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Submitted to : Dr.

Amarinder Singh

Submitted by: Arpandeep Kaur M.B.A. 2nd (C) Roll no: 6292

INTRODUCTION TO GLOBAL WARMING


Throughout its long history, Earth has warmed and cooled time and again. Climate has changed when the planet received more or less sunlight due to subtle shifts in its orbit, as the atmosphere or surface changed, or when the Suns energy varied. But in the past century, another force has started to influence Earths climate: humanity Our earth daily absorbs large quantity of solar energy from the sun. Most of the energy is radiated back to atmosphere by the earth, and this process maintains the balance of heat energy on the earth. There are many gases present in the atmosphere, but only carbon dioxide and water vapour absorb this infrared radiation of the earth strongly and effectively block the radiation of energy back to the atmosphere. However a considerable part of it is re-emitted to the earths surface and consequently the earths surface gets headed up. This increase in temperature of the earth is called the green-house effect. Global warming is defined as the release of green house gases into the air that trap heat on the earth, causing for warmer temperatures. Global warming is affecting the earth a lot, and it is affecting it fast too. The greenhouse effect is only troublesome when it gets too strong and warms things too much. How does this warming compare to previous changes in Earths climate? How can we be certain that human-released greenhouse gases are causing the warming? How much more will the Earth warm? How will Earth respond? Answering these questions is perhaps the most significant scientific challenge of our time.

WHAT IS GLOBAL WARMING


The Global warming is an environmental challenge that entire world facing today, since the late 1960s, we have been hearing the Global Warming phrase. It is a process of heating the atmosphere of the planet. The level of carbon dioxide is increasing in the atmosphere. Global Warming is the increase of Earth's average surface temperature due to effect of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels or from deforestation, which trap heat that would otherwise escape from Earth. This is a type of greenhouse effect.

Greenhouse Gases
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a group of over 2,500 scientists from countries across the world have determined that a number of human activities are contributing towards the growth of global warming by releasing excessive amount of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. These greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide , methane, nitrous oxide accumulate into the atmosphere and trap heat that would normally would exit into the outer space. Over the last few decades cars, industries and power plants have released tons of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and this has caused the temperature of the earth to rise from .6 degree Celsius between 1901 and 2000. If nothing is done to stop global warming now then it could prove to be a big disaster for the human kind. These gases are released when we drive cars, burn wood or coal, large power plants. Deforestation(cutting down of forests) is also a reason for the greenhouse gases because fewer trees means less carbon di oxide converted to oxygen. Now, when accumulation of these greenhouse gases grows, more heat gets trapped into the atmosphere and as a result few heat escapes backs into the space and it heat ups the earth surface.

CAUSES OF GLOBAL WARMING

Green house gases : Almost 100% of the observed temperature increase over the last 50 years has been due to the increase in the atmosphere of greenhouse gas concentrations like water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane and ozone. Burning of fossil fuels like petroleum gives off carbon dioxide which is 72% of emitted gases worldwide. Deforestation is also one of the main causes. Trees take in carbon dioxide and give off oxygen in photosynthesis. If we cut-off trees, there is no one to take in carbon dioxide. Increase in population also helps increase global warming. As the population increases, there is need of more resources. Also, we all exhale carbon dioxide, which also increases global warming. Increase in Transport like cars and motorcycles also increase emission of carbon dioxide. Pollution: Pollution is one of the biggest man made problems that leads to global warming. Industrial Growth: The industry has boomed very swiftly, during the last few decades. These industrial sectors use fossil fuels, which increases greenhouse gases. These gases are the major reason of global warming.

