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DAY 8 a) 30 mins b) 30 mins c) 10 mins d) (10 mins) e) (10 mins) f) (15 mins) g) (15 mins) h) (10 mins) i) (10

mins) j) (10 mins) k (20 mins) DAY 9 a) 20 mins 15 mins b) 30 mins 10 mins c) 10 mins 9pm NDTV news with special emphasis on a Crime Report Feedback with the help of the video recording Students are to report on the contents in the Sports page of a Newspaper (Telegraph). Spellings Revision regarding the rules for articles: Students work in pairs or groups. Write a story that is exactly 75 words long your story must contain the following: 15 mins a (not an) + a word which starts with a vowel. an (not a) + word which does not start with a vowel. The + an uncountable noun in its specific sense. Zero article before a plural countable noun in its general sense. Assessment written Discussion of the NDTV News Students also tells about their favourite news reader or anchor person Extempore speech for oral assessment Reading assessment Introducing the importance of listening How to develop listening skills Giving directions (Hand out) Improving pronunciation for better communication relating it to listening Audio aid (for pronunciation) Tips on public speaking Teachers manual Feedback to the students

Pairs or groups exchange copies/sheet. Read out the stories to the class and make corrections if required. Introducing Pronouns definition and types have already been introduced.

10 to 50 mins

In Day 2. Here are some work rules: I, you, he, she, it we they (Personal Pronouns) are used as subjects before the Verb. Example: We are learning English. He talks a lot. I have to improve. Me, you, him, her, it, us, them are normally used in other cases. Example: After Verbs: He makes us work hard. Tell us what to do.

After Prepositions: Listen to them Look at her I depend on him After be: Its him Was her work good Are they alright

Example: 1) 2) 3) 4) Informal I am thirsty. Me too Whos paying? Her I have got the same number as him She gets paid more than are. Formal I am thirsty. So am I. Whos paying? She is I have got the same number as he has She gets paid more than I do

Work Sheet: Change these to make them more formal or less formal: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10 ) Hes got the same book as we. Theyve been here longer than us. I am much taller than him. Hes going to America. Me too. Who said that? Her We are better than them. He can speak better than me. I am not as quick as she is. We are from Kolkata. So am I Who wants a drink? I do

Reflexive Pronouns like myself, yourself, himself, herself itself, oneself, yourself, themselves are used when the object is the same as the subject. Example: I cut myself shaving in the morning. He tried to rectify himself.

Work Sheet: Fill in with Pronouns 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) I bought a book and taught ______ grammar. The computer will turn _____ off if you dont use it. Dont pay attention to ______ he always complains. She cant afford to buy ______ a new mobile, so _______ dad is going to buy ________ for her. It embarrasses __________ when I cannot answer the teacher. How much time do you give _______ to come for work ? No one is going to help us, so well have to do it __________. Rohan __________ is quite friendly, but the rest of the family is very cold. I got to see the gardens, but the palace ________ was closed. You have to help ________ if you want to be comfortable.

Work Sheet (Xerox/Annexure) I Who is used for persons. Example: a) The man who is honest is trusted by all. b) He is the man who came here yesterday.

Whose is used in speaking of persons, but sometimes of things without life as. Example: a) This is the father whose son stood first. b) A triangle whose three sides are equal is called an equilateral triangle.

Which is used for lower animals and things without life. Example: a) The dog which barked at her did bike her. b) This is the book which my brother gave me.

That is used for who, whom, which but never for whose.. It is applied to both persons and things. who, which introduces a non defining clause. Example: Or This is the book which my brother gave me. It merely tells us something additional about the book. My brother who is in Australia gave me this book. It merely tells us something additional about the brother.

That introduces a defining clause. Example: My brother that is in Australia gave me this book.

It implies that the speaker has many brothers but is signaling out that brother who lives in Australia. Example: Keats, who was an English poet, died in a) 1821 The English poet that died in 1821 was Keats. b) The house which is beautiful, stands near the river. The house that is beautiful stand near the river.

