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AC & DC Arc Flash Evaluation Manual

Based on NFPA 70E & IEEE Standard 1584

EDSA Micro Corporation 16870 West Bernardo Drive, Suite 330 San Diego, California 92127 USA

Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved


Version 6.00.00 Arc Heat March 2005

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Table of Contents
Arc Heat Program Overview ....................................................................................................................... 1 Heat Exposure Due to Arcing Faults........................................................................................................... 2 Program Capabilities....................................................................................................................................... 3 Arc Flash Study........................................................................................................................................... 4 Exposure Defined ....................................................................................................................................... 5 Personal Protective Equipment Defined ..................................................................................................... 6 Arc Resistance Defined .............................................................................................................................. 8 Key Concepts.............................................................................................................................................. 9 Open Arc................................................................................................................................................. 9 Directed Arc ............................................................................................................................................ 9 Radiant Energy ....................................................................................................................................... 9 Blast Energy............................................................................................................................................ 9 References................................................................................................................................................ 10 Program Verification & Validation ............................................................................................................. 11 1.0 Arc Heat Tutorial Introduction ........................................................................................................... 12 Key Concepts............................................................................................................................. 16 Network-Based Arc Heat Exposure on AC Systems / Single Branch Case ............................... 16 Network-Based Arc Heat Exposure on AC Systems / Multiple Branch Case............................. 31

1.0.1 1.0.2 1.0.3

PDC ArcHeat Methodology Summary....................................................................................................... 40 Special Features in Arc Heat .................................................................................................................... 48 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Stand-Alone Arc Heat Exposure on AC Systems.............................................................................. 65 Network-Based Arc Heat Exposure on DC systems ......................................................................... 73 Stand-Alone Arc Heat Exposure on DC systems .............................................................................. 80 Verification and Validation Data ........................................................................................................ 87

1.4.1 V&V of AC Arc Heat Programs with Longhand using IEEE1584 Standard in Stand Alone Mode / Prepared by Dr. Lifeng Liu, PhD 12/2/2004 .............................................................................................. 87 1.4.2 V&V of Stand Alone Results for DC Arc Heat Programs Comparing with Network Mode Prepared by Dr. Lifeng Liu, PhD 12/2/2004 .............................................................................................. 89 1.4.3 V&V of ARC HEAT with PDC Interface by Conrad St. Pierre .................................................... 90

Using ArcHeat for Single Phase Circuits................................................................................................. 102 Putting Arc-Flash Calculations in Perspective............................................................................................. 103 Data Required......................................................................................................................................... 103 IEEE Equations and Test Results for Open Air Arc ................................................................................ 104 Enclosed Arcs ......................................................................................................................................... 106 Personal Protective Equipment............................................................................................................... 107 Arc Blast Pressure .................................................................................................................................. 107 Limiting Arc Exposure ............................................................................................................................. 109 Calculation Means .................................................................................................................................. 111

Version 6.00.00

Arc Heat 2005

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

About Conrad St. Pierre .......................................................................................................................... 112 Conrad St. Pierre Bio .......................................................................................................................... 112 Publications by Mr. Conrad St. Pierre ..................................................................................................... 113

List of Figures
Figure 1 Circuit for Arc Model ....................................................................................................................... 1 Figure 2 - Arc Flash Zones.............................................................................................................................. 4 Figure 3 - Network under study, showing a cycle fault analysis at BUS-05 .............................................. 17 Figure 4 - PDC Study for Motor on BUS-05 .................................................................................................. 18 Figure 5 - Network topology for job-file IEEEPDE.axd showing cycle fault results for Bus4 ................... 31 Figure 6 - Simplified view of Bus4 and its fault contributing branches (1/2 cycle Sym. Currents) ................. 32 Figure 7 - PDC Study for Bus4 including all 6 converging branches. Currents are plotted at 13.8 kV. ......... 33 Figure 8......................................................................................................................................................... 42 Figure 9 - Portion of IEEEPDE.axd One-line with Bus 4 Fault Flows............................................................ 90 Figure 10 - Time Current Curve showing Protective Device operating times ................................................ 91 Figure 11 - Time Current Curve showing Protective Device operating times ................................................ 95 Figure 12 - Time Current Curve Showing Protective Device Operating Times ............................................. 97 Figure 13 - Bus 3 Protective Devices............................................................................................................ 99 Figure 14 - Bus 28 Protective Devices........................................................................................................ 100

List of Tables
Table 1 Typical Thermal Performance of Various Fabrics in Cal/ cm2 ......................................................... 6 Table 2 - NFPA-70E Flash Hazard Risk Categories ....................................................................................... 6 Table 3 Glove Classes ................................................................................................................................. 7 Table 4 - Fault Currents and Protective Device Operating Times ................................................................. 90 Table 5 - Determining Controlling Branch ..................................................................................................... 92 Table 6 Comparison of Results.................................................................................................................. 93 Table 7 - Fault Currents and Protective Device Operating Times ................................................................. 94 Table 8- Determining Controlling Branch ...................................................................................................... 94 Table 9 - Comparison of Results................................................................................................................... 94 Table 10 - Fault Currents and Protective Device Operating Times ............................................................... 96 Table 11 - Determining Controlling Branch ................................................................................................... 96 Table 12 - Comparison of Results................................................................................................................. 96

Note:

You can view this manual on your CD as an Adobe Acrobat PDF file. The file name is:

AC & DC Arc Heat

ACDCArcHeat.pdf

You will find the Test/Job files used in this tutorial in the following location:

C:\EDSA2005\Samples\ArcHeat

AC & DC Arc Heat

Test Files:

ACAHSTANDALONE, IEEEPDE, ARCHEAT_SB, DC_SC2

Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Arc Heat Program Overview


The EDSA Heat Exposure Program uses empirical equations based on test results given in IEEE1584 [12] to provide an estimate of the energy falling on a surface removed from a fault. As more data become available, this test data will be used to refine the program empirical equations. As an option, personal protective equipment (PPE) based on NFPA-70E [13] is provided. The arcing current used in this program is greater than those often associated with the minimum arcing currents used to set relays. In setting relays, the minimum arcing is used so that the relays can be set to ensure that they operate. While for heat exposure, the maximum arcing current is of concern. In the above references, it was found that there is a driving voltage needed to sustain an arc. As an arc becomes longer, the arc voltage increases and becomes greater than the voltage needed to maintain itself. This voltage is approximately 150-V to 180-V rms depending on the fault X/R ratio [9,10]. The circuit use in Fig. 1 is a simplified model for arc current calculations. The power dissipated in the arc radiates to the surrounding surfaces. The further away from the arc the surface is, the less the energy is received per unit area. One use of the program is to identify the grade of clothing required by the operator who is working with energized equipment. The program allows either a manual input of the source voltage and short-circuit bolted fault current or entry via the EDSA short-circuit program. Using the information in the reference papers, empirical equations from IEEE 1584 are used to determine the arc voltage and the radiated heat. There are several uses for this program. For example, it could be used to provide a protective sign on a piece of electrical equipment stating the type of protective clothing required when working around energized equipment. Warning of Arc Flash Hazard is a requirement given in 2005 National Electrical Code (NEC) , Article 110.16. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) requirement are given in NFPA 70E-2004, section 130. Alternatively, the converse, knowing the thermal capability of the protective clothing being used, the program could indicate if it is satisfactory. In this regard, the protective level of the clothing is entered into the program and the program gives a pass or fail result.

Figure 1 Circuit for Arc Model

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Since most equipment is an enclosed area and a workman would have to open a door or remove
a panel, the box will direct the arc radiant and blast energy in one direction. Therefore, the higher energies from Switchgear box or MCC box (if it applies) are recommended to be use switchgear and switchboards. Reference #10 test results are for two conditions: an open arc and an arc-in- box. The open-arc has the arcing electrodes extending in air approximately 2 feet from a wall. The arc-in box has the barrier on all sides except it is open in front. This would be similar to an open door in a switchgear cubicle. The latter directs the energy so that it increased 2 to 3 times on a touched surface. Arc Heat provides both the open-arc and switchgear and MCC arc (arc-in-box) energy to a surface. If all the heat in the arc is considered radiation, then the distance will reduce it from the arc squared. Based on the measured data, more than just the radiated energy is reaching surface. Therefore, some heat must be due to the hot gases touching the surface. The difference between the calculated radiant energy and total measured energy must be due to convection of heat produced by the explosive gases reaching the surface. From the test results, a different exponent when being in a box disperses the incident energy. The exponent is not squared, but a lower factor. These factors are included in the EDSA program.

Heat Exposure Due to Arcing Faults


For the calculation of maximum short-circuit current magnitudes for equipment evaluation, the arcing short-circuit impedance, or arc resistance is considered zero. When the fault does contain an arc, the heat released can damage equipment and cause personal injury. It is the latter concern that brought about the development of the heat exposure program. The heat exposure due to an arc can harm, or burn, bare skin or protective clothing. The Standard for Electrical Safety Requirements for Employee Workplaces, (NFPA 70E-2004), provides information on the protective performance of various fabrics, which would limit heat exposure to second-degree burns. In addition to burns, there are other exposure risks to arcing faults, such as: a. Electrical shorts due to touching energized conductors. b. Arc blasts, due to expanding gases, that can cause flying debris, knock a person off balance, and cause ear damage. c. Exposure to arc plasma can result in temporary or permanent blindness. d. Arc plasma or heat can result in a fire. e. Metal vaporization can condense on cooler materials. The above list of points (a-e) does not express the amount of energy in an arc. However, if you compare the arc blast to dynamite exploding, the heat produced can ignite clothing situated farther than 10 feet away. Clearly, any exposure to an arcing fault can be hazardous.

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Program Capabilities
Arc Flash Exposure based on IEEE 1584 Arc Flash Exposure based on NFPA 70E Network-Based Arc Flash Exposure on AC Systems/Single Branch Case Network-Based Arc Flash Exposre on AC Systems/Multiple Branch Cases Stand-Alone (Non-Network) Arc Flash Exposure on AC Systems Network Arc Flash Exposure on DC Networks Stand-Alone Arc Flash Exposure on DC Systems Exposure Simulation at Switchgear Box, MCC Box, Open Area and Cable Grounded and Ungrounded Calculate and Select Controlling Branch(s) for Simulation of Arc Flash Test Selected Clothing Calculate Clothing Required Calculate Safe Zone with Regard to User Defined Clothing Category Simulated Art Heat Exposure at User Selected Bus(s) User Defined Fault Cycle for 3-Phase and Controlling Branches User Defined Distance for Subject 100% and 85% Arcing Current 100% and 85% Protective Device Time Protective Device Setting Impact on Arc Exposure Energy User Defined Label Sizes Attach Labels to One-Line Diagram for User Review Plot Energy for Each Bus Write Results into Excel View and Print Graphic Label for User Selected Bus(s) Work permit

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Arc Flash Study


Figure 2 shows three arc-flash zones that can have different calculated arc-flash energy levels for each fault location; although the Figure 2 bus fault current level is the same, the fault clearing time can be different. Zone 1 extends from the secondary main breaker to the transformer primary upstream protective device. A Zone 1 fault on the transformer secondary (to within the secondary main breaker) has to be cleared by an upstream device with a backup fault clearing time. Zone 1 also covers main breaker racking-in and racking-out conditions. In the EDSA program, a dummy bus is usually furnished with the breaker symbol on the source side of the breaker.

Zone 2 includes the load side terminals of the secondary main breaker, main bus, feeder breaker load terminals, and tie breaker (not shown). The Zone 2 bus/breaker zone is protected by the secondary main breaker and would also include feeder breaker racking-in and racking-out conditions. When the secondary main breaker is not provided, Zone 1 would also include Zone 2.

Zone 3 includes the feeder breaker load terminals to the downstream device (load, sub-bus or MCC or panel breaker). Typically, with selective protective systems, Zone 2 fault clearing time is greater than the Zone 3 clearing time. In the EDSA program, a dummy bus is usually furnished with the breaker symbol on the load side of the breaker.