There is huge pressure on the industrial countries to reduce the release of gases produced by greenhouses. Landfills: Decomposing wastes in landfills produce a significant amount of methane gas and carbon dioxide emissions. In 2008, landfills accounted for 22 percent of all methane gas emissions. Although methane and carbon dioxide are powerful greenhouse gases, it is possible to capture these landfill gases and convert them into energy. Not only does this reduce global and local air pollution, it is a cleaner source of energy and does not deplete nonrenewable resources, like fossil fuels. Agriculture: While burning fossil fuels accounts for large emissions of carbon dioxide, agriculture produces the most methane and nitrous oxide worldwide, according to the IPCC (see References 2). In the United States, agriculture accounted for about 7 percent of greenhouse gas emissions in 2005. Agricultural sources of greenhouse gases are myriad. Livestock grazing, waste management and digestive gases contribute half of the emissions produced by agriculture. Nitrogen fertilizers release nitrous oxide and comprise 35 percent of agricultural emissions. Burning fossil fuels to power farm equipment also produces greenhouse gas emissions but constitute only about 13 percent of all emissions. (See Resources 1, pages 1-3) The agriculture sector can employ rotational grazing, manage livestock feed and waste, and judiciously apply nitrogen fertilizers in order to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions resulting from agricultural practices

CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBAL WARMING


This has been the warmest decade since 1880. In 2010, global surface temperatures tied 2005 as the warmest on record, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Scientists say that the earth could warm by an additional 7.2 degrees Fahrenheit during the 21st century if we fail to reduce emissions from burning fossil fuels, such as coal and oil. This rise in average temperature will have far-reaching effects on the earth's climate patterns and on all living things. Many of these changes have already begun.

on weather patterns

on glaciers and sea levels

effects of global warming

on health

on wildlife

The Consequences of Global Warming ON WEATHER PATTERNS


Higher temperatures could lead to increased droughts and wildfires, heavier rainfall and a greater number of Category 4 and 5 hurricanes.

1.More Powerful and Dangerous Hurricanes


Warmer water in the oceans pumps more energy into tropical storms, making them stronger and potentially more destructive. Even with storms of the same intensity, future hurricanes will cause more damage as higher sea levels exacerbate storm surges, flooding, and erosion. Warning signs today: The number of category 4 and 5 storms has greatly increased over the past 35 years, along with ocean temperature. Hurricane Katrina of August 2005 was the costliest and one of the deadliest hurricanes in U.S. history and caused economic losses in the order of $125 billion.

2.Drought and Wildfire


Warmer temperatures could increase the probability of drought. Greater evaporation, particularly during summer and fall, could exacerbate drought conditions and increase the risk of wildfires. Warning signs today:

The 1999-2002 national drought was one of the three most extensive droughts in the last 40 years. Warming may have lead to the increased drought frequency that the West has experienced over the last 30 years. The 2006 wildland fire season set new records in both the number of reported fires as well as acres burned. Close to 100,000 fires were reported and nearly 10 million acres burned, 125 percent above the 10-year average. Firefighting expenditures have consistently totaled upwards of $1 billion per year.

3.Intense Rainstorms
Warmer temperatures increase the energy of the climatic system and can lead to heavier rainfall in some areas. Scientists project that climate change will increase the frequency of heavy rainstorms, putting many communities at risk for devastation from floods. Check the map of flood vulnerability in the United States. Warning signs today: National annual precipitation has increased between 5 and 10 percent since the early 20th century, largely the result of heavy downpours. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports that intense rain events have increased in frequency during the last 50 years and humaninduced global warming most likely contributed to the trend.

According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Northeast region had its wettest summer on record in 2006, exceeding the previous record by more than 1 inch.

4. Effect on the seasons


The trend that has been observed in some countries is that summers are getting longer than winters while overall trend in warmer winters. This has affected animals and made them to change their lifestyle accordingly and who failed to do so have perished.

The Consequences of Global Warming ON HEALTH


Hotter weather enables deadly mosquitoes to travel greater distances; carbon dioxide in the air aggravates asthma and allergies.

1.Deadly Heat Waves


More frequent and severe heat waves will result in a greater number of heatrelated deaths. Warning signs today: In 2003, extreme heat waves claimed as many as 70,000 lives in Europe. In France alone, nearly 15,000 people died during two weeks of soaring temperatures, which reached as high as 104 degrees Fahrenheit.

Much of North America experienced a severe heat wave in July 2006, which contributed to the deaths of over 140 people, including some who owned working air conditioners. In the 1995 Chicago heat wave, 739 heat-related deaths occurred in a oneweek period.