Notice that non-defining clauses are separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma when, who or which must be used. While defining clauses are not when that must be used. Rules for the use of that: a) After the superlative degree, adjective He is the wisest man that Ive ever met b) After the words-all, same, none, only He is the same man that came here yesterday. Man is the only animal that can laugh. He is all that I have. c) When the relative refers to both persons and things. The artist and the paintings that are famous. The people and events that are described in this book. Work Sheet: Join the following sentences using Relative Pronouns (defining and non-defining) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) The task was difficult. You set it yesterday. Yesterday I met Mr.Smith. He has just comeback from America. Have you read the article? I told you to read it yesterday. The invoice is late. It should have arrived yesterday. What was the name of the film? You saw it yesterday. Please read the notice. It is on the board. The writing is brilliant. It is his. This is the book, I read it in England last month.

e) 40 mins 10 mins 5 mins

Correction of the guided English homework. Answering queries. Set task for Day 10 1) 2) 3) 4) Watch a Crime Report on TV Read the newspaper thoroughly (quotations about newspapers) Guided English Lesson 26 to 30 Should the Book Fair be held in the Maidan? A report within 150 words. 5) Read about Verbs

DAY 10 a) 30 mins OHP transparency of the quotation sheet. Students are paired Each pair should choose one of the quotations to discuss. After consulting between themselves. Each pair should begin the discuss giving their reaction. Reference should be made to the days newspaper headlines. 15 mins b) 20 mins c) 10 mins d) 10 mins 10 mins Feedback of the video recording. Talking about Crimes with reference to the programme watches on TV the previous evening. Discuss about psychological issues. Spelling Revision of previous days grammar lessons Oral work : make up eight song titles one for each of the indefinite pronouns in the list below: Anybody, anything, everybody, (everyone), everything, nobody (or no one), nothing, somebody, something. Example: Anybody can tell I love you. 15 mins Work Sheet Fill in with pronouns 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) Someones left me a note, but ________ signed it. The person who phone wouldnt give _______ name. Nobody in the club has paid ________ annual subscription yet. I cant help anybody unless _________ bring all the right documents with __________. If I find out whos made this mess in the office, Ill punish ________. Judy says somebodys stolen _________ lecture notes. Someone has taken my bad and left me _________. If anybody can fill this form ______- brighter than me. The boy _________ didnt bring his admit card, was not allowed to sit for the exams. This is the best book ___________ Ive ever read. Only you can help ___________. She _________- did all the work. She has the same interest that _________ have. Please help __________ The food _________ you cooked was delicious. Let no one know about ________.

e) 10 mins

Reading Material Introducing Verbs : the basic definition of verb has already been discussed. Apart from being Transitive and Intransitive verbs are also strong and weak. a) All verb whose past tense ends in a d or t are weak (WEAK) Example: Live lived Fan fanned Carry carried Tell - told b) All verbs whose past tense is formed by shortening (not changing) the vowel of the present tense are WEAK. Example: Bleed bled Shoot shot Lead led Meet met c) All verbs whose past tense is the same as the present tense are WEAK Example: Cut cut Hurt hurt Put put Spread spread d) All verbs which form the past tense by changing (not shortening) the inside vowel, and do not add a final d or t are STRONG Example: Flight - fought Hold - held Stand - stood Sit sat Drive drove But buy bought is WEAK because after changing the inside vowel, a final t is added. e) All verbs which form the past participle in en or n are either wholly or partly STRONG Wholly: Partly: Draw, drew, drawn Shake, shook, shaken Saw, sawed, sawn Take, took, taken

List of verbs and example from Nesfield (page 88 89) Auxiliary verbs be, have, shall, will, do, may. These verbs help other verbs to form TENSES.

Forms of BE

Forms of HAVE

I am sitting. She is sitting. I was sitting. They are sitting. They were sitting. They have gone. They had gone. She/He has gone. I do this everyday. I did this everyday. She does this everyday.

Forms of DO

We can also use DO to make an expression sound stronger. Example: Do sit down. I do apologise. Do be careful. Work Sheet: Complete the following sentences: 10 mins 15 mins 20 mins 25 mins I _________ 5 feet 6 inches tall. My father ___________ ____ feet ____ inches ______. My mother ___________ ____ feet ____ inches ______. Both my brothers ___________ shorter than me. I _________ darker than my parents. My brothers complexion _________ fairer. My brothers ________ very good sportsmen once. Now I _____ better than them. My father used to ______ very fat. Now he ______ thinnes. One of my brothers ______ is good singer. Both ______ good musicians. My mother ______ a housewife. She _______ a dancer before. My father _________ a doctor. I _____ preparing for my B.Tech finals. Both my brothers _______ studying to ________ doctors. We _________ one big happy family. Make sentences like the one in the example: use do / does / did Example: Shakespeare didnt make films, but he did write plays. Rabindranath In England Banks Cats Napoleon Indians Made films, wrote poems, lend money, fought against China, snows a lot, eat mice, rains a lot, fought against America, eat potatoes

20 mins

Form pairs. Then the students ask each other ten questions using have/has/have you got. Answers should be noted. Then each student has to report on his findings.

30 mins

Discussing the Guided English homework. Importance of good pronunciation. Homework: NDTV 9 pm news Guided English I 21, 22, 23 Newspaper read the editorial page of The Telegraph.

