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Instruction of Control and Safety System

1. Summary Type N30-8.83/535 condensing turbine is a new developed unit, its control and safety system adopts digital electro-hydraulic governor (DEH) which consists of DEH controller, electro-hydraulic transducer, high pressure oil relay, safety control box, emergency governor sliding valve, etc. Details of system refer to Drawing of Control and Safety System. Type N30-8.83/535 condensing turbine is designed to work under normal steam condition. Under design condition, DEH controller regulates electric load and speed of unit to meet the demand for electric energy. Besides that, DEH controller receives signals of speed, power, main steam pressure and pressure after velocity-compounded stage so as to control and protect the unit. Mechanical, manual and electric safety system shall be adopted to ensure safe and reliable operation. If abnormal condition occurs, the control and safety system shall shut off main stop valve and regulating valve to realize shutdown of unit immediately. 2Oil pressure of control system Oil pressure of control system1.96MPa Inlet oil pressure of oil pump0.1MPa Impulse oil pressure0.98MPa 3Electro-hydraulic control system 3.1Principle Controlling signals of speed and power shall be input to electro-hydraulic control system (DEH system), then the synthetic signal shall be output

Instruction of Control and Safety System

from DEH controller to control electro-hydraulic transducer, and the electrical signal shall be converted into pressure oil signal to control opening degree of high pressure oil relay. So steam intake quantity of regulating valve can be controlled to meet the demand for electric energy. 3.2 Technical parameters Speed control range203600r/minAccuracy 1r/min Load control range0115 Rated loadAccuracy 0.5 Speed diversity ratio System dead-band 4.5 (36 adjusted) less than 0.2

During power of steam turbine changing from rated power to load rejected, the maximum change of turbine speed shall be less than 9% of rated speed. Average continuous operation time without accident of DEH system: MTBF>25000 hours Available rate of system shall be 99.9%. 3.3 Function of DEH control system 3.3.1 Turbine replacement reset emergency governor and open stop valve A startup valve shall be adopted in control system to reset emergency governor and open stop valve. After system resets, main stop valve shall open automatically to control regulating valve. 3.3.2 Manual Operation/Semi-Auto/Programmed Control Manual Operation

Instruction of Control and Safety System

Manually operate startup valve to reset emergency governor and open main stop valve, then raise/lower the speed and load of steam turbine by operating DEH system in manual. Semi-auto After opening main stop valve in manual operation, the operator shall confirm target speed, raising speed rate, warming time, target load and raising load rate. Programmed Control After opening main stop valve in manual operation, programmed control starting shall be done according to the best operating curve input to DEH control system beforehand. During the starting, all the motion shall be done automatically without manual operation. The operator can switch the mode of starting to the above two easily. Running curve can be modified online. 3.3.3 Friction inspection DEH control system shall control the speed raised/lowered within the range 500r/min to inspect working and installation condition of steam turbine. 3.3.4 Overs peed test Under control of DEH system, 103% overspeed test, 110% overspeed test and mechanism overspeed test can be done. 3.3.5 AS DEH control system has interface with AS device, and can receive impulse signal output from AS device. After receiving signal from AS device, the steam turbine speed shall be adjusted to achieve grid frequency speed rapidly in order to realize synchronize with grid.

Instruction of Control and Safety System

3.3.6 After synchronizing with grid, DEH control system shall take (2 3)% initial load in order to avoid the running of reverse power. 3.3.7 DEH system can adjust electric load automatically according to target value and load change rate confirmed by operator. 3.3.8 Control and limit of main steam pressure DEH system has main steam pressure control function which can compensate and control main steam pressure, namely control main steam pressure through losing power. 3.3.9. Low vacuum protection 3.3.10. System can cooperate with CCS system and accept controlling instruction from AGC. 3.3.11. Failure diagnosis and alarm Failure diagnosis of DEH system can achieve channel level, for each failure point DEH system shall give an alarm show on CRT. 3.3.12. The communication with DCS can be realized. The information required by DCS can be supplied. DEH system shall communicate with DCS by serial ports. The communication agreement shall be coordinated between DEH system and DCS system. 3.3.13. The modification and configuration of parameters can be done at working station. 3.3.14. Function of monitoring on operation 4. Safety system 4.1. Under the following condition, safety system shall cut off initial steam supplying.

