Computational Materials Science 27 (2003) 313–332
www.elsevier.com/locate/commatsci
Jaroslav Mackerle ^{*}
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Link€ooping Institute of Technology, S581 83 Link€ooping, Sweden Received 18 March 2002; accepted 17 June 2002
Abstract
This paper gives a bibliographical review of the ﬁnite element methods applied to the analysis and simulation of quenching and other heat treatment processes. The bibliography at the end of the paper contains references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations on the subjects that were published between 1976 and 2001. The fol lowing topics are included: quenching––quenching process in general, heat transfer and thermomechanical modelling, residual stresses in quenching, and other topics; hardening; annealing; tempering; and carburizing and nitriding. Three hundred and ﬁfty references are listed. 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Finite element; Bibliography; Heat treatment; Quenching; Hardening; Annealing; Tempering; Carburizing; Nitriding; Simulation
1. Introduction
The output of scientiﬁc papers is growing rap idly and the researchers are no longer able to readily access and update all the information rel evant to their chosen ﬁeld of study. The increasing specialization in engineering has resulted in the proliferation of subjectoriented journals and conference proceedings directed to specialist au diences. Therefore researchers have more channels for communicating the results of their research at their disposal, but also ﬁnding information may
^{*} Tel.: +4613281111; fax: +4613282717. Email address: jarma@ikp.liu.se (J. Mackerle).
be timeconsuming and uneasy process. Another question is whether the researchers/scientists are willing to spend extra time needed for looking for information. During last two decades many of the existing quenching and other heat treatment processes have been simulated by numerical methods, espe cially by the ﬁnite element methods (FEMs). To simulate these processes is not easy, it is necessary to know various engineering ﬁelds such as ﬂuid mechanics, heat transfer, cooling and solidiﬁca tion, metallurgy, as well as the computer imple
mentation of numerical methods. In many cases
industrial experiments have to be done together with simulations to validate the models.
09270256/03/$  see front matter 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/S09270256(03)000387
314 J. Mackerle / Computational Materials Science 27 (2003) 313–332
Methodologies for quenching and other heat treatment processes have been developed and applied in practice, and this paper gives a review of published papers dealing with FEMs applied to quenching, hardening, annealing, tempering, and carburizing and nitriding. Hopefully, this biblio graphy will save time for readers looking for in formation dealing with subjects described below. It is organized into two parts. In the ﬁrst one each topic is handled and current trends in application of ﬁnite element techniques are mentioned. The second part, an Appendix A, lists papers published in the open literature for the period 1976–2001 on subjects presented above. References have been retrieved from the author s database, MAKE BASE [1,2]. Readers interested in the ﬁnite element literature in general are referred to [3] or to the author s Internet Finite Element Book Biblio graphy (http://www.solid.ikp.liu.se/fe/index.html). The range of applications of FEMs in quenching and other heat treatment processes is too wide and cannot be presented in a single paper––therefore the aim of this bibliography is to give the reader an encyclopaedic view of the diﬀerent possibilities that exist today for the ﬁnite element analysis of heat treatment processes. The status of ﬁnite element literature for vari ous topics of quenching and other heat treatment processes is illustrated in Fig. 1. Data presented in this ﬁgure include published papers in the primary literature; this means papers appearing in various general and specialized journals, conference pro ceedings, and theses and dissertations. If we take the number of published papers as a measure for research activity, we can see the trend in research between 1976 and 2001.
2. Quenching
Quenching is a common manufacturing process aiming to produce components with desirable properties such as low residual stresses and dis tortions, avoidance of cracks, speciﬁc hardness, and achievement of improved properties. The FEM can predict the temperature ﬁeld, volume fraction of phases and the evolution of internal stresses up to residual stresses during the quench ing process. For a more eﬃcient information retrieval, the lists of references of papers on quenching pub lished between 1976 and 2001 are divided into the following categories:
• quenching process in general, • heat transfer and thermomechanical modelling, • residual stresses in quenching, • other topics.
2.1. Quenching process in general
In the quenching process the hot components are cooled down to room temperature by immer sion into a liquid, spraying with a liquid or by pouring over a liquid. Immersion quenching is the most widely used process today aiming for the martensitic and bainitic hardening of steels and the agehardening of aluminum and nickel alloys. The quenching medium is water, oils and aqueous polymer solutions. Before a component is quenched it is heated to a uniform temperature and then is rapidly cooled by cooling medium. During this process thermal stresses are developed due to a high temperature
Fig. 1. Finite element analysis of quenching/heat treatment processes; a number of published papers between 1976 and 2001.
