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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Rice is considered as the staple food in the Philippines.

It is also the major source of calories and the single largest sources of income. It is noted that 96% of the Philippines rice is harvested from irrigated or rain fed lowland rice field. (Phil Rice 1993). In these systems, fields are kept covered with water throughout the growing season, putting a strain on scarce and costly resources. Furthermore, anaerobic microbes, found in soils that are deprived of oxygen due to continuous flooding, produce methane, a powerful greenhouse gas and chemical fertilizer and pesticides can cause soil and water pollution which lead to decrease in yield in rice. As the nationwide demand for rice increases, finding ways to grow more rice while preventing environmental degradation and reducing reliance on water will be essential to helping ensure food security. Farmers in many parts of the country are taking the initiative to find innovative solution to ease these challenges. Once such innovation is the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), which was developed during the 1980s by a French priest in Madagascar, father Henri de Laulanie, who spent 20 years learning about rice growing practices from local farmers. SRI is a set of low-cost crop management techniques, which promote community-led agricultural growth, while reversing the effects of climate change (http://sri.ciifad.cornell.edu, 2012).

The use of System of Rice Intensification has not been extensively in the Philippines but evidence from the researches and studies shows many benefits from its use. SRI increases the productivity of resources use in the rice cultivation by reducing requirements for waters, synthetic fertilizer, pesticide and herbicides. While SRI is largely driven by civic society efforts, it is also being embraced by the local and international NGOs, and being endorsed by National Food Security Programs in India, Cambodia, Vietnam and Indonesia. The decrease in the rice productivity of the Philippines renewed the interest of the researcher on examining the impact of system of rice intensification on the growth, yield and profitability of rice. This innovation could help strengthen food security, improve farmers adaptability to climate change and ensure sustainability. The traditional lowland rice management among Filipino farmers negates most of the SRI principles and practices. Contrary to SRI scheme, the traditional rice culture is almost always associated with constant irrigation from start to harvest besides using short distance between plant and more plant per hill. On the other hand, the SRI methodology adopts wider spacing, planting only one seedling per hill, intermittent irrigation and use of organic fertilizer and compost as source of nutrient. SRI capitalized on built-in pattern of development in rice identified even before World War II by a Japanese researcher (Katayama, T 1951). Rabenandrasama (2000) reported that the success of SRI is based on the synergistic development of both tillers and root system-where there is vigorous root

growth, the plant grows fuller and taller; consequently more access to nutrient and water for tillers and seed development. The experienced of many farmers from Madagascar and other Asian countries resulting in increased rice productivity and sustainability as well as the last two season SRI on-farm trials conducted in Eastern Visayas region (de la Rosa, 2005) certainly serves as eye-opener and propellant to the researcher. The needs of rice for water are 5 to 8 million litres per hectare. Mauban has 46.54% rain fed rice field thus the study was conducted. The researcher was conducted a study in Brgy. Alitap, Mauban, Quezon. This barangay is a potential producer of rice in the town of Mauban. It is located along the shoreline of Lamon Bay. Most of the people there are producing Rice which serves as source of food and income. The rice field has an irrigation system which serves as the source of water throughout the growing season. Most farmers are practicing traditional rice farming approach. In their practice, the field are being kept covered with water throughout the growing season besides using short distance between plants and more plant per hill. They are using inorganic chemical fertilizers and pesticides. They are following the Waray system distance of planting of rice. With those practices mentioned, Brgy. Alitap, Mauban, Quezons rice field is the subject of the study, due to the traditional practices that needs to improve to increase the productivity of rice. The researcher main objective is to find out the impact of SRI on the performance of rice plants in terms of growth, yield and profitability as compared with traditional farming system. SRI approach is based upon a set of principles and practices

for increasing the productivity of irrigated rice by changing the management of plants, soil, water, and nutrient. Objective of the Study This study was conducted to determine the growth and yield performance of rice (NSIC Rc216) under System of Rice Intensification (SRI) approach and Farmers Practices in Mauban, Quezon condition. Specifically, it aims to evaluate the following agronomic characteristics and socio-economic sustainability: 1. Plant height at 30, 60 and 90 DAT(cm) 2. Average number of tillers at 30, 60 and 90 DAT 3. Average number of productive tillers 4. Average number of filled grains 5. Average number of unfilled grains 6. Weight of 1000 grains(g) 7. Grain yield(ton/ha) 8. Number of days to flowering 9. Numbers of days to maturity 10. Cost and Return Analysis

Significance of the Study The result of the study was significant to the students, farmers, agricultural technician, and other interested person showcasing the potential of SRI in improving growth and yield of rice. It can be also provide a learning venue and observation plot. The result of this study will serve as an instrument to determine the effects of SRI on growth and yield performance of rice (NSIC Rc216). They will be knowledgeable on analysing the effects of SRI on the performance of the rice (NSIC Rc216). This also helps the researcher to apply their learning skills as Agriculture students. The result of this study also served as guide and reference to the student who will soon conduct a study regarding the analysis on the performance of rice under SRI approach. Scope and Delimitation The scope of the study covers evaluation of the growth and yield performance of rice (NSIC Rc216) using the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) approach and Farmers Practices under Mauban, Quezon condition. The growth and yield characteristics considered were plant height at 30, 60 and 90 DAT, average number of tillers, average number of productive tillers, average number of filled grains, average number of unfilled grains, weight of 1000 grains (g), grain yield per hectare, number of days to flowering, and number of days to maturity.

The fertilizers used are vermicompost and inorganic fertilizer. The fertilizer application on both treatments is based on the results of soil analysis. The experimental field is characterized as irrigated lowland with an area of 150 sq. meters. The time of experiment was from June to September 2012 considered as wet cropping season. The area where the evaluation was conducted is further limited to conditions in Mauban, Quezon. Definition of terms Anthesis The series of events between the opening and closing of the rice flower (spikelet). Refers to as flowering. Chemical fertilizer - is defined as any inorganic material of wholly or partially synthetic origin that is added to the soil to sustain plant growth. Many artificial fertilizers contain acids, such as sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid, which tend to increase the acidity of the soil, reduce the soil's beneficial organism population and interfere with plant growth. Climate change is a significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years. It may be a change in average weather conditions or the distribution of events around that average (e.g., more or fewer extreme weather events). Climate change may be limited to a specific region or may occur across the whole Earth.

Conventional farming describes any farming not dedicated to alternative methods. Fundamentally, it is the kind of farming which dominated the 20th century and which accounts for most farming today. In conventional farming, chemical plant protectants, chemical fertilisers and intensive mass animal farming are common. IPM, or Integrated Pest Management, belongs to conventional farming, although it applies some principles of organic farming. Intermittent irrigation- the paddy fields are alternately flooded (submerged) and drained. The soil surface is allowed to dry before the next water application. It main functions are for promotion of soil aeration, saves irrigation water and lessen drainage problem. Filled grain- those are grains that are fully developed. Grain weight- the weight of fully developed grains reported on 1000 basis. Growth-is the irreversible increase in size and dry matter due to increase in vegetative and or reproductive organ. It includes increase in number of cells, weight and enlargement of the cell in terms of width, length, diameter and area. NSIC Rc216 (Tubigan 17)- is characterized by having a maturity of 112 days. The average yield is 6 t/ha and maximum yield of 9.70 t/ha. This variety is strong to bacterial blight but weak in tungro and blast. It has a milling recovery of 69.2% and has long grains.