Instruction of Control and Safety System

When speed is 111%112% of rated speed (3000r/min), namely 3300 r/min3360r/min, emergency governor shall act, main stop valve and regulating valve shall be shut off to realize unit shutdown. When axial displacement of turbine is more than 1.2mm, lubricate oil pressure drops to 0.02MPa, speed rises to 3360r/min and above (can be adjusted according to user demand), vacuum drops to 0.06MPa, oil temperature of supporting bearing is 75 , DEH control system shall output signal of shutdown and make electromagnetic trip device(in safety control box) act, the safety oil shall be discharged and main stop valve be shut off. At the same time, the impulse oil shall be discharged by emergency relay of electro-hydraulic controller, high oil-relay shall act to shut off steam valve to realize shutdown of unit. Action signal from electromagnetic trip device (in safety control box) shall be input to DEH system at the same time to shut off regulating valve. Pressure controller has function of low lubricate oil pressure protection. When lubricate oil pressure is less than 0.055MPa, AC electric lubricate oil pump shall be started; when lube pressure is less than 0.04MPa, DC electric lube pump shall be started; when lube pressure is less than 0.015MPa, turning gear shall be stopped. The manual emergency shutdown device (electromagnetic trip device) shall be installed on faceplate of safety control box. When needing emergency shutdown in manual, press the button to make sliding valve move down, then realize shutdown of unit. Besides that, DEH system also has function of OPC protection and overspeed shutdown.

Instruction of Control and Safety System

4.2. Structure of safety system parts Emergency governor The shell of governor shall be connected with front end of rotor directly. Under condition of rated speed, the centrifugal force on fly-ball is smaller than the stress of spring, and the fly-ball can not fly out. When speed is 111%112% of rated sped, the centrifugal force on fly-ball is larger than the stress of spring, the fly-ball shall fly out suddenly and the travel is 6mm. The fly-ball shall strike the lever of emergency governor to make safety system act, and main stop valve and regulating valve shall be shut off promptly; When speed drops to near 3000r/min, the stress of spring is larger than the centrifugal force again, and the fly-ball shall draw back into the shell and be reset due to the stress of spring. The action speed of each fly-ball of emergency governor can be adjusted by adjusting nuts separately. When adjusting nuts clockwise rotate 30, the action speed of fly-balls shall raise about 105r/min. Under condition of normal speed3000r/min, the two fly-balls can act separately through oil ejector. The oil from ejector nozzle shall enter into the bottom of the fly-balls through oil chamber (K), the fly-balls shall be pushed out by centrifugal force produced from the bottom rotating oil. After oil ejecting stops, the oil shall flow out from the little holes at the bottom of the shell. The fly-balls shall back to the initial position. Emergency governor sliding valve The unit mainly consists of sliding valve, sleeve, heart shaft, shell and spring, etc. During operating, emergency governor sliding valve is at the position of

Instruction of Control and Safety System

upper supporting point, chamber A shall connect to discharge oil through groove hole on heart shaft, so there is no pressure. When the fly-balls acting, the fly-balls shall strike the lever of emergency governor, then the lever act to make the heart shaft move down, the pressure oil in chamber B shall enter into chamber A through the heart shaft so as to enlarge the area of oil pressure on upper of sliding valve. The force of oil pressure acting upon the sliding valve shall be larger than that of annex safety oil pressure under the sliding valve, so the sliding valve drops down. When annex safety oil pressure drops below 0.96MPa, the sliding valve shall drop to the lower supporting point, then the safety oil under sliding valve of automatic shutoff device shall connect to discharge oil, the main stop valve and regulating valve shall be shutoff immediately to cut off steam intake. Operate shutdown button, the annex safety oil under the sliding valve shall be discharged. The sliding valve shall drop to lower supporting point due to pressure oil of chamber B, and then the main stop valve and regulating valve shall be shut off immediately. Emergency governor sliding valve consists of two sets of valve and sleeve with the same structure parallel connecting with each other. The impulse oil pipelines of automatic shutoff device controlled by emergency governor sliding valve also is parallel connection. So if any sliding valve acts, the main stop valve and regulating valve shall be shut off immediately to ensure reliability of safety system. Safety control box Practical structure refers to Drawing of Control and Safety System and drawings of relevant units.

Instruction of Control and Safety System

Safety and control box mainly consists of trip sliding valve, overspeed test sliding valve, pilot valve, sliding valve of oil ejecting test of 1, 2 fly-balls and small valves. Besides that, electromagnetic trip device shall be adopted in system. When the shutdown button is pressed in manual or the electromagnet is power on, the sliding valve shall move down and annex safety oil shall connect to discharge oil, then the oil pressure drops and main stop valve, regulating valve and rotating diaphragm shall be shut off immediately by emergency governor sliding valve. 4.3 Safety system test Oil ejecting test of emergency governor fly-balls The method of oil ejecting test of the two fly-balls shall be the same. Now give an example of oil ejecting test of 1 fly-ball. First rotate the pilot valve from normal position to 1 position (anticlockwise rotating), then the oil mouth F1 shall open to D1, the pressure oil in chamber M1 shall enter into oil chamber D1 of emergency governor lever passing by F1 and connecting oil pipe to make the piston 12 move towards the right together with the lever. At that time, 1 fly-ball shall move away the working position and 2 fly-ball shall still be at the working position due to the eccentricity of the lever. When the piston moves near the travel end, the oil mouth E shall open and the pressure oil in chamber D1 shall enter into the lower chamber under the oil ejecting valve through connecting pipe to jack up the oil ejecting valve and small valve. Being shut off by the small valve, the pressure oil can not enter into chamber K1. After the small valve is pressed in manual, the pressure oil can enter into chamber K1 and eject towards the oil inlet of emergency governor through oil nozzle.