DAY 11 a) 25 mins 15 mins Verbs like BE, DO, HAVE should be used consciously. Example: a) Did you listen to the 9 pm news on NTV last evening? b) What is your opinion? c) Why dont you explain? b) 20ins c) 25 mins Students discuss the various issues, in the editorial page of the previous days newspaper. Students read out the paragraph given to write for DAY 9s homework. As one student reads out - the others take note (in writing). Once all the students have read out their paragraphs they engage in a discussion regarding any errors and the issues written about. Spelling Revision of grammar lesson DAY 10. Each student tells about what they did for DAY 10, what they are doing on DAY 10, what homework they have to do for DAY 12 and what will they be doing on DAY 12. Learn these fixed expressions: Do Good, harm, business, ones best, (someone) a favour, ones hair, ones duty, 100 mph/kph Students are asked to walk around for a few seconds. When the Instructor asks them to stop they form a circle standing up and start discussing the previous days 9 pm NDTV news.

d) 10 mins e) 15 mins

Make An attempt, effort, an offer, an excuse, a suggestions, a decision, an exception, enquires, a phone call, a fuss, an arrangement, a journey, progress, money, peach, war

We often use have to talk about actions, especially in an informal style. Typical expressions: Work Sheet: 10 mins I. II. using is, are, were, was, be write/say sentences about the other students. Join the beginnings and ends; add the idea of contrast by using do/does/did. Example: I have forgotten her name but I do remember it begins with a B. III. She doesnt really like sports she plays a bit of tennis sometimes. My mother does the housework but I iron my own clothes. I didnt know I was going to win I won. I dont know her address but I know her phone number. It looks easy it needs a lot of practice. have breakfast, lunch, coffee, etc. have a wash, bath, etc. have a rest, sleep, lie down, dream have a good time, a day off, a nice evening etc. have a good trip/good flight/good journey have difficulty/trouble have a try/look/a go have at operation, an accident

Complete the sentences using have got, has got, had got We ________ a new car. Yes ______- four-wheel drive, power steering and antilock breaking. Why __________ dark glasses on? ________ something _______ wrong with you eyes. How many brothers and sisters ________

e) 25 mins

Reading Material Introducing Subject Verb Agreement. Rules: A) Example: Your car and mine are both new. My brother and my sister have come home. B) Two nouns joined by and but referring to the Two singular nouns joined by and verb is plural.

same thing then verb is singular. Example: The great scholar and poet is dead. Bread and butter is wholesome food. C) If two nouns joined by and are regarded as denoting a single object or notion the verb is singular. Example: Truth and honesty is the best policy. Curry and rice was his favourite food. D) Two or more singular subjects connected by or, nor, either..or, neither..nor, the verb is singular. Example: Neither the man nor his wife has done the work. Either Tuhin or Sam is to be promoted. Note: when one of the subjects connected by or, nor, etc. is SINGULAR and the other PLURAL, the PLURAL subject SHOULD be placed NEXT to the VERB so as to make the VERB PLURAL. Example: Neither the teacher nor the students were present. When SUBJECTS connected by or, nor, etc. are diff persons, the VERB agrees in person with the SUBJECT NEAREST to it. Example: Either you or I have to do it. Either you or James is responsible for it. Either James or you are late. E) Two or more SINGULAR SUBJECTS connected by as well as, the verb is SINGULAR. Example: This car as well as that one is for sale. The teacher as well as the student was late. Note: when the subjects connected differ in number or person or both, the verb takes the number and person of the subject that stands first. Example: My partners as well as I were ruined. He as well as you is tired of the whole affair. F) Nouns following Each, Every, Either, Neither are always singular. Therefore the verb must by singular also:

Example: Each student is presented with a gold watch. Each of the boys was in the playground. Either of these books is worth referring to. Neither of these men has spoken English before. Every student has to be present for the demonstration. G) Words joined to a singular subject by with; together with; in addition to must take a singular verb. Example: My sister, together her two friends has gone to a movie. Industry in addition to ability is needed for success. The mother with her two children is standing outside. Work Sheet: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) To take pay and then not to do work ____ dishonest. The cost of all these articles _____ risen. The jury ________ divided in their opinion. No news ______ good news. The accountant and the cashier ______ absconded. A good man and useful citizen ________ passed away. The Three Musketeers ________ written by Dumas. Each of the suspected men ______ arrested. Neither his father nor his mother __________ alive. The formation of paragraphs _________ very important. English as well as Math _______ taught here. Everyone of the prisons ________ full. Each of students ________ brilliant. Neither of the two men _______ very strong. Neither he nor I _______ mistaken. The Committee __________ divided on one minor point. The Committee ____________ issued its report. The ship with its crew _________ lost. The state of his affairs ________ such as to cause anxiety to his creditors.

