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Ibrahim M El-Bagory et al. have studied Effect of Polymer Blend on Diltiazem HCl Matrix Tablets Prepared by Direct Compression.

Three polymers of different deformation mechanisms were tested for their impact on Deltiazem (DZ) directly compressed tablets namely Kollidon SR (KL SR, plastic

deformation), Ethylcellulose (EC, elastic deformation) and Carnauba wax (CW, brittle deformation) at different compression forces. The design of directly compressed matrix tablets for sustained release properties into consideration the deformation mechanism of used polymers should take

Selim Reza Md et al. described about plastic, hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers as matrices for controlled drug delivery systems. They concluded that the profile and kinetics of drug release were functions of polymer type, polymer level and physic-chemical nature of drug Khemariya P et al. have prepared Sustained-Release Matrix Tablets of Diltiazem., by utilizing a combination of Hypromellose (HPMC), Eudragit with different grades and finally milled Ethyl cellulose. Tablets were prepared by the wet granulation method. A common problem observed with hydrophilic matrix systems containing very water-soluble drugs is an initial burst release of the drug. to overcome this problem, a finely hydrophobic polymer was added to the matrix system Kojima et al have prepared the extended release of a large amount of highly water-soluble diltiazem hydrochloride by utilizing counter polymer in polyethylene oxides and polyethylene glycol matrix tablets. The results suggested that that including counter polymer in the PEO/PEG matrix tablet is a useful tool for achieving the sustained release of a large amount of highly water-soluble drug. Sabel et al A polymeric device releasing biologically active, water-soluble materials having a molecular weight of less than 1000 in a controlled, continuous and linear manner over an extended period of time. In soluble biocompatible

polymers are used so that the device is implantable. The device is made based on diffusion of fluid into a polymeric matrix containing dispersed biologically active molecules to yield a polymer device which can be placed in a fluid environment.

Lakshmana Prabu S et al. have formulated oral sustained release of Diltiazem Hydrochloride using rosin as matrix forming material. The study showed that rosin is
an appropriate hydrophobic material that can be utilized as matrix forming agent to prolong the release of water soluble drug such as Dilitiazem HCl .

Modi V C and Seth A K Have formulated and evaluated diltiazem sustained release matrix tablets by employing hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC K100 M) and the sustained release behaviour of the fabricated tablets was investigated. Sustained release matrix tablets containing 120 mg Diltiazem

hydrochloride were developed using different drug: polymer (HPMC K100 M) ratios. The results of dissolution studies indicated that formulation B5 (drug to polymer 1:1.25) was found to be most successful as it exhibits drug release pattern very close to theoretical release profile. A decrease in release kinetics of the drug was observed on increasing polymer ratio. Camelia Balazs and Sorin E. Leucuta , have prepared Matrix

tablets containing diltiazem hydrochloride by the direct compression method, using hydrophilic polymers, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, type Methocel K15M), hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC, type Klucel HXF) and polyethylene oxide (PEO, type Polyox 1105). Diltiazem hydrochloride dissolution from matrix tablets was in accordance with the hydrophilic polymer type and level. Hence, it was obtained a release for diltiazem. They concluded that slow the diltiazem hydrochloride release mechanism was done by drug diffusion on the gel layer generated by the polymer hydration and swelling, followed by the gel layer erosion. Erosion phenomenon was more visible at PEO matrices than HPMC and HPC matrices, at 1:1 and 1:2 diltiazem: polymer

Mishra B et al. have developed Matrix tablets of diltiazem hydrochloride were prepared using polymers like hyroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC K15, HPMC K4), sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and Guar gum, and different diluents like lactose, starch, microcrystalline cellulose. They concluded that that the potential controlled and sustained release matrix tablets of DHL could be prepared using optimized amount of HPMC and other swellable polymers, like SCMC, guar gum Ramesh Panchagnula et al formulated CR forms of diltiazem. After extensive research the results suggested that structural integrity of dosage form play significant role in drug releaseThe work also concluded that pH does not effect release of drug from dosage form Ibrahim M El- Bagory et al. studided effect of polymer blend on Diltiazem HCl matrix tablets prepared by Direct Compression Results suggested that deformation mechanism of polymers effect the release of drug from tablets J. Shah, A. Babar prepared Multiple Strength Controlled-Release Dosage Forms Of Metoprolol Tartrate Using A Single Solid Dispersion Formulation Of The Drug and concluded the production of solid dispersion using ethyl cellulose using solvent mixture of methanol and dichloromethane

