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1. WHAT WAS THE THEORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF LUDVIG MIES VAN DER ROHE ???

ANS:

PHILOSOPHYAND THEORY

BEAUTY IS A SPLENDOUR OF TRUTH.


Meis tried his best to put the profound in his buildings. He never tried to hide the materials he was using for his buildings unnecessary cladding. Meis the master of architecture put all his material knowledge to prove the above said phrase.

STRUCTURE & BAUKNST


Structure & Bauknst {BAU-construction , KNST-purified form} i.e. the structure in most purified form ; it was what MEIS achieved through his factual & logical knowledge of materials. He used to use simple & pure constructional system in his buildings.

He once said: I AM INTERESTED CLEAR STRUCTURE. ONLY A CLEAR EXPRESSION OF STRUCTURE CAN GIVE AN ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTION. WE WOULD MAKE IT WITH THE STRUCTURE ONLY. SKIN AND BONE CONCEPT
His skin and bone concept separates the two structural and nonstructural elements of building. The concept he follows in almost every of his projects . It was the structures system that made him free to choose a material like glass as skin. The skin to this was the curtain walls , he was raising in glass. This was a logical conclusion emphasizing structural clarity and honesty , A grid of steel which became a simple cage with columns and beams set regular intervals filled with brick glass or concrete was the best solution for modern industrial enclosure steel and concrete represented strength.

MATERIAL & TECHNOLOGY EVERYTHING DEPENDS UPON HOW WE USE THE MATERIAL AND NOT UPON THE MATERIAL
According to him architecture is learned in four steps. The first step is brick, the simple fact of material.

The second step is to understand the meaning of one material i.e. physical & chemical properties &third step is to understand the material characteristics of time-steel, concrete & glass. The fourth step is to understand the needs of our, the need to provide, vast amount of Shelter (mass need )& the need to make each man feel free (the individual ,human need ). This completes the architectural education with clear & uncompromising progression of real architecture with truth to MIES ,material was above all.

GOD IS IN THE DETAIL

Mies believed in directing even very small and minute details in his projects. To him each and every constructional detail was very important. His purpose was to obtain simplicity, clarity and purity in every joint. He considered the details to be the god of structure. His concept emerged out of his accident practical knowledge of building construction

LESS IS MORE

The philosophy emerges out of sense of value of space. The concept is much more relevant today as the spaces are becoming compact with the explosive increase in population. The concept directs to make the space used fully . The aim is to provide maximum out of minimum. He was able to achieve this by bringing the spaces united and let the exteriors come into interiors by using transparent glass curtain wall. Main examples of this theory are : BARCELONA CHAIR TUNENDHAT CHAIR

CONCEPT OF UNIVERSALITY

Great architecture is universal The concept directs to raise as main minimum partitions as possible, in the space. It made the spaces unite and hence generated spaces to be felt enlarged. When spaces are becoming compact , it is the need of time to create universal spaces that would accommodate each and every function in them.

To Mies, the concept of universality in architecture implied the highest possible degree of freedom for after all a building reduced to almost nothing to him architecture of nothingness

suggest a maximum opportunity for free expression on the part of these who use the building they can furnish it in any way, use it for anything they like change its interior spaces in any manner that seems more suitable.

2. WHAT WAS THE CONCEPT AND THE ARCHITECTURAL STYLE OF BARCELONA PAVILION..???
ANS: Building Type : Inauguration Pavilion

Construction System : Columns , non-load bearing walls Context : Urban Style : Modern It was constructed as a temporary building for the international Exposition in Barcelona of 1929. Though temporary, it was still made of permanent materials--steel, glass, marble, and travertine. It was demolished in 1930 and rebuilt in 1986. The plan is asymmetric and fluid with a continuous flow of space. Wall partitions are made of both transparent and opaque glass as well as highly polished marble. The low flat roof is supported by delicate metal supports.

Like a Greek temple, the pavilion is raised on a base. The main building is on the right half of the base; an oblong reflecting pool and smaller building are on the left half .

Right Half of the Building

Left half of the Building

Material Used
Glass, steel and four different kinds of marble (Roman travertine, green Alpine marble, ancient green marble from Greece and golden onyx from the Atlas Mountains)

Georg Kolbe's sculpture

The sculpture is a bronze reproduction of the piece entitled Alba (Dawn) by Georg Kolbe, a contemporary of Mies van der Rohe's. Masterfully placed at one end of the small pond, the sculpture is reflected not only in the water but also in the marble and glass, thereby creating the sensation that it is multiplied in space, while its curves contrast with the geometrical purity of the building.

Columns- main structural members

Furniture designed by Mies for Barcelona pavilion

The interior looking toward the small building on the left half

views from the rear of the building


3.EXPLAIN FARNSWORTH HOUSE..???
ANS:

Prominent icon of MODERN ARCHITECTURE


Building Type : House Construction System : Steel frame with glass Climate : Temperate Context : Urban Style : Modern

Site Plan

Weekend house for Dr. Farnsworth

Located on the bank of river Fox in Plano, Illinois

PLANNING
The house consists of two rectangular slabs, bracketed by steel columns. Stairs connect the ground to the 55' x 23' terrace slab, and connect the terrace slab to the 77' x 29' main house slab. This continuous upper level plane, set 5'-3" above the ground to prevent flooding, is used for both exterior deck space and interior floor. Door and facade details were designed so that the deck's 1-1/4" travertine pavers are not penetrated or interrupted, making a smooth transition from outside to inside. These details, combined with the continuous flat ceiling and planar facades, make the house seem like a box that is "slipped" into the steel column structure

During Construction

The house's structure consists of precast concrete floor and roof slabs supported by a carefully crafted steel skeleton frame of beams, girders and columns Eight W-shape columns in parallel rows 28 feet apart support 15" channel section beams at floor and roof level

Enclosed by sheets of thick plate glass spanning 9'-6" from floor to ceiling, and measuring 10'-6" wide. The effect of this fully transparent facade is to blur the usual boundaries defining domesticity.

Its one large room, divided by wood paneled closets and secluded bathrooms, is surrounded by floor to ceiling windows

Floor elevated to

5-3

Placed only two fixed elements

A transparent box framed by eight exterior steel columns, the Farnsworth house is one of the most radically minimalist houses ever designed and it has been called an icon of international style modernism.

4.BRIEFLY DISCUSS ABOUT TUGENDHAT HOUSE????


ANS: Building Type : House Construction System : Steel frame Climate : Temperate Context : Urban Style : Modern

The plan repeats that of the Barcelona Pavilion, the onyx wall and the curved one of Macassar ebony being independent of the cruciformshaped columns. The floor is of white linoleum, the rug white wool. The curtains are of black and natural raw silk and white velvet. Behind the dining room a double glass partition serves as a light source for the interior space, as in the Barcelona design . Across the living and dining area the entire wall of glass.two of these large panes slide down into pockets as in an automobile window. A terrace and flight of steps connects the house to the garden below at one end the glass is double to provided the narrow conservatory running the depth of plan .

PlanS of Tugendhat house

GROUND FLOOR PLAN

FIRST FLOOR PLAN

A terrace and flight of steps connect the house to the garden below. At one end the glass is doubled to provide a narrow conservatory. The juxtaposition of geometry with nature is most effective, the simplicity of forms enhancing the natural setting."

Interior views of Tugendhat House