20) f) 20 mins 10 mins 5 mins

The results of the recognition of this fact ________ seen in the reports of the survey.

Correction of Guided English homework. Answering queries. Set task Guided English I 21, 22, 23 NDTV news. Newspaper each student will read a specific kind of news weather, business, headlines, sports, entertainment, page 3, crime, international, local, programme for the day. Write a paragraph on the Industrialization of West Bengal (200 words) Bring the previous days Telegraph to class after reading it carefully. Read the following for homework:

CONTENT

VERBS AND TENSES Various tenses are used to convey activities at different points in time. For example, present continuous is used to express an activity happening at the present time. Try to understand the different time frames in the following examples. INDEFINITE PAST I spoke to my friend You spoke to your friend He spoke to his friend CONTINUOUS I was speaking to my friend You were speaking to your friend He was speaking to his friend PERFECT I had spoken to my friend You had spoken to your friend He had spoken to his friend PERFECT CONTINUOUS I had been speaking to my friend You had been speaking to your friend He had been speaking to his friend

PRESENT

I speak to my friend You speak to your friend He speaks to his friend

I am speaking to my friend You are speaking to your friend He is speaking to his friend

I have spoken to my friend You have spoken to your friend He has spoken to his friend

I have been speaking to my friend You have been speaking to your friend He has been speaking to his friend Generally not used

FUTURE

I shall speak to my friend You shall speak to your friend He will speak to his friend

I will be speaking to my friend You will be speaking to your friend He will be speaking to his friend

I will have spoken to my friend You will have spoken to your friend He will have spoken to his friend

THE USES OF THE PRESENT TENSES: 1. Present Indefinite: (a) To express a habitual action: I go to college everyday He watches a movie everyday. (b) To express general truth: The sun rises in the east Note: we generally use the Present Indefinite Tense with words or phrases like generally,usually,frequently, hardly,rarely,scarcely,occasionally,always,never,often,sometimes, seldom,everyday 2. Present Continuous: To express actions going on at the time of speaking: Buses are plying on the roads now. The Indian team is playing a match in South Africa now. Note: The following verbs are usually not used in any of the continuous tenses; (a) Verbs of mental activity:

Suppose, remember,forget,believe,agree,trust,know,understand,mind,mean,recognize,differ,doub t,find,imagine. Donot say: I am remembering the address. (b) Verbs of feeling and emotion: Love, wish,desire,like,prefer,hate,want. Donot say: I am wanting to go out. Verbs of perception : Notice,hear,feel,smell,see. Donot say: I am seeing someone outside (d)Verbs of possession: Belong,own,have,contain,consist of, possess Donot say: This phone is belonging to me. Note: We generally use the present Continuous tense with words or phrases like : now, still,at present, at the moment. Exception: However when the reference is to an obstinate habit which irritates others we use Present Continuous Tense with the adverb always. My neighbour is never happy. He is always complaining. 3. Present Perfect; (a) To express actions completed in the immediate past but the effect continues: He has just gone out. We have already had dinner (b) To denote an action beginning at sometime in the past and continuing upto the present moment: I have known him for a longtime. He has been in England for a longtime. Note: we generally use Present Perfect Tense with words and phrases like ; just, already, never, ever, today, yet, (negative and interrogative sentences), till/until now, so far, for- phrases, since-phrases,thisphrases,once/twice etc. Present Perfect Continuous: To express actions that began at some point of time in the past and are still continuing: It has been raining since yesterday. They have been working on this project for three years.

We generally use Present Perfect Continuous Tense with words or phrases like: since phrases, for phrases , all morning etc, for ages, lately, for last five minutes etc. THE USES OF THE PAST TENSE 1. The Simple Past Tense: (a) To express an action completed in the past. The verb is qualified by past time: He went to the park yesterday. I met my uncle last week. He bought this cassette last evening. (b) To express past habits. This is also indicated by the use of used to before the verb; He smoked ten cigarettes everyday. He used to play football everyday. 2. The Past Continuous Tense; To express an action in the past, that lasted for sometime : He was waiting for me at the bus stop. I was going to school, when my father called. 3. The Past Perfect Tense: To express the first of two actions that happened in the past. The simple Past Tense is used for the second action. He had reached before I walked in. 4. The Past Perfect Continuous Tense; To express an action that began before a certain point of time in the past and continued upto the time noticed by the speaker: He had been staying at Gariahat for five years before I came there. Sachin had been playing for 3 hours before Rahul came in.

