Sie sind auf Seite 1von 22

Encoding and Modulation

Encoding and Modulation ◆ Baud rate ◆ Pulse encoding (digital to digital) ◆ Modulation (digital to

Baud rate

Pulse encoding (digital to digital)

Modulation (digital to analog)

Pulse code modulation

Encoding

Encoding ◆ There are four types: ◆ Digital information, digital signal ◆ Analog information, digital signal

There are four types:

Digital information, digital signal

Analog information, digital signal

Digital information, analog signal

Analog information, analog signal

Modulation - data onto analog signal

Encoding - data onto digital signal

Encoding vs Modulation

Encoding vs Modulation g(t) digital or analog m(t) digital or analog x(t) Decoder g(t)   m(t)

g(t)

digital

or

analog

m(t)

digital

or

analog

x(t)

Decoder

g(t)

Decoder g(t)
 

m(t)

Demodulator

 
Demodulator  
 

Encoderg(t)   m(t) Demodulator     digital (a) Encoding onto a digital signal s(t) Modulator

  m(t) Demodulator     Encoder digital (a) Encoding onto a digital signal s(t) Modulator

digital

(a)

Encoding onto a digital signal

s(t)

ModulatorEncoder digital (a) Encoding onto a digital signal s(t) analog f c (a) Modulation onto an

digital (a) Encoding onto a digital signal s(t) Modulator analog f c (a) Modulation onto an
digital (a) Encoding onto a digital signal s(t) Modulator analog f c (a) Modulation onto an

analog

f c

(a) Modulation onto an analog signal

x(t)

t S(f) t
t
S(f)
t

f c

Digital Data, Digital Signals

Digital Data, Digital Signals ◆ Categories of this encoding are: ◆ Unipolar - one voltage level

Categories of this encoding are:

Unipolar - one voltage level used.

Polar - two voltage levels are use. Examples NRZ, NRZ-L, NRZ-I, RZ and Manchester encoding

Bipolar - ones are represented by alternating positive and negative voltages: examples include AMI, B8ZS, HDB3.

Baud rate

Baud rate ◆ Also known as Signalling rate or modulation rate. ◆ Signal elements per second

Also known as Signalling rate or modulation rate.

Signal elements per second (baud).

The rate at which signal elements are transmitted.

bit rate = baud rate x M where M is the number of bits per signal element

for two-level signalling (binary), bit rate is equal to the baud rate.

Criteria for Digital Encoding Formats

Criteria for Digital Encoding Formats ◆ Various techniques are compared in terms of the following: ◆

Various techniques are compared in terms of the following:

Reduced bandwidth.

Ease of synchronization.

No zero frequency component (DC).

Possible error detection.

Reduced cost and complexity.

Immunity to noise and interference.

Unipolar

Unipolar ◆ Binary 1 is encoded as a positive value; Binary 0 as zero voltage, or

Binary 1 is encoded as a positive value; Binary 0 as zero voltage, or an idle line.

Unipolar encoding is simple and primitive.

The average amplitude of a unipolar signal is nonzero. This creates a DC component. Some transmission media cannot handle that.

When a signal is not varying (e.g. long runs of 1s or 0s), the receiver cannot determine the beginning and ending of each bit.

Non-return to zero (NRZ)

Non-return to zero (NRZ) ◆ In NRZ-L, the level of signal depends on the type of

In NRZ-L, the level of signal depends on the type of bit it represents. A positive voltage represents binary 1, and a negative voltage represent binary 0.

In NRZ-I, the transition between a positive and a negative voltage represents a 1 bit. A 0 bit is represented by no change.

An advantage of NRZ-I over NRZ-L is that signal changes every time a 1 bit is transmitted, it enables synchronization.

Manchester encoding

Manchester encoding ◆ In Manchester encoding, the transition at the middle of the bit is used

In Manchester encoding, the transition at the middle of the bit is used for both synchronization and bit representation.

Binary 0 = positive-to-negative transition

Binary 1 = negative-to-positive transition

In Differential Manchester encoding, the transition at the middle of the bit is used only for synchronization.

Always a transition in middle of interval.

Binary 0 = transition at beginning of interval.

Binary 1 = no transition at beginning of interval.

Bipolar encoding

Bipolar encoding ◆ Bipolar encoding uses three voltage levels: positive, negative and zero. ◆ Bipolar-AMI ◆

Bipolar encoding uses three voltage levels:

positive, negative and zero.

Bipolar-AMI

0 bit = no line signal

1bit = positive or negative level, alternating for successive ones.

This encoding achieves two things: first, the DC component is zero, and second, a long run of 1s stays synchronized.