Number of filled grain per panicle- average number of fully developed grain per panicle. Panicle- is the part of the plant that bears spikelets. Percentage of filled grain- the proportion of fully developed to totally undeveloped grains. Productive tillers- are tillers that have panicle. System of Rice Intensification-, known as SRI -- le Systme de Riziculture Intensive in French and la Sistema Intensivo de Cultivo Arrocero (SICA) in Spanish -- is an agro-ecological methodology for increasing the productivity of irrigated rice by changing the management of plants, soil, water and nutrients. SRI originated in Madagascar in the 1980s and is based on the cropping principals of significantly reducing plant population, improving soil conditions and irrigation methods for root and plant development and improving the plant establishment methods. Tillers- are buds located between the nodes of the leaf sheath and arise from the main culm in an alternative pattern. It is the branches that developed from the leaf axis. At each elongated node of the main shoot or from the other tillers. Tillering Production of tillers which are shoots that develop from the leaf axils at each unelongated node of the main shoot and from other tillers. Tillers are produced in a synchronous manner, the nth leaf on the main culm (or tiller which is producing tillers) and the first leaf of the tiller on the (n-3th) leaf emerge simultaneously.

Vermicompost- organic fertilizer/ product of from decomposition of farm waste such as animal manure and crop residues with the aid of worm known as the African night crawler. The vermicompost used in the experiment have an analysis of 1.37-1.121.2. Yield- the product obtain from harvest which usually expressed in number of ton per hectare.

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURES AND STUDIES


Planting system in Mauban, Quezon According to farmers in Mauban, Quezon, they are following the traditional approach of raising Rice. In seedbed preparation, they are following the wet bed method; they are preparing a seedbed with a measurement of 1m x 4m and using 2 kilos of pregerminated seeds. They are transplanting 18 day old seedlings early in the morning following a square planting without appropriate distance (Waray System) with 5 to 7 seedlings per hill. In term of water management, continuous flooding is being practiced. They are using inorganic fertilizer as source of nutrient for the rice. (Manipol, Alejandro, 2012)

Raising of seedlings using wet-bed method This method is usually used to delay the transplanting of the seedlings. Transplanting seedlings at the latest age limit shortens the time the crop stay in the field. This enables to intensify cropping and reduce crop exposure to field risk. Prepare puddled plots 1 to1 meters wide of any convenient length. For every 400 sq. m sow a sack of rice seeds. The seedlings is enough for a hectare of rice field. Sow the pre-germinated seeds uniformly at about one kilo of seeds per 10sq. m. (Caledancion, R.T.,and Mabbayad, B.B., 1983)

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How to Produce More Rice with Less Input The System of Rice Intensification is a new and promising resource-saving method of growing rice under irrigated or rain-fed conditions. Studies in a number of countries have shown a significant increase in rice yield, with substantial savings of seeds (80-90%), water (25-50%), and cost (10-20%) compared to conventional methods. SRI is not a technology, but a set of simple ideas and principles that help produce more productive and robust plants. (Karma Lhendup, 2008,)

Morphology of the Rice Plant The cultivated rice plant is an annual grass. The stems consist of round, hollow internodes connected by nodes. The leaf blades are rather flat and attached to the culm by leaf sheaths. The inflorescence is a panicle. Under favourable conditions, the plant may last for more than one year. Rice is a semi aquatic plant. It can adapt to a wide range of ecological diversity, from rainfed-dryland to deep water flooded conditions. (Chang, T.T, and Loresto, G.C. 1983) Growth phases in rice The life cycle of the rice plant may be divided in three main phases. These are Vegetative phase-from seed germination to panicle initiation; Reproductive phase- from panicle initiation to flowering; Ripening phase- from flowering to full maturity. (Vergara, Benito S.1983)

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The growth stages in relation to yield A minimum growth period is necessary for optimum yields. Under certain environmental and cultural conditions, varieties which mature from 130 to 140 days gave the best yield. Shorter or longer growth durations than the optimum will result to lower yields. However, proper cultural management and use of right variety can shorten the optimum growth period. The growth period of a very early maturing variety(less than 100 day maturity period) grown under field condition usually does not permit the production of sufficient tillers and leaf area to result in the production of a large, well-filled panicle and many panicles per unit area. Adequate leaf area is necessary for the manufacture of assimilation products required for the development of a large number of well-filled spikelet in a panicle. A long growth duration or late variety can result in a large number of tillers. However, restriction in the amount of nutrients available and/ or in the space available for optimum growth limits the number of tillers which produce panicle. The growth rate of rice plant is variable with time. It is most rapid because of the two limiting factors mentioned above. A well balance growth at every growth stage that will produce the optimum number of tillers and large number of well-filled spikelet is necessary. Proper cultural management answers this need. (Vergara, Benito S.1983)

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Cropping Intensification In the past, much of the scientific efforts towards increasing rice productivity and profit were focused on the technological means of increasing crop yield. Thus, research and extension focused on the proper use of inputs, water, high yielding varieties, fertilizer and pest control chemicals. Indeed, the adoption of these technologies in package from during the last decade dramatically increased production and transformed the Philippines from an importer to an exporter of rice. In general, however, the small farmers did not receive substantial benefits. This is because they have small-sized farms and the inputs are expensive. The average farmer farms only about 2 hectares and about 50 75% of the value of production is spent for fertilizer and pesticides. Realizing this, both the scientist and the policy makers now adopt a two-pronged approach to really uplift the rice farmers. One aspect reduces cost of production through the use of pest-resistant varieties. This brings down investment in pesticide. It also involves substitution of commercial fertilizers with indigenous organic materials such as manure, compost and specially the high nitrogen herbage such as azolla and ipil-ipil. Present technological knowledge shows this scheme can save production cost by about 25% at fixed yield target. (Caledancion, R.T., and Mabbayad, B.B., 1983) Macro- and micronutrients needed by the rice plants There are 16 essential elements for rice: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, copper, molybdenum, boron, manganese, and chlorine. These can be grouped into macro elements and

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microelements. The macro elements are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulphur - needed by plants in large amounts, often more than 0.1% of plants dry weight. The microelements on the other hand, are iron, manganese, copper, zinc, molybdenum, boron, and chlorine - needed by plants in lesser quantities, often in trace amounts. Silicon is a beneficial nutrient for rice but its physiological functions are not yet clear. (httph://www.pinoyrkb.com/, 2012). How to Save Water An adequate water supply is one of the most important factors in successful rice production because it greatly affects the rice plant, soil nutrients, physical status of soil, pests and diseases, and weed population. Water, however, must be used efficiently as it is becoming a scarce resource. The total water requirement for the whole cropping season varies depending on soil type, topography, proximity to drainage, depth of water table, sub-soil profile characteristics, crop duration, area of contiguous fields, and cultural management practices. 1. Use shallow dry tillage. After harvesting, rotavate or plow under the field to minimize the formation of deep cracks and occurrence of bypass flow. Tilled layer acts as mulch that reduces soil drying and cracking while small soil aggregates block big cracks.

2. Plow the field immediately after initial irrigation. This reduces percolation during land preparation by sealing big cracks. 3. Shorten land preparation to not more than 4 weeks.