Zone 1

Zone 2

Zone 3

Figure 2 - Arc Flash Zones

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Exposure Defined
The amount of heat from an arc depends on the voltage across the arc, the current, single phase or multi-phase arc, confinement of the arc, and the distance the subject is away from the arc plasma. Most of the data collected for heat exposure have been staged, since the modeling of the arc is very complex [5, 6, 7, 8, 12]. The power in the arc (VARC * IARC) is radiated out as incident energy falling onto a surface. Again, test results are often used to compare the amount of energy produced in the arc and radiating to a surface at some distance away. As expected, the radiated energy depends if the arc is unrestricted in free air, or semi-confined, or directed as it would be in a switchgear cubicle with a panel removed or the door open. The latter directs the radiating energy toward the open area, greatly increasing the incident energy falling onto a surface. The arc produces quickly expanding gases. These gases heat the surfaces they contact. Thus, the energy of an arc can burn contacted surfaces due to both radiant and convection heat transfer. Low voltage switchgear type of equipment can have bare buses and a line-to-ground or a line-to-line fault and can quickly become a three-phase arcing fault with the corresponding increase in arcing energy. Arcing faults beginning, as line-to-ground faults in cables and on insulating buses must burn through the second insulating material before a multi-phase fault can result. This can be several cycles to 10's of cycles depending on the energy in the fault.

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Personal Protective Equipment Defined


Personal protective equipment includes many items, such as gloves, tools, face protection, glasses as well as the clothing to be worn. The main arc flash consequences are burns to the body that could cause death. Therefore, the head and chest areas are more critical. While burns on the persons limbs are serious, they are not likely to cause death. For example, when working on electrical equipment, gloves are voltage rated to protect from electrical shock while fire retardant overalls have only a thermal rating. When gloves are worn, some thermal protection is also provided. Table 1 and 2 provide guidance to the thermal capabilities of some clothing articles. Table 2 is from NFPA 70E. NFPA 70E-2004 has divided the personal protective clothing (PPE) requirements into four (4) risk categories, Table 2. These hazard risk categories are listed below. Table 3 gives the voltage capabilities of gloves up to 40-kV. Table 1 Typical Thermal Performance of Various Fabrics in Cal/ cm
2

Material
Bare skin (clean) Bare skin (dirty) Untreated cotton Single layer FR cotton Single layer FR cotton PBI fiber blend Nomex III Nomex III Nomex III A Nomex III A Cotton (4 oz) under FR cotton (8 oz) Nomex (2 layers) Nomex (8oz) over FR cotton (8 oz) Switching suit of FR coverall

Total
4.0 7.5 12.5 4.5 4.5 6.0 4.5 6.0 12.0 12.2 16.0 24-30

Weight
oz/yd 2 oz/yd oz/yd2 oz/yd2 oz/yd2 oz/yd2 oz/yd2 oz/yd2 oz/yd2 oz/yd2 oz/yd2 oz/yd2
2

Rating (Cal/cm 2)
0.5 1.0 2.0 6.0 13.8 6.1 9.1 13.7 9.2 13.1 12.5 22.6 31.1 40.0+

Table 2 - NFPA-70E Flash Hazard Risk Categories


Flash Hazard Risk Range of Calculated Category Incident Energy 2 0 0-1.2 cal/cm 1 1.2+ to 4 cal/cm2 2 4+ to 8 cal/cm2 2 3 8+ to 25 cal/cm 4 25+ to 40 cal/cm2 Min. PPE Rating N/A 4 cal/cm2 8 cal/cm2 2 25 cal/cm 40 cal/cm2
2

Clothing Required 4.5-14.0 oz/yd untreated cotton FR shirt and pants Cotton underclothing plus FR shirt and pants Cotton underclothing plus FR shirt, pants, overalls or equivalent Cotton underclothing plus FR shirt, pants, plus double layer switching coat and pants or equiv.

FR = Fire resistance fabric

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Table 3 Glove Classes Glove Class 00 0 1 2 3 4 Use Voltage (kV) 0.5 1.0 7.5 17.5 26.5 36.0 Max. Test Voltage (kV) 2.5 5.0 10 20 30 40

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Arc Resistance Defined


Short-circuit arc resistance is a highly variable quantity that changes non-linearly with the arc current during a cycle and on a cycle-by-cycle basis. As the current increases, so does the ionized area, and, consequently, the resistance becomes lower. The voltage across the arc varies non-linearly with the length and current flowing in it. Arcing short-circuit current magnitudes on low-voltage systems (<1000 V) are more affected by arc resistance than they are on higher voltage systems. Arc resistance results in the short-circuit currents smaller than in the bolted short-circuit current. On high voltage networks, the short-circuit arc resistance and resulting arc voltage are often low compared to the circuit voltage; the arcing fault and bolted fault current can be approximately the same. Arcing ground short-circuits have been known to have short-circuit currents that range between zero and 100% of the bolted short-circuit current depending on the system voltage and the type of arcing short circuit involved. [1] The environment in which the arcing short circuit takes place affects the arc resistance and its continuity. An arcing short circuit in a confined area is easily perpetuated due to the concentration of ionized gases allowing easy current flow. An arc occurring on open conductors is elongated due to heat convection, thereby lengthening the arc allowing cooling of ionized gas, so the arc may extinguish itself. The results of tests show that arcing short-circuit currents are very erratic in nature and do not provide a constant resistance during any one cycle. Over several cycles the arc re-ignites, due to un-cooled ionized gases, almost extinguishes, and then fully re-ignites again. There is not an exact equation available to determine arc resistance. The bibliographies references by Alm, Brown and Strom [2, 3, 4] provide approximations to the arc resistance.

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Key Concepts Open Arc


This term is used to describe a non-enclosed Arc in which the energy is radiated equally in all directions. An arcing fault on an overhead line would be an example of an open arc topology.

Directed Arc
This term, also known as arc in a box, describes an Arc that occurs in a partially enclosed area such as a MCC or a Switchgear cubicle. In this case the energy radiated includes the energy reflected from the enclosure walls. A fault in a switchgear cubicle with the door open would be an example of a directed arc.

Radiant Energy
This term refers to the energy as the light, which is released by an Arc during a fault.

Blast Energy
This term describes the energy released by an Arc, in the form of convection. When the Arc occurs, the gaseous mass surrounding the area is violently displaced and heated. The energy contained in this rapid moving mass, as it collides with surrounding objects, is called the Blast Energy of the Arc.

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

References
1. Kaufmann, R. H. and J.C. Page, "Arcing Fault Protection for Low Voltage Power Distribution Systems - The Nature of the Problem", AIEE Transaction, PAS vol 79, June 1960, pp 160-165. (Note: the value in Table 1 should be multiplied by 2 due to the correction with CT probe ratio.) Alm, Emil, " Physical Properties of Arcs in Circuit Breakers", Transactions of the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, No. 25, 1949. Brown, T. E., "Extinction of A-C Arcs in Turbulent Gases", AIEE Transaction Vol 51, March 1932, pp 185-191. Strom, A. P., "Long 60-Cycle Arcs in Air", AIEE Transaction, March 1946, Vol 65, pp 113-118, (See discussion PP 504-506 by J. H. Hagenguth). Wagner C. F., and Fountain, L.L., "Arcing Fault Currents in Low-Voltage A-C Circuits." AIEE Transactions. 1948, vol 67, pp 166-174. R. Lee, The Other Electrical Hazard: Electrical Arc Blast Burns. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. Vol. 18-1A, May/June 1982, pp 246-251. R.A. Jones et al, Staged Tests Increases Awareness of Arc-flash Hazards in Electrical Equipment. Conf. Rec. IEEE PCIC Sept 1996, pp 298-281 J.R. Dunki-Jacobs, The Impact of Arcing Ground Faults on Low-voltage Power System Design, GE publication GET-6098 Lawrence Fisher, Resistance of Low-Voltage AC Arcs, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. Vol. IGA6, Nov./Dec 1970, pp 607-616. Richard Doughty et al, Predicting Incident Energy to Better Manage the Electric Arc Hazard on 600-V Power Distribution Systems. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. Vol. 36-1, Jan/Feb 2000, pp 257-269. O.R. Schurig, Voltage Drop and Impedance at Short-Circuit in Low Voltage Circuits, AIEE trans, Vol 60, 1941, pp 479-486. IEEE Std 1584-2002, IEEE Guide for Performing Arc-Flash Hazard Calculations Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, NFPA 70E, 2004

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12. 13.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Program Verification & Validation


The AC Arcing Faults for the Arc Heat program were verified against the empirical equations in IEEE-1584 and NFPA 70E. The results of the incident energy and flash boundaries calculated in Arc Heat produce nearly identical results as the equations in the IEEE-1584 Standard. Any differences were generally less than 1.0% and are likely due to rounding of the numbers used and the results printed. All equipment configurations were checked from 480V to 34.5kV. These configurations included the grounding options and switchgear options given in Step 2 of the Arc Heat program. If you would like a copy of the Verification & Validation calculations for this program, they are available. Please contact us for details.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

1.0

Arc Heat Tutorial Introduction

This tutorial, will illustrate how to conduct ARC HEAT EXPOSURE analyses on both AC & DC distribution systems. The exercise will be presented in sections 1.1 through 1.5 as explained below. Section 1.1 Network-Based Arc Heat Exposure on AC Systems.

This application allows the user to evaluate the heat exposure caused by arcing faults, based on an existing AC network file. Once a complete short-circuit analysis is performed on the subject file, the relevant results are automatically passed on to the AC ARC HEAT program for analysis. In addition to short circuit analysis data, the program is also capable of automatically reading the tripping times of the protective devices assigned to any coordination study performed on the network. The program offers two output options: single bus analysis and/or complete network analysis (all busses). Both output reports can be directly exported into MS Excel. In terms of the analytical standards that can be used, the user can choose between ANSI IEEE 1584, NFPA 70E or both. Graphical outputs include Energy vs. Distance output, and printable warning labels. The program also incorporates the ability to analyze arcing faults on busses that are fed from multiple power supplies and/or sources of short circuit currents. In such cases, the arc-heat algorithm will scan all the protective devices that control the current contributions into the fault. Once the scan has been completed, the program selects the Controlling branch (slowest significant tripping branch). Significant branches are those branches that contribute with a fault current equal or greater than [IF/(n+1)]. In this case IF is the total bus bolted fault current and n is the total number of branches feeding the fault. At that point, the branch arcing current is computed by using the total bus arcing fault current IF and the ratio of contributing branch to the total bolted fault current. The slowest tripping time significant branch with either 85 or 100% branch arcing current (program checks both) is used in the arc heat program unless the tripping time is changed by the user in Step 5 window. In other words, out of all the branches whose fault-current contribution is equal or greater than [IF/(n+1)], the program chooses the slowest tripping branch (longest time). This is by definition the Controlling branch. This is not necessarily the branch with the greatest contribution into the fault. The slowest tripping time is, of course, dictated by the protective device assigned to that branch. This multiple branch processing technique helps ensure a conservative approach and complies with all the required standards. However, there may be cases with several strong fault current sources where the power system engineer may want to use a time of a branch that is not in the [IF/(n+1) list or the branch selected by the program. The Refresh Duration from PDC will show the branch selected by the program. Changing the time in Step 5 window can also be used to replace the time overcurrent trip time with bus or transformer differential relay trip times. This section is in turn subdivided into two exercises described as follows: 1.1.1 Network-Based Arc Heat Exposure on AC Systems / Single Branch Case This exercise consists of an arcing fault that occurs on a bus fed from a single branch. The purpose is to illustrate how to build the file, run the analysis and correlate the data input to the calculation mechanism. The file used in this example is ARCHEAT_SB.axd.

1.1.2

Network-Based Arc Heat Exposure on AC Systems / Multiple Branch Case Once the mechanics of building a file has been understood from following the exercise illustrated in 1.1.1, this next example will show a more complex network in which an arcing fault is fed from 6 different sources of short circuit current, each equipped with its

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

own Protective Devices. The file that will be used in this example is IEEEPDE.axd. This file has protective devices placed on BUS3, BUS4, and 28.

Section 1.2

Stand-Alone Arc Heat Exposure on AC systems.

In this option, a single line diagram/network file is not required. The AC ARC HEAT program will rely on short circuit and tripping-time information being provided by the user. The job file used in this exercise is ACAHSTANDALONE.mas. Section 1.3 Network-Based Arc Heat Exposure on DC systems.

This application allows the user to evaluate the heat exposure caused by arcing faults, based on an existing DC network file. Once a complete short-circuit analysis is performed on the subject file, the relevant results are automatically passed on to the DC ARC HEAT program for analysis. The program also offers two output options: single bus analysis and/or complete network analysis (all busses). Both output reports can be exported directly into MS Excel. Graphical outputs include Energy vs. Distance output, and printable warning labels. The job file used in this exercise is DC_sc2.axd. Section 1.4 Stand-Alone Arc Heat Exposure on DC systems.

