Knowledge Management in Cloud Environments

Dirk Langenberg
Pumacy Technologies AG Bartningallee 27 Berlin, Germany +49 30 2216128-0

Christian Kind
Pumacy Technologies AG Bartningallee 27 Berlin, Germany +49 30 2216128-0

Martin Dames
Pumacy Technologies AG Bartningallee 27 Berlin, Germany +49 30 2216128-0

Communication and sharing of knowledge are important challenges for virtual organizations (VO) in the globalized economy. There are various tools available to virtually reduce geographical distances and to support collaboration. Also for the management of knowledge appropriate solutions are available. But VOs typically have limited time to setup the entire ITinfrastructure for their collaboration. Therefore the trend to buy ready-to-use products exists. This paper characterizes requests of VOs for SaaS products, proposes functionalities to support team work and describes challenges with their solutions in the cloud.

Categories and Subject Descriptors
H.3.5 [Information Storage and Retrieval]: On-line Information Services – Commercial services, Data sharing, Web-based services C.2.4 [Distributed Systems]: Distributed applications – Cloud Computing

Today, various collaboration platforms are established for VOs [5], which provide file management typically. For knowledgeintensive works this is not enough. In VOs the members require more capabilities to collect, manage and provide knowledge for its reuse in the joint projects [14]. Sharing of experiences in VOs is mostly done by direct communication without any KM system. Preferred solutions to exchange files are project servers. However, even here are some remaining challenges: Firstly, project servers have to be accessible by all project members via the Internet. In many companies security policies hinder operation of such services. Secondly, project servers require hardware and software investments, administration and support. Often these costs cannot be specified for each project partner. Thirdly, the whereabouts of data and the possible access by end of project must be regulated. Additionally, VOs have limited time to setup and to operate an adequate infrastructure. Therefore a ready-to-use solution of a specialized provider is required, which can be bought and used instantly. The announcements of the arising cloud computing providers sound promising. This paper proposes a solution for a collaborative KM platform based on the new cloud technologies.

General Terms

Collaborative KM software has to meet several challenges to support VOs [8]. At first, communication between project members has to be facilitated to overcome geographical and cultural distances. After that, simplified and effective sharing of knowledge has to be enabled. Last but not least, management of the collaboration environment has to be simplified. Figure 1 shows the main functionalities to support VOs.

knowledge management, virtual organizations, cloud computing, software as a service.

In industry, virtual organizations (VO) are a common strategy to organize the development, production and maintenance of products. Most companies concentrate on their core competences and draw additional services from subcontractors. VOs are temporary consortiums of companies that work together with a common goal [2]. Therefore cross company collaborations are inevitable [11], but knowledge management (KM) stops at organizational borders, today. It is almost impossible to achieve sharing of knowledge between various parties in these VOs. Reasons for this are geographic distances, affiliation to different organizations and often the resulting formal flow of information. Also security policies hinder direct access to knowledge.

Figure 1. Functionalities for support of VOs [8]

