, words and sentences. Fluency is just concerned with free and spontaneous use of language, quickly enough to fit the course of a conversation. The skills sequence listening and understanding; speaking; writing; reading and understanding can be linked to learning strategies such as note taking; problem identification, problem solving Such basic skills are also called Macro-skills because of the vast learning / teaching areas they

cover in classroom activities. To make the teaching /learning process easier, the macro-skills can be broken down into sub-skills for example in the macro-skill of writing, we can identify sub-skills like writing academic paper, writing informal letters

1 THE NATURE OF THE FOUR SKILLS The four skills are language skills which are implemented with activities and materials that mostly engaged learners, for example discussion, stimulating pictures Students can also be engaged with a topic or any activity they are going to deal with in class. The four skills are also concerned with study activities where learners are required to focus on language or information and how it is constructed. As such, learners can study a reading text and its grammar and vocabulary. They can also study and practice some specific areas vowel sounds. The last element involving skills manipulation communicatively is activate elements which describe activities (in the activate step) meant to get students using the language as freely as they can. Learning / teaching theories ESA: Engage Study Activate PPP: Presentation Practice Production ARC: Authentic (rules of language communicative activities) Restricted (rules of language drills) Clarification and focus (the language used to ask questions grammar points). Approach > Method > Techniques > Tips Creative constructive > cognitive code > thinking process The objectives for students is to use any language which may be relevant to a given situation or topic; learners can then use real language freely with

little or no restriction at all. As a case in point, the teaching sequence Engage Study Activate uses the four skills in getting the students interests in learning / teaching process. Then, they can study something and try to activate it by putting into oral or written production. Those skills are categorized as Productive and Receptive. The productive skills are writing and speaking and involve some kind of production on the part of the language user whereas the receptive are listening and understanding. On the one hand reading, and understanding on the other hand. In the receptive skills, the language user receives written or spoken language input (knowledge lead in) to be used effectively and communicatively. These four skills should be activity-based with opportunities for students to use a language in the classroom before in the real world. They will then emphasize the communicative function of the language: what people do using the language. As a whole, a communicative activity is any classroom exercise that helps learners use in real life, the language they have learnt in the classroom. Examples of communicative activities are: role play, information gap (when one person has information that another person doesnt have). The four skills encourage interaction in groups and pairs by emphasizing fluency through communication practice and communication situation. Not just accuracy which just insist on correct form of language (in terms of structure and sound). The four main language skills are not always found in separate form; it is the teachers responsibility to see that all the skills are practiced in classroom activities. Very often, one skill cannot be performed without another. For example, it is impossible to speak in a conversation if you dont listen and seldom write without reading. Integrating skills where focus is on one skill leads to practice another is viewed as a combination of language to promote the ability to communicate.

2 THE PURPOSE OF THE FOUR SKILLS The main purpose is a communicative purpose. Broadly speaking, we use the four skills for communicative aims through learning/teaching activities with appropriate instructional materials. Such pedagogical activities can help learners develop skills necessarily related to function in the real worl outside the classroom. 3 THE ROLE OF THE FOUR SKILLS In class activities, the skills are used to process the variety of language through teaching models (e.g. CLT) in task-based learning, the stress on the task rather than the language form. The skills also used to develop learning and teaching strategies in syllabus-related classroom teaching practice: problem identification, note taking 4 SOME LEARNING/TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR SKILLS IMPLEMENTATION Language is usually broken down or divided into three main areas: Vocabulary (lexis), Grammar (in context) and functions. As such, learning/teaching strategies can focus on one area or cover a mixture of the three. Moreover, such strategies are theoretical views which are skills oriented. Their implementation is performed through appropriate instructional materials and techniques. In receptive skills, understanding a piece of discourse involves the activation of our schematic knowledge and learners as in real life need to develop the following: a) Listening skills The reasons for listening skills are: Instrumental: we generally listen to achieve some aims. For example, we ring up an after-sales agent because we need to know how to operate a washing machine. Pleasurable reasons: we listen for pleasure (music or comedy program). As a whole, listening activities cover 3 stages a-1) Pre - listening