Consistent with the explanation given above (Section 1.2) this option does not require a network file. It relies on DC Short Circuit information being provided by the user. The job file used in this exercise is DCAHSTANDALONE.axd. Section 1.5 Verification and Validation Data

This section contains various documents used in the testing validation and verification of the ARC Heat program. _____________________________________________________________________________ As mentioned earlier, the program is capable of producing two types of reports; one based on the IEEE 1584 standard and one based on the NFPA 70E standard. The results of both reports can also be viewed simultaneously if so required. The reporting formats are Microsoft Excel based, and can be generated in Summary or Detailed formats. The difference between the two formats lies on the number of parameters that are included. The table shown in the next page lists the parameters included in each report. The parameters marked with (1) are listed only in the NFPA 70E reports or if the Both option is selected and those marked with (2) are listed only in the IEEE 1584 or if the Both option is selected. The rest of the parameters are common to both standards reports.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Bus Name Protective Device Name LL Voltage (kV) 3P Bolted Fault (Amp) Protective Device Rating (Amp) 3P Arcing Current (kA) at 100% Trip Delay Time (sec) Breaker Opening Time (sec) 3P Fault Duration (sec) Configuration Gap (mm) 3P Arc Flash Boundary (inch) at 100% NFPA 70E Arc Flash Boundary (inch) (1) Working Distance (inch) 3P Energy (cal/cm^2) at 100% Required IEEE 1584 PPE Class (2) PPE Description Required NFPA 70-E PPE Class (1) PPE Description Unit System IEEE Calculation Factor (2) IEEE 1584 Distance Factor (x) (2) 3P Arcing Current (kA) at 85% (2) 3P Fault Duration at 85% (sec) (2) 3P Energy (cal/cm^2) at 85% (2) 3P Arc Flash Boundary (inch) at 85% (2) Restricted Shock Distance (inch)

Summary Reports.

Detailed Reports.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure IMPORTANT NOTICE In order for the program to produce a report on all of the nodes of the system, the user MUST specify the ARC Heat Category under which every one of these busses has been classified. These categories are: No Arc Heat (not classified by the user / no result will be produced by the program) Open Grounded Open Ungrounded Cable Grounded Cable Ungrounded Box Grounded Box Ungrounded

Categories can be assigned from either the job file editor as the file is being constructed (recommended), or entered one by one from the programs interface. The screen capture shown below, illustrates how to classify a bus directly from the editor during the construction of the file.

ARC Heat Categories

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

1.0.1 a.

Key Concepts Open Arc

This term is used to describe a none-enclosed Arc, in which the energy is radiated equally in all directions. An arcing fault on an overhead line would be an example of an open arc topology.

b.

Directed Arc

This term, also known as arc in a box, describes an Arc that occurs in a partially enclosed area. In this case the energy radiated includes that which is reflected from the enclosure walls. A fault in a switchgear cubicle with the door open would an example of a directed arc. c. Radiant Energy

This term refers to the energy in the form of light, which is released by an Arc during a fault. d. Blast Energy

This term describes the energy released by an Arc, in the form of convection. When the Arc occurs, the gaseous mass surrounding the area is violently displaced and heated. The energy contained in this rapid moving mass, as it collides with surrounding objects, is called the Blast Energy of the Arc.

1.0.2

Network-Based Arc Heat Exposure on AC Systems / Single Branch Case

This section of the tutorial is based on the network-file ARCHEAT_SB.axd. The topology of the network is shown in Figure 2 below in conjunction with back-annotated cycle short-circuit results. The tripping times of the breaker protecting the motor are defined in a coordination study that has been previously carried out on the network (Study 0: Motor PDC Study). The TCC graph on the next page, shows the phase coordination settings of the realy, along with bus and branch fault currents. When using All Buses output in Step 6 window, the user does not have the option to change items such as relay trip time on individual buses. If a bus does not have any protective devices, IEEE 1584 default times will be used. In cases where a bus has multiple contributing branches where not all major contributing branches have protective devices, the highest contributing branch is used as the controlling branch. If there happens to be a protective device on that controlling branch, the protective device trip time will be passed back to Step 5 window. The program output should be checked to make sure the maximum tripping time agrees with the device controlling device on the time-current curve.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Figure 3 - Network under study, showing a cycle fault analysis at BUS-05

Cycle 3-P Symmetrical Branch Fault Current: 9426.62 Amps.

Cycle 3-P Symmetrical Bus Fault Current: 11200.53 Amps.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Figure 4 - PDC Study for Motor on BUS-05

Branch Fault Current through BKR-02 (9,427 A) Bus Fault Current at BUS-05 (11,201 A)

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 2. Double click on each of the nodes/busses and make sure that a proper arc heat classification has been given to each one of them. For example double click on Bus-02 to verify the arc heat setting as shown here.

Step 1. Proceed to open the file ARCHEAT_SB.axd.

Step 3. The arc-heat designation for each node of this network is shown here. The designations chosen are not to be considered typical; they are only intended to serve as examples.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 4. Proceed to enter/verify that all the protective devices (in this case circuit breakers) have been properly characterized from the short circuit point of view. In this exercise, emphasis will be made on breaker BKR-02 since it is the one protecting the motor on BUS-05. BUS-05 will be the objective of the arc heat analysis that will follow. Also remember that the relay associated with this breaker is shown in figure 2.

Step 8. Next proceed to create a PDC study for the branch under analysis. For this example, a PDC study has already been created and it is shown in figure 2.

Step 5. Double click on BKR-02 to invoke its respective editor, and select the Short Circuit tab.

Step 6. Complete all the required ANSI settings, paying special attention to the Interrupting Time in cycles. This number is very important since it plays a role in the total time in which an arcing fault can be cleared. In this case notice that this is a 5 cycle breaker.

Step 7. Finally if there is an intentionally added Trip Relay Delay (for example, aux. Tripping Relays), enter it here in cycles. For this example enter 0.

20

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 9. Select the AC Arc Heat command. Step 10. Carefully read and make sure that you understand the programs usage guidelines before proceeding.

Step 11. Select Yes to run and produce the most recent short circuit answer file for the project.

Step 12. Enter the required fault cycle to be analyzed. For this example, type 0.5 cycle and press Next to continue. The user may want to select 0.5 cycle for devices that clear in the first cycle and a longer time for time delayed trips.

Step 13. From the pick-list, select an individual Bus to be analyzed. For this example, select Bus-05.

Step 14. Select the units to be used in the analysis. Selected US.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 15. Verify the values for the Bus Fault Current and Controlling Branch Current.

22

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 16. Select the 1584 Table button to review the IEEE 1584 control parameter settings.

Step 18. Select View Library to view and/or edit the NFPA 70E Fabric Material Library.

Step 17. Select Back to return.

Step 20. Select Next to continue.

Step 19. The user can double click on any of the entries to edit as needed. Select OK to return.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 21. Select/verify that the Arc Heat Equipment Category for the bus under study has been properly assigned. In this case the program has automatically assigned the category that was entered into the model by the user as it was being built.

Step 22. Select/verify that the ARC Heat Grounding Category for the bus under study has been properly assigned. In this case the program has automatically assigned the category that was entered into the model by the user as it was being built.

Step 25. Select Next to continue.

Step 23. Enter the working distance over which the Arc Heat yield is to be calculated. The user can enter actual known values or use the IEEE 1584 defaults if deemed safe for the application.

Step 24. Select the Calculation option. In this example we will ask the program to calculate the minimal protective clothing required for the application. Select Calculate Clothing Required.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Breaker Opening Time 5 cycles = 0.08 sec.

1.89 sec.

0.08 sec. 5 cycles

Relay Tripping Time 1.89 sec.

Controlling Branch 100% Arcing Current.

Controlling Branch 85% Arcing Current.

Step 27. Select Next to continue.

Step 26. Enter/Verify the Phase Gap and Cf factor as required, and then press Refresh Duration from PDC. All the pertinent tripping times that correspond to the arcing currents and controlling branch, are calculated and entered into the respective fields. The user in the single bus mode can change the trip time to represent differential relay trip time.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Breaker Opening Time 5 cycles = 0.08 sec.

1.89 sec.

0.08 sec. 5 cycles

Relay Tripping Time 1.89 sec.

26

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 28. The clothing required for the application is shown here as Category 3.

Step 29. The Warning Label Options are shown here.

Step 30. Select the Calculation standard and the select Plot to generate the respective Energy vs. Distance plot of the results.

Step 31. Select Graphic Label to generate the equipment warning label.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 34. The recalculated rating for the NFPA 70E selection instead of IEEE 1584 is shown here. In this case NFPA 70E shows a more conservative (Category 4) rating.

Step 33. Press the Calculate button to refresh the analysis results.

Step 32. From the Calculation Standards section, switch over to NFPA 70E.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 35. To produce a text-based output report, proceed as follows: Select Single or All Busses to be reported. Select a Summary or Detailed report. Select the Calculation Standard to be used. Select Results to Microsoft Excel

This will create a report and save it into a Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet. Use the settings shown here for this example.

Step 36. Specify the name and a folder in which to save the report. Press Save.

Step 37. The complete report is shown here.

Key Definitions page.

Arc Heat Analysis results

29

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure The following table shows the results of the analysis using both IEEE 5184 and NFPA 70E Standards.

Bus Name Protective Device Name LL Voltage (kV) 3P Bolted Fault (Amp) Protective Device Rating (Amp) 3P Arcing Current (kA) at 100% Trip Delay Time (sec) Breaker Opening Time (sec) 3P Fault Duration (sec) Configuration Gap (mm) 3P Arc Flash Boundary (inch) at 100% NFPA 70E Arc Flash Boundary (inch) Working Distance (inch) 3P Energy (cal/cm^2) at 100% Required IEEE 1584 PPE Class PPE Description Required NFPA 70-E PPE Class PPE Description Unit System IEEE Calculation Factor IEEE 1584 Distance Factor (x) 3P Arcing Current (kA) at 85% 3P Fault Duration at 85% (sec) 3P Energy (cal/cm^2) at 85% 3P Arc Flash Boundary (inch) at 85% Restricted Shock Distance (inch)

BUS-05 Motor Relay 2.4 11200.5 800 10.85 1.89 0.08 1.97 Box - Grounded 102 796.3 Boundary equation not valid for voltage > 600V; IEEE 1584 3 Phase boundary = 796.3 35.8 24.4 3 Cotton underclothing plus FR shirt, pants, overalls or equivalent 4 Cotton underclothing plus FR shirt, pants, plus double layer switching coat and pants or equiv. US 1 0.973 9.222 1.97 20.5 664.8 26

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

1.0.3

Network-Based Arc Heat Exposure on AC Systems / Multiple Branch Case

This section of the tutorial is based on the network-file IEEEPDE.axd. The complete topology of the network is shown in Figure 4 below. The Arc Heat analysis described in this section is based on Bus4 of this network. Figure 5, shows a simplified view of Bus4 along with the 6 fault-current contributing branches. The tripping times of the protective devices involved in the 6 branches are derived from a coordination study that has been previously carried out on the network (Study 0: BUS 4). The TCC graph shown in Figure 6, shows the phase coordination settings of all the protective devices.

Figure 5 - Network topology for job-file IEEEPDE.axd showing cycle fault results for Bus4

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Figure 6 - Simplified view of Bus4 and its fault contributing branches (1/2 cycle Sym. Currents)

As will be shown in the Arc Heat Analysis calculation that follows, this will turn out to be the Controlling branch for an arcing fault at Bus4.

Bus 2
Util-Transformer2

IAC53 1200/5 IAC53 Bus 3 1000/5


8705.3 A

8.71kA

5.45kA 5447.3 A Bus 4 24.2kA 24225.1 A

*
200/5 ML 750 400/5
445.4 A

CO-8 200/5
501.6 A 0.81kA

ML 269 600/5
809.6 A 0.50kA

BE1-50/51B

0.45kA

8393.0 8.39AA

Bus 10

Bus 11

Bus 8

Bus 12

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Figure 7 - PDC Study for Bus4 including all 6 converging branches. Currents are plotted at 13.8 kV.

33

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 1. Proceed to create your file and prepare it as explained in section 1.1.1, steps 1 to 8. In this example, we will be using the file called IEEEPDE.axd, which has already been prepared for the study. Proceed to open the file IEEEPDE.axd.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 2. Select the AC Arc Heat command. Step 3. Carefully read and make sure that you understand the programs usage guidelines before proceeding.

Step 4. Select Yes to run and produce the most recent short circuit answer file for the project.