THE USES OF THE FUTURE TENSES 1. The Simple Future Tense: (a) To express an action that is yet to happen: I shall go to the club tomorrow. (b) To express a future intention or possibility ( with the help of going to) : I am going to buy a camera next week

Sometimes we express a future meaning by using the Present Continuous Tense, often with words or phrases like tomorrow, next week etc that give the future meaning. I am travelling next week. Note: The finite verbs under these sections are present indefinite or present continuous in form but actually they express actions which are yet to take place. 2. The Future Continuous Tense : (a) To express an action or thought imagined to be going on in the future: They will be playing in the evening. (b) To express future plans and arrangements: He will be meeting her tomorrow. 3. The Future Perfect Tense: (a) To express an action imagined as being completed by a certain time in the future: He will have left before we reach the station. Irregular Verbs A list of irregular verbs that form their past tenses and Past participles by changing the inside vowels of their present tenses is given below. Study these forms carefully so that you can learn these tenses well. Present and infinitive arise awake be bear become begin behold bend bereave bet bid bid bind bite bleed blow break breed blow break breed bring Simple past arose awoke was bore became began beheld bent bereaved betted/bet bade bid bound bit bled blew broke bred blew broke bred brought Past participle arosen awoken been borne become begun beheld bent bereaved betted/bet bid bid bound bitten bled blown broken bred blown broken bred brought

broadcast build burn burst buy can cast catch choose cling clothe come cost creep cut dare deal dig do draw dream drink drive eat fall feed feel fight find flee fling fly forbid forget forgive forsake freeze get grind grow hang have hear hide hit hold hurt keep kneel knit know lay lead

broadcast built burned/burnt burst bought could cast caught chose clung clothed/clad came cost crept cut dared dealt dug did drew dreamed/dreamt drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found fled flung flew forbade forgot forgave forsook froze got ground grew hanged/hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knelt knit knew laid led

broadcast built burned/burnt burst bought could cast caught chosen clung clothed/clad come cost crept cut dared dealt dug done drawn dreamed/dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found fled flung flown forbidden forgotten forgiven forsaken frozen got ground grown hanged/hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept knelt knit known laid led

leaned leap learn leave lend let lie light lose make may mean meet mow ought pay put read rid ride ring rise run saw say see sell send set sew shake shed shine shoot show shrink shut sing sink sit sleep slide sling slit smell sow speak speed spell spend spill spin spit

leaned leaped/leapt learned/learnt left lent let lay lighted/lit lost made might meant met mowed paid put read rid rode rang rose ran sawed said saw sold sent set sewed shook shed shone shot showed shrank shut sang sank sat slept slid slung slit smelled/smelt sowed spoke speeded/sped spelled/spelt spent spilled/spilt spun spat

leaned leaped/leapt learned/learnt left lent let lain lighted/lit lost made meant met mowed/mown paid put read rid ridden rung risen run sawed said seen sold sent set sewed/sewn shaken shed shone shot showed/shown shrunk shut sung sunk sat slept slid slung slit smelled/smelt sowed/sown spoken speeded/sped spelled/spelt spent spilled/spilt spun spat

split spread spring stand steal stick sting stink stride strike strive swear sweep swim swing take teach tear tell think thrive throw understand wake wear weave weep wet will win wind wring write

split spread sprang stood stole stuck stung stank/stunk strode struck strove swore swept swam swung took taught tore told thought thrived/throve threw understood woke wore wove wept wetted/wet would won wound wrung wrote

split spread sprung stood stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck striven sworn swept swum swung taken taught torn told thought thrived/thriven thrown understood woken worn woven wept wetted/wet won wound wrung written

PRACTICE LESSONS DEGREES OF COMPARISON Adjectives and adverbs have degrees of comparison. When we want to state the simple quality of a person or object and the simple manner of a verb, or when the adjective or adverb expresses to the same extent, we use the Positive Degree of adjectives and adverbs. John is a good boy. The snowcapped peak looks beautiful. Rohit is as tall as his father.

When we want to compare two persons or objects or actions, of the same kind, we use Comparative degree of adjectives and adverbs. This chair is better than the other chair. John runs faster than Madhav. When we compare a thing or a person or an action with all other things, persons or actions of the same class and the adjective or adverb expresses highest or greatest degree , we use the Superlative Degree of adjectives and adverbs. The rose is the most beautiful of all flowers. Pele is considered to be the best footballer of our times. Most adjectives take more before them to form the comparative degree and most to form the superlative degree. Here are some examples: Positive Dangerous Horrible Honest Comparative more dangerous more horrible more honest Superlative most dangerous most horrible most honest