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4. Puddle the soil very well. This is done by harrowing or rotavating the field 2 to 3 times followed by levelling. This practice increases the water holding capacity. 5. Practice synchronous farm operations. From land preparation, all farm operations should not vary by 4 weeks within at least 20 ha contiguous area. 6. Apply uniform but low water depth. 7. Practice controlled irrigation (CI). This does not reduce yield because only the excess water is being reduced. (De Dios, 2007) SRI as a methodology for raising crop and water productivity: productive adaptations in rice agronomy and irrigation water management The System of Rice Intensification (SRI), developed in Madagascar almost 30 years ago, modifies certain practices for managing plants, soil, water, and nutrients with the effect of raising the productivity of the land, labor, and capital devoted to rice production. Certain production inputs are reducedseeds, inorganic fertilizer, water, and fuel where water is pumpedwith increased yield as a result. SRI methodology remains controversial in some circles, however, because of the transformational change it introductions into traditional lowland rice production systems. Its concepts and methods are being extended also to upland (rain fed) rice production, as well to other crops. Accordingly, SRI should not be regarded or evaluated in conventional terms as if it were a typical component technology. In particular, it calls into question the long-standing belief that rice is best produced under continuously flooded conditions. (Norman Uphoff, Amir Kassam and Richard Harwood, 2011)

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Effects on rice plant morphology and physiology of water and associated management practices of the system of rice intensification and their implications for crop performance Field experiments were conducted in Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India, during the dry season (JanuaryMay) in 2008 and 2009 to investigate whether practices of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), including alternate wetting and drying (AWD) during the vegetative stage of plant growth, could improve rice plants morphology and physiology and what would be their impact on resulting crop performance, compared with currently recommended scientific management practices (SMP), including continuous flooding (CF) of paddies. With SRI practices, grain yield was increased by 48% in these trials at the same time, there was average water saving of 22% compared with inundated SMP rice. Water productivity with AWD-SRI management practices was almost doubled (0.68 g l1) compared to CF-SMP (0.36 g l1). Significant improvements were observed in the morphology of SRI plants in terms of root growth, plant/culm height, tiller number per hill, tiller perimeter, leaf size and number, leaf area index (LAI), specific leaf weight (SLW), and open canopy structure. SRI plants showed delayed leaf senescence and greater light utilization, and they maintained higher photosynthetic rates during reproductive and grain-filling stages. This was responsible for improvement in yieldcontributing characteristics and higher grain yield than from flooded rice with SMP. They concluded that SRI practices with AWD improve rice plants morphology, and this benefits physiological processes that result in higher grain yield and water productivity. ( Thakur, Amod K., et.al.,2011)

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Effects of water management and organic fertilization with SRI crop practices on hybrid rice performance and rhizosphere dynamics A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of intermittent versus continuous irrigation, together with different degrees of organic fertilization, on the growth and yield of hybrid rice, looking also at the functioning of the rhizosphere as this is a key element affecting crop performance. The crop management practices employed generally followed the recommendations of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI). Under intermittent water application as recommended with SRI management (aerobic irrigation, AI), grain yield increased by 10.511.3%, compared to standard irrigation practice (continuous flooding, CF). The factor that contributed most to higher yield was increased number of grains per panicle. It was seen that under the range of organic fertilization treatments evaluated, intermittent irrigation compared with CF promoted greater dry matter production and higher leaf area index (LAI) during the main growth stages. Also, the combination of intermittent irrigation and organic material applications significantly increased soil redox potential (Eh), compared with CF, and also the numbers of actinomycetes in the rhizosphere soil. Actinomycetes were evaluated in this study as an indicator of aerobic soil biota. It was seen that with intermittent irrigation, the application of organic material improved the functioning of the rhizosphere and increased yield. ( Xianqing Lin,et.al., 2010)

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Rice root growth and physiological responses to SRI water management and implications for crop productivity This paper reports on several research findings on rice root responses, in terms of growth and physiology, manifested when applying System of Rice Intensification water management principles under semi-field and field conditions, in conjunction with variations in plant density and microbial density in the soil. The research aimed to learn about causal relationships, if any, between rice roots and shoot growth at different growth stages of the rice plants development and their cumulative effect on yield, which is affected by both biotic and abiotic influences. It was seen that greater root length density and a higher rate of root activity affected the yield-contributing parameters in all of the trials, whether conducted under semi-field or field conditions. At the same time, both root parameters were significantly affected by the water regime, soil microbial density, and planting pattern, the three main factors considered. These relationships can significantly improve rice plants physiological efficiency and hence grain yield, provided that soil nutrients are not a limiting factor and when sourcesink demand is maintained simultaneously. To realize the highest crop yield per hectare, both planting pattern and spacing are factors that need to be optimized. This paper in its conclusion considers the relevance of exploiting roots potential for plasticity to enhance crop productivity in the context of impending water constraints and climate-change effects. (Abha

Mishra and Vilas M. Salokhe, 2011)

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A review of studies on SRI effects on beneficial organisms in rice soil rhizospheres This communication reports on separate research efforts in India and Indonesia to evaluate the effects that modifying methods of plant, soil, water and nutrient management could have on populations of soil organisms, particularly on those that can have beneficial consequences for crop growth and yield. Comparison of these parallel studies draws attention to the impacts that management can have on the soil biota, given that certain organisms are known to have positive implications for plants nutrition, health, and productivity. Data from the three studies show SRI management associated with some significant differences in soil microbial populations; higher levels of enzyme activity in SRI plant rhizospheres, indicative of increased N and P availability; and more soil microbial C and N, which would enlarge the nutrient pool for both plants and microbes. The studies reported, although more exploratory than conclusive, show enough similarity to suggest that SRI practices, which make paddy soils more aerobic and enhance soil organic matter, are supportive of enhanced populations of beneficial soil organisms. If this relationship is confirmed by further assessments, it could help researchers and practitioners to improve paddy production in resource-conserving, costeffective ways. This review was written to encourage more studies to assess these kinds of soil biotic relationships and dynamics. ( Iswandi Anas,et.al.,2011)

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Rice yield and its relation to root growth and nutrient-use efficiency under SRI and conventional cultivation: an evaluation in Madagascar This article evaluates the effects of alternative SRI cultural practices on grain yield with particular attention to their impact on the growth and functioning of rice plant roots and on associated nutrient-use efficiencies that could be contributing to the observed higher grain yields. On-station experiments and on-farm surveys were conducted in Madagascar to evaluate SRI practices in comparison with standard cultural methods, considering how rice plants expression of their genetic potential was affected by different crop management practices. Controlling for both soil and farmer effects, rice plants cultivated with SRI methods produced average yields more than double those from standard practice (6.26 vs. 2.63 t ha1). The most evident phenotypic difference was in plant root growth, assessed by root-pulling resistance (RPR), a summary measure of root system development. On average, uprooting single SRI plants required 55.2 kg of force plant1, while pulling up clumps of three conventionally grown plants required 20.7 kg hill1, or 6.9 kg plant1. SRI plants thus offered 8 times more resistance per plant to uprooting. Direct measurements confirmed that SRI methods induced both greater and deeper root growth, which could be contributing to increased nutrient uptake throughout the crop cycle, compared with the shallower rooting and shorter duration of root functioning under continuous flooding. Rice plants grown with SRI methods took up more macronutrients than did the roots of conventionally managed plants, which was reflected in the higher SRI yields. When grain yield was regressed on nutrient uptake to assess nutrient-use efficiency, SRI plants achieved higher grain yield per unit of N taken up, compared to plants grown with conventional methods. More research needs to be

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done on such relationships, but this study indicates that productive changes in the structure and functioning of rice plants, particularly their roots, can be induced by alternative management methods.( Joeli Barison and Norman Uphoff, 2011)