Step 5. Enter the required fault cycle to be analyzed. For this example, type 0.5 cycle and press Next to continue. The user may want to select 0.5 cycle for devices that clear in the first cycle and a longer time for time-delayed trips.

Step 6. From the pick-list, select an individual Bus to be analyzed. For this example, select Bus4.

This is the current in the controlling branch. Refer to figure 4.

Step 7. Select the units to be used in the analysis. Selected US.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

There are a total of 6 branches contributing fault current at Bus4. The Arc Heat program interface, only considers branches contributing at least 14.3% {[1/(6+1)] * 100%} of the total Bus4 fault current to establish which branch is the Arc Heat controlling branch. It was determined that the greatest contribution into the fault originates from the Tie breaker branch (contribution from Bus3). However, since the relay labeled Trans f2 (contribution from Bus 2 through the Util-Transformer2) takes longer to open, it is the Trans f2 branch that is used as the Arc Heat controlling branch.

Highest contribution > 17%.

Contribution > 17% and slowest responding protective device. Therefore this is used as the Controlling branch.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 8. Select the 1584 Table button to review the IEEE 1584 control parameter settings.

Step 10. Select View Library to view and/or edit the NFPA 70E Fabric Material Library.

Step 9. Select Back to return.

Step 12. Select Next to continue.

Step 11. The user can double click on any of the entries to edit as needed. Select OK to return.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 13. Select/verify that the Arc Heat Equipment Category for the bus under study has been properly assigned. In this case the program has automatically assigned the category that was entered into the model by the user as it was being built.

Step 14. Select/verify that the ARC Heat Grounding Category for the bus under study has been properly assigned. In this case the program has automatically assigned the category that was entered into the model by the user as it was being built.

Step 17. Select Next to continue. Step 15. Enter the working distance over which the Arc Heat yield is to be calculated. The user can enter actual known values or use the IEEE 1584 defaults if deemed safe for the application. In this case a distance of 35.8 inches has been entered purely from an academic exercise point of view.

Step 16. Select the Calculation option. In this example we will ask the program to calculate the minimal protective clothing required for the application. Select Calculate Clothing Required.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Fault data information and critical tripping times.

Arcing currents calculated by the program.

Step 19. Select Next to continue. Step 18. Enter/Verify the Phase Gap and Cf factor as required, and then press Refresh Duration from PDC. All the pertinent tripping times that corresponds to the arcing currents and controlling branch, are calculated and entered into the respective fields. The user in the single bus mode can change the trip time to represent differential relay trip time.

Calculated controlling branch and tripping times.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

PDC ArcHeat Methodology Summary This summary provides a high-level overview of the methodology used by PDC ArcHeat. Determining the Controlling Branch 1) The bolted fault currents for each adjacent branch to the bus are analyzed to determine a minimum contributor threshold percentage. Since the program cannot visually see the oneline and its protective devices, the following Major Contributor rule is used. The logic holds most of time in selecting the correct branch, but it is realized that there may be some conditions where the program may not select the correct controlling branch. The method used assumed that once the controlling branch opens the arc-flash energy that exists after is small compared to the initial and can be neglected. The program also assumes that the system is properly coordinated. This percentage is calculated using the formula below: Major Contributing Threshold Percent = 1 / ((# of connections to bus contributing at least 2% of BoltedFaultCurrent) + 1)
Deleted: document

The branches meeting the above criteria are further checked as indicated in step 3
below. 2) Arcing current is calculated from the bolted fault current using the criteria given in IEEE 1584-2002, section 5.2.

3) PDC ArcHeat checks along each path connected to the bus that contributes at least Major Contributing Threshold Percent calculated in Step 1. The arcing current in each branch is calculated based on the ratio of bolted fault current in branch to total bolted fault current times the arcing current calculated in step 2. Branch arcing current = (Bus arcing current)* (branch bolted fault current) (total bolted fault current) From the TCC made by PDC, for each of the major contributing branches the arcing current is used to determine the fault clearing time. The device with the shortest clearing time on each path is recorded, then (using the shortest clearing times of each path) the path with the longest clearing time is used in the archeat calculation. It is realized that the opening of the other major contributing branches before the controlling branch would reduce the arcing current, but holding the initial arcing constant for a longer time helps provide conservative cal/cm2.

40

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

4) The path with the (slowest is okay) tripping time is used as the controlling branch and the cal/cm2 is from total arcing and the its device trip time Exceptions to this rule are as follows: If a path is encountered that either has no protective device, or has multiple source branch connections, the path with the maximum contribution to the bus is used as the controlling branch, and ArcHeat reports this condition. If the Arcing current exceeds the protective device short circuit value along a particular path, that path is used as the controlling branch, and ArcHeat reports this condition. Note: If multiple adjacent branches that are greater than Major Contributing Threshold Percent are present, the ArcHeat interface allows you to manually choose a different branch path as the controlling branch.

41

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Known Limitations There is currently a limitation in that PDC ArcHeat cannot search beyond upstream buses connected to 2 or more source branches. Source branches are defined as branches sharing the same downstream "To-Node" bus. The message "Multiple Sources Present" will indicate this condition. Another limitation is that PDC ArcHeat cannot search beyond downstream buses connected to 2 or more child branches. These limitations are illustrated in Figure 1 below. Figure 8

Lets assume the ArcHeat is being calculated for Bus A and that all the adjacent branches for Bus A are contributing at least MajorContrubutingThresholdPercent at Bus A. PDC ArcHeat would travel each of the paths in the direction of the arrows, looking for protective devices. Traveling upstream along path AB, PDC ArcHeat would stop at Bus B. Likewise, traveling downstream along path AD, PDC ArcHeat stops at Bus D. In the example above, it is expected that the arcing current contributions from C and D are small, less than 25% [from equation 1, 1/(3 + 1)] and would take a long time to open their protective devices. It is expected in the above example, that breaker on the secondary of the transformer would be the controlling device. It the breaker does not exist, the program should select the fuse on the primary.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

*Enabling PDC ArcHeat Activity Trace Detailed PDC ArcHeat navigation of the one-line along with calculated values can be viewed by enabling the PDC ArcHeat Activity Trace. The Activity Trace is typically used for troubleshooting as well as V&V purposes, and can be enabled by opening C:\EDSA2005\Config\PDCOORD.INI using NOTEPAD (or other text editor) and changing the value Enabled to 1 under the section [DebugMode]. Each bus analyzed by PDC ArcHeat will generate a trace log that pops up in a notepad window so it is important to only turn on the Activity Trace when analyzing one bus at a time.

ArcHeat Trace Sample


******************** ArcHeat PDC session at bus 'Bus4'for 85% Arcing Current Using bolted fault current 24225 at 85% = 20591 A Arcing ratio is 0.959 Only adjacent branches contributing at least 14% (or 2942 amps) will be tested. ** Heading upstream along branch defined as '0040' to 'Bus4' ** Fault contribution for this branch is 4630 amps ** Arcing fault current to test PDC devices is 4439 amps @@ Found PDC device branch record of type: Relay @@ Using FaultVoltage=13800, ArcingFaultCurrent=4439.0 @@ Device Relay labeled 'Trans f2' trips at 3.270s max @@ Applying breaker opening time of 5 cycles. @@ Dev Trip Time: 3.354 @@ Dev Opening Time: 0.083 @@ Found PDC device node record of type: Load @@ Using FaultVoltage=13800, ArcingFaultCurrent=4439.0 ## Next upstream branch is 'BUS2' to '0040' ** Arcing fault current to test PDC devices is 4439 amps ## Next upstream branch is '5' to 'BUS2' ** Arcing fault current to test PDC devices is 888 amps @@ Found PDC device branch record of type: Relay @@ Using FaultVoltage=69000, ArcingFaultCurrent=887.8 @@ Device Relay labeled 'CB2_UTILITY' trips at 5.664s max ## Next upstream branch is 'UTILITY' to '5' ** Arcing fault current to test PDC devices is 888 amps ## Stopped traveling this path ** Heading upstream along branch defined as 'Bus3' to 'Bus4' ** Can't test this location because fault current is 0. ## Number of upstream connections at bus 'Bus3' is 2 ## Stopped traveling this path ** Heading downstream along branch defined as 'Bus4' to '11' ** Fault contribution for this branch is 688 amps ## Stopped traveling this path ** Heading downstream along branch defined as 'Bus4' to '12' ** Fault contribution for this branch is 7134 amps ** Arcing fault current to test PDC devices is 6840 amps @@ Found PDC device branch record of type: Relay @@ Using FaultVoltage=13800, ArcingFaultCurrent=6839.5 @@ Device Relay labeled 'Bus 12' trips at 0.010s max @@ Applying breaker opening time of 5 cycles. @@ Dev Trip Time: 0.093 @@ Dev Opening Time: 0.083 ## Next downstream branch is '12' to 'BUS24' ** Arcing fault current to test PDC devices is 6840 amps ## Number of connections at bus 'BUS24' is 5 ## Stopped traveling this path ** Heading downstream along branch defined as 'Bus4' to '8' ** Fault contribution for this branch is 426 amps ## Stopped traveling this path ** Heading downstream along branch defined as 'Bus4' to '9' ** Fault contribution for this branch is 379 amps ## Stopped traveling this path ** Heading downstream along branch defined as 'Bus4' to 'Bus3' ** Fault contribution for this branch is 7400 amps ** Arcing fault current to test PDC devices is 7094 amps @@ Found PDC device branch record of type: Relay @@ Using FaultVoltage=13800, ArcingFaultCurrent=7094.0 @@ Device Relay labeled 'Tie' trips at 1.341s max @@ Applying breaker opening time of 5 cycles. @@ Dev Trip Time: 1.424 @@ Dev Opening Time: 0.083 ## Number of connections at bus 'Bus3' is 6 ## Stopped traveling this path &&& Max contributing branch is 'Bus4' to 'Bus3' with branch current 7400 Amps &&& Controlling branch set to Slowest device branch is '0040' to 'Bus4' with branch current 4630 Amps and Arcing current 888 Amps

43

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

The following diagram places in perspective the figures obtained in the previous screen.

3.35 sec. 2.77 sec.

0.08 sec. 0.08 sec.

Breaker opening time: 0.08 sec.

100% Bus Arcing Fault Current: 23161 Amp.

100% of Controlling Branch Arcing Current. 5208 Amp. 85% of Controlling Branch Arcing Current. 4427 Amp.

44

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 20. This application exceeds the NFPA maximum hazard risk category of 4 and therefore is listed as N/A.

Step 21. The Warning Label Options are shown here.

Step 22. Select the Calculation standard and the select Plot to generate the respective Energy vs. Distance plot of the results.

Step 23. Select Graphic Label to generate the equipment warning label.

45

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 26. The recalculated rating for the NFPA 70E selection instead of the IEEE 1584 is shown here. In this case NFPA 70E shows a less conservative (Category 4) rating. NFPA values are based on typical substation with faster fault clearing times than that given in the Step 5 window for this example.

Step 25. Press the Calculate button to refresh the analysis results.

Step 24. From the Calculation Standards section, switch over to NFPA 70E.

46

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

The following table shows the results of the analysis using both IEEE 5184 and NFPA 70E Standards.

Bus Name Protective Device Name LL Voltage (kV) 3P Bolted Fault (Amp) Protective Device Rating (Amp) 3P Arcing Current (kA) at 100% Trip Delay Time (sec) Breaker Opening Time (sec) 3P Fault Duration (sec) Configuration Gap (mm) 3P Arc Flash Boundary (inch) at 100% NFPA 70E Arc Flash Boundary (inch) Working Distance (inch) 3P Energy (cal/cm^2) at 100% Required IEEE 1584 PPE Class PPE Description Required NFPA 70-E PPE Class PPE Description Unit System IEEE Calculation Factor IEEE 1584 Distance Factor (x) 3P Arcing Current (kA) at 85% 3P Fault Duration at 85% (sec) 3P Energy (cal/cm^2) at 85% 3P Arc Flash Boundary (inch) at 85% Restricted Shock Distance (inch)

Bus4 Trans f2 13.8 24225.1 0 23.161 2.77 0.08 2.85 Box - Grounded 153 3086.5 Boundary equation not valid for voltage > 600V; IEEE 1584 3 Phase boundary = 3086.5 35.8 91.3 N/A Level exceeds NFPA-70-E - Never work on or near energized system. 4 Cotton underclothing plus FR shirt, pants, plus double layer switching coat and pants or equiv. US 1 0.973 19.687 0.08 2.2 65.5 26

47

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Special Features in Arc Heat


The new Arc Heat program: Calculates categories for each bus Assigns size for labels Assigns color for Safe Zone Calculates and shows Safe Zone area Outputs to Excel for all the selected buses Prints labels for one or all the selected buses Enables user to assign Work Permit

First, load your job file, then run EDSA AC Arc Heat.