all members of a project and respectively of a VO are interested in the project specific topics – and not in running an information technology infrastructure. common calendars and task management support the planning. It can be used worldwide by all project partners. One advantage is that anyone can use the service without disciplinespecific knowhow. Therefore a ready-to-use solution of a specialized provider is required. Cloud computing shares the same vision [4]. the availability is much higher than most companies would typically achieve hosting the system locally. 4. Platform (hardware and basic software) as a Service (PaaS) or Software as a Service (SaaS). However. If the service is no longer needed. setup. which is currently developed in the research project KnowledgeCloud [13]. the costs are borne by the partners. for example semistructured wikis or management systems for structured knowledge articles. They might enforce reviews for knowledge articles before publication. or meta information like creation time express correlations about the background of an article. project partners will participate fairly in the costs. One approach for more interaction inside of VOs in the context of collaborative KM is to deploy workflows. Lessons Learned. a neutral service provider can often make arrangements easier. There are explicit links to describe connections between knowledge items.When we take a look at the communication aspects. blogs and RSS).0 communication technologies (Twitter. There are different approaches for KM. involve more people in the creation process and ensure a higher quality level of documented knowledge. multi-institutional virtual organizations. KM as a service on basis of Cloud technologies [8] . operation and maintenance (backups and security patches). A comfortable search function has to make this knowledge reusable for other people. we see at first current Web 2. Regarding KM. there are other ways to assist interaction between VO members with further collaboration functionalities. which are set by authors. FAQs. Project partners have to trust in the service provider in equal measure. Figure 2. Usage of a common platform avoids media breaks and ensures the location and system-independent information delivery. Based on the demand-oriented settlement. the challenges here lie more in the legal situation regarding intellectual property rights to be respected. when requirements and their effects on the product are defined. Regarding faith in secure access to data during and after the project. Especially the current trend to provide SaaS on a pay-per-use basis is interesting for VOs. COLLABORATIVE KM AS A SERVICE The proposed solution is to provide a project-based KM and collaboration service in the Cloud. For example. To improve the management of VOs. At the same time. However. tools for surveys and voting assist to form opinions.” [3] Grid solutions are mainly used to provide computing power and storage capacity for calculation and simulation tasks [7] [15]. KM systems were installed only in the company. operation and maintenance. Then the entire group can focus their efforts on the joint project. As long as the data is provided. any company can create its IT-environment. The usage of a common KM service by all partners simplifies capturing and retrieving of knowledge. which FOSTER defined as: “Grid Computing is concerned with coordinated resource sharing and problem solving in dynamic. Thereby VOs can establish an own KM environment for the duration of cooperation without having to invest into and maintain an own technical infrastructure. It is a further development of grid computing. These tools reduce the distance between the partners virtually and enable more discussions. On the other side. The KM service KMcloud by Pumacy Technologies is such a SaaS solution for collaboration-oriented KM. 3. KMcloud is a solution with a new architecture based on cloud technologies (Figure 2) and on the platform KMmaster® [12]. because they store important contributions to the intellectual property of companies. They can buy the required IT-solution including (virtualized) hardware. the product and process knowledge is documented in the cloud. CLOUD COMPUTING AS SOLUTION Currently arising cloud computing technologies are a new form of virtualization in computing platforms. But security requirements remain.1 Description of the KM-Service KMcloud As shown above the current trend providing SaaS is interesting for VOs and medium sized companies. “traditional” communication tools like email are still required. Just a few years ago. Typically. For example. They can buy required IT functionalities including setup. structuring and provision of knowledge. With these new solutions. Of course. tags. Especially the internet-based VOs ask for integration of these tools into their collaboration environment. until the usage and disposal phase. users purchase IT-infrastructure for a freely defined time period. software has to support collection. In cloud environments. there are various implicit links: Categories. With such KM service all involved disciplines share their knowledge throughout the entire product lifecycle process. outsourcing of applications with confidential information was not made because of security reasons. workflows formalize the KM process. So they have to be implemented adequate to the behavior in the VO. Independent of the chosen approach. KNOWLEDGECLOUD 5. technical barriers have to be solved. Beginning in the early stages. The demand to outsource IT-solutions forces the realization of cloud-based services. The knowledge base can be extended by new articles comfortably and work processes of each project team member can be assisted by deploying existing knowledge. Of course. they rent virtualized Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). This is neither limited to specific companies nor with respect to time. 5. Yellow Pages and ideas are typical knowledge articles. cross links between all knowledge items are important. the data is deleted.