2.Bad Air, Allergy and Asthma


Global warming could increase smog pollution in some areas and intensify pollen allergies and asthma. Hotter conditions could also aggravate local air quality problems, already afflicting more than 100 million Americans. Warning signs today: Scientific studies show that a higher level of carbon dioxide spurs an increase in the growth of weeds such as ragweed, whose pollen triggers allergies and exacerbates asthma. The number of pollen allergy and asthma sufferers has increased worldwide over the last several decades. Some researchers have suggested that this could be an early health effect of human-caused climate change. Air pollution makes allergies worse: Diesel exhaust particles can interact with pollen and deliver it deeper into the lung. Rising temperatures increase ground-level ozone smog production, which presents a serious threat to asthmatics.

3.Infectious Disease and Food and Waterborne Illness Outbreaks


Warming temperatures, alternating periods of drought and deluges, and ecosystem disruption have contributed to more widespread outbreaks of infections like malaria, dengue fever, tick-borne encephalitis, and diarrheal illnesses. People living in poverty will be hardest hit by the global surge in infectious diseases. Warning signs today: Disease-carrying mosquitoes are spreading as the climate allows them to survive in formerly inhospitable areas. Mosquitoes that can carry dengue fever viruses were previously limited to elevations of 3,300 feet but recently appeared at 7,200 feet in the Andes Mountains of Colombia. Malaria has been detected in new higher-elevation areas in Indonesia and Africa, posing new risks to millions of impoverished people whose health is already challenged. Heavy rainfall events can wash pathogens from contaminated soils, farms, and streets into drinking water supplies. An outbreak of diarrheal illness in Milwaukee in 1993 which affected 403,000 people was caused by the parasite Cryptosporidium, which washed into the city's drinking water supply after heavy rains. Higher outdoor temperatures can cause increased outbreaks of foodborne illnesses such as salmonella, which reproduces more rapidly as temperatures increase. Another foodborne bacteria, Vibrio

parahaemolyticus, once native to subtropical regions, has expanded its range as far north as Alaska, where in 2004 it sickened unlucky cruise ship passengers when they ate raw local oysters.

4. Weather Events
A warmer atmosphere can hold -- and dump -- more moisture, contributing to more intense extreme weather events, which in turn put people's lives at risk. Warning signs today: Hurricane Katrina forced the evacuation of 1.7 million people in 2005, and lead to deaths and long-term health problems for 200,000 New Orleans residents. A combination of rising sea levels, reduced snowfall and increased rainstorms threatens to flood the homes of 300,000 California residents in the Sacramento-San Joaquin river delta area, potentially contaminating the drinking water of 24 million people. Alternating drought and floods have led to food and water shortages, malnutrition, mass migrations and international conflict. Some researchers suggest that 50 million people worldwide could become "environmental refugees" by 2010, displaced by rising sea levels, desertification, depleted aquifers and intermittent river flooding.

The Consequences of Global Warming ON WILDLIFE

Rising temperatures ravage coral reefs and melt the habitats of polar bears and Antarctic penguins.

1.Ecosystem Shifts and Species Die-Off


Increasing global temperatures are expected to disrupt ecosystems, pushing to extinction those species that cannot adapt. The first comprehensive assessment of the extinction risk from global warming found that more than 1 million species could be obliterated by 2050 if the current trajectory continues. Warning signs today: A recent study of nearly 2,000 species of plants and animals discovered movement toward the poles at an average rate of 3.8 miles per decade. Similarly, the study found species in alpine areas to be moving vertically at a rate of 20 feet per decade in the second half of the 20th century. The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report found that approximately 20 to 30 percent of plant and animal species assessed so far are likely to be at increased risk of extinction if global average temperature increases by more than 2.7 to 4.5 degrees Fahrenheit. Some polar bears are drowning because they have to swim longer distances to reach ice floes. The U. S. Geological Survey has predicted that two-thirds of the world's polar bear sub-populations will be extinct by mid-century due to melting of the Arctic ice cap. In Washington's Olympic Mountains, sub-alpine forest has invaded higher elevation alpine meadows. Bermuda's mangrove forests are disappearing.