48

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

The Arc Heat program is linked to the Short Circuit program. You may choose to run the Short Circuit program or not.

49

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

From Bus Name you can select the busses that you desire to perform Arc Heat Estimation.

50

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

For every bus you select, complete Step 2 Environment and Step 3 Distance, as shown above.

51

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Use Refresh Duration from PDC and make sure that before running Arc Heat Estimation you have already performed Protective Device Coordination (PDC) for each bus; the opening time of device is related to the amount of Arc Heat Exposure and energy available at the bus.

52

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Based on the category you define, it will give you the Safe Zone.

Select Calculate for clothing category.

Make sure you set: Output report at All Buses and Detailed.

53

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

54

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure When you plot, you have a list of the bus(es) you performed Arc Heat Estimation. You can select any bus listed and the plot will display.

For each label, go back and repeat the steps for each bus.

When you click graphic label, you can select, one or more, or all buses to print for labels.

When finished, select Display Labelsthe labels will display.

55

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Use the drop down menu to choose which label to display or use the Show Previous or Next Label arrows.

Once you are done you can Close the Current Label. This icon allows you to Print All the Labels. This icon allows you to Print the Current Label. This icon allows you to choose the Label Style Options. See the following screen capture.

The label appears. You can then choose the options above. When you select Label Style Options, the following screen will display:

56

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Go back and click Safe Zone. Then below click Display Safe Zones.

Select Pass Color to choose your color. Proceed to enter the PPE category. Click Done or select Display Safe Zones.

57

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

The Safe Zone is color-coded above. You can Press Plot and view plot for each Bus Arc Heat Exposure

58

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

You can also see which areas have had labels generated. The buses (above) are highlighted to show that Labels are generated. Select the highlighted buses, then click to display the labels for buses you select.

59

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

The label is displayed.

60

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Also users now have the option to assign a work permit. See the following screen captures.

Click on Work Permit and then proceed to select the task as shown in the following screen captures.

61

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

User can select Add to create a new task.

Use can give the added task a unique name.

Once the user clicks OK, the new task has been added. Click OK once the task is selected and the Work Permit will display as shown on the next page.

The user may also choose a task using the drop-down menu. Once the user has made a selection, click OK. The Work Permit is shown on the next page.

62

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

The work permit appears as a word document, which the user can edit.

Once the user has entered the necessary information on the document, it can be printed and saved. A complete sample of the work permit is shown on the next page.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

ENERGIZED ELECTRICAL WORK PERMIT


Job/Work Order Number: PART 1: TO BE COMPLETED BY THE REQUESTER
(1) Description of circuit / equipment / job location / bus name:
1A

(2) Description of work to be done:


Remove/install CBs or fused switches (3) Reasons why the circuit / equipment cannot be de-energized or the work deferred until the next scheduled outage:

_________________________________________________

______________________________________

Requester / Title

Date

PART II: TO BE COMPLETED BY THE ELECTRICALLY QUALIFIED PERSONS DOING THE WORK: Check When Complete ____ (1) Detailed job description procedure to be used in performing the above detailed work:
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____ (2) Description of the Safe Work Practices to be employed: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Flash Boundary Shock Hazard Required PPE

11.8 in 4.8 kV 0

Flash Hazard 0.5 cal/cm^2 Restricted Approach 26.0 in 4.5 - 14.0 oz/yd^2 untreated cotton

Working Distance Glove Class

17.9 in 1

____ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____ (4) Evidence of completion of a Job Briefing including discussion of any job-related hazards: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________

(3) Means employed to restrict the access of unqualified persons from the work area:

(5) Do you agree the above described work can be done safely?
_________________________________________________

Yes

No (if no, return to requestor)

______________________________________

Electrically Qualified Person(s)

Date

_________________________________________________

______________________________________

Electrically Qualified Person(s)

Date

PART III: APPROVAL(S) TO PERFROM THE WORK WHILE ELECTRICALLY ENERGIZED


_________________________________________________ ______________________________________

Maintenance / Engineering Manager


_________________________________________________

Manufacturing Manager
______________________________________

Safety Manager
_________________________________________________

Electrically Knowledgeable Person


______________________________________

General Manager

Date

64

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

1.1

Stand-Alone Arc Heat Exposure on AC Systems

Step 1. Start the EDSA program, and without opening any job files, select the AC Arc Heat command.

Step 2. Create a new standalone file, by selecting File/New.

Step 3. Assign a name to the new file. And press Save.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 4. Carefully read and make sure that you understand the programs usage guidelines before proceeding. Select Next.

Step 9. Select User Defined Short Circuit

Step 5. Type a name for the bus to be studied.

Step 10. Enter the 3P Bus and Branch fault currents & press OK. Step 8. Enter the bus voltage (480 V) and press OK. Step 11. Select Next to continue.

Step 6. Select the units to be used in the analysis. Selected US.

Step 7. Select User Defined Voltage.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 12. Select the 1584 Table button to review the IEEE 1584 control parameter settings.

Step 14. Select View Library to view and edit the NFPA 70E Fabric Material Library.

Step 13. Select Back to return.

Step 16. Select Next to continue.

Step 15. The user can double click on any of the entries to edit as needed. Select OK to return.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 17. Select the proper Arc Heat Equipment category for the bus under study. For this example, select Switchgear Box.

Step 18. Select the proper ARC Heat Grounding Category for the bus under study. For this example, select Ungrounded.

Step 21. Select Next to continue.

Step 19. Enter the working distance over which the Arc Heat yield is to be calculated. The user can enter actual known values or use the IEEE 1584 defaults if deemed safe for the application.

Step 20. Select the Calculation option. In this example we will ask the program to calculate the minimal protective clothing required for the application. Select Calculate Clothing Required.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 22. Manually enter the tripping times for the protective devices that correspond to 85% and 100% of the arcing current. Also enter the Breaker Opening Time in seconds. For this example, use the numbers shown here. Also specify the Phase Gap in mm and the IEEE 1584 Calc. Factor. Press Next to continue.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 23. The clothing required for the application is shown here as Category 4.

Step 24. The Warning Label Options are shown here.

Step 25. Select the Calculation standard and the select Plot to generate the respective Energy vs. Distance plot of the results.

Step 26. Select Graphic Label to generate the equipment warning label.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 27. To produce a text-based output report, proceed as follows: Select a Detailed report. Select the Calculation Standard to be used (BOTH). Select Results to Microsoft Excel

This will create a report and save it into a Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet.

Step 28. Specify the name and a folder in which to save the report. Press Save.

Step 29. The complete report is shown here.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

The following table shows the results of the analysis using both IEEE 5184 and NFPA 70E Standards.

Bus Name Protective Device Name LL Voltage (kV) 3P Bolted Fault (Amp) Protective Device Rating (Amp) 3P Arcing Current (kA) at 100% Trip Delay Time (sec) Breaker Opening Time (sec) 3P Fault Duration (sec) Configuration Gap (mm) 3P Arc Flash Boundary (inch) at 100% NFPA 70E Arc Flash Boundary (inch) Working Distance (inch) 3P Energy (cal/cm^2) at 100% Required IEEE 1584 PPE Class PPE Description Required NFPA 70-E PPE Class PPE Description Unit System IEEE Calculation Factor IEEE 1584 Distance Factor (x) 3P Arcing Current (kA) at 85% 3P Fault Duration at 85% (sec) 3P Energy (cal/cm^2) at 85% 3P Arc Flash Boundary (inch) at 85% Restricted Shock Distance (inch)

Bus1 0.48 50000 0 24.063 0.35 0.05 0.4 Box - Swgr - Ungrounded 32 205.5 79.7 24 28.2 4 Cotton underclothing plus FR shirt, pants, plus double layer switching coat and pants or equiv. 3 Cotton underclothing plus FR shirt, pants, overalls or equivalent US 1.5 1.473 20.453 0.4 23.7 182.4 12

72

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

1.2

Network-Based Arc Heat Exposure on DC systems

Step 1. Proceed to open the file C:\EDSA2004\Samples\DCSC\Dc_sc2.axd. Step 2. Double click on each of the nodes/busses and make sure that a proper Arc Heat classification has been given to each one of them. For example double click on BATT-1A to verify the arc heat setting as shown here.

Step 3. The Arc Heat designation for each bus is shown right next to it. The designations chosen are not to be considered typical; they are only intended to serve as examples.

73

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 4. Select the DC Arc Heat command.

Step 5. Carefully read and make sure that you understand the programs usage guidelines before proceeding.

Step 6. Select Yes to run and produce the most recent short circuit answer file for the project. Step 7. Select Next to continue.

Step 9. From the pick-list, select an individual Bus to be analyzed. For this example, select BATT-1A.

Step 10. Press Next to continue.

Step 8. Select US units for the study.

74

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 11. Select/verify that the Arc Heat Equipment Category for the bus under study has been properly assigned. In this case the program has automatically assigned the category entered into the model as it was being built. Refer to steps 1, 2 & 3 of this section.

Step 14. Select Next to continue.

Step 12. Enter the working distance over which the Arc Heat yield is to be calculated. The user can enter actual known values or use the IEEE 1584 defaults if deemed safe for the application.

Step 13. Select the Calculation option. In this example we will ask the program to calculate the minimal protective clothing required for the application. Select Calculate Clothing Required.

75

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 15. Enter the tripping time that corresponds to the protective device present in the network.

Step 16. Enter/verify the Phase Gap and the Cf factor. Select Next to continue.

76

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

`
Step 17. The clothing required for the application is shown here as Category 1. Step 18. The Warning Label Options are shown here.

Step 19. Select Plot to generate the Energy vs. Distance plot of the results.

Step 20. Select Graphic Label to generate the equipment warning label.

77

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 21. To produce a text-based output report, proceed as follows: Select All Busses to be reported. Select Detailed report. Select Results to Microsoft Excel

This will create a report and save it into a Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet.

Step 22. Specify the name and a folder in which to save the report. Press Save.

Step 23. The complete report is shown here.

78

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

The following table shows the results of the analysis using both IEEE 5184 and NFPA 70E Standards, for Bus BATT-1A.

Bus Name LL Voltage (kV) DC Bolted Fault (Amp) DC Arcing Current (kA) at 100% DC Fault Duration (sec) Configuration Gap (mm) DC Arc Flash Boundary (inch) at 100% Working Distance (inch) Energy (cal/cm^2) at 100% Required IEEE 1584 PPE Class PPE Description Unit System IEEE Calculation Factor IEEE 1584 Distance Factor (x) DC Arcing Current (kA) at 85% DC Fault Duration at 85% (sec) DC Energy (cal/cm^2) at 85% DC Arc Flash Boundary (inch) at 85% Restricted Shock Distance (inch)

BATT-1A 0.25 47734.8 11.765 0.2 Open 32 30.2 17.9 3.4 1 FR shirt and pants US 1.5 2 10 0.2 2.8 27.6 12

79

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

1.3

Stand-Alone Arc Heat Exposure on DC systems

Step 1. Start the EDSA program, and without opening any job files, select the DC Arc Heat command.

Step 2. Create a new standalone file, by selecting File/New.

Step 3. Assign a name to the new file. And press Save.

80

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 4. Carefully read and make sure that you understand the programs usage guidelines before proceeding. Select Next. Step 5. Type a name and a description for the bus to be studied.

Step 6. Select US units for the study.

Step 7. Select User Defined Voltage and enter the voltage for the analysis (250 VDC). Select OK.

81

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 9. Select the Arc Heat Equipment Category for the bus under study.

Step 12. Select Next to continue.

Step 10. Enter the working distance over which the Arc Heat yield is to be calculated. The user can enter actual known values or use the IEEE 1584 defaults if deemed safe for the application.

Step 11. Select the Calculation option. In this example we will ask the program to calculate the minimal protective clothing required for the application. Select Calculate Clothing Required.

82

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 13. Enter the tripping time that corresponds to the protective device present in the network.

Step 14. Enter/verify the Phase Gap and the Cf factor. Select Next to continue.

83

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

`
Step 15. The clothing required for the application is shown here as Category 0. Step 16. The Warning Label Options are shown here.

Step 17. Select Plot to generate the Energy vs. Distance plot of the results.

Step 18. Select Graphic Label to generate the equipment warning label.