16]. the focus of a SaaS provider regarding data security and safety is on the application itself. Database Architecture 5. System Architecture & Communication Paths Now it is possible to add more computing resources with just adding a new cluster node to the system. This approach is suitable if the system load is nearly constant or easy predictable. But we expect that many concurrent requests will show a better relative performance. Unfortunately they are not compliant with the SQL standard so it is not possible to use them with existing applications. KMcloud uses such cloud storage directly as data vault for big data sets (e. To have a high availability system it must be possible that if one cluster node crashes another node is able to serve client requests immediately. Semi-automatic node management: At fixed points in time. After the contract ends. users access the application with an Internet web browser. It can be summarized in the following activities and concepts: • • • Encrypted connections prevent the interception of data.) from a cloud are in the foreground.4 Availability KMcloud is based on the existing KMmaster® platform.2 Database in the Cloud Some cloud providers offer simple NoSQL databases [10].3. Due to this. Here. And there are still several challenges [6.3 File Storage in the Cloud Another service used for KMcloud is a file based cloud storage. Optional private cloud solutions increase security against access by third parties. 5.2 Data Security Security of their data and documents is perhaps the most important requirement of users in the cloud [9]. at weekends) from the cluster. in the morning) or removed (e. Of course. There are different possibilities. attached files) and as a backup service for all user and system data. etc. KMcloud uses the Hibernate framework which understands many different SQL Dialects but no cloud database dialects. Such storage is optimized for scalability and safety against data loss.g. all data of a customer has to be deleted from the KMcloud database. there are limited possibilities for KMcloud to enforce data security.3. Manual node management: A node is added (or removed) "by hand" to the system. Here. KMcloud cannot use solutions of the cloud providers for scalability and load balancing. This has many disadvantages like lower scalability. Figure 4. there is on the lowest layer a database. For all data outside of the KMcloud service (e. Therefore a JDBC driver is currently developed in KnowledgeCloud to create an interface between Hibernate and a NoSQL cloud database (see Figure 3). Regular backups in defined periods and processes achieve safety of the service against data loss. On the other hand money can be saved by turning off unused nodes. Every customer has its own community and does not see any data of other communities. when higher load is expected nodes are added (e.g. Therefore. Regarding infrastructure and operating system. A community concept ensures confidentiality of data. 5. KMcloud uses a SQL server at the moment. This ensures confidentiality and integrity of data. On server side. On client side. Instead it has to realize this on its own by clustering application servers which could run on many instances in parallel.3. customers use their own KM service and do not share any resources with any other client. EJBs and JSPs are running in the context of an application server. which is the container of the entire application. scalable and cheap even with huge datasets. • • • 5. the service provider can only configure the basis software in a secure way and install updates regularly.g. Figure 3.3.3 Architecture and Availability 5. 5. .g. because even in the improbable case something could fail.In KnowledgeCloud concepts for scalable integration of external IT resources (computing. For this.1 Overview Basis of every KMcloud instance is a typical J2EE application with four layers. Both. These databases are extremely fast. DBs. each with their own advantages and disadvantages: a. As cloud databases are not optimized for this type of usage. for backups a second provider should be used. As a consequence. b. The business logic is implemented in Enterprise Java Beans (EJB) and the creation of web pages is realized in Java Servlet Pages (JSP). The development is based on the described functionalities (chapter 2) and the requirements of the application scenario above (chapter 4). storage. the user session has to be distributed all the time over the whole cluster like it is shown in Figure 4. The next chapters present solutions for the most relevant challenges in the cloud environment. which requires a specific application server. first results show that single database requests are much slower than in a relational database. backups) strong encryption methods have to be used. Therefore it is important for the success of a SaaS provider to fulfill the demand for adequate security.

3. G. [16] Takabi. Application nodes and data storage are allocated dynamically based on the requests. H.. R. To avoid that the load balancer is a single point of failure it's started on every node but only one is used. 605-634.M.Manufacturing Technology 56. The rollout of KMcloud (www. There are various optimization approaches available to optimize load balancing [1]. In Proceedings of 14th International Conference on Concurrent Enterprising (ICE). Is Cloud Computing Really Ready for Prime Time? Computer 42. 7-8. In case the active load balancer drops out it can easily be replaced by a load balancer on another node.. [13] Pumacy Technologies AG. 2004. Open Journal of Knowledge Management 3. [11] Lu.. A.. The anatomy of the grid: Enabling scalable virtual organizations.. 184-175. N. Raicu. This approach is very complex because many parameters have to be taken into account. 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Automatic node management: The cluster decides internally if nodes are added or removed. 2009.kmmaster. S. 1 (January 2009). H. and Wilhelm. and Tuecke. 2011. H. Collaborative Virtual Engineering for SMEs: Technical Architecture. D.c. REFERENCES [1] Bryhni. 6. Gärtner. They change into complete solution providers (software + service) and reach new markets around the world. New potentials for virtual product creation by utilizing grid technology. and Langenberg. the KMcloud service makes use of various cloud resources. To lower the inner cluster communication the load balancer keeps track of sessions so a subsequent request will be sent to the node which already has the affected session data. A comparison of load balancing techniques for scalable Web servers. [12] Pumacy Technologies AG. 7. and Welker. This project is co-funded by the German Government ( 55-57. Kesselman.. [8] Langenberg. The service core supports multi-tenancy. D.. 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