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DESIGN CALCULATION FOR 66kV SWITCHYARD EARTHING

A. 1. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Symbol dicription Soil resistivity Surface layer (crushed rock resistivity) Fault current in substation Total area enclosed by ground grid Surface layer de-rating factor Diameter of grid conductor Spacing between parallel conductors Attainable touch voltage Attainable step voltage Tolerable step voltage for human with 70Kg. body weight Tolerable touch voltage for human with 70Kg. body weight Depth of ground grid conductors Surface layer thickness Maximum grid current that flows between ground grid and surrounding Corrective weighting factor that emphasizes the effects of grid depth Correction factor for grid geometry Corrective weighting factor that adjusts for the effects of inner conductors Spacing factor for mesh voltage Spacing factor for step voltage Total length of grid conductor Effective length of Lc + LR for mesh voltage Periphery length of the earthing equivalent area Total length of ground rods r rs lf A Cs d D Em Es Estep70 Etouch70 h hs IG Kh Ki Kii Km Ks Lc LM LP LR m m m m m m V V V V m m A W-m W-m A m

24

Length of ground rod at each location

Lr

25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

Effective length of Lc + LR for step voltage Total effective length of grounding system conductor, including grid Maximum length of grid conductor in x direction Maximum length of grid conductor in y direction Geometric factor composed of factors na, nb, nc and nd Number of electrodes placed in area Resistance of grounding system Duration of shock for determining allowable body current

LS LT L = Lx W = Ly n Nr Rg ts

m m m m

W s

B. 1

INPUT PARAMETERS Symmetrical fault current in substation for conductor sizing Fault current diversion factor Duration of fault current for sizing of conductor Duration of fault current for step and touch potential lf = 21800 A

2 3 4

Sf tc ts

= = =

1 3 0.50 s s

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Surface layer resistivity (for ) Surface layer thickness Soil resistivity (Higher Value of Test 1 & 2) Depth of ground grid conductors Number of electrodes Length of ground rod at each location Length of switchyard Width of switchyard Number of conductor along width Number of conductor along length Conductor choosen

rs hs r h Nr Lr L W NW NL

= = = = = = = = = = =

3000 0.15 1.25 0.5 10 3 75 . 25 4 11 36

W-m m W-m m

m m m

mm dia M.S.

16

Diameter of conductor / equivalent diameter in case of flat conductor

0.036

C. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 12

SIZING OF EARTHING CONDUCTOR Type conductor Reference temperature for material constants Thermal co-efficient of resistivity at reference temperature Fusing temperature of conductor Design ambient temperature K0 = ( 1 / ar ) - Tr Resistivity of conductor at reference temperature Specific heat of material Density of material Thermal capacity per unit volume Current for sizing of earth mat conductor Fault current flows to the grid Soil resistivity considered for corrosion (Higher Value of Test 1 & 2) 1 Amm = lf x ( TCAP x 10 tc x ar x rr
-4

= Tr ar Tm Ta K0 rr SH SW ( 4.184 x SH x SW) TCAP l lG r = = = = = = = = = = = =

Galvanised steel 20 3.20E-03 500 50 293 20.1 0.114 7.86 3.93 21.8 10.9 1.25 C C C C C mW-cm Cal/gm/C gm/cc J/cm/C kA W-m W-m

ln

K0 + Tm K0 + Ta 1

21.8

( 3 x

3.93

10 x

-4

) ln ( 20.1

293 293

+ +

500 50

3.20E-03

527.65 = 25.92 mm dia

Equivalent dia for the calculated cross section

As per CBIP "manual on Substation" publication number 223, corrosion allowance is recommended as per following rule In case of conductor to be laid in soil having soil resistivity greater than In case of conductor to be laid in soil having soil resistivity from In case of conductor to be laid in soil having soil resistivity lower than 25 to 100 W-m - No allowance 100 W-m - 15 % allowance 25 W-m - 30 % allowance

Considering soil resistivity for conductor sizing as Amm with corrosion = = = 1.15 1.15 606.8 x Amm x 527.65 mm

1.25 W-m

Cross section of selected conductor Conductor cross section is sufficient Calculation for tolerable touch and step potential

1017.9

mm

The reduction factor (de-rating factor) Cs can be approximated by the equation Cs 1 - r / rs 2 x hs + a x [ 1 2 x

] 1.25 0.15 / + 3000 0.09

= =

0.09

0.769

Following equation can be used to compute the tolerable touch and step voltages respectively Etouch70 = ( 1000 + 1.5 x Cs x rs ) ts + 1.5 x 990.37 ( 1000 + 6.0 x Cs x rs ) ts + 6.0 x 3295.4 0.769 0.5 x 0.157 0.769 0.5 x 0.157

= = Estep70 =

1000

3000 )

x 0.157

= =

1000

3000 )

x 0.157

D.