In areas of California, shoreline sea life is shifting northward, probably in response to warmer ocean and air temperatures. Over the past 25 years, some Antarctic penguin populations have shrunk by 33 percent due to declines in winter sea-ice habitat. The ocean will continue to become more acidic due to carbon dioxide emissions. Because of this acidification, species with hard calcium carbonate shells are vulnerable, as are coral reefs, which are vital to ocean ecosystems. Scientists predict that a 3.6 degree Fahrenheit increase in temperature would wipe out 97 percent of the world's coral reefs.

The Consequences of Global Warming ON GLACIERS AND SEA LEVELS


Arctic summers could be ice-free by 2040, and sea levels could rise as much as 23 inches by 2100 if current warming patterns continue.

1.Melting Glaciers, Early Ice Thaw


Rising global temperatures will speed the melting of glaciers and ice caps and cause early ice thaw on rivers and lakes. Warning signs today: After existing for many millennia, the northern section of the Larsen B ice shelf in Antarctica -- a section larger than the state of Rhode Island -collapsed between January and March 2002, disintegrating at a rate that

astonished scientists. Since 1995, the ice shelf's area has shrunk by 40 percent. According to NASA, the polar ice cap is now melting at the alarming rate of nine percent per decade. Arctic ice thickness has decreased 40 percent since the 1960s. Arctic sea ice extent set an all-time record low in September 2007, with almost half a million square miles less ice than the previous record set in September 2005, according to the National Snow and Ice Data Center. Over the past 3 decades, more than a million square miles of perennial sea ice -an area the size of Norway, Denmark and Sweden combined -- has disappeared. Multiple climate models indicate that sea ice will increasingly retreat as the earth warms. Scientists at the U.S. Center for Atmospheric Research predict that if the current rate of global warming continues, the Arctic could be icefree in the summer by 2040. At the current rate of retreat, all of the glaciers in Glacier National Park will be gone by 2070.

2.Sea-Level Rise
Current rates of sea-level rise are expected to increase as a result both of thermal expansion of the oceans and melting of most mountain glaciers and partial melting of the West Antarctic and Greenland ice caps. Consequences include loss of coastal wetlands and barrier islands, and a greater risk of flooding in coastal communities. Low-lying areas, such as the coastal region along the Gulf of Mexico and estuaries like the Chesapeake Bay, are especially vulnerable.

Warning signs today: Global sea level has already risen by 4 to 8 inches in the past century, and the pace of sea level rise appears to be accelerating. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predicts that sea levels could rise 10 to 23 inches by 2100, but in recent years sea levels have been rising faster than the upper end of the range predicted. In the 1990s, the Greenland ice mass remained stable, but the ice sheet has increasingly declined in recent years. This melting currently contributes an estimated one-hundredth of an inch per year to global sea level rise. Greenland holds 10 percent of the total global ice mass. If it melts, sea levels could increase by up to 21 feet.

GLOBAL WARMING SOLUTIONS


Earths temperature is rising day by day and there is no single solution to solve global warming which has already created havoc in todays world. Threats of global warming include: rising sea level, lost endangered species, climate change and deadly storm events. We have already seen the causes of global warming. The solutions listed below can bring down the carbon emissions upto much extent We are already seeing the effects of global warming around the world as climate change, melting of glaciers, droughts and diseases.

The real problem is the pollution produced from industries, vehicles and power plants. The solutions listed below require tough laws and regulations that require firm deadlines for global warming pollution reductions.

GOVERNMENT SOLUTIONS TO GLOBAL WARMING


1.Negotiate international treaties regarding climate change:
Second, the nations of the world must negotiate a climate change treaty with legally binding limits on emissions of heat-trapping gases. Like KYOTO PROTOCOL.

2.Develop Renewable Energy


Clean, safe, renewable sources, such as solar, wind, and sustainably grown biomass (plant matter), can provide us with energy but do not contribute to global warming. These technologies are ready to be deployed much more widely, but government policies must encourage their use.