Instruction of Control and Safety System

Then 1 fly-ball shall be pushed out, the signal lamp on safety and control box shall be bright. At that time the lever has moved away from the upper of 1 fly-ball, so main stop valve and regulating valve shall not be shut off when 1 fly-ball acting. After the button is released in manual, the small valve shall reset and oil ejecting shall stop, the fly-ball shall draw back into the shell. Then rotate the pilot valve to normal position, the oil supplying for chamber F1 shall be shut off and the pressure oil in pipe shall be discharged through 2 throttle hole. The oil ejecting valve and small valve shall be at the lower limited position and the emergency governor lever shall be back to the working position. When test 2 fly-ball, the handle shall be clockwise rotated and the pressure oil shall enter into another oil chamber D2 of emergency governor lever, the action and reset process shall be the same with the above. When test one fly-ball, another fly-ball shall be in working state to ensure safety of unit. Safety system test shall be done according to the following principle: Before or after overhaul, after accident shutdown or unit shutdown for a long period, the test shall be done according to the complete criterion. When operating normally, the test shall be done one time per 2000 hours according to the standard criterion. The complete criterion of safety system test: Manually operate safety system for two times; Do overspeed test of each fly-ball separately; Raise speed and do combining test of two fly-balls;

Do oil ejecting test of each fly-ball;

Instruction of Control and Safety System

The standard criterion of safety system test: Manually operate safet y system for two times; Raise speed and do combining test of two fly-balls; Do overspeed test of the fly-ball no acting in the above No.2 test separately; Do oil ejecting test of each fly-ball; Annex safety overspeed test shall be done only in test station of factory and power plant shall not do the test. Oil ejecting test shall be forbidden when doing overspeed test of fly-ball for fear that the acting speed of fly-ball shall be wrong. 4.4 Method of safety system test Manually operate safety system When steam turbine is idling, press the trip valve in manual. If main stop valve and regulating valve can be shut off immediately, the system is normal. Do overspeed test of fly-ball separately When steam turbine is idling below speed of 3000r/min, do overspeed test of 1 fly-ball. Rotate pilot valve from normal position to 2 position, the unit speed shall be raised through DEH system till 1 fly-ball acts at specified speed and main stop valve and regulating valve are shut off. After the test is over, rotate pilot valve from 2 position to normal position, operate pilot valve and reset emergency governor sliding valve to make main stop valve and regulating valve open again, regulate speed to be 3000r/min. To do overspeed test of 2 fly-ball, rotate pilot valve from normal position to 1 position, the rest steps shall be the same with the above

Instruction of Control and Safety System

mentioned. When acting speed of fly-balls is within 3330r/min3360r/min, the fly-balls are considered being regulated properly. Combing overspeed test of fly-balls Make pilot valve at normal position, the rest steps shall be the same with the above overspeed test of fly-balls separately. The method of oil ejecting test of fly-balls refers to the above oil ejecting test. 5. Brief introduction of governing units 5.1. High pressure oil-relay High pressure oil-relay receives hydraulic pressure signals from DEH and converts them into displacement of the piston, then controls regulating valve through steam distribution lever and cam steam distribution device. High pressure oil-relay consists of sliding valve and piston, etc. When working normally, the oil sliding valve shall be at middle position and oil piston shall be at balance position. When speed rises, the impulse oil pressure shall drop and oil sliding valve shall move down. The chamber upon oil piston shall open to pressure oil and the lower chamber shall open to oil inlet of main oil pump, then the piston shall move down. When speed drops, the process shall be opposite to the above. The piston of high pressure oil-relay can balance at any position within travel of 0250mm.The piston travel shall be indicated by indicator on scale board. The travel of sliding valve can be measured by measuring lever of sliding valve. The LVDT displacement sensor shall be installed on piston bar of oil- relay to feed back the displacement of piston to DEH control system.

