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Computational Materials Science 27 (2003) 313–332 www.elsevier.com/locate/commatsci Finite element analysis and simulation of quenching and otherjarma@ikp.liu.se (J. Mackerle). be time-consuming and uneasy process. Another question is whether the researchers/scientists are willing to spend extra time needed for looking for information. During last two decades many of the existing quenching and other heat treatment processes have been simulated by numerical methods, espe- cially by the finite element methods (FEMs). To simulate these processes is not easy, it is necessary to know various engineering fields such as fluid mechanics, heat transfer, cooling and solidifica- tion, metallurgy, as well as the computer imple- mentation of numerical methods. In many cases industrial experiments have to be done together with simulations to validate the models. 0927-0256/03/$ - see front matter 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/S0927-0256(03)00038-7 " id="pdf-obj-0-2" src="pdf-obj-0-2.jpg">

Computational Materials Science 27 (2003) 313–332

Computational Materials Science 27 (2003) 313–332 www.elsevier.com/locate/commatsci Finite element analysis and simulation of quenching and otherjarma@ikp.liu.se (J. Mackerle). be time-consuming and uneasy process. Another question is whether the researchers/scientists are willing to spend extra time needed for looking for information. During last two decades many of the existing quenching and other heat treatment processes have been simulated by numerical methods, espe- cially by the finite element methods (FEMs). To simulate these processes is not easy, it is necessary to know various engineering fields such as fluid mechanics, heat transfer, cooling and solidifica- tion, metallurgy, as well as the computer imple- mentation of numerical methods. In many cases industrial experiments have to be done together with simulations to validate the models. 0927-0256/03/$ - see front matter 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/S0927-0256(03)00038-7 " id="pdf-obj-0-6" src="pdf-obj-0-6.jpg">

www.elsevier.com/locate/commatsci

Finite element analysis and simulation of quenching and other heat treatment processes

A bibliography (1976–2001)

Jaroslav Mackerle *

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linkooping Institute of Technology, S-581 83 Linkooping, Sweden Received 18 March 2002; accepted 17 June 2002

Abstract

This paper gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods applied to the analysis and simulation of quenching and other heat treatment processes. The bibliography at the end of the paper contains references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations on the subjects that were published between 1976 and 2001. The fol- lowing topics are included: quenching––quenching process in general, heat transfer and thermomechanical modelling, residual stresses in quenching, and other topics; hardening; annealing; tempering; and carburizing and nitriding. Three hundred and fifty references are listed. 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Finite element; Bibliography; Heat treatment; Quenching; Hardening; Annealing; Tempering; Carburizing; Nitriding; Simulation

1. Introduction

The output of scientific papers is growing rap- idly and the researchers are no longer able to readily access and update all the information rel- evant to their chosen field of study. The increasing specialization in engineering has resulted in the proliferation of subject-oriented journals and conference proceedings directed to specialist au- diences. Therefore researchers have more channels for communicating the results of their research at their disposal, but also finding information may

* Tel.: +46-13-281111; fax: +46-13-282717. E-mail address: jarma@ikp.liu.se (J. Mackerle).

be time-consuming and uneasy process. Another question is whether the researchers/scientists are willing to spend extra time needed for looking for information. During last two decades many of the existing quenching and other heat treatment processes have been simulated by numerical methods, espe- cially by the finite element methods (FEMs). To simulate these processes is not easy, it is necessary to know various engineering fields such as fluid mechanics, heat transfer, cooling and solidifica- tion, metallurgy, as well as the computer imple-

mentation of numerical methods. In many cases

industrial experiments have to be done together with simulations to validate the models.

0927-0256/03/$ - see front matter 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/S0927-0256(03)00038-7