J. Mackerle / Computational Materials Science 27 (2003) 313–332
315
gradient in the material. Residual stresses re maining in the material are undesirable because they may cause unpredictable distortions and have a deleterious eﬀect on fracture and corrosion per formance. Topics included: numerical simulations of quenching processes; stresses and deformations during quenching with and without transforma tion eﬀects; quench front problems; constitutive models; metallothermomechanical simulations; simulation of quenching–tempering; quench anal ysis with phase change; transformation kinetics, heat conduction and elastic–plastic stresses during quenching; prediction of mechanical properties for various materials; water spray quenching; heat treatment in steelmaking; online quenching of aluminum. Materials: metals; steels; aluminum; aluminum alloys; Cu–Sn alloys; uranium–titanium alloys; glass.
2.2. Heat transfer and thermomechanical modelling
Heat treatment processes can change the pro perties of metals and alloys. The stage of cool ing from the predetermined temperature down to room temperature has a decisive inﬂuence on the resulting material properties. The cooling rate inﬂuences the internal stress level and determines the nonequilibrium state of the metallographic structures. By means of the FEM it is possible to calculate the timedependent temperature distribution and heat ﬂux in quenched components and to study parameters that inﬂuence the cooling behavior. Heat treatment of aluminum alloys contains three steps: solution heat treatment, quenching and artiﬁcial aging. Quenching is the most critical stage. In quenching of aluminum alloys, the ob jective is a rapidly cooling, especially through the range of 290–400 C. Low cooling speed may result in some precipitation that impairs the strength and corrosion resistance of the alloy. The numerical analysis of aluminum spray quenching solves the transient heat diﬀusion equation with temperaturedependent material properties and temperature and spatiallydependent boundary conditions.
In this subsection the following topics are studied: heat conduction with variable phase transformations; calculation of temperature and heat ﬂux in quenching; transient heat conduction with moving convective boundaries; steadystate and transient thermal stresses due to heat treat ment; calculation and measurement of thermal stresses; quenching uniformity and surface cooling mechanism; thermal shock studies; the eﬀect of free edge on thermal stresses; thermal stress resis tance; microstructure prediction. Materials: metals; steels; aluminum; aluminum alloys; metal matrix composites; ceramics.
2.3. Residual stresses in quenching
In the quenching the high temperature austenite is transformed into ferrite, pearlite, bainite, mar tensite, and the residual austenite. The actual phase distribution after heat treatment depends on the strategy of cooling. The various phase com positions have diﬀerent physical/mechanical properties and these may be determined by means of FEM. The FEM, steadystate or transient, can also predict the residual stress pattern as well as stress magnitude. In the analysis we can consider various nonlinearities such as material properties varia tion with temperature, heat transfer coeﬃcients variations with temperature, solidphase transfor mation, radiation boundary conditions, latent heat, etc. By adjusting process parameters we can control and minimize the residual stresses. The main subjects included: prediction and measurement of residual stresses; residual stresses and deformations in quenching; prediction of thermal residual stresses; thermoplasticity and thermoviscoplasticity for residual stresses; resid ual stresses and distortions in various quenched components; macro and microresidual stresses in quenching; minimization of residual stresses; eﬀect of geometry and boundary conditions on residual stresses; dimensional alteration due to residual stresses redistribution; residual quench stresses with and without transformation process. Materials: metals; steels; aluminum; aluminum alloys; pure iron; Astroloy; metal matrix compos ites.
316 J. Mackerle / Computational Materials Science 27 (2003) 313–332
2.4. Other topics
The following subjects are included in this subsection: quenching of superconducting mag nets; quench propagation in conductors; optimi zation problems in quenching; quench cracking.
3. Hardening
Hardening is the process of increasing the hardness of metals by a speciﬁc thermal treat ment. The aim of surface hardening is to increase the hardness of the surface layers by rapid heat ing and subsequent quenching. The microstruc ture is changed and the desired hardening is produced. The compressive residual stresses prolong the fatigue life of the hardened compo nent. In the surface induction hardening the heating is very fast and directly followed by quenching so the generation of residual stresses is more complex process than the case of common hardening. To calculate the variation of heat generation rate in components with a complex geometry is diﬃcult, therefore the experimental measurements of surface heat ﬂuxes are also used. Many ﬁnite element studies on the prediction of residual stresses in components during heating and quenching and a few papers on the surface in duction hardening have been published. The ﬁnite element technique makes it possible to determine the relation between process parameters and me chanical properties of the treated material. The main topics of this section are: simulation of distortions, stresses and residual stresses; evo lution of hardening; thermal and microstructural analysis; development of residual stresses during hardening; stationary and progressive hardening; induction hardening; HF induction hardening; laser hardening; case hardening; transforma tion hardening; cyclic hardening; roll hardening; quench hardening; martensitic hardening. Hardened materials: metals; steels; eutectoid steels; hypoeutectoid steels; carbon steels; bainitic steels; aluminum alloys; nickel alloys; nickel and copper ﬁlms.