Many adjectives form the comparative by adding er or r and the superlative by adding est or st. Read the following examples: Positive Big Brave Cold Deep Fat Great Large Late Old Small Thick Thin Warm Wise Few Clever Easy Happy Heavy Kind Young Comparative bigger braver colder deeper fatter greater larger later older smaller thicker thinner warmer wiser fewer cleverer easier happier heavier kinder younger Superlative biggest bravest coldest deepest fattest greatest largest latest oldest smallest thickest thinnest warmest wisest fewest cleverest easiest happiest heaviest kindest youngest

Some adjectives form their comparative and superlative in an irregular way: Positive Comparative Superlative

Bad Far Good/well Little Much/many Note:

worse farther/further better less more

worst farthest/furthest best least most

(A) Later and latest they refer to time. He would always come later than expected Have you seen our latest collection of books (b) Latter and last They refer to position. The latter part of this course deals with soft skills He came last. Elder and eldest : they refer to the relation between two or more persons of the same family. His elder brother plays football. The eldest son joined the army. (d)Older and oldest : They refer to time. He is older than his brother by five years. Harappa is supposed to be the oldest civilization Note that elder than is not used. (e) Farther and further : Farther means more advanced in distance. Further means additional (f) The following adjectives are always used in the comparative degree and take the preposition to after them: Superior,inferior,senior,junior,prior (g)The verb prefer also takes to; after it (I prefer tea to coffee)

THE DEFINITE AND INDEFINITE ARTICLES The indefinite article is a or an . The form a is used before a word beginning with a consonant sound, and a word beginning with the vowel u pronounced as u e.g. a box, a girl, a university The form an is used before words beginning with a vowel or words beginning with a soft h e.g. an egg, an elephant, an apple, an hour, an honourable man.

The Indefinite article is used : (a) In the usual meaning of one. I have a car and a scooter. (b) Before a single countable noun when it is mentioned for the first time and doesnot represent anything in particular. A cat can catch a mouse. A dog is an animal. We use a or an before singular nouns denoting profession, trade, class etc. He wants to be an engineer. She is a good singer. (c) We use a or an with a name meaning a certain. A Mr Mukherjee had called you. In this case we donot know who Mr Mukherji is. If the sentence is Mr Mukherji came to see you this would mean we know Mr Mukherji. (d) We use a or an before certain numerical and quantitative restrictions. e.g. a dozen, half a dozen, a hundred, a thousand, a million, a great many, a great deal. (e) We use a or an in expressions of measurements , price and speed. e.g. she drives at 60KM an hour. We have English lessons twice a week. This material is Rs 12 a metre. (f) We use a with the words few and little. There is a great difference between few and a few and between little and a little. A few and a little mean a small number and a small amount. I have a few friends. I have a little money. (g) We use a or an in exclamations before singular countable nouns. What a hot day. The Indefinite article is not used: (a) Before plural nouns An owl is a bird. Owls are birds (b) Before certain nouns which are considered uncountable.

e.g luggage,baggage, jewellery, information,advice, news, machinery,scenery,behaviour,equipment,knowledge,thunder,lighting,work He has a lot of baggage. She gave me all the information. (c) Before uncountable nouns such as milk, honey, sugar, water, grass,corn,wood,glass,iron,stone,paper,cloth etc. We write on paper. I drink milk. The definite article is the : The indicates a) particular one b) the only one c) the one we have spoken about. It is the same for singular and plural and for all genders. The boy, the boys. The tree, the trees. The Definite article is used: (a) Before nouns of which there is only one. The earth, the sky, the sea, the weather. (b) Before a noun which has been made definite by being mentioned second time. There is a girl in the class room. The girl is studying. (c) Before superlative adjectives. Mt Everest is the highest mountain in the world He is the tallest boy in the class. (d) Before names of seas, rivers,chains of mountains, groups of islands, plural names of countries, gulfs,provinces. The Indian Ocean, the Hooghly, the USA (e) Before singular nouns used to represent a whole class. The cow is a useful animal. The banyan is a kind of fig tree. Donot say : a kind of a fig tree. (f) Before the names of certain books. The Vedas, the Puranas,

(g) Before musical instruments. I can play the piano. She is learning to play the sitar. (h) Before the names of nationalities as the British, the Dutch, The Indians. The Definite article is not used : (a) Before countries, towns, streets, proper nouns Mr Ghosh went to India and bought a house in Gurgaon. (b) Before languages. We learn English, He speaks French (c) Before church, school,prison, college,hospital, when these places are used for their primary purpose. We go to school. But: The school is closed tomorrow. I went to the school to see the headmaster. (d) Before home when it means the home of the speaker, or the person spoken to. They got home late. (e) Before names of relations like father, mother, aunt, etc Father has come home. (f) Before names of meals. Breakfast is at 8 o clock. (g) Before names of games. Football is very popular in Bengal. (h) Before names of colours. Green is a soothing colour. (i) Before names of days and months. January is the first and December is the last month of the year. (j) Before names of diseases.