3.Preserve and Plant Forests


Trees take in carbon dioxide and use it to grow. Deforestation, especially in the tropics where many of the largest, most important forests are located, contributes significantly to global warming. Efforts to preserve forests and to plant trees on deforested land are essential not only for preventing global warming but also for preserving biodiversity.

4.Slow Down Population Growth

Although technological and economic changes can reduce per capita emissions of heat-trapping gases, continued large population increases will make it harder to dramatically reduce total emissions. Reductions in population growth rates will make the task of slowing global warming easier.

5.Pushing for tough standards


Government should ensure that no subsidies, incentives or commitments are made to new coal-fired plants unless they produce zero emissions.

6. Developing low carbon technologies


Research and development of low carbon technologies will further help in reducing carbon emissions.

7. Spreading word
Word of mouth is the best way to create awareness among the people to stop carbon emissions. Presentations, meetings and discussions over global warming provide information about viable solutions to global warming, and reinforcing the economic benefits available throughout the Midwest from the development of renewable energy and energy efficiency.

INDIVIDUAL SOLUTION TO GLOBAL WARMING


Sure, as an individual you can do many things in your home for reducing global warming. In this connection first you need to focus the areas, which are the

biggest source of global warming. The first thing is definitely gasses that come from your home cooling, electricity and heating appliances, if you pay a little attention in their usage , you will be playing big role in reducing global warming. Lets see how?

1. Use Fluorescent Light Bulbs


You should immediately change incandescent light bulbs and use fluorescent light bulbs, because these fluorescent bulbs consume only 25 % energy comparable incandescent bulbs.

2. Switch Off Electric Appliances


When electric appliances are not in your use, then plug them off, because they use some energy even in off position.

3. Change Your Monitor with LCD


Try to get LCD instead of a monitor, because LCD takes about 56 percent energy than your monitor. Always keep your computer screen status off, when you are not working.

4. Uses of Solar Energy


You should convert your heating system to the solar energy, in this way you can save electricity, money and your environment from global warming.

5. Use Electric or Hybrid Car

You consider purchasing a hybrid or electric car, in place of gasoline car. Gasoline car covers 20 to 30 miles per gallon, whereas hybrid or eclectic gives you 130 to 140 mg.

6. Plant Trees At Home


If you have placed at the front or back side of your home, trees shading, can make your home cold during summer. Since trees absorb carbon dioxide, so reduce the carbon dioxide in your surroundings.

7. Save Clean Water


You should not waste clean water, because clean water has become less, experts see the water crisis in the future. We need more energy for the processing of clean water.

8. Construct green buildings


Its not about color of the walls. Hire an architect who could work out ways to optimize the use of energy. The structure could simply have better insulation to obtain heat in winter. Also avoid huge glass walls so that you dont spend more on air conditioner in summer.

9. Check out tyres


Maintaining the high degree of pressure in car and motor cycle tyres improves on mileage considerably and save fuels.

10. Buy energy efficient appliances:

Next time you buy an iron, an oven, a refrigerator and even air conditioner , opt for models by manufacturers whose USP is energy efficiency. It will cut your electricity bills and Indias emission levels.

11. Buy fuel efficient cars:


For every litre of petrol, abou four kg of carbon dioxide get injected into atmosphere. Think about it.

12. Avoid plastic bags


Although it is an old advice no one really cares. Carry a reusable tote while shopping. It will help reduce emissions from decaying plastic bags in landfill.

13. Use public transport/ car pooling


Use public transport and do car pooling. It can save a lot of fuel.

14. Save paper


Get off the Indian habit of putting everything on paper. Use computers. Thousands of trees would be saved.

15. Go vegetarian
Going vegan is one of the most effective ways to fight global warming. Burning fossil fuels (such as oil and gasoline) releases carbon dioxide, the primary gas responsible for global warming. Producing one calorie from animal protein requires 11 times as much fossil fuel inputreleasing 11 times as much carbon dioxideas does producing a calorie from plant protein. Feeding massive

amounts of grain and water to farmed animals and then killing them and processing, transporting, and storing their flesh is extremely energy-intensive. In addition, enormous amounts of carbon dioxide stored in trees are released during the destruction of vast acres of forest to provide pastureland and to grow crops for farmed animals. On top of this, animal manure also releases large quantities of carbon dioxide. So, reduce global warming with these steps and make better your economy, health and environment.