Strategies and engineering adaptions to disseminate SRI methods in large-scale irrigation systems in Eastern Indonesia This paper summarizes experience with the dissemination of SRI practices across eight provinces in Eastern Indonesia over nine seasons from 2002 to 2006 under a major irrigation project. The Decentralized Irrigation System Improvement Project (DISIMP) was financed by the Japanese Government with project management by a Nippon Koei consultant team. The evaluation reported here, made by the DISIMP technical assistance team, is based on data from 12,133 on-farm comparison trials that covered a total area of 9,429 ha. Under SRI management, average paddy yield increase was 3.3 t/ha (78%). This was achieved with about 40% reduction in water use, 50% reduction in chemical fertilizer applications, and 20% lower costs of production. The farmers whom DISIMP was assisting to take up SRI were usually cultivating their paddy fields individually within irrigation systems where it was difficult to reduce water applications as recommended for SRI. Accordingly, innovations had to be made in soil and water management to create relatively aerobic soil conditions so that farmers could get the more productive rice phenotypes expected from SRI practice. This article describes the modifications made to adapt SRI concepts, pointing to the value of introducing in-field ditches, which was confirmed through paddy tract surveys. This experience and analysis showed how SRI methods could be utilized within irrigation systems where water management was not

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(yet) tailored to SRI production practices. Subsequently, modifications in irrigation system management are being made to be more supportive of SRI cultivation. ( Shuichi Sato, et.al., 2011)

Potential of the system of rice intensification for systemic improvement in rice production and water use: the case of Andhra Pradesh, India As opportunities to enhance the irrigation base for raising food production in the country are dwindling, India needs a more concerted effort to increase the efficiency and productivity of its irrigation systems. This study, based on an analysis of experience from the state of Andhra Pradesh, addresses the potential of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) to contribute to systemic corrections in present paddy cultivation, both with regard to agronomic productivity and irrigation water use efficiency. This study points to the considerable increase in rice productivity and farmer incomes, which is being achieved in Andhra Pradesh with substantial reduction in irrigation water application, labor, and seed costs through utilization of SRI methods. Potential public savings on water and power costs could be drawn upon not only for promoting SRI but also to effect systemic corrections in the irrigation sector, to mutual advantage. (Ravindra Adusumilli and S. Bhagya Laxmi, 2011)

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SRI contributions to rice production dealing with water management constraints in north eastern Afghanistan Rice is a major staple food in Afghanistan, and its production contributes to the food security for millions of Afghans. However, over the past four decades, increases in rice cultivation in the Amu Darya River Basin in the north-eastern part of the country are contributing to head/tail inequities in irrigation water-sharing, both at river basin and at canal levels. Since 2007, the Participatory Management for Irrigation System project has been experimenting with the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) as an alternative to the highly water-consumptive traditional method of rice cultivation by inundation of fields. The aim is to introduce a water-saving method for upstream rice-growing farmers to improve the water access for downstream users. To the extent that such a method improves yield, this gives upstream farmers an incentive to switch to this new method which benefits them and, indirectly, other farmers downstream. Their average SRI yield, 9.3 tons ha1, was considerably higher than that obtained with their traditional ricegrowing practices. Those farmers who had 2 years of experience with SRI methods and who greater mastery of the techniques got, on average, 65% higher yield than first-year SRI farmers. More-experienced farmers improved their rice production by 27% in comparison to their previous results in 2008. The primary factor in yield improvement was an increase in the number of grains per panicle (+47%). A 10% increase in the number of tillers per square meter, despite lowered plant population, was the second major factor. Yields appeared to be very responsive to an increased number of mechanical weeding. (Vincent Thomas and Ali Mohammad Ramzi, 2011)

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Technical adaptations for mechanized SRI production to achieve water saving and increased profitability in Punjab, Pakistan Even in a country with a large population and rapid population growth, there can be labor shortages in the agricultural sector, because of outmigration of the able-bodied work force. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is not necessarily more laborintensive once the methods have been learned, but the initial labor requirements can be a barrier to adoption, and farmers with large land areas cannot find the labor needed to use these more productive methods. Recognizing this problem, a set of agricultural implements have been designed for mechanizing the operations of SRI, with a view to reducing water requirements as well as labor requirements because the current conditions for agricultural production in the Punjab region of Pakistan include water scarcity and poor water quality as well as labor shortages. This article reports on the process of mechanizing SRI production in Punjab, which has been quite successful so far. Average yield is considerably increased with a 70% reduction in water requirements and a similar reduction in labor needs. The machinery and methods have been further adapted to other crops, being grown on permanent-raised beds, so that SRI with organic fertilization is combined with Conservation Agriculture. This combination is referred to as paradoxical agriculture because it enables farmers to achieve higher outputs with reduced inputs. (Asif Sharif, 2011)

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Irrigation water reduction using System of Rice Intensification compared with conventional cultivation methods in Iraq A field study was conducted at Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station (MRRS) during the summer season 2009 to evaluate irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) using Anbar 33 variety with the System of Rice Intensification compared to traditional methods. During the growth phase, the number of leaves, stems, and roots, and the average plant height were measured every 15 days for the two sets of methods. At maturity, the depth and length of plant roots was assessed, along with leaf area index (LAI) of the flag leaf and plant height. The amount of irrigation water applied was measured by water meter for both methods. SRI principles for plant age, spacing, etc., were implemented in the SRI plots. The results indicated more vigorous growth of roots under SRI methods, reaching 13,004 cm plant1 compared with non-SRI results of 4,722 cm plant1. There was 42% increase in grain yield when SRI methods were used. These had water use efficiency (WUE) of 0.291 kg m2 compared with WUE of 0.108 kg m2 for non-SRI cultivation, almost a threefold difference. SRI practices reduced the need for irrigation water by 38.5%. (Khidhir Abbas Hameed, et.al., 2011)

An opportunity for increasing factor productivity for rice cultivation in The Gambia through SRI Promising results from an increasing number of field evaluations of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) conducted in Asia and Africa indicate that African farmers could increase their rice production while lowering costs of operation and reducing the need for water by utilizing its principles and practices. This system relies not on external

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inputs to raise productivity but on alternative methods for managing rice plants and the soil and water resources devoted to their cultivation. Farmers in sub-Saharan Africa increasingly have to cope with the impacts of adverse climate effects because water shortages and long dry spells during the cropping season are becoming common, even in lowland rice agro ecosystems. SRI management practices create both larger rice root systems that make their plants more resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses and more conducive environments for beneficial soil micro flora and fauna to flourish. Better plant growth and development result from promoting plantsoil synergies. Controlled fertilizer management experiments conducted with SRI practices in The Gambia have showed that grain production can be significantly increased without higher application of inorganic fertilizer and with fewer requirements for water. SRI management practices with fertilizer application at the national recommended dose produced a grain yield of 7.6 t ha1. Water productivity was greatly increased, with 0.76 g of grain produced per kg total water input, compared to 0.10 g of grain per kg of water when the crop was continuously flooded. Recent hikes in fuel prices and consequent rises in input costs are making domestic rice production less attractive and importation even more attractive. Computation of production costs showed that SRI production, not needing heavy applications of fertilizer, is economically cost-effective. Achieving yield increases through ever-higher fertilizer applications is not economically or environmentally viable. SRI management with recommended fertilizer applications produced a net return of 853 ha1comparedto 37 when using farmers present low-productivity practices. (Mustapha Ceesay, 2011)