MAIN MAT CONFIGURATION The equivalent length of earthmat area, L The equivalent width of earthmat area, W Number of conductor along the widthwise, NW Number of conductor along the lengthwise, NL = = = = 75 25 4 11 1 2 3 . . . .

123. . . . . . . . . .

NL

Number of electrodes, Nr Length of individual electrodes, Lr LC = = = LT = = = Total area of earthmat, A ( ( 605 ( ( 575 L x NW 75 m L x NW 75 m + W x NL ) + ( x 4 + 25 + W x NL ) x 4 + 25

= =

10 3

NW

11

Nr x Lr x 11

) ) + ( 10 x 3 )

1875

E.

DETERMINATION OF GRID RESISTANCE Rg = r x [ 1 1 + x ( LT 20 x A 1 605 W < + 1 1 20 x 1875 + 1 1+hx x 20 ( /A 1+ ) ] 1 1 + 0.5 x 20 / 1875

= =

1.25

x [

) ]

0.0147

1 W

F.

CALCULATION OF ATTAINABLE STEP AND TOUCH VOLTAGE Kii Kh Where, h0 Kh = = = Average spacing ( D = L + 2 ( = = 75 11 1 + 2 7.917 m 25 ) W ) NW - 1 1 1 1.225 m + ( 0.5 / 1 ) = = 1 for grid with ground rods 1 + h / h0

NL

Geometric factor n = na x nb x nc x nd 2 x LC LP 2 x 200 = nb = 5.75 LP 4x A 200 4 x 1875 575

na

= =

= = nc nd n = = = = Now, Em and Es = r x = r x

1.074569932 1 for square and rectangular grid 1 for square and rectangular grid 5.75 6.18 x 1.0746 x 1 x 1

lG

x Km x Ki LM

lG

x Ks x Ki LS D 16 x h x d ( D+ 2 x h 8 x Dx d ) h 4x d Kii Kh 8 p x ( 2x n- 1)
2

Km

1 2x p 1 2x p 1 1.225

x [ ln

] +

ln

] ]

x [ ln

16 x

2 7.917 ( + 0.5 x 0.036

7.917 + 2 x 8 x 7.917 x ] ]

0.5 ) 0.036

0.5 ] + 4 x 0.036

ln

p x (

2 x

8 6.18

1 )

= Ki = =

0.684 0.644 0.644 + 0.148 x n + 0.148 x 6.18

1.5586

LM

LC

+ [

1.55

1.22

Lr Lx + Ly x (

) ] x LR 3

= = lG = = = Em = r

575 622.89 0.5xSf x lf 0.5 x 1x

+ [

1.55

1.22

75

25

) ] x

30

21800 A x Km x Ki LM

10900 x lG

= =

1.25

10900

x 0.684 622.89

1.5586

23.32

KS

1 p 1 p

x [

1 1 1 + + x 2 x h D+ h D 1 2 x 0.5 +

n -

( 1

1 -

0.5 1 7.917

) ]
6.18 2

= = LS = = = Es =

x [

7.917

+ 0.5

x ( 1 -

0.5

) ]

0.394 0.75 0.75 456.75 r x lG x Ks x Ki LS x 10900 x 0.394 456.75 x 1.5586 x LC + x 575 0.85 + x LR 0.85 x 30

= =

1.25

18.32

G.

SAFETY CHECK For the safe earthing design, attainable step & touch voltaes should be less than the tolerable values respectively, Attainable Tolerable

Touch voltage in V Step voltage in V

23.32 18.32

990.37 3295.4

The attainable touch as well as step voltages is well below the tolerable limit. Hence the design is safe.