84

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Step 19. To produce a text-based output report, proceed as follows: Select Detailed report. Select Results to Microsoft Excel

This will create a report and save it into a Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet.

Step 20. Specify the name and a folder in which to save the report. Press Save.

Step 21. The complete report is shown here.

85

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

The following table shows the results of the analysis using both IEEE 5184 and NFPA 70E Standards, for Bus BATT-1A.

Bus Name LL Voltage (kV) DC Bolted Fault (Amp) DC Arcing Current (kA) at 100% DC Fault Duration (sec) Configuration Gap (mm) DC Arc Flash Boundary (inch) at 100% Working Distance (inch) Energy (cal/cm^2) at 100% Required IEEE 1584 PPE Class PPE Description Unit System IEEE Calculation Factor IEEE 1584 Distance Factor (x) DC Arcing Current (kA) at 85% DC Fault Duration at 85% (sec) DC Energy (cal/cm^2) at 85% DC Arc Flash Boundary (inch) at 85% Restricted Shock Distance (inch)

BATT-1A 0.25 47734.8 11.765 0.2 Open 32 30.2 17.9 3.4 1 FR shirt and pants US 1.5 2 10 0.2 2.8 27.6 12

86

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

1.4

Verification and Validation Data

1.4.1 V&V of AC Arc Heat Programs with Longhand using IEEE1584 Standard in Stand Alone Mode / Prepared by Dr. Lifeng Liu, PhD 12/2/2004 Project name: ACAHStandAlone.mas

Longhand calculation in IEEE1584 Standard Refer to AH-standalone(3).doc prepared by Conrad. Program Version results Table for Variance of Program Results and IEEE1548 longhand Items Bus Name LL Voltage (kV) 3P Bolted Fault (Amp) Input Data Trip Delay Time (sec) Breaker Opening Time (sec) Configuration Gap (mm) Working Distance (inch) IEEE Calculation Factor 3P Fault Duration (sec) Output Data 3P Arcing Current (kA) at 100% 3P Arc Flash Boundary (inch) at 100% 3P Energy (cal/cm^2) at 100% Required IEEE 1584 PPE Class Program Arc Heat Exposure EDSA Results Bus1 0.48 50000 0.35 0.05 Box - Swgr - Ungrounded 32 24 1.5 0.4 24.063 205.5 28.2 4 Max. % Diff. 32 24 1.5 0.4 24.06 204.88 28.22 4 0.00 0.01 0.30 0.07 0.00 0.30 IEEE1584 Calc. Bus1 0.48 50000 0.35 0.05 % Difference

Conclusion: The maximum difference between the program results and IEEE1584 longhand is 0.3%.

87

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

In previous V&V the AH program was verified against the IEEE 1584 spreadsheet. To make sure the program is using the correct arcing current and times. The table below shows that the program is using the correct current and time (total bus current and longest time) Voltage = 0.48 Working distance = 24 inch Ungrounded Gap = 32 mm EDSA 50000 24063 0.4 28.2 4 205.5 IEEE Spreadsheet 50000 24060 0.4 28.22 4 204.88

Bolted Fault Arc Current Clearing time Cal/cm^2 Risk Class Boundary distance

88

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

1.4.2 V&V of Stand Alone Results for DC Arc Heat Programs Comparing with Network Mode Prepared by Dr. Lifeng Liu, PhD 12/2/2004 Project name: DCAHStandAlone.mas The Network results Project name : DC_sc2.AXD Results Table: DCARCHEAT50.CSV The network results have been verified. Please see V-V_DCNetwork.doc. Stand Alone results See DCAHStandAlone.csv The results are got by using the input data of DC_sc2.mas in network mode. V&V table Table for Variance of the Results between Stand Alone and network mode Items Bus Name LL Voltage (kV) DC Bolted Fault (Amp) Input Data DC Fault Duration (sec) Configuration Working Distance (inch) Gap (mm) DC Fault Duration (sec) DC Arcing Current (kA) at 100% Output Data DC Arc Flash Boundary (inch) at 100% Energy (cal/cm^2) at 100% Required IEEE 1584 PPE Class Program Arc Heat Exposure Stand Alone BATT-1A 0.25 47734.8 0.2 Open 17.9 32 0.4 11.765 30.2 3.4 1 Max. % Diff. Network Mode BATT-1A 0.25 47734.8 0.2 Open 17.9 32 0.4 11.765 30.2 3.4 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 % Difference

Conclusion: Program in Stand Alone mode produces the same results as those in Network mode.

89

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

1.4.3

V&V of ARC HEAT with PDC Interface by Conrad St. Pierre

The one line used for the V&V was IEEEPDE.axd. A portion of the diagram is shown in Figure 7
below. Using the relays and their settings the bolted fault operating times for each device shown in Table 3. These values were taken from Figure 8 and based on the currents in the relay for the Bus 4 fault. Protective devices were also placed on the 69-kV primary of the transformer, 13.8-kV Bus 3, and 480V Bus 28.

Bus 2

IAC53 1200/5 IAC53 Bus 3 1000/5 ML 750 400/5 0.45kA Bus 10 Bus 11 CO-8 200/5 0.81kA ML 269 600/5 0.50kA Bus 8 Bus 12 5.45kA 8.71kA Bus 4 24.2kA

*
BE1-50/51B 200/5

8.39A

Figure 9 - Portion of IEEEPDE.axd One-line with Bus 4 Fault Flows

Condition 1 Controlling Branch: Transf. Source. Relay Loc. To Transf To Bus 3 To Bus 10 To Bus 11 To Bus 8 Type IAC53 IAC53 ML 750 CO-8 ML 269 Pickup Amp 960 800 200 320 159 Time Dial 10 8 7 4 2 Inst 1600 2400 1600 Fault Amp 5450 8710 450 810 500 Operating Time 2.45 1.2 7.2 5.40 15.5 Breaker Time 0.083 0.083 0.083 0.083 0.083 Bolted fault Total Time 2.56 1.18 9.4 5.04 17.72

To Bus 12 BE1-50/51B

720

3600

8390

0.0

0.083

0.08

Table 4 - Fault Currents and Protective Device Operating Times

90

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

1000

Bus 8 Motor GE EJO-1 9F62 DD 150E Tie GE IAC-53 8.000 TD 4.000 Tap 1000/5CT
100

Bus 10 GE SR750/760 N.INV. 7.000 TD 1.000 Tap 200/5CT 8.0 InstTap Trans f2 GE IAC-53 10.000 TD 4.000 Tap 1200/5CT CB2_UTILITY GE SR750/760 N.INV. 10.000 TD 0.800 Tap 300/5CT 8.0 InstTap Bus 8 Motor GE 269/269+ S.OL 1.000 TD 1.000 Tap 200/5CT 8.0 InstTap Bus 11 west_ch CO-8 4.000 TD 4.000 Tap 400/5CT 30.0 InstTap

.1

Time in Seconds

10

Bus 12 BASLER BE1-50/51B V 5.000 TD 6.000 Tap 600/5CT 30.0 InstTap

.01 .5

10

100 Current in Amperes X 10

1000

10000

13800 Volt Phase and Ground BUS 4

Time-Current Characteristic Curves

12/10/2004 07:26:09

C:\EDSA2004\SAMPLES\ARCHEAT\IEEEPDE.PDC

Figure 10 - Time Current Curve showing Protective Device operating times

91

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Using data transferred between the short-circuit program, PDC, and arc heat program, the EDSA package has to determine which major contributing branch current will result in the greatest arc heat energy. Using a major branch with the longest relay time approximates this. In a real system some of other contributing branches may have their protective relay operate first and therefore reducing the fault current and energy. The program is based on having all of these contributing branches opening at the same time as the controlling branch. Noting the total number of contribution branches to a bus and taking the longest protective device operating time of branches determines the controlling branch. The branches that are carrying more than 100/(branches +1) percent of the total fault current are checked. Branches with less than this current are likely to be back feed current from motor feeders. In Figure 7 the major controlling branches are likely to be the incoming transformer, the tie to Bus 3, and the connection to Bus 12. Bus 12 does go to a generator that is several nodes away with low impedance branches. Using the equation for the controlling branch currents 100/(6+1)= 14% of Bolted Fault, the branches with more than 0.14*24,225 = 3392A are in the possible list of controlling branches. Table 4 has higher major contributing buses noted. After calculating the corresponding arcing current in each branch, the longest operating time protective device is determined from Figure 8. The results are shown in Table 4. The branch with the transformer has the longest operating time. The arcing current for a 13.8-kV fault in grounded switchgear with 35.8 inch working distance and 153 mm arc gap is the same for both the EDSA arc heat program and the IEEE-1584 spreadsheet reference.

Relay Loc Total To Transf To Bus 3 To Bus 10 To Bus 11 To Bus 8 To Bus 12

Bolted Fault 24,225 5450 8710 450 810 500 8390

IEEE 1584 100% Arc fault 23,161# 5211(5208)* 8328 430 775 478 7994

Controlling Branches X X

100% Fault time (sec) 2.67 $ 1.21 $

0.0 $

IEEE 1584 85% Arc fault 19,689# 4429(4427)* 7079 366 659 406 6794

85% Fault time(sec) 3.33 $ 1.31 $

0.0 $

# The values from IEEE-1584 spreadsheet are 23.14kA and 19.67kA Highlighted branch has highest time of branches >14% total fault current and longest clearing time. $ Does not include breaker time. Taken from Figure 8 * First value manual calc., (EDSA) value Table 5 - Determining Controlling Branch

92

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure Using the IEEE spreadsheet for this bus. Voltage = 13.8kV Type switchgear (box) Arc gap = 153 mm Working distance = 35.8 in Bolted fault = 24.225 IEEE-spreadsheet calculation arcing current at 100% is 23.15kA, arcing current at 85% is 19.67kA. Arc Heat program is in agreement. 100% Relay time = 2.67 sec 85% relay time = 3.33 sec Breaker time = 0.083 IEEE Spreadsheet Results: 100% arcing = 89.68 cal/cm2 100% boundary 3018 in 85% arcing = 91.6 cal/cm2 85% boundary 3085 in 85% arcing current controlling. Item Controlling branch 100% Arcing Current 85% Arcing Current 100% Arcing time 85% Arcing Time 100% Cal/cm2 85% Cal/cm2 100% Boundary distance (in) 85% Boundary distance (in) EDSA AH program Transformer incoming 23,161 19,689 2.77 + 0.083 3.35 + 0.083 91.3 3086.6 Reference Transf. incoming 23,150 19,670 2.67 + 0.083 3.33 + 0.083 88.1 91.6 2963 3085

Table 6 Comparison of Results EDSA results are in agreement. Program gives the higher of the 100% and 85% energies.

93

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure Condition 2 Controlling Branch: Tie . The relay settings were changed to check the ability of the program to select the proper controlling branch. The highlighted values in Table 6 shows the changes made from Condition. Since the one-line was not changed the fault currents are the same as condition 1.

Relay Loc. Type To Transf To Bus 3 To Bus 10 To Bus 11 To Bus 8 To Bus 12 IAC53 IAC53 ML 750 CO-8 ML 269 BE1-50/51B

Pickup Amp 960 800 200 320 159 720

Time Dial 5 10 7 4 2 5

Inst 1600 2400 1600 3600

Fault Amp 5450 8710 450 810 500 8390

Operating Time 1.17 1.55 7.2 5.40 15.5 0.0

Breaker Time 0.083 0.083 0.083 0.083 0.083 0.083

Bolted fault Total Time 1.25 1.63 9.4 5.04 17.72 0.08

Table 7 - Fault Currents and Protective Device Operating Times

Bolted Fault IEEE 1584 Controlling 100% Fault IEEE 1584 85% Fault 100% Arc fault Branches time (sec) 85% Arc fault time(sec) Total 24,225 23,161# 19,689# To Transf 5450 5211 X 1.23 $ 4429 1.49 $ To Bus 3 8710 8328(8323)* X 1.59 $ 7079(7074)* 1.75 $ To Bus 10 450 430 366 To Bus 11 810 775 659 To Bus 8 500 478 406 To Bus 12 8390 7994 X 0$ 6794 0$ # The values from IEEE-1584 spreadsheet are 23.14kA and 19.67kA Highlighted branch has highest time of branches >14% total fault current and longest clearing time. $ Does not include breaker time. Taken from Figure 9. First value manual calc., (EDSA) value Table 8- Determining Controlling Branch

Relay Loc

Item Controlling branch 100% Arcing Current 85% Arcing Current 100% Arcing time 85% Arcing Time 100% Cal/cm2 2 85% Cal/cm 100% Boundary distance (in) 85% Boundary distance (in)

EDSA AH program Reference Transformer incoming Transf. incoming 23,161 23,150 19,689 19,670 1.68+ 0.083 1.59 + 0.083 1.82+ 0.083 1.75 + 0.083 56.4 53.5 49.2 1880.8 1774 1630 Table 9 - Comparison of Results

Scaling of time from curve is different than EDSA program by 6% EDSA results are in agreement. Program gives the higher of the 100% and 85% energies.