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Application of system of rice intensification practices in the arid environment of the Timbuktu region in Mali In 2007, Africare undertook a first test of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in Goundam circle. After farmers observed a yield of 9 t ha1 of paddy compared to 6.7 t ha1 in the control plot there was interest in larger scale testing of the SRI system. In 2008, Africare, in collaboration with the local Government Agriculture Service and with support from the Better U Foundation, implemented a community-based evaluation of SRI with 60 farmers in 12 villages. Farmers in each village selected five volunteers, who each installed both SRI and control plots, side by side, starting the nurseries on the same day and using the same seed. For SRI plots, seedlings were transplanted one plant hill1 at the two-leaf stage (on average, 11.6 days old), with spacing of 25 cm 25 cm between hills and aligned in both directions. This allowed farmers to cross-weed with a cono-weeder, on average 2.4 times during the season. In the control plots, farmers planted 3 plants hill1with seedlings 29.4 days old and spaced on average 23.7 cm, not planted in lines. Weeding was done by hand. 13 t ha1 of organic matter was applied under SRI management, and 3 t ha1 in the control plots. Fertilizer use was reduced by 30% with SRI compared to the control. Although alternate wetting and drying irrigation is recommended for SRI, this was not optimally implemented due to constraints on irrigation management within the scheme; thus water savings were only 10% compared to the control. Average SRI Yield for all farmers reached 9.1 t ha1, with the lowest being 5.4 t ha1 and highest being 12.4 t ha1. SRI yields were on average 66% higher than the control plots at 5.5 t ha1, and 87% higher than the yields in surrounding rice fields at 4.9 t ha1. Number of tillers and panicles hill1, number of tillers and panicles m2, and

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panicle length and number of grains panicle1 were clearly superior with SRI compared to control plants. Farmers tested five varieties, all of which produced better under SRI. The SRI system allowed for a seed reduction of 8590%: from 4060 kg ha1 for the control plots to 6.1 kg ha1 under SRI. Although production costs per hectare were 15% higher for SRI, revenue was 2.1 times higher than under the control. Farmers were very satisfied with these results. The good crop performance along with other advantages was confirmed in this third year with SRI yields of 7.7 t ha1 (n = 130 farmers) compared to 4.5 t ha1 in farmers fields. (Erika Styger, et.al. 2011)

On-farm evaluation of a low-input rice production system in Panama On-farm trials were conducted to evaluate the potential of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), a low-input crop management system, to increase rice yields and reduce water consumption on subsistence farms in several regions of Panama and to determine how inherent soil fertility might affect SRI yields and the yield response to SRI management in the first season of SRI management. SRI practices increased yield by 47% on average and showed potential to increase yield by over 90%, while reducing water consumption by as much as 86%. SRI yields were correlated with available soil K and the difference between SRI and the conventional system yields was positively correlated with extractable Ca, Mg and Mn. The results of this study indicate that SRI is a promising rice production system for smallholder farmers in rural Panama farming under Panamanian soil conditions. (Marie-Soleil Turmel, Juan Espinosa, et al., 2011)

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Review of SRI modifications in rice crop and water management and research issues for making further improvements in agricultural and water productivity Much of the focus of agricultural improvement efforts in recent decades has been on modifying crops genetic potential more than on improving cropping practices and production systems. Certainly, this genocentric approach has made significant contributions to food production in certain parts of the world under the banner of the Green Revolution. Yields have been raised substantially through varietal improvements and the increased use of inputs, including energy, agrochemicals, and delivering more water to crops through irrigation technology. In the past two decades, however, gains from this strategy have decelerated, with increasing economic and environmental costs of this input-dependent approach. Accordingly, there is reason to consider what can be accomplished by making optimizing changes in crops growing environments both above ground and, especially, below ground. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) developed in Madagascar has been showing that, by modifying crop, soil, water and nutrient management, it can under most of the circumstances evaluated thus far rise of the productivity of land, water, seeds, capital, and labor used for irrigated rice production. This article summarizes and reflects on the evidence provided in the preceding articles in this special issue. It draws on the scientific evaluations and field experience from Asia, Africa, and Latin America to offer some conclusions about the methodology known as SRI. Since this methodology is still evolving, no final assessment is possible. Much more research and evaluation remain to be done, and there will be further modifications and refinements since making adaptations to local conditions is regarded as intrinsic to the methodology. Further improvements in SRI will come from both researchers and farmers,

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with the latter considered as partners rather than simply adopters. This is consistent with SRIs representing a paradigm shift more than a fixed technology. The article identifies a number of areas for additional research that can probably improve factor productivity still further. ( Amir Kassam, et.al., 2011)

How SRI can improve a farmers production and life One of the first farmers to make use of SRI methods was Honor Randrianarasana near Ranomafana, who started working with Tefy Saina in the 1994/95 season, planting just 25 ares (.25 ha) using SRI methods. He got a yield of 9.5 tons/ha the first year, compared to his previous yields of 2 to 3 tons/ha. The next year he expanded his SRI area to 1.25 ha and got 10.95 tons/ha, which encouraged him to expand further his use of SRI methods, to 2 hectares and then 4 hectares, with still higher yields (12.7 and 13.7 tons/ha). In 1998-99, he planted 5 hectares, but his yields were around 7 t/ha because the season was bad for all farmers in the region. In 1999-2000, Honor planted 8 hectares with SRI, and by this time his economic situation had improved enough to buy 9 hectares of paddy land (he started with rented land) and three houses, one of them in the regional capital of Fianarantsoa. Not all farmers will be this successful or able to manage such large extents with this methodology. But Honor has shown the potential that SRI can have to improve farmers' lives. (Association Tefy Saina, Antananarivo, Madagascar, and Cornell International Institute for Food, Agriculture and Development, 2000)

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SRI Application in the Philippines

The SRI method was first tried in the Philippines by the Consortium for the Development of Southern Mindanao Cooperatives (CDSMC) in 1999, and has been introduced by several organizations since, including Agricultural Training Institute (ATIDA), some local NGOs, as well as the National Irrigation Administration (NIA). In 2003, an energetic and innovative engineer from NIA, Mr. Carlos S. Salazar, then Regional Irrigation Manager in Northern Mindanao (Region 10), learned about SRI and incorporated it into his on-farm experiments. After several years of trials over 3 ha, Salazar established a set of practices, locally known as SSIA (Sustainable System of Irrigated Agriculture). His efforts and results have attracted the attention of the Department of Agriculture (DA), Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), as well as the World Bank. DA has provided financial assistance to a demo-site in Mindanao in 2006, and plans to support its dissemination3. JICA became interested in SSIA, particularly due to its water-saving benefits, and has provided funds to assist NIA in demonstrating SSIA in Mindanao. Many farmers now are trying SSIA not only in Mindanao, but also in Visayas and Northern Luzon. (Sustainable System of Irrigated Agriculture-SSIA, 2008)
Increase in yield The NIA group has experimented with SSIA in an area of 1 ha in Salvacion, Bayugan City, Agusan del Sur in the Mindanao region. There, farmers used to grow two crops of rice with an average yield of 3-4 t/ha (or 65-80 cavans/ha). With SSIA, the yield on average was almost 8 t/ha in 2003 (64 tillers, 12 spikelet, and 218 grains per plant were

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recorded). With practice, the average yield was increased to 10 t/ha in 2007, doubling the yield, compared to the 5t/ha (or 100 bags/ha) under conventional practice in the area in the same year. SRI tried in other regions, such as Luzon, yield similar results. (SSIA, 2008)

Water Savings The need for efficient water use is increasingly important in irrigated agriculture, given population growth, higher water demand, climate change and its greater variability than before. Under SRI, water requirements are usually reduced by 25-50% since paddies are not kept flooded during the entire crop cycle (Sato and Uphoff, 2007; Coloma, 2005). The Mindanao practice in the Philippines shows that, SSIA requires 1,030 mm/crop in water application, which is 23 % less than the 1,330 mm/crop needed under the traditional method. Water is much reduced during the vegetative growth phase, and only a minimum of water is kept on the field during the panicle initiation stage and heading stage. This is a major benefit of SRI or SSIA and is recommended by several agencies NIA, IRRI, PhilRice, and JICA. Water saving is especially significant in pump irrigation, and in canal irrigation when water is charged volumetrically. Saved water could then be used to irrigate other areas when there is water shortage. It eases water conflicts between up-stream and down-stream farmer water users. (SSIA, 2008)

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Conceptual Framework From the different literature published by various author from the preceding pages these have given the researcher an idea and facts that support this study. They stated that System of Rice Intensification (SRI) could contribute to the productivity by increasing the number of yield. It modifies certain practices for managing plants, soil, water, and nutrient with the effects of raising productivity of land, labor, and capital devoted to rice production.