Ozeki T, et al studied Application of the solid dispersion method to the controlled release of medicine. VII. Release mechanism of a highly water-soluble medicine from solid dispersion with different molecular weight of polymer These studies suggested the effect of molecular weight on drug release J. Sahoo et al prepared solid dispersions of verapamil using kollidon SR and Eudragit. The in vitro release profile and the mathematical models indicate that release of verapamil hydrochloride can be effectively controlled from a tablet containing solid dispersions

Reddy et al. have prepared the sustained-release matrix tablets of nicorandil by the wet granulation method by using granulating agents viz ehtylcellulose, eudragit RL-100, eudragit RS-100, and polyvinylpyrrolidone along with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, sodium carboxy methylcellulose and studied effect of various polymers in controlled release Diclofenac sodium nanoparticles and solid dispersions were prepared by BarzegarJalalia et al . The solid dispersions were also formulated using co-evaporation technique Both nanoparticles and solid dispersions of DNaeudragit RS100 displayed lower crystallinity and the intermolecular interaction between drug and polymer could not be ruled out. All the solid dispersions revealed slower drug release rate in comparison with the nanoparticles.

Khemariya P et al. have prepared Sustained-Release Matrix Tablets of Diltiazem., by utilizing a combination of Hypromellose (HPMC), Eudragit with different grades and finally milled Ethyl cellulose. Tablets were prepared by the wet granulation method. A common problem observed with hydrophilic matrix systems containing very water-soluble drugs is an initial burst release of the drug. to overcome this problem, a finely hydrophobic polymer was added to the matrix system

The Release Behavior and Kinetic Evaluation of Diltiazem HCl from Various Hydrophilic and Plastic Based Matrices was studied by H Mehrgan et al This phenomenon was attributed to the encapsulation of drug particles by polymer in matrices prepared from solid dispersion system, which caused a great delay in diffusion of the drug through polymer and made diffusion as a rate retarding process in drug release mechanism. Since methods of application of EC as a

retarding agent would influence its effectiveness, it is speculated that the use of proper methods such as microencapsulation, particle coating or solid dispersion may provide suitable result Coevaporates and Coprecipitates of Promethazine HCl with Acrylic Polymers were formulated by Sunita DAHIYA, et al they concluded That solubility of PHC was markedly decreased after formation of polymeric dispersions possibily due to of hydrogen bonding reduction in crystallinity of pure drug in solid dispersions associated with diluting effect of polymer may also be a possible reason for controlled release Patil et al formulated solid dispersions of metformin by using various grades of methocel.The actual effectiveness of SDs as extended release dosage forms is strongly dependent on the preparation technique used for obtaining SD. SDs prepared by solvent evaporation using methocel K100M were capable of prolonging the release of metformin for 10 h Moes et al formulates solid dispersions of indomethacin using various acrylate polymers. The results indicated that Eudragit RS can be used for formulating sustained release solid dispersions of indomrthacin The tabletting properties of coevaporates were studied and show no influence of tabletting forces on the Higuchi's release rate constant. There is a linear relationship between the Higuchi rate constant and the percentage of Eudragit in the mixture Pignatello et al studied the mechanisms of interaction between Eudragit RS100 (RS) and RL100 (RL) polymers with 3 nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: diflunisal (DIF), flurbiprofen (FLU), and piroxicam (PIR). Solid dispersions of polymers and drugs at different weight ratios were prepared by coevaporation of their ethanol solutionsThe dispersion of drugs in the polymer matrices strongly influenced their dissolution rate, which appeared slower and more gradual than those of the pure drugs The kinetic evaluation of the dissolution profile, however, suggested that both the drug solubility in the external medium and its diffusion capacity within the polymer network are involved

Boza et al Studied formulation of inert matrix tablets of lobenzarit disodium by direct compression using Ethocel 100 and Eudragit RS-PO as polymeric materials in different ratios The obtained dissolution profiles demonstrated that the matrices containing Eudragit RS-PO showed a slower release rate and therefore were more suitable for controlling the release of drug.