BUSINESS OBLIGATIONS TOWARDS REDUCING GLOBAL WARMING/ BUSINESS SOLUTIONS


1. Conserve Energy
The most important step your company can take to reduce its climate impact is to save energy. Simple steps save a lot Simple operational changes in many areas from lighting to office equipment to corporate fleets can substantially cut electricity and fuel use. Such changes often reduce costs as well as emissions. Investments in efficiency also can improve systems performance and increase employee comfort and morale all while reducing global warming pollution.

The good news is that many energy efficiency opportunities cost nothing, but can cut energy bills considerably. Other efficiency upgrades require up-front investments, but usually recoup costs quickly through energy savings. Know your starting point: Conduct an inventory Although you can start conserving energy immediately, many companies find it helpful to begin by conducting an emissions inventory. Measuring your companys current energy use and greenhouse gas emissions will lay the groundwork for identifying opportunities for improvement, setting goals and measuring progress. Efficiency options for offices Install an automated energy management system Install occupancy sensors to control lighting Switch to energy efficient lighting Activate power-saving settings on office equipment Install energy management software on PCs Purchase Energy Star certified office equipment Tune-up or replace inefficient heating/cooling systems Efficiency options for vehicle fleets Reduce miles driven Educate employees on efficient driving strategies

Ensure regular maintenance and tune-ups Purchase the most efficient tires available Switch to more fuel-efficient vehicles

2. Convert to Lower Carbon Energy


After taking steps to conserve energy, next move should be to switch from conventional electricity, generated by burning fossil fuels, to lower carbon power, such as: wind solar biomass and geothermal energy. How to get green power 1. On-site clean energy: The best way to convert to lower carbon energy is to install on-site renewable power generation systems like solar panels or wind turbines. Benefits of such systems include: long-term measurable reductions in global warming pollution, a hedge against fluctuations in electricity prices and a visible commitment to clean energy. State and utility incentives, new financing options and a range of turnkey solutions have made on-site green power cost-effective for a spectrum of businesses.

2.Renewable energy purchases Companies can also purchase renewable electricity from their power provider or certified Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs). Although these types of purchases don't necessarily lead to direct emissions reductions, they do help build a more robust market for green energy and demonstrate a commitment to lower carbon power.

3.Remember the 3 Rs:


Reduce waste, purchase reusable products instead of disposables, and recycle paper, plastic, glass, aluminum and office equipment.

4. Other simple steps


*Plant trees on your companys property. Photosynthesis 101 trees and other plant absorb carbon dioxide and produce oxygen. *Arrange annual energy audits. This will help you identify areas of your workplace that may not be energy efficient, allowing you to make necessary upgrades. *Encourage your employees to conserve. Have someone on your staff gather information about recycling and energy conservation and share it with coworkers. By taking these simple steps to help reduce greenhouse gases, youll also help your business reduce its energy use and save money.

FUTURE OF GLOBAL WARMING


As we are going to more fossil fuels the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the earth atmosphere is going to rise and rise. And these greenhouse gases will raise the earths surface temperature with them. According to IPCC, the temperature of the earth will rise from 2 degree Celsius to 6 degree Celsius by the end of 21st century. With the rise in such temperature the glaciers and ice shelves around the world will start melting. Scientists project rising sea levels will increase between 7 and 22 inches by 2100. When the sea level will rise combined with the rise in the temperature of the sea, tropical storms such as tsunami could increase.

CONCLUSION:
Global warming is a very serious concern. It has already started showing its effects with the melting of glaciers, rising sea level and change in weather patterns. Now there is need to think upon it seriously. Govt. should make strict rules regarding carbon emissions and other laws which can help stop global warming. Businesses should also cut their carbon footprint and make use of other renewable energy sources and should abide by environmental laws. Most importantly at individual level each person can bring important help by adopting a responsible lifestyle, starting from little daily things. Each of us must take steps to protect our Earth's climate.