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CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY Research locale The study was conducted in a farmers rice field at Brgy. Alitap Mauban, Quezon. Experimental design, treatment and data analysis The experiment used a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). A total of 150 sq. meters experimental area was utilized. This was divided into three blocks to represent number of replication. Each block was subdivided into 2 plots measuring 5x5m each where such two (2) treatments were assigned. T1- SRI T2- Farmers practice The data gathered was tested using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) while significant difference among treatment means was determined with the use of LSD test at 5% level. Cultural Practices Procurement of seeds The seed (NSIC Rc216) were taken in Municipal Agriculture Office in Mauban, Quezon for free.

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Collection of soil sample This was done four weeks before preparation of experimental area. Soil sample was collected in different part of the area and was brought in Bureau of Soil in Pagbilao, Quezon. Preparation of experimental plots SRI Plot An area of 75 sq. m was used for the experimental plot. The experimental area were plowed once and harrowed twice. This will be followed by a tooth harrow and a leveling board. The construction of experimental plots followed, thereafter. Each plot was made surrounded by a canal to prevent fertilizer seepage. An opening is provided in each plot to give way to entry of water during irrigation. This opening was closed after the water has been delivered. Sufficient water level on paddies was maintained. Prior to planting, small ditches were constructed around the paddies for easy management of water especially during heavy rain and for easy collection of golden apple snail (kuhol). Kuhol usually in clusters at the lower/depressed portion of the field will be gathered by hand. Non-SRI Plot The traditional plot of the same size (75 sq. m) as the SRI plot was prepared thoroughly using carabao-drawn plow. It was harrowed twice. The second harrowing was done at two weeks after the first harrowing.

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Seed bed preparation SRI Seedbed A 1m x 10m raised seedbed was prepared located conveniently in the side of rice field. Wet-bed method of raising seedlings was practiced. Ditches were constructed around the seedbed. Five (5) kilograms of vermicompost was mixed in the soil. A kilo of pre-germinated seeds (NSIC Rc216) was broadcasted later part in the afternoon to minimize intense heat exposure of the germinating seeds during the day Non-SRI Seedbed A raised seedbed measuring 1 m x 4 m was prepared. Wet-bed method of raising seedlings was practice. Two kilos of pre-germinated RC-18 seeds was broadcasted in the bed. Care and maintenance of the seedbed was done to produce vigorous seedlings. Transplanting SRI Plot Twelve (12) day-old seedlings was carefully uprooted and immediately transplanted in the afternoon at 1 seedling per hill. The distance of planting was 25cm x 25 cm in square pattern using a planting lining board. Non-SRI Plot Eighteen (18) day-old seedlings was sliced using a scythe. Five-seven seedlings in clumps were transplanted per hill at a distance practiced by farmers in square pattern. The

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planting system didnt follow any planting distance, which is being practice by the farmers. Transplanting was started at 7:00 a.m. Water, Weed and Nutrient Management SRI Plot Ten (10) days after transplanting, the SRI plot was irrigated (about 2cms.). After the first hand weeding, 14.5 kg of vermicompost per plot was immediately applied as basal to allow the fertilizer to be thoroughly mixed in the soil. This was enhanced tillering and growth of the rice plants. Intermittent irrigation was practiced at 6-7 days interval to allow soil surface cracks and enhance emergence of more tillers. Second hand weeding was done 20 days after transplanting. Third hand weeding was done 35 days after transplanting. Non-SRI Plot For the non-SRI plots, the traditional practices on water, nutrient, weed and pest management was followed. As a matter of fact, two to three days after transplanting, irrigation water at a depth of at least 3 cm was maintained. After the first hand weeding, inorganic fertilizers were broadcasted. The fertilizers that are being used per plot during first application are Urea (0.0625kg), complete fertilizer (0.53kg) and muriate of potash (0.125kg). There was a second application of urea (0.22kg). The amount of fertilizer was based on the results of soil analysis. Pests and Diseases Monitoring: Insect pest and diseases in the experimental area was regularly monitored. Golden apple snails (kuhol) were manually collected from both plots and were done every

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morning for at least twothree weeks. Gabi ( M. esculenta) leaves was randomly placed in ditches or in depressed spots as attractants for kuhol. This practice was found most effective to minimize kuhol infestation. (de la Rosa, 2005) Data gathering procedures Plant height This character was obtained from 40 sample plants per plot starting from the ground level to the tip f the tallest leaf at 30 and 60DAT and from the ground level to the tip of the tallest panicle at 90DAT. Number of tillers per hill It was taken from the same sampling units where plant height character was measured. The number of tillers produced by plant from 20 hills each plot at 30DAT, 60DAT, and 90DAT was counted and recorded for this character. Number of productive tillers per hill This was obtained from the same sampling units where number of tillers was measured. The number of tillers having panicles was counted and recorded. Number of filled grains per panicle This will was done by counting the grains that was produced from the same sample plants. The filled grain was separated from unfilled grains by manual method. Filled grains was counted and recorded for this character.

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Number of unfilled grains per panicle This character was taken from the same samples where the number of grains per panicle was taken. The unfilled was counted and recorded for this character. Weight of 1000 grains (g) This was taken by weighing 1000 filled grains. The fully developed grains sample from each treatment was randomly selected for this character. Each sample was dried inside an oven for two hours at 100C until 14% moisture content of the grains was obtained. Four trials for each treatment were made. Grain yield per hectare (tons) This character was taken from all plants in each plot. The harvested plant for each treatment was threshed, cleaned, dried, and then weighed. The grain yield was converted to tons per hectare. Number of days to flowering This character was obtained by counting number of days from transplanting up to the anthesis stage of each plant from each treatment. Number of days to maturity This was taken by counting the number of days from seed germination until harvest.

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CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS This chapter present the result and discussion of data on the growth and yield response of NSIC Rc216 using Farmers Practices and System of Rice Intensification Approach. Table 1. Mean height (cm) of NSIC Rc216 rice at 30, 60 and 90DAT.
Mean Height (cm) Treatment T1-SRI T2-Farmers Practices GRAND MEAN 30 DAT 52.10b 59.10a 55.60 60 DAT 81.99b 91.15a 86.57 90 DAT 98.11a 97.65a 97.88

*Mean having the same superscript(s) is not significantly different at 5% LSD.