  • 314 J. Mackerle / Computational Materials Science 27 (2003) 313–332

Methodologies for quenching and other heat treatment processes have been developed and applied in practice, and this paper gives a review of published papers dealing with FEMs applied to quenching, hardening, annealing, tempering, and carburizing and nitriding. Hopefully, this biblio- graphy will save time for readers looking for in- formation dealing with subjects described below. It is organized into two parts. In the first one each topic is handled and current trends in application of finite element techniques are mentioned. The second part, an Appendix A, lists papers published in the open literature for the period 1976–2001 on subjects presented above. References have been retrieved from the author s database, MAKE- BASE [1,2]. Readers interested in the finite element literature in general are referred to [3] or to the author s Internet Finite Element Book Biblio- graphy (http://www.solid.ikp.liu.se/fe/index.html). The range of applications of FEMs in quenching and other heat treatment processes is too wide and cannot be presented in a single paper––therefore the aim of this bibliography is to give the reader an encyclopaedic view of the different possibilities that exist today for the finite element analysis of heat treatment processes. The status of finite element literature for vari- ous topics of quenching and other heat treatment processes is illustrated in Fig. 1. Data presented in this figure include published papers in the primary literature; this means papers appearing in various general and specialized journals, conference pro- ceedings, and theses and dissertations. If we take the number of published papers as a measure for research activity, we can see the trend in research between 1976 and 2001.

2. Quenching

Quenching is a common manufacturing process aiming to produce components with desirable properties such as low residual stresses and dis- tortions, avoidance of cracks, specific hardness, and achievement of improved properties. The FEM can predict the temperature field, volume fraction of phases and the evolution of internal stresses up to residual stresses during the quench- ing process. For a more efficient information retrieval, the lists of references of papers on quenching pub- lished between 1976 and 2001 are divided into the following categories:

quenching process in general, heat transfer and thermomechanical modelling, residual stresses in quenching, other topics.

2.1. Quenching process in general

In the quenching process the hot components are cooled down to room temperature by immer- sion into a liquid, spraying with a liquid or by pouring over a liquid. Immersion quenching is the most widely used process today aiming for the martensitic and bainitic hardening of steels and the age-hardening of aluminum and nickel alloys. The quenching medium is water, oils and aqueous polymer solutions. Before a component is quenched it is heated to a uniform temperature and then is rapidly cooled by cooling medium. During this process thermal stresses are developed due to a high temperature

314 J. Mackerle / Computational Materials Science 27 (2003) 313–332 Methodologies for quenching and other heat( http://www.solid.ikp.liu.se/fe/index.html ) . The range of applications of FEMs in quenching and other heat treatment processes is too wide and cannot be presented in a single paper––therefore the aim of this bibliography is to give the reader an encyclopaedic view of the different possibilities that exist today for the finite element analysis of heat treatment processes. The status of finite element literature for vari- ous topics of quenching and other heat treatment processes is illustrated in Fig. 1. Data presented in this figure include published papers in the primary literature; this means papers appearing in various general and specialized journals, conference pro- ceedings, and theses and dissertations. If we take the number of published papers as a measure for research activity, we can see the trend in research between 1976 and 2001. 2. Quenching Quenching is a common manufacturing process aiming to produce components with desirable properties such as low residual stresses and dis- tortions, avoidance of cracks, specific hardness, and achievement of improved properties. The FEM can predict the temperature field, volume fraction of phases and the evolution of internal stresses up to residual stresses during the quench- ing process. For a more efficient information retrieval, the lists of references of papers on quenching pub- lished between 1976 and 2001 are divided into the following categories: • quenching process in general, • heat transfer and thermomechanical modelling, • residual stresses in quenching, • other topics. 2.1. Quenching process in general In the quenching process the hot components are cooled down to room temperature by immer- sion into a liquid, spraying with a liquid or by pouring over a liquid. Immersion quenching is the most widely used process today aiming for the martensitic and bainitic hardening of steels and the age-hardening of aluminum and nickel alloys. The quenching medium is water, oils and aqueous polymer solutions. Before a component is quenched it is heated to a uniform temperature and then is rapidly cooled by cooling medium. During this process thermal stresses are developed due to a high temperature Fig. 1. Finite element analysis of quenching/heat treatment processes; a number of published papers between 1976 and 2001. " id="pdf-obj-1-32" src="pdf-obj-1-32.jpg">

Fig. 1. Finite element analysis of quenching/heat treatment processes; a number of published papers between 1976 and 2001.

J. Mackerle / Computational Materials Science 27 (2003) 313–332

315

gradient in the material. Residual stresses re- maining in the material are undesirable because they may cause unpredictable distortions and have a deleterious effect on fracture and corrosion per- formance. Topics included: numerical simulations of quenching processes; stresses and deformations during quenching with and without transforma- tion effects; quench front problems; constitutive models; metallo-thermo-mechanical simulations; simulation of quenching–tempering; quench anal- ysis with phase change; transformation kinetics, heat conduction and elastic–plastic stresses during quenching; prediction of mechanical properties for various materials; water spray quenching; heat treatment in steelmaking; on-line quenching of aluminum. Materials: metals; steels; aluminum; aluminum alloys; Cu–Sn alloys; uranium–titanium alloys; glass.