94

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

1000

Bus 8 Motor GE EJO-1 9F62 DD 150E Tie GE IAC-53 10.000 TD 4.000 Tap 1000/5CT
100

Bus 11 west_ch CO-8 4.000 TD 4.000 Tap 400/5CT 30.0 InstTap Bus 8 Motor GE 269/269+ S.OL 1.000 TD 1.000 Tap 200/5CT 8.0 InstTap Bus 10 GE SR750/760 N.INV. 7.000 TD 1.000 Tap 200/5CT 8.0 InstTap Trans f2 GE IAC-53 5.000 TD 4.000 Tap 1200/5CT Bus 12 BASLER BE1-50/51B V 5.000 TD 6.000 Tap 600/5CT 30.0 InstTap

.01 .5

.1

Time in Seconds

10

10

100 Current in Amperes X 10

1000

10000

13800 Volt Phase and Ground BUS 4

Time-Current Characteristic Curves

12/10/2004 04:42:06

C:\EDSA2004\SAMPLES\ARCHEAT\IEEEPDE2.PDC

Figure 11 - Time Current Curve showing Protective Device operating times

95

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Relay Loc. Type To Transf To Bus 3 To Bus 10 To Bus 11 To Bus 8 To Bus 12 IAC53 IAC53 ML 750 CO-8 ML 269 BE1-50/51B

Pickup Amp 960 800 200 320 159 720

Time Dial 5 4 7 4 2 9.9

Inst 1600 2400 1600 9600

Fault Amp 5450 8710 450 810 500 8390

Operating Time 1.16 0.57 7.2 5.40 15.5 1.50

Breaker Time 0.083 0.083 0.083 0.083 0.083 0.083

Bolted fault Total Time 1.24 0.65 9.4 5.04 17.72 1.58

Table 10 - Fault Currents and Protective Device Operating Times

Relay Loc

Bolted Fault 24,225 5450 8710 450 810 500 8390

IEEE 1584 100% Arc fault 23,161# 5211 8328 430 775 478 7994(8024)*

Controllin g Branches X X

100% Fault IEEE 1584 time (sec) 85% Arc fault 19,689# 4429 7079 366 659 406 6794(6821)*

85% Fault time(sec)

Total To Transf To Bus 3 To Bus 10 To Bus 11 To Bus 8 To Bus 12

1.23 $ 0.58 $

1.51 $ 0.64 $

1.55 $

1.70 $

# The values from IEEE-1584 spreadsheet are 23.14kA and 19.67kA Highlighted branch has highest time of branches >14% total fault current. $ Does not include breaker time. Taken from Figure 10 * First value manual calc., (EDSA) value Table 11 - Determining Controlling Branch

Item Controlling branch 100% Arcing Current 85% Arcing Current 100% Arcing time 85% Arcing Time 2 100% Cal/cm 2 85% Cal/cm 100% Boundary distance (in) 85% Boundary distance (in)

EDSA AH program Reference Transformer incoming Transf. incoming 23,161 23,150 19,689 19,670 1.62 + 0.083 1.55 + 0.083 1.77 + 0.083 1.70 + 0.083 56.4 52.2 47.9 1880.8 1731 1585 Table 12 - Comparison of Results

Scaling of time from curve is different than EDSA program by 5% EDSA results are in agreement. Program gives the higher of the 100% and 85% energies.

96

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure


1000

Bus 8 Motor GE EJO-1 9F62 DD 150E Tie GE IAC-53 4.000 TD 4.000 Tap 1000/5CT
100

Bus 11 west_ch CO-8 3.000 TD 4.000 Tap 400/5CT 30.0 InstTap Bus 8 Motor GE 269/269+ S.OL 1.000 TD 1.000 Tap 200/5CT 8.0 InstTap Bus 10 GE SR750/760 N.INV. 7.000 TD 1.000 Tap 200/5CT 8.0 InstTap Trans f2 GE IAC-53 5.000 TD 4.000 Tap 1200/5CT Bus 12 BASLER BE1-50/51B V 9.900 TD 6.000 Tap 600/5CT 80.0 InstTap

.01 .5

.1

Time in Seconds

10

10

100 Current in Amperes X 10

1000

10000

13800 Volt Phase and Ground BUS 4

Time-Current Characteristic Curves

12/10/2004 05:01:20

C:\EDSA2004\SAMPLES\ARCHEAT\IEEEPDE3.PDC

Figure 12 - Time Current Curve Showing Protective Device Operating Times

97

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Bus 40 Fault For a fault at Bus 40 (Between Transf #2 secondary and transformer breaker), program picked the 13.8-kV breaker. Based on rules used for the program this is correct. The utility relay is shown on Figure 7. Bus 40 has 2 contributing branches for a total of 24.2kA (18.8kA and 5.5 kA). Program checks for breakers over 1/(2 +1) = 33%. 0.33*24.2 = 8kA. While 69-kV breaker has a longer operating time, most of the arc energy comes from the 18.8-kA flowing in the 13.8-kV breaker. When it opens the remaining arc energy from the 69-kV current via the transf. is small due to the fault 2 current dropping from 24.4kA to 5.5kA. The energy is 45.7 cal/cm . The amount of added 2 energy to the opening 69-kV breaker is 23.1 cal/cm (from IEEE spreadsheet). The energy that 2 would have been calculated if the primary relay was selected is 165 cal/cm . Using the rules in program is a good compromise. Having the program calculate the two step relay operating will be very difficult. Bus 3 fault Program picked Transf. #1 secondary breaker. See Figure 11. This is correct. Bus 28 fault Program picked Transf. main secondary breaker. See Figure 12. This is correct.

This V&V is supported by File IEEEPDE.axd and file IEEEPDE.csv file output shown on last page.

C. St. Pierre

98

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

1000

FU_BUS3 S&C SM-5-STD 200E 0037 west_ch CO-8 3.000 TD 4.000 Tap 200/5CT 60.0 InstTap CB2_BUS3 west_ch CO-8 5.000 TD 5.000 Tap 400/5CT 60.0 InstTap 0038 GE IAC-53 10.000 TD 4.000 Tap 1200/5CT CB2_UTILITY GE SR750/760 N.INV. 10.000 TD 0.800 Tap 300/5CT 8.0 InstTap CB1_BUS3 west_ch CO-8 3.000 TD 4.000 Tap 150/5CT 50.0 InstTap

.01 .5

.1

Time in Seconds

10

100

10

100 Current in Amperes X 10

1000

10000

13800 Volt Phase and Ground BUS3

Time-Current Characteristic Curves

12/10/2004 08:02:39

C:\EDSA2004\SAMPLES\ARCHEAT\IEEEPDE.PDC

Figure 13 - Bus 3 Protective Devices

99

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure


1000

CB_BUS28 GE AKR MIC VT +/PM AKR-75 2400 Amp CB_BUS28 GE AKR MIC VT +/PM AKR-75 2400 Amp 0042 GE AKR ENH MIC VT +/PM AKR-30 800A 300 Amp 0043 GE AKR ENH MIC VT +/PM AKR-30 800A 300 Amp

.01 .5

.1

Time in Seconds

10

100

10

100 Current in Amperes X 100

1000

10000

480 Volt Phase and Ground BUS 28

Time-Current Characteristic Curves

12/10/2004 08:09:25

C:\EDSA2004\SAMPLES\ARCHEAT\IEEEPDE.PDC

Figure 14 - Bus 28 Protective Devices

100

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

101

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Using ArcHeat for Single Phase Circuits


Using ArcHeat energy levels for arcing faults on single-phase circuits and line-to-ground faults or Line-to-line on three-phase circuits is not covered by the program. None of the tests that were done for the IEEE 1584 equation development were for a single phase circuit or for a line to ground faults. Therefore empirical equations are not available. From over 350 tests that made, 4 tests were for a line-line fault at 2.4-kV. The furnished data did not state if the arc stayed a single-phase arc or went to a three-phase arc. On the tests that were made for three-phase faults the "in a box" the initial three-phase arcs also jumped between the conductors to the box sides. This occurred whether the box was grounded or ungrounded. Therefore for the initial lineto-line it would be expected that the arcing became three phase before the test ended resulting in higher energy level than if the fault stayed single-phase. In these line-to-line tests the energy was approximately 65 to 80% of the similar 3-phase tests. Drawing a conclusion from the data would be just an estimate. By logic a single-phase or line-toground would have less energy than a 3-phase arc, one could be conservative and use the 3phase ArcHeat results for the single-phase and line-to-ground faults. One could also deduce that a single-phase or line-to-ground condition would be approximately 33% of the three-phase condition and use a factor greater than 33% for an estimate. Using 40% to 50% of the threephase could an option.

102

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Putting Arc-Flash Calculations in Perspective


Conrad St. Pierre, Electric Power Consultants, Schenectady, NY The 2002 National Electrical Code (NEC), Article 110.16 added wording to improve electrical safety and to inform electrical technicians of the burn hazards of electrical arcs. A summary of the wording is similar to the following: Flash protection is required when examining, adjusting, servicing, or maintaining energized equipment. The equipment shall be field marked to warn qualified persons of potential electric arc flash hazards. In conjunction with the requirements in NEC, Proposed NFPA 70E - May 2003 Electrical Safety Requirements for Employee Workplaces states Flash hazard analysis shall be done before a person approaches any exposed electrical conductor or circuit part that has not been placed in an electrically safe working condition. The flash hazard analysis shall determine the flash protection boundary and the personal protective equipment that people within the arc flash boundary must use. IEEE Std. 1584TM -2002 - IEEE Guide for Performing Arc-Flash Hazard Calculations provides details of the calculation methods. The three documents should be viewed as a working TM package. While, NFPA 70E gives some of the same equations as given in IEEE Std. 1584 2002, more detail is given in the latter. The focus of NFPA-70E and IEEE Std. 1584 is the radiated heat or incident energy falling on a surface that is produced by an arcing fault. 1.2 2 2 2 2 calorie/cm (1.2 calorie/cm = 5.02 Joules/cm = 5.02 Watt-sec/cm ) for 0.1 second is the incident energy generally used as a guide to restrict the flash hazard to a second-degree or curable burn. 2 For 1.0 second, the energy level would be approximately 0.12 calorie/cm . A bolted fault does not produce any radiated flash energy.

Data Required To properly estimate the exposure hazard, the maximum bolted short-circuit current, the arcing fault current, and the operating time of the interrupting device at the arcing fault current are needed. The incident energy should be calculated at maximum and at 85% of maximum arcing fault currents. Due to the inverse nature of protective devices, such as fuses and relays, a longer operating time at lower arcing currents can result in a higher energy exposure.

103

AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

IEEE Equations and Test Results for Open Air Arc The equations given in IEEE Std. 1584 are based on experimental 208V to 15.0-kV testing and results. Three sets of equations are provided for the three ranges: 208-1000V, 1001-15,000 V, and >15,000V. While, the empirical equations given in the standards for voltages up to 1000 Volts tend to give the higher limits of energy radiated from the test arcs. The actual radiated energy could be higher than the values given from the equations. The environment in which the arc takes place affects the arc. Factors such as humidity, power factor, contaminants, temperature, enclosure, length of an arc, impedance of an arc, duration of arc, and material consumed in the arc will affect the radiated energy.