Presented in Table 1 is the mean height and number of tillers of NSIC Rc216 rice at 30, 60 and 90DAT as comparison for SRI and Farmers Practices. At 30, 60 and 90 DAT, T2 obtained the tallest plant while T1 had the shortest. However, shortest height was obtained from T1. Analysis of Variance revealed (Appendix table 1.a) that there were significant differences between treatment at 30 DAT and highly significant at 60 DAT. There is no significant difference between treatments at 90 DAT. The differences between treatments in plant height at 30, 60, 90 DAT could be attributed to the readily available nutrient from commercial fertilizer during the initial

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stage of plant development as compared with vermicompost which requires 3-4 weeks after application to completely decomposed and make it readily available for the plants. Table 2. Number of tillers of NSIC Rc216 rice at 30, 60, 90 DAT
Number of Tillers Treatment T1-SRI T2-Farmers Practices GRAND MEAN 30DAT 11.85b 21.06a 16.46 60 DAT 12.43a 16.78a 14.61 90 DAT 10.88b 15.61a 13.25

*Mean having the same superscript(s) is not significantly different at 5% LSD.

Presented in Table 2 is the number of tillers of NSIC Rc216 rice at 30, 60 and 90DAT as comparison for SRI and Farmers Practices. At 30, 60, 90 DAT, T2 obtained highest number of tillers. However, least tillers were obtained from T1. Analysis of variance (Appendix table 4.a) revealed that treatment difference where highly significant at 30 DAT, not significant at 60 DAT and significant at 90 DAT. The difference could be due to the types of fertilizer applied during the conduct of the experiment which may have affected the growth and producing of tillers of the crops. Treatment 1 used vermicompost which need 3-4 weeks after decomposition to be readily available for the crops. Treatment 2 uses synthetic fertilizer that can be easily absorbed by the crops.

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Table 3. Mean number of productive tillers per hill of NSIC Rc216 rice Treatment Mean T1-SRI T2-Farmers Practices GRAND MEAN 9.00 13.23 11.12

Presented in Table 2 is the mean number of productive tillers per hill of NSIC Rc 216 rice using SRI and Farmers Practices. Treatment 2 produced the highest of productive tillers. Meanwhile, T1 obtained the least number of productive tillers. The analysis of variance (Appendix table 7.a) revealed that there was a significant difference on the average number of productive tillers per hill. This may be due to the kind of fertilizer applied during the conduct of the experiment. The availability of nutrient during early stage of plant development affects the production of productive tillers. If the nutrient is readily available for the crops, the tendency is to produce the more number of productive tillers.

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Table 4. Mean number of filled grain per panicle of NSIC Rc216 rice. Treatment Mean number of filled grains T1-SRI T2-Farmers Practices GRAND MEAN 91.50 60.19 75.85

Table 4 shows the mean number of filled grains per panicle of NSIC Rc216 rice using SRI and Farmers Practices. Treatment 1 attained the highest number of filled grains per panicle while treatment 2 had the least number of filled grains. The analysis of variance (Appendix table 8.a) revealed that there was highly significant difference on the average number of filled grains per panicle. This may due to the may due to the composition of the fertilizer use. The synthetic fertilizers only have three main elements, the N, P and K. However, the vermicompost is consist of macro elements and abundant of microelements. Microelements have an important role on the formation of grains in rice. Table 5. Mean number of unfilled grain per panicle of NSIC Rc216 rice. Treatment Mean number of unfilled grains T1-SRI T2-Farmers Practices GRAND MEAN 28.68 30.41 29.55

Table 5 shows the mean number of unfilled grains per panicle of NSIC Rc216 rice using SRI and Farmers Practices. Treatment 2 attained the highest of number of

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unfilled grains per panicle. Treatment 1 had the lowest number of unfilled grains per panicle. The analysis of variance (Appendix table 9.a) revealed that there was no significant difference on the number of unfilled grains per panicle. This may due to the weather that affects the formation of unfilled grains. This may be also due to the attack of rice bugs during the flowering stage of the crops. Table 6. Mean weight of 1 000 grains (g) of NSIC Rc216 rice. Treatment Mean weight of 1000 grains(g) T1-SRI T2-Farmers Practices GRAND MEAN 29.77 29.13 29.45

Table 6 shows the mean weight of 1 000 grains (g) of NSIC Rc216 rice using SRI and Farmers Practices. In terms of weight of 1 000 grains, T1 obtained the heaviest weight, however T2 obtained the lightest weight. The analysis of variance (Appendix table 10.a) revealed that there was no significant difference on the average weight of 1 000 grains of NSIC Rc216 rice.

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Table 7. Grain yield per hectare of NSIC Rc216 rice. Treatment Grain yield per hectare(tons/ha) T1-SRI T2-Farmers Practices GRAND MEAN 2.51 4.91 3.71

Table 7 shows the grain yield per hectare of NSIC Rc216 rice using SRI and Farmers Practices. In terms of grain yield per hectare (tons/ha), treatment 2 produced the highest yield, and then treatment 1 had the least grain yield. The analysis of variance (Appendix table 11.a) revealed that there was highly significant difference on the grain yield in tons per hectare of NSIC Rc216 rice. The differences in yield performance could be attributed to the distance of planting that affects the density of plant per unit area. The farmers practices didnt follow any kind of distance of planting while the SRI follows 25x25 cm distance of planting. The distance of planting has significant effect to increase the yield of crops.

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Table 8. Number of days to flowering (DAT) of NSIC Rc216 rice. Treatment Number of days to flowering (DAT) T1-SRI T2-Framers Practices GRAND MEAN 66.01 54.10 60.06

Table 8 presents the number of days to flowering of NSIC Rc216 rice using SRI and Farmers Practices. Treatment 1 had the longest number of days to flowering. Treatment 2 had the shortest number of days to flowering. The analysis of variance (Appendix table 12.a) revealed that there were highly significant differences on the number of days to flowering of NSIC Rc216 rice. The significant difference on the number of days to flowering is due to the age of seedling used in planting. The SRI approach used 12 day old seedling while the farmers practices uses 18 day old seedling. The number of days to flowering is counted from transplanting to up to the anthesis stage op the crops.

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Table 9. Number of days to maturity of NSIC Rc216 rice. Treatment Number of days to maturity T1-SRI T2-Farmers Practices GRAND MEAN 111.62 108.51 110.07

Table 9 presents the number of days to maturity of NSIC Rc216 rice using SRI and Conventional Practices. Treatment 1 had the longest number of days to maturity. However, Treatment 2 had the shortest number of days to maturity. The analysis of variance (Appendix table 12.a) revealed that there was a significant difference on the number of days to maturity of NSIC Rc216 rice. The differences in the number of days to maturity may due to the types of fertilizer use in the conduct of the study. The availability of nutrient during early stage affects the growth and development of the crops.

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CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Summary This study was conducted to determine the comparison on growth and yield of NSIC Rc 216 rice using SRI and farmers practices approach under Mauban Quezon conditions. The study was conducted at Brgy. Alitap, Mauban, Quezon from July to October 2012. The experiment utilized 150 sq m area divided equally into three blocks to represent the number of replication. Each block was further divided into two equal plots measuring 5x5 m where two treatments were randomly assigned. The data gathered where plant height (cm), number of tillers per hill, number of productive tillers, number of filled grains per panicle, number of unfilled grains per panicle, weight of 1000 grains (g), grain yield in tons per hectare, number of days to flowering and number of days to maturity. The data were analysed using the analysis of variance for RCBD. The comparisons between treatments were obtained with used of LSD at 5% level of significance. Result of the study revealed that used of Treatment 2 had significantly influenced the plant height of NSIC Rc216 rice at 30 and 60 days after transplanting. However, the use of SRI and Farmers Practices approach significantly affects the other growth characters as well as the yield (t/ha). These significant response may attributed to the readily available nutrients from synthetic fertilizer during the early stages of the plant

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as compared with vermicompost which requires 3-4 weeks after application to completely decompose and make nutrient available.