2.2. Heat transfer and thermomechanical modelling

Heat treatment processes can change the pro- perties of metals and alloys. The stage of cool- ing from the predetermined temperature down to room temperature has a decisive influence on the resulting material properties. The cooling rate influences the internal stress level and determines the non-equilibrium state of the metallographic structures. By means of the FEM it is possible to calculate the time-dependent temperature distribution and heat flux in quenched components and to study parameters that influence the cooling behavior. Heat treatment of aluminum alloys contains three steps: solution heat treatment, quenching and artificial aging. Quenching is the most critical stage. In quenching of aluminum alloys, the ob- jective is a rapidly cooling, especially through the range of 290–400 C. Low cooling speed may result in some precipitation that impairs the strength and corrosion resistance of the alloy. The numerical analysis of aluminum spray quenching solves the transient heat diffusion equation with temperature-dependent material properties and temperature- and spatially-dependent boundary conditions.

In this subsection the following topics are studied: heat conduction with variable phase transformations; calculation of temperature and heat flux in quenching; transient heat conduction with moving convective boundaries; steady-state and transient thermal stresses due to heat treat- ment; calculation and measurement of thermal stresses; quenching uniformity and surface cooling mechanism; thermal shock studies; the effect of free edge on thermal stresses; thermal stress resis- tance; microstructure prediction. Materials: metals; steels; aluminum; aluminum alloys; metal matrix composites; ceramics.

2.3. Residual stresses in quenching

In the quenching the high temperature austenite is transformed into ferrite, pearlite, bainite, mar- tensite, and the residual austenite. The actual phase distribution after heat treatment depends on the strategy of cooling. The various phase com- positions have different physical/mechanical properties and these may be determined by means of FEM. The FEM, steady-state or transient, can also predict the residual stress pattern as well as stress magnitude. In the analysis we can consider various non-linearities such as material properties varia- tion with temperature, heat transfer coefficients variations with temperature, solid-phase transfor- mation, radiation boundary conditions, latent heat, etc. By adjusting process parameters we can control and minimize the residual stresses. The main subjects included: prediction and measurement of residual stresses; residual stresses and deformations in quenching; prediction of thermal residual stresses; thermo-plasticity and thermo-viscoplasticity for residual stresses; resid- ual stresses and distortions in various quenched components; macro- and micro-residual stresses in quenching; minimization of residual stresses; effect of geometry and boundary conditions on residual stresses; dimensional alteration due to residual stresses redistribution; residual quench stresses with and without transformation process. Materials: metals; steels; aluminum; aluminum alloys; pure iron; Astroloy; metal matrix compos- ites.

  • 316 J. Mackerle / Computational Materials Science 27 (2003) 313–332

2.4. Other topics

The following subjects are included in this subsection: quenching of superconducting mag- nets; quench propagation in conductors; optimi- zation problems in quenching; quench cracking.

3. Hardening

Hardening is the process of increasing the hardness of metals by a specific thermal treat- ment. The aim of surface hardening is to increase the hardness of the surface layers by rapid heat- ing and subsequent quenching. The microstruc- ture is changed and the desired hardening is produced. The compressive residual stresses prolong the fatigue life of the hardened compo- nent. In the surface induction hardening the heating is very fast and directly followed by quenching so the generation of residual stresses is more complex process than the case of common hardening. To calculate the variation of heat generation rate in components with a complex geometry is difficult, therefore the experimental measurements of surface heat fluxes are also used. Many finite element studies on the prediction of residual stresses in components during heating and quenching and a few papers on the surface in- duction hardening have been published. The finite element technique makes it possible to determine the relation between process parameters and me- chanical properties of the treated material. The main topics of this section are: simulation of distortions, stresses and residual stresses; evo- lution of hardening; thermal and microstructural analysis; development of residual stresses during hardening; stationary and progressive hardening; induction hardening; HF induction hardening; laser hardening; case hardening; transforma- tion hardening; cyclic hardening; roll hardening; quench hardening; martensitic hardening. Hardened materials: metals; steels; eutectoid steels; hypoeutectoid steels; carbon steels; bainitic steels; aluminum alloys; nickel alloys; nickel and copper films.