Cancer is a fatal disease But the article is used with some common ailments. I have a cold. I have a toothache VOCABULARY Principal At last Beside Popular Adopt Disinterested Official Prevent Accuse Credible Travel Until Alter Heard Piece Counsel Fair Birth Prey Weak Wonder Quite Pore Patrol Stationery Difference Assent principle at least besides populous adapt uninterested officious avoid convict creditable journey unless altar herd peace council fare berth pray week wander quiet pour petrol stationary deference ascent

FEMININE FORMS Actor Author Bachelor Boar Boy Bridegroom Brother actress authoress spinster sow girl bride sister

Bull Cock Colt Dog Emperor Fianc Fox Gentleman God Headmaster Heir Hero Host Husband King Landlord Lion Lord Manservant Masseur Master Monk Nephew Poet Prince Ram Sir Son Stallion Steward Tiger Uncle Waiter Widower

cow hen filly bitch empress fiance vixen lady goddess headmistress heiress heroine hostess wife queen landlady lioness lady maidservant masseuse mistress nun niece poetess princess ewe madam daughter mare stewardess tigress aunt waitress widow

Note: There is a tendency, particularly in the case of professions, to drop the feminine form and adopt the more common masculine form. Thus poetess is rarely used. On the other hand we never say waiter when we mean waitress. Some words have no feminine equivalent. She is a very good doctor.

PARTS OF SPEECH Every word we use in a sentence belongs to a particular class. The classification is made according to the function or words used in a sentence. These classifications of words are called parts of Speech. Words are divided into eight classes or Parts of Speech such as: 1. Noun 4. Verb 7. Conjunction 2. Pronoun 5. Adverb 8. Interjection Nouns A noun denotes the name of person, place or thing. There are five kinds of nouns: (a) Proper Noun (b) Common Noun Material Noun (d) Collective Noun (e) Abstract Noun : The name of a particular person or place eg. Dallas, Tom : The name given in common to every person or thing of the same Class or kind boy, girl, city, school. : A noun which means the matter or substance of which things are Made- glass, coal, wheat, rice. : A noun which denotes a group of persons or things taken together as a whole- crowd, mo, team,flock. : A noun which is the name of a quality, action, or state considered apart from the object to which it belongs. Quality softness, honesty, wisdom Action- hatred, movement,judgment State- childhood,boyhood, youth Note: 1. Proper Nouns always begin with a capital letter. 2. Proper nouns are sometimes used as common nouns eg. Kalidas is often called the Shakespeare of India. The other distinctive features of a noun are its gender and number. 3. Adjective 6. Preposition

(a) Gender : There are four kinds of gender: (i) Masculine A noun denoting the name of a male animal lion, man. (ii)Feminine A noun denoting the name of a female animal- lioness,woman (iii) Common- A noun denoting either a male or a female baby, player. (iv) Neuter A noun denoting the name of an inanimate thing tree, room. (b) Number : There are two numbers: i) ii) Singular a noun denoting one person or thing doll, house. Plural - A noun denoting more than one person or thing dolls,houses.

The plural number is usually formed by adding s to the singular noun. Boy-boys,book-books. However there are some common words which donot form the plural in the usual manner. (a) Some nouns have the same form in the singular and plural: Fish, sheep, deer There is one fish in the pond. The boy has three fish. (b) Some nouns have an irregular form: Child-children, man-men, knife-knives. Mouse-mice, tooth-teeth. Some nouns are used only in the singular: (a) The following number and weight expressions when used after numerals:

Dozen, score, gross,hundred,thousand, million,billion. I bought three dozen mangoes. But: the shopkeeper has dozens of mangoes. (b) Certain nouns :

Knowledge, advice, information, luggage,news. The news from the front is bad. His knowledge of English is vast. Certain plural forms are commonly used in the singular: (i) Some subject names:

Physics, mathematics, politics, mechanics. (ii) Some games ; Billiards, football.

(iii) Some names of diseases: Measles, mumps. (c) Some nouns are used only in the plural; (a) Names of certain instruments and clothing which have two parts forming a kind of pair: Bellows, scissors, tongs,spectacles,binoculars,trousers,pants,slacks,shorts,pyjamas. The scissors are on the table. (b) Certain collective nouns: Poultry, cattle, vermin,gentry,police. Certain other nouns: Annals, thanks, proceeds, assets, clothes. (c) Note: There are a lot of nouns which can occur as singular or plural but with different meanings. For eg. When means has the meaning of wealth it can only be used in the plural: His means are small, but he has incurred no debt. When arms has the meaning of weapons it can only be used in the plural. Arms were found in the terrorist hideout. PRONOUNS A pronoun is a word which is used instead of a noun to avoid repeating the same noun. There are eight kinds of pronouns: (a) Personal pronoun I, we, you, she, it, they are called personal pronouns because they are used instead of the three persons: i) The person speaking iii) The person spoken of. I was telling you about him. There are three different forms of personal pronouns: i) First person (masculine or feminine) Singular I, mine, me. Plural We, ours, us. ii) the person spoken to

ii)

Second person (masculine or feminine) Singular You, yours, you.

iii) Singular Masculine He His Him

Third person.