Instruction of Control and Safety System

5.2. Automatic shutoff device Automatic shutoff device is adopted to control open /shutoff of main stop valve. The device is installed upon main stop valve directly and shall be started up by startup valve so as to make main stop valve open. The lever shall act and affect the spring seat to make the piston move up; the spring force is increased till oil mouth C shuts off again. So each oil pressure value shall be corresponding to a certain piston travel. When oil pressure under sliding valve is 1.44MPa, main stop valve shall open fully, and then rise oil pressure under sliding valve to be 1.96MPa, the sliding valve shall move to the upper limited position due to the oil pressure. The oil mouth C shall open fully. The oil pressure under automatic shutoff device is 1.96MPa and the open degree of main stop valve shall be kept to be the maximum by the piston due to the oil pressure. Sliding valve 1 controls oil mouth b1 and b2, its function is: (1) to open oil mouth b1 to move valve bar of main stop valve; (2) to open oil mouth b1 and b2 fully so as to shut off main stop vale fully. Loosen retention pin and rotate the handle (anticlockwise rotating) to make the sliding valve move up, the pressure oil under sliding valve 1(connecting to the chamber under sliding valve 2) shall open to discharge oil through oil mouth b1, the oil pressure drops, and piston 2 shall make main stop valve move down. When oil mouth b1 opens fully, the piston shall move down only about 15mm, which shall not result load change of steam turbine. Then rotate the handle to make the sliding valve move up, mouth b1 and b2 shall open fully; the oil pressure under the sliding valve drops till it is not enough to overcome the spring pre-loaded force, then the automatic shutoff device shall shut off fully. There is signal device installed on automatic shutoff

Instruction of Control and Safety System

device. When main stop valve is nearly shut off fully, the inclined plate b installed on bar shall press the end switch 7 to switch on the circuit, a light signal shall be given to show complete shutoff of main stop valve. 5.3 Oil relief valve The function of oil relief valve is to keep the oil pressure in lubricating system (after oil cooler) to be a constant. Structure of oil relief valve The shell of oil relief valve shall be installed in pipeline directly. The valve sleeve of the shell shall be located by shoulder K and a special clip 3; sliding valve 4 shall be in balance under action of spring force and oil pressure. When oil pressure of lubricating system changes, the sliding valve shall move up/down to change the open degree of the oil mouth on valve 2, thus the discharge oil entering into oil tank shall change. The oil pressure of lubricating system can be maintained by rotating bolt 8 and adjusting tightening fore of spring 6. The final tightening fore of spring shall be adjusted at power station. A buffer device shall be installed on oil relief valve to reduce fluctuation and ensure stability when working. It consists of two throttle orifice plates. The diameter of oil inlet hole of throttle orifice plate 5 is 1.8, the hole diameter of oil outlet of throttle orifice plate 7 is 3.2. The pressure in buffer chamber shall change together with the change of flow quantity passing the valve Attention items when operating The buffer oil pressure shall disappear when the hole of throttle orifice plate 5 is blocked up, and then the oil pressure of lubricating system shall

Instruction of Control and Safety System

drop. When the hole of throttle orifice plate 7 is blocked up, the buffer oil pressure and oil pressure of lubricating system shall rise. Under condition of the above two, the valve shall be assembled again. The nut locating throttle orifice plate shall be installed on sliding valve reliably and caulked firmly. Brief introduction of TSI instrument The relevant monitoring and protecting system shall be set up to insure safe, economical and reliable operation of steam turbine. The monitoring and protecting system can continuously monitor many important parameters involving safety of steam turbine, so it can help operator determine faults during operating and shut off steam turbine timely when unit works under abnormal condition and shall be damaged seriously. All relevant instruments adopted in the monitoring and protecting system of the unit refer to Drawing of Electric Equipments. Installation position of main instruments of TSI The relevant manual shall be attached in the case packed with the purchased instruments of the monitoring and protecting system. After inspection and acceptance, the manual shall be submitted to relevant functionary of power plant for preservation to avoid confusion in the following installation. The speed measuring instrument, protecting instrument for emergency overspeed trip and monitoring instrument for axial displacement shall be installed in front bearing seat of turbine. The speed measuring instrument shall be installed on bracket of front end of main oil pump in front bearing

Instruction of Control and Safety System

seat. The protecting instrument for emergency overspeed trip and monitoring instrument for axial displacement shall be installed on bracket at emergency governor of turbine; The instruments for measuring heat expansion shall be installed on both outer sides of contacting position of front bearing seat and front base frame which is near front bearing; The vibration measuring instrument shall be installed on cover of each bearing seat and the position is near vertical centerline of each bearing. The installation screw shall be drilled at site according to the instrument manual supplied by manufacturer; The instrument for measuring relative expansion shall be installed on spilt plane of rear bearing seat of steam turbine and the position is near the coupling connecting steam turbine and generator.

Instruction of Control and Safety System

Instruction of Control and Safety System

Instruction of Control and Safety System

Instruction of Control and Safety System

INSTALLATION SKETCH MAP OF PART TSI INSTRUMENTS

Instruction of Control and Safety System

INSTALLATION SKETCH OF BRACKET FOR MEASURING RELATIVE EXPANSION