4.
Annealing
Annealing is the sustained heating of materi als at a known high temperature. After that the material is gradually cooled to reduce hardness or brittleness, or to eliminate various stresses, and eventually to produce other qualities. In the annealing diﬀusion allows the atomicscale rear rangement of the microstructure but not all micromechanisms involved in this process are quite understood. These complex changes include recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth; they can occur either as the continuous or the discon tinuous. Not many papers where ﬁnite element simulations are applied for modelling of micro structural evolution have been published, and in most cases only one type of phenomenon has been considered. This section includes: ﬁnite element simulation of the annealing process; residual stresses; micro structural evolution during annealing; annealing temperature prediction; thermal annealing; high temperature annealing; stress relief annealing; pulsed laser annealing; continuous annealing. Materials: metals; steels; aluminum; nickel su peralloys; thin ﬁlms; polymers; silicon; glass.
5. Tempering
Tempering softens and therefore toughens hardened steel by reheating it to some temperature below the eutectoid temperature. Tempering glass means heating and then cooling it in order to in crease its strength and make it less brittle. Main topics are: ﬁnite element analysis of dis tortions, stresses and residual thermal stresses; thermal tempering; lowtemperature tempering; autotempering; quenching–tempering process. Materials: metals; steels; ductile iron; glass; porcelain; ceramics.
6. Carburizing and nitriding
The carburization is a hightemperature process in which carbon is diﬀused into the surface of a
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steel component, while it is austenite, producing a hardened martensitic surface upon quenching. The nitriding provides the formation of an iron–nitrogen compound as a wearresistant surface that also resist thermal decomposition. Conventional nitriding techniques are gaseous nitriding, ion nitriding, salt bath nitriding, etc. All these techniques are used to improve the wear properties of materials by modifying either surface composition or microstructure. Finite element models help to simulate the heat ﬂow and development of residual stresses during process of the carburizing or nitriding. Topics of this last sections are: ﬁnite element simulation of carburizing and nitriding; prediction of stress history; development of distortions and residual stresses; thermaldiﬀusion analysis; laser surface nitriding; carburized quenching. Materials: metals; steels; alloy steels; titanium alloys.
Acknowledgements
The bibliography presented in the Appendix is by no means complete but it gives a comprehensive representation of diﬀerent ﬁnite element applica tions on the subjects. The author wishes to apol ogize for the unintentional exclusions of missing references and would appreciate receiving com ments and pointers to other relevant literature for a future update.
Appendix A. A bibliography (1976–2001)
This bibliography provides a list of literature references on ﬁnite element analysis and simula tion of quenching, hardening, annealing, carbu rizing and nitriding. Presented listings contain papers published in scientiﬁc journals, conference proceedings, and theses/dissertations retrospec tively to 1976. References have been retrieved from the author s database, MAKEBASE. The COM PENDEX database and Applied Mechanics Re views have also been checked. Three hundred and ﬁfty references are listed. Presented references are
grouped into same sections as listed in the ﬁrst part of this paper. The emphasis of this bibliography is to list, ﬁrst of all, papers published in various international journals. There have been numerous national and international conferences and symposia held worldwide but the conference proceedings are a source of neverending bibliographical confusion. The main criticism of conferences is that the ma terial presented is often a repetition of what is published elsewhere in the literature, and also the complaint of uneven quality of papers is often heard. Surveys have shown low usage of published conference proceedings in practice. Also, many of important conference papers are published after wards in an edited version in international jour nals. References are not arranged chronologically but sorted in each category alphabetically ac cording to the ﬁrst author s name. If a speciﬁc paper is relevant for several subject categories, the same reference can be listed under respective sec tion headings.
A.1. Quenching
A.1.1. Quenching process in general
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B. Aksel et al., A study of quenching: experi
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D. Bammann et al., Development of a carbu
rizing and quenching simulation tool: a material model for carburizing steels undergoing phase
318 J. Mackerle / Computational Materials Science 27 (2003) 313–332
transformations, 2nd Int. Conf. Quench. Contr.
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S. Denis et al., Stressphase transformation in
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M. Gergely et al., Calculation of transforma
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Inoue
et
al.,
Computer
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of
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319
S. Jahanian, A numerical study of quenching
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S. Sjostrom, Comparison between basic theory
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A.1.2. Heat transfer and thermomechanical model ling
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J. Mackerle / Computational Materials Science 27 (2003) 313–332
321
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