Pseudoternary

0 bit = positive or negative level, alternating for successive zeros

1 bit = no line signal

Digital Data, Analog Signals

Digital Data, Analog Signals ◆ Modem - to produce signals in the voice frequency range (300-3400Hz).

Modem - to produce signals in the voice frequency range (300-3400Hz).

Carrier signal is a sine wave.

Modulation - to superimpose digital data on a carrier signal.

One or more characteristics of carrier is changed

Amplitude, Frequency or Phase.

Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)

Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) ◆ In ASK, the amplitude of the carrier signal is varied to

In ASK, the amplitude of the carrier signal is varied to represent binary 1 or 0.

Two binary values are represented by two different amplitudes the carrier.

Binary 1 = Acos(2pi f_c t).

Binary 0 = 0.

Where f_c is the carrier frequency.

Inefficient and susceptible to noise.

Optical fiber channels.

Frequency-shift-keying (FSK)

Frequency-shift-keying (FSK) ◆ In FSK, the frequency of the carrier signal is varied to represent binary

In FSK, the frequency of the carrier signal is varied to represent binary 1 or 0.

The two binary values are represented by two different frequencies.

Binary 1 = Acos(2 pi f_1 t).

Binary 2 = Acos(2 pi f_2 t).

Full-duplex operation over voice grade lines.

High-frequency operation.

Used in some local area networks.

Phase-shift-keying (PSK)

Phase-shift-keying (PSK) ◆ In ASK, the phase of the signal is varied to represent binary 1

In ASK, the phase of the signal is varied to represent binary 1 or 0.

The phase of the carrier signal is shifted to represent data. In the binary case:

Binary 1 = A cos(2 pi f_c t + pi).

Binary 0 = Acos(2 pi f_c t).

4,8,16 levels of signalling possible.

High efficiency.

High speed modems.

QPSK

QPSK ◆ 4PSK; the phase of the carrier signal is shifted to represent data. ◆ Binary

4PSK; the phase of the carrier signal is shifted to represent data.

Binary 00 = A cos(2 pi f_c t ).

Binary 01 = Acos(2 pi f_c t+pi/2)

Binary 11 = Acos(2 pi f_c t+pi)

Binary 10 = Acos(2 pi f_c t + 3pi/2)

Quadrature amplitude modulation

Quadrature amplitude modulation ◆ In QAM, both the phase and amplitude of the carrier signal vary.

In QAM, both the phase and amplitude of the carrier signal vary.

QAM enables a higher data transmission than other modulation methods.

Analog-to-digital encoding

Analog-to-digital encoding ◆ This is called pulse code modulation (PCM). ◆ PCM involves sampling, quantizing each

This is called pulse code modulation (PCM).

PCM involves sampling, quantizing each sample to a set number of bits, and then assigning voltage levels to the bits.

The term sampling means measuring the signal at regular intervals.

Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM)

Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) ◆ The first step of PCM is called PAM. This method takes

The first step of PCM is called PAM. This method takes analog information, samples and generates a series of pulses based on the results of the sampling.

According to the Nyquist theorem, the sampling rate must be at least two times the highest frequency.

Voice Digitization

Voice Digitization ◆ Normal voice signal bandwidth 4kHz. ◆ Sampling rate 8000/sec. ◆ 8 - bit

Normal voice signal bandwidth 4kHz.

Sampling rate 8000/sec.

8 - bit encoding (256 levels)

64 kbps - PCM signal

PCM

PCM PAM signal PCM signal Sampling Quantizer and compander Analog voice signal CSE3318 Module 5 slide

PAM signal

PCM PAM signal PCM signal Sampling Quantizer and compander Analog voice signal CSE3318 Module 5 slide

PCM signal

PCM PAM signal PCM signal Sampling Quantizer and compander Analog voice signal CSE3318 Module 5 slide

Sampling

Quantizer

and

compander

Analog voice signal

PCM PAM signal PCM signal Sampling Quantizer and compander Analog voice signal CSE3318 Module 5 slide
PCM PAM signal PCM signal Sampling Quantizer and compander Analog voice signal CSE3318 Module 5 slide

Quantization

Quantization ◆ n-bit encoding, there are only 2^n - levels ◆ Signal level x approximated by

n-bit encoding, there are only 2^n - levels

Signal level x approximated by the nearest quantization level.

SNR due to this noise is given by

SNR = 6n , approximately

Companding

Companding ◆ Lower amplitudes are more affected by the quantization noise. ◆ Uniform quantizing is not

Lower amplitudes are more affected by the quantization noise.

Uniform quantizing is not effective

Non uniform quantizing

More gain to weak signals