4.

Annealing

Annealing is the sustained heating of materi- als at a known high temperature. After that the material is gradually cooled to reduce hardness or brittleness, or to eliminate various stresses, and eventually to produce other qualities. In the annealing diffusion allows the atomic-scale rear- rangement of the microstructure but not all micromechanisms involved in this process are quite understood. These complex changes include recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth; they can occur either as the continuous or the discon- tinuous. Not many papers where finite element simulations are applied for modelling of micro- structural evolution have been published, and in most cases only one type of phenomenon has been considered. This section includes: finite element simulation of the annealing process; residual stresses; micro- structural evolution during annealing; annealing temperature prediction; thermal annealing; high- temperature annealing; stress relief annealing; pulsed laser annealing; continuous annealing. Materials: metals; steels; aluminum; nickel su- peralloys; thin films; polymers; silicon; glass.

  • 5. Tempering

Tempering softens and therefore toughens hardened steel by reheating it to some temperature below the eutectoid temperature. Tempering glass means heating and then cooling it in order to in- crease its strength and make it less brittle. Main topics are: finite element analysis of dis- tortions, stresses and residual thermal stresses; thermal tempering; low-temperature tempering; autotempering; quenching–tempering process. Materials: metals; steels; ductile iron; glass; porcelain; ceramics.

  • 6. Carburizing and nitriding

The carburization is a high-temperature process in which carbon is diffused into the surface of a

J. Mackerle / Computational Materials Science 27 (2003) 313–332

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steel component, while it is austenite, producing a hardened martensitic surface upon quenching. The nitriding provides the formation of an iron–nitrogen compound as a wear-resistant surface that also resist thermal decomposition. Conventional nitriding techniques are gaseous nitriding, ion nitriding, salt bath nitriding, etc. All these techniques are used to improve the wear properties of materials by modifying either surface composition or microstructure. Finite element models help to simulate the heat flow and development of residual stresses during process of the carburizing or nitriding. Topics of this last sections are: finite element simulation of carburizing and nitriding; prediction of stress history; development of distortions and residual stresses; thermal-diffusion analysis; laser surface nitriding; carburized quenching. Materials: metals; steels; alloy steels; titanium alloys.

Acknowledgements

The bibliography presented in the Appendix is by no means complete but it gives a comprehensive representation of different finite element applica- tions on the subjects. The author wishes to apol- ogize for the unintentional exclusions of missing references and would appreciate receiving com- ments and pointers to other relevant literature for a future update.

Appendix A. A bibliography (1976–2001)

This bibliography provides a list of literature references on finite element analysis and simula- tion of quenching, hardening, annealing, carbu- rizing and nitriding. Presented listings contain papers published in scientific journals, conference proceedings, and theses/dissertations retrospec- tively to 1976. References have been retrieved from the author s database, MAKEBASE. The COM- PENDEX database and Applied Mechanics Re- views have also been checked. Three hundred and fifty references are listed. Presented references are

grouped into same sections as listed in the first part of this paper. The emphasis of this bibliography is to list, first of all, papers published in various international journals. There have been numerous national and international conferences and symposia held worldwide but the conference proceedings are a source of never-ending bibliographical confusion. The main criticism of conferences is that the ma- terial presented is often a repetition of what is published elsewhere in the literature, and also the complaint of uneven quality of papers is often heard. Surveys have shown low usage of published conference proceedings in practice. Also, many of important conference papers are published after- wards in an edited version in international jour- nals. References are not arranged chronologically but sorted in each category alphabetically ac- cording to the first author s name. If a specific paper is relevant for several subject categories, the same reference can be listed under respective sec- tion headings.

A.1. Quenching

A.1.1. Quenching process in general

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J. Therm. Stress. 4 (2) (1981) 121–153. A.J. Baker et al., On a FEM platform for sim- ulation of quenching/heat treating operations, 2nd Int. Conf. Quench. Contr. Distort., Cleveland, OH, 1996, pp. 283–290.

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rizing and quenching simulation tool: a material model for carburizing steels undergoing phase

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transformations, 2nd Int. Conf. Quench. Contr.

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