Follonier et al.worked , Sustained release pellets using the continuous process of hot-melt screw extrusion. Diltiazem hydrochloride to optimize the release profile of the drug the influence of different parameters, such as polymer type, addition of pore-forming additives and hydrophilic polymers, or size of the pellets was studied. swelling agents were included into the pellets, to reduce the burst release. Polymers used to optimize the drug-release profiles were ethylcellulose, cellulose acetate butyrate, Eudragit RS, and polyethylene-co-vinyl acetate. Incorporation of enteric polymers: cellulose acetate phthalate, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose phthalate, and Eudragit resulted in increase in the dissolution rate of diltiazem hydrochloride in dissolution media (pH 7.0) due to leaching of enteric polymer

Kamlesh Jayantilal formulated pH metformin solid dispersions usingusing different types of Eudragits.. RLPO and RSPO, insoluble but dispersible in water, and L-100, S-100, with pH-dependent solubility, were used, separately or in different (w/w) combinations to formulate controlled release form of metformin Kinetic modeling of in vitro dissolution profiles revealed the drug release mechanism ranges from diffusion controlled to anomalous type. Enayatifard et al Developed a oral controlled matrix drug delivery system for, diltiazem HCl, and investigated its drug release mechanism. Tablets were prepared by direct compression method using different matrix ratios of ethyl cellulose (EC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). The formulations were evaluated in vitro for their dissolution characteristics over a period of 8 h.

The results showed that in the presence of EC, increasing the concentration of HPMC decreased the release rate of diltiazem. Furthermore, incorporation of EC in tablets with HPMC as the matrix was found to control drug release. Piero et al investigated the effect of polymer on the dissolution behaviour of the drugs. Coprecipitates of different drugs with Eudragit RS were prepared. Delayed release was found by increasing the amount of the polymer in the solid dispersions Results showed that molecular weight and molar refractivity of the drugs were the most important variables influencing their release from coprecipitates . Kakiketeni et al., worked with ethyl celluloseErosion occurred for tablets manufactured with ethylcellulose particle size above 120m (Kakiketeni et al., 1995a). Characterization of tablets prepared using different particle sizes revealed that the porosity increased with increase in particle size (Katiketeni et al., 1995b) and the increase in porosity resulted in a faster drug release. Boza et al By comparing Eudragit RSPO to Ethocel 100, found that the release rate of lobenzarit sodium was slower for the Eudragit based matrix. The explanation was based on the chemical structure of the polymers. Ethocel has hydrophilic hydroxyl and ethoxyl groups, which make the matrix water sensitive. Consequently, it was more difficult to control the release of the hydrophilic drug. Eudragit RSPO is only slightly permeable to water due to its low content of quaternary ammonium groups; therefore it was more suitable for controlling the release of the hydrophilic drug. Pathan and Jalil (2000) evaluated Kollidon SR as matrix excipient for theophylline tablets. Tablets containing 20-70% theophylline showed Higuchian release kinetics; the release rates increased exponentially with the drug loading. . Annealing of the tablets for 24 hours at temperatures of 45 and 55C showed a slight decrease in the release rate compared to the room temperature. Shao et al. (2001) reported the effect of accelerated stability conditions on

diphenhydramine HCl tablets prepared with Kollidon SR. A decrease in dissolution rate along with an increase in tablet hardness was noticed for tablets with high level of Kollidon SR (>37%) prepared without diluents or with 15% diluent (lactose, Emcompress). At 25% Emcompress, no changes occurred. Such changes were not observed for tablets stored at 25C/ 60%RH or cured at 60C for at least one hour. Rock et al. (2000) evaluated different additives: diacetyl-tartaric acid diglyceride ester, pectin, stearic acid and methyl hydroxyethyl cellulose for optimization of caffeine release from Kollidon SR -based matrix tablets. Stearic acid retarded the initial drug release in acidic medium due to its hydrophobic character, but failed to accelerate it in neutral medium. Diacetyl-tartaric acid diglyceride ester, methyl hydroxyethyl cellulose and pectin reduced the initial drug release and intensified the dissolution after the pH change.