Neuter it its it

Plural Feminine She Hers Her All Genders they theirs them

Note: When self is added to my, your, him,her and it, and selves to our, your and them, the resulting pronoun is called compound personal pronoun. Myself, themselves.

(b) Emphatic pronoun - When compound personal pronouns are used to give stress, or emphsise to a sentence they are called emphatic pronouns. I myself caught the thief. Demonstrative pronoun Pronouns used to point out objects about which they are speaking. That is the girl I wanted to show you. (c) Indefinite pronoun Those that refer to persons or things in a general way but no one or nothing in particular. None of Tagores poems are included. Someone has stolen my book. There is one on the table. (d) Distributive pronoun- Each, either, neither. They are used to mean persons or things one at a time. Distributive pronouns are always singular.

Either of these roads lead to the railway station. (e) Relative pronoun- A pronoun which does the work of a conjunction and a pronoun which relates to some noun which is immediately before it. That is the girl who stood first. (f) Interrogative pronoun When relative pronouns are used to ask questions they are interrogative pronouns . What do you want? Which is the house? (g) Possessive pronoun Used to indicate pronouns which are in possession of someone or something. This book is yours/mine/hers/theirs. ADJECTIVES An adjective is a word which says something about a noun. An adjective qualifies a noun. There are seven kinds of adjectives. (a) Adjectives of quality : They describe the kind or quality of a person or thing. He is a small child. This is a beautiful flower. (b) Adjectives of quantity: They show how much of a thing is meant. I ate a little fruit. Adjectives of number: They point out how many persons or things are meant or the order in which a person or thing stands. We have two legs. The first month of the year is January. Some boys are chatting together. (c) Demonstrative adjectives: They point out that the person or thing that is meant. That girl is the new actress. This man is the famous speaker. (d) Interrogative adjectives: What,which,and whose is used with nouns to ask questions. Whose book is this? (d) Possessive adjectives : It indicates possession. He lost his book. b

Note: Adjectives are often used as nouns. In this case they are usually preceded by the definite article the . As plural nouns denoting a class of persons. The rich never bother about money. As singular nouns denoting some abstract quality. He is fond of the absurd. She only sees the bad and never the good in what he does. VERBS A verb is a word that tells or asserts something. It may describe: The action of a person or thing : The girl laughs. The train moves. The thing done to a person or a thing : The baby is fondled. The glass is broken.

What a person or thing is : The man is tall. I feel happy. A verb is often made up of more than one word : the bird is singing. The horse has been running. There are two kinds of verbs ; Transitive: The girl sings a song. In this sentence, the action of the verb sings goes or passes over from the subject the girl to the object a song. The verb sings here is a transitive verb. Intransitive: The baby sleeps peacefully. In this sentence, the action of the verb doesnot Pass over to an object, it expresses a state of being. It need not have any object at all. He runs. I sleep. ADVERB An adverb is a word which modifies a verb, an adjective and also an adverb. There are seven kinds of adverbs; Adverbs of time showing whenHe came late. The end came soon. Adverbs of frequency showing how often You have come to my place twice. He frequently goes to Delhi. Adverbs of place showing whereCome here. The thief ran away. Adverbs of manner showing howShe dances beautifully. They fought bravely. Adverbs of degree or quantity- showing how much, in what degree or to What extent. I am so glad. I am rather busy. He is as tall as his brother. Adverbs of affirmation and negationHe certainly went. He is not a good poet. Adverbs of reason showing why

I am therefore happy. PREPOSITIONS A preposition is a word which is used before a noun or a pronoun in order to show the relation of the noun or pronoun concerned with other words in the sentence. Read the examples given below : The cat is under the table. He is at home now. There is no water in the jar. A lot of students of our institution speak English fluently. He came back from London yesterday. CONJUNCTIONS A conjunction is a word which joins two words, expressions or sentenes. Two and two make four. He tried hard but failed. We must do or die. INTERJECTIONS An interjection is a word which expresses a sudden feeling of joy, sorrow,fear, despair, etc. such as; Alas! I am undone. Oh! What a beautiful scene it is.