Fig. 1 - Comparison of IEEE Equations to 600 Volt Open Air Arc Test Data IEEE 1584 Eq, based on 24 inch to subject, 1.25 Inch Arc Gap, 1.0 sec

Figure 1 shows the plot of the developed equations given in the IEEE 1584 reference to the test data for 600V tests for an open-air arc. An open arc is one where the heat is radiated in all directions. A fault on a cable in an open tray could be considered an open-air arc. The calories/cm2 incident energies in this article figures is based on a surface located 24 inches (61 cm) away from the arc and for 1.0 second. The curve labeled IEEE 1584 EQUATIONS is derived from IEEE Std. 1584 equations 1 to 6 for an arc gap of 1.25 inches (32 cm). IEEE Std. 1584 also provides an equation based on Ralph Lees method given in 1982 IEEE IAS Transaction paper The Other Electrical Hazard: Electric Arc Blast Burns. This equation is used for voltages greater than 15-kV until future tests are done at higher voltages. The curve labeled IEEE Lees Method is from an equation based on an adjustment to Lees work. It is shown for comparison to the IEEE 1584 Equations and test data. Lees method is simpler, since it calculates the incident energy without knowing the arc gap or the arcing current. The IEEE 1584 Equations calculate an estimated arc current from the bolted fault current and arc spacing. These values are then used to calculate the incident energy. At 600V, IEEE 1584 Equations and IEEE Lees Method equation follows the higher incident energy test values.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure

Fig. 2 - Comparison of IEEE Equations to 4160 Volt Open Air Arc Test Data IEEE 1584 Eq, based on 24 inch to subject, 4.0 Inch Arc Gap, 1.0 sec

Figures 2 and 3 show the relationship of the IEEE 1584 Equations and IEEE Lees Method equations to the test data. In this case, some of the test data points are significantly above the IEEE 1584 equations. In the calculations of incident energy for systems greater than 1000 Volts, the study engineer may desire to increase the calculated values using the IEEE 1584 equations by a factor 2.5 to ensure a safety margin or changing Cf in IEEE 1584 Equation 6 to 2.5 for voltages greater than 1000 Volts.

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Fig. 3 - Comparison of IEEE Equations to 13,800 Volt Open Air Arc Test Data
IEEE 1584 Eq, based on 24 inch to subject, 6.0 Inch Arc Gap, 1.0 sec

Using the methods found in NFPA 70E or IEEE Standard 1584 does not ensure that burns from an arc flash will not injure a worker. Following the NFPA 70E procedures and wearing the proper protective equipment will greatly reduce the possibility of burns. Using the incident energy equations, it is expected that the personal protective equipment (PPE) per the tables in NFPA 70E will be adequate for 95% of the test results used to develop the equations.

Enclosed Arcs Much of the work around energized equipment is of the metal enclosed type. The energized conductors are normally enclosed behind removable panels or doors. An arc in these areas is considered in a box or in an enclosure and will be more intense and directed. The in an enclosure measurements made by the IEEE 1584 working group gave incident energy intensity 2 to 4 times higher than an arc in open air. The two enclosed box shapes used in the tests are shown in Fig. 5. The sketch shows the relationship of the box to the arcing electrodes. The smaller enclosure opening does not focus the radiant energy as much as the larger enclosure due to the ratio of the box depth to its open area. The larger enclosure tended to have a parabolic focus of the radiant energy. The equations given in IEEE 1584 have constants that account for fault in enclosures based on MCC or switchgear size cubicles.

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Fig. 4 - Enclosure Size Used in Test Personal Protective Equipment The purpose of the calculations is to determine the PPE that will limit the possible thermal energy exposure to the critical body parts such as face and chest areas. Usually, the calculations give the possible heat exposure level in calories/cm2 or Joules/cm2. Knowing the heat exposure level, the desired protective clothing can be chosen. Table 4, based on NFPA 70E data provides this cross-reference. Gloves rated for the voltage class, insulated tools, and face shields will be required for some work tasks around energized equipment. NFPA 70E provides guidelines for PPE required for different work tasks. Arc Blast Pressure Another item associated with an electric arc is the blast energy or pressure, which is not presently covered in NFPA 70E or IEEE Std. 1584. This force can be significant and can blow workers away from the arc causing falls and injuries that may be more severe than the burns. In Ralph Lees second IEEE paper, Pressures Developed by Arcs in 1987, he sites several case histories. In one case, with approximately 100-kA fault level on a 480-V system, an electrician was somersaulted 25 feet away from the arc. Being forced away from the arc reduces the electricians exposure to the heat radiation and molten copper, but can subject the worker to falls or impact injuries. The approximate initial impulse force at 24 inches was calculated to be approximately 600#/Ft2 as determined from the equation below.
Pounds/Ft =
2

11.5*kA__________ 0.9 (Distance. from arc in feet)

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Flash Hazard Risk Category

Range of Calculated incident energy

Min. PPE Rating Clothing Required

0-1.2 cal/cm2

N/A

4.5-14.0 oz/yd2 untreated cotton

1.2+ to 4 cal/cm2

5 cal/cm2 FR shirt and pants

4+ to 8 cal/cm2

8 cal/cm2 Cotton underclothing plus FR shirt and pants

8+ to 25 cal/cm

25 cal/cm

Cotton underclothing plus FR shirt, pants, overalls or equivalent

25+ to 40 cal/cm2

40 cal/cm2 Cotton underclothing plus FR shirt, pants, plus double layer switching coat and pants or equiv.

FR = Fire resistance fabric Table 4 - Minimum Thermal Protection Recommended (Based on proposed updates to NFPA 70E)

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Limiting Arc Exposure Incident energy increases with time and fault current. Reducing either or both lowers the incident energy due to an arcing fault. The incident energy can be reduced by system design or operating procedures. It is best to work on de-energized equipment, but this may not be possible. The following are some means of reducing the incident energy. 1. On new or retrofitted breakers with electric close and trip control, place the close/open control switch on a remote or non-breaker panel. If possible, use a remote, or longer operating arms, when racking in or opening/closing breakers. Place a shield between the technician and the device being placed in service or racked in. See Fig. 6 Review protective devices to see if they can be lowered in time and pick-up.

2.

3.

4.

Switchgear Cubicle

Hi-impact plastic shield with arm holds

Breaker

Fig. 6 - Using a Shield when Racking in a Breaker

5.

When working on with double-ended load centers or substations with a normally closed tie, open an incoming breaker, or the tiebreaker, to reduce the fault level. Review protective fuse sizes. Smaller fuses reduce the exposure time. This can be significant when the arcing current, or 85% of arcing current, is not in the current limiting range. Change relay settings when working on equipment. For many load centers, both high and low voltages, the feeders have instantaneous set protective devices that operate and clear the fault in 1-8 cycles thereby reducing the exposure time. The incoming main breaker, in order to be time coordinated with the feeders, generally will not have an instantaneous set on the protective device. The fault clearing time could be in the range

6.

7.

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AC & DC Arc Heat Exposure of 0.2 to 1.0 seconds. This long time greatly increases the arc exposure time and amount of radiation a worker would receive if the arc blast pressure is not enough to propel the worker away from the fault. To limit the arc exposure on buses where the protective devices are time coordinated; the main breaker shown in Fig. 7 could be ordered with an instantaneous protective device and a safety switch. Normally the instantaneous protection would not be functional due to the open contact of the safety switch. However, when work is being done on the energized equipment, the safety switch would be turned ON and limiting the arc exposure to the worker should an arcing fault accident occur. The time-selective system would be eliminated for duration of the work in the interest of safety. Electronic trips low-voltage breakers could have either their short time or instantaneous pick-up setting lowered when work is being done on the equipment. Some manufacturers have a disable function on the low voltage instantaneous adjustment, which would be useful on incoming main breakers. The instantaneous would be disabled for a selective system under normal operation and placed in service for reduced arc fault exposure when working on the equipment. 8. While not a way to reduce arc incident energy, it is good practice to use a buddy system. In the event some incident should happen, help can be summoned quickly if a second person is around.

Fig. 7 - Schematic to Control Arc Exposure on Relayed Breakers

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Calculation Means The calculations for arc flash incident energies and boundary distances can be accomplished a number of ways. The reader can use the equations in IEEE Std. 1584TM -2002 after obtaining the bolted three-phase short-circuit current and clearing times. IEEE also has made an EXCEL spreadsheet program available with these equations for approximately $500. The user enters the fault level, voltage, clearing time, and distance from an expected arc to the worker, and the program provides the incident energy and boundary distance. The user would use these data to make the labels to be placed on the electrical equipment. Software companies that provide industrial-based electrical system analysis have arc flash hazard packages integrated with their short-circuit and protective device packages. Copies of the NEC, NFPA 70E, and IEEE Std. 1584TM -2002 references can be purchased from their parent standard organization.

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About Conrad St. Pierre

Conrad St. Pierre Bio


Conrad St. Pierre President, Electric Power Consultants, LLC Mr. St. Pierre is a graduate of the University of Maine with a Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering and a certificate in Power System Engineering. He received a Master of Science from Union College in Schenectady, New York. From 1965 to 1991 the General Electric Company employed him. His work included three years of design and application engineering for GE's Medium Voltage Switchgear Department in Philadelphia, PA. This work involved the application, selection, and design of relay control circuits for switchgear to industrial and utility customers. Mr. St. Pierre transferred to the Industrial Power Systems Engineering Operation (IPSEO) in 1968 as an Application Engineer. He worked in the field of conceptual design and system analysis of power systems for industries. He performed electrical power system studies for plants in the steel, chemical, automotive, paper, and aircraft industries, as well as commercial buildings, hospitals, and electric utilities. His particular emphasis was on short circuit, load flow, motor starting, harmonics, impact loading, stability, and load shedding analysis of electric power systems. He wrote and updated many computer programs used by GE on the above subjects. In 1986 he became Manager of IPSEO where he directed the activity of other engineers and was an instructor in the field of power system engineering. Mr. St. Pierre took numerous courses offered by General Electric, and completed GE's Power Systems Engineering course. In addition, he taught classes and gave seminars as part of his duties. While at GE, he received several managerial and customer service awards, including the Industrial and Power System Engineering Award for Outstanding Technical Contribution to GE Industry Sales and Service. Mr. St. Pierre joined Power Technologies, Inc (PTI) in 1991 as Manager of Industrial Power Systems performing similar analytical studies as he had done with GE. In addition, he increased PTI's exposure and sales to the industrial market. He was a member of IEEE and of several subcommittees, and was the Chairman of the Violet Book Working Group, which deals with short circuit calculations. Mr. St. Pierre was a member of the U.S. National Committee of the International Electrotechnical Commission Technical Advisory Group for TC73/WG1 and WG2 concerning short circuit currents and calculation methods. In 1997, Mr. St. Pierre formed his own analytical business known as Electric Power Consultants, LLC that provides analytical engineering services to his clients and clients of GE, ABB, PTI, Hanson Engineers, and ANNA, Inc.

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Publications by Mr. Conrad St. Pierre "Economic Selection of Voltages for Refineries", IEEE - Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference, San Francisco, CA, 1974. "Stability Considerations in Paper Mills", IEEE - Pulp and Paper Conference, San Francisco, CA, 1977 "Loss-of-Excitation Protection for Synchronous Generators on Isolated Systems", IEEE - IAS Transactions, Vol. 1A-21, No. 1, Jan/Feb 1985. Received Honorable Mention Prize. "Standardization of Benchmarks for Protective Device Time-current Curves", IEEE - IAS Transactions, Vol. 1A-22, No. 4, July/Aug. 1986 (co-author, T. Wolny). "Sample System for Three-phase Short Circuit Calculations", - IAS Transactions, Vol. 26, No. 2, Mar./Apr. 1986 "Microprocessor-Based Load Shedding Keeps Industry Systems in Balance," IEEE Computer Applications in Power, January 1992, Vol. 5, No.1, pp. 21-24. "Harmonics Control in Steel Mills," Iron and Steel Engineer, July 1992, pp. 25-28. "Why Arc Furnaces Worry Utilities", Electrical World Magazine, Aug. 1993. Designing or Specifying Harmonics Filters," Plant Engineering, March 6, 1995, pp. 68-72. "The Effect of Demand Side Management Programs on Magnetic Field Exposure," presented at the 28th Annual Frontiers of Power Conference, Stillwater, OK, October 30-31, 1995, (co-author: L.J. Oppel). "Destructive Harmonics Distortion is Byproduct of High Power Drives," New York State Facilities Journal, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 12-13, February 1996. "Harmonics Not Always the Culprit Say Power Engineers", New York State Facilities Journal, Vol. 6, No. 8, pp. 1, 10,11, July 1996. (Co-author Paul Steciuk) "Shifting or Impeding Adjustable Speed Drive Harmonics," Plant Engineering, June 1997, pp. 7879. "Don't Let Power Sags Stop Your Motors", Plant Engineering, Sept 1999, pp.76-80. "Combine Variable Frequency and Fixed-Speed Drives for Better Economy", Plant Engineering, April 2000, pp. 66-69. "A Practical Guide to Short-Circuit Calculations, Conrad St. Pierre, Aug. 2001 (self published book) Printer Thomson-Shore, Dexter MI.

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