Conclusion Based from the findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn: 1. The use of farmers practices with synthetic fertilizers significantly influence the plant height of NSIC Rc216 at 30 and 60 days after the transplanting. 2. The other growth characters considered and grain yield of NSIC Rc 216 rice significantly differ with the application of vermicompost and synthetic fertilizer. 3. The distance of planting has significant effects on the grain yield per hectare of NSIC Rc216 rice.

Recommendation From the conclusion drawn, the following recommendations were formulated; 1. Further studies maybe conducted using approach during dry season cropping. 2. Another similar study may conducted but application of vermicompost maybe done 30 days before planting. 3. Another study maybe conducted using various distance of planting for System of Rice Intensification (SRI) approach.

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References Adusumilli, Ravindra, and S. Bhagya Laxmi. (2011). Potential of the system of rice intensification for systemic improvement in rice production and water use: the case of Andhra Pradesh, India. Paddy and Water Environment 9:89-97. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-037X.2010.00421.x Anas, Iswandi, O. P. Rupela, T. M. Thiyagarajan and Norman Uphoff. (2011). A review of studies on SRI effects on beneficial organisms in rice soil rhizospheres. Paddy and Water Environment 9:53-64. doi:10.1007/s10333-011-0260-8 Association Tefy Saina, Antananarivo, Madagascar, and Cornell International Institute for Food, Agriculture and Development, (2000). How to help rice plants Grow better and produce more: Teach yourself and others. SRI Manual. Barison, Joeli and Norman Uphoff. (2011). Rice yield and its relation to root growth and nutrient-use efficiency under SRI and conventional cultivation: an evaluation in Madagascar. Paddy and Water Environment 9:65-78. doi:10.1007/s10333-0100229-z Calendation, R.T. Mabbayad, B.B, Obias, R.O. (1983). Rice culture system in the Philippines. Crop establishment and management and cropping intensification. Rice production manual Philippines, Revised edition: University of the Philippines at the Los Banos College of Agriculture, Ceesay, Mustapha. (2011). An opportunity for increasing factor productivity for rice cultivation in The Gambia through SRI. Paddy and Water Environment 9:129135. doi:10.1007/s10333-010-0235-1 Chang T.T, and Loresto, G, C. (1983). Morphology of the Rice Plant, Rice production manual Philippines, Revised edition: University of the Philippines at the Los Baos College of Agriculture, Hameed, Khidhir Abbas, Abdul-Kadhim Jawad Mosa and Flayeh Abed Jaber. (2011). Irrigation water reduction using System of Rice Intensification compared with conventional cultivation methods in Iraq. Paddy and Water Environment 9:121-127. doi:10.1007/s10333-010-0243-1 Karma Lhendup, (2008). Faculty of Agriculture, College of Natural Resources, System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Method of Rice Cultivation, How to produce more rice with less inputs. A Field Extension Manual. Kassam, Amir, Willem Stoop and Norman Uphoff. (2011). Review of SRI modifications in rice crop and water management and research issues for making further improvements in agricultural and water productivity. Paddy and Water Environment 9:163-180. doi: 10.1007/s10333-011-0259-1 Lin, Xianqing, Defeng Zhu and Xinjun Lin. (2010). Effects of water management and organic fertilization with SRI crop practices on hybrid rice performance and rhizosphere dynamics. Paddy and Water Environment 9:33-39. doi: 10.1007/s10333-010-0238-y Mishra, Abha, and Vilas M. Salokhe. (2011). Rice root growth and physiological responses to SRI water management and implications for crop

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productivity. Paddy and Water Environment 9:41-52. doi:10.1007/s10333-0100240-4 Sato, Shuichi, Eiji Yamaji, and Takeshi Kuroda. (2011). Strategies and engineering adaptions to disseminate SRI methods in large-scale irrigation systems in Eastern Indonesia. Paddy and Water Environment 9:79-88. doi:10.1007/s10333-0100242-2 Sharif, Asif. (2011). Technical adaptations for mechanized SRI production to achieve water saving and increased profitability in Punjab, Pakistan. Paddy and Water Environment 9:111-119.doi:10.1007/s10333-010-0223-5 Styger, Erika, Malick Ag Attaher, Hamidou Guindo, Harouna Ibrahim, Mahamane Diaty, Ibrahima Abba and Mohamed Traore. (2011). Application of system of rice intensification practices in the arid environment of the Timbuktu region in Mali. Paddy and Water Environment 9:137-144. doi:10.1007/s10333-010-0237-z Sustainable System of Irrigated Agriculture (SSIA) (2008), An Application of system of rice intensification (SRI) in the Philippines .How does it improve rice productivity. SSIA Final Paper. Thakur, Amod K., Sreelata Rath, D. U. Patil and Ashwani Kumar. (2011). Effects on rice plant morphology and physiology of water and associated management practices of the system of rice intensification and their implications for crop performance. Paddy and Water Environment 9:13-24. doi:10.1111/j.s10333-0100236-0 Thomas, Vincent and Ali Mohammad Ramzi. (2011). SRI contributions to rice production dealing with water management constraints in northeastern Afghanistan. Paddy and Water Environment 9:101-109. doi:10.1007/s10333-0100228-0 Turmel, Marie-Soleil, Juan Espinosa, Len Franco, Candelario Prez, Horacio Hernndez, Eric Gonzlez, Guillermo Fernndez, Carlos Rojas, Daniel Snchez and Nicols Fernndez. (2010). On-farm evaluation of a low-input rice production system in Panama. Paddy and Water Environment. 155161.doi:10.1007/s10333-010-0227-1 Uphoff, Norman, Amir Kassam and Richard Harwood. (2011). SRI as a methodology for raising crop and water productivity: productive adaptations in rice agronomy and irrigation water management. Paddy and Water Environment 9:3-11. Doi:10.1007/s10333-010-0224-4 Vergara, Benito S. (1983). Plant growth and development. Growth phases. The growth phases in relation to yield. Rice production manual Philippines, Revised edition: University of the Philippines at the Los Banos College of Agriculture.

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APPENDICES

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Appendix Table 1. Plant Height of NSIC Rc216 Rice at 30 DAT. Treatment T1-SRI T2Farmers Practices Replication Total Grand Total Mean Total Replication R1 51.53 58.82 110.35 R2 49.66 59.18 108.84 R3 55.10 59.30 114.40 333.59 55.60 Total 156.29 177.30 Treatment Mean 52.10 59.10

Appendix Table 1 a. ANOVA of Plant Height of NSIC Rc216 Rice at 30 DAT. Sum of Variance Treatment Replication Error TOTAL *-significant ns - not significant df 1 2 2 5 SS 73.577 8.258 7.127 88.962 cv=3.40% MS 73.577 4.129 3.564 Fcomp 20.645* 1.159ns 5% 18.51 19 Ftab 1% 98.49 99

Appendix Table 2. Plant Height of NSIC Rc216 Rice at 60 DAT. Treatment T1-SRI T2Farmers Practices Replication Total Grand Total Mean Total Replication R1 80.18 90.76 170.94 R2 82.03 90.99 173.02 R3 83.75 91.71 175.46 519.42 86.57 Total 245.96 273.46 Treatment Mean 81.99 91.15

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Appendix Table 2 a. ANOVA of Plant Height of NSIC Rc216 Rice at 60 DAT. Sum of Variance Treatment Replication Error TOTAL **-highly significant ns - not significant df 1 2 2 5 SS 126.042 5.119 1.774 132.935 cv=1.09% MS 126.042 2.560 0.877 Fcomp 149.870** 2.886
ns

Ftab 5% 18.51 19 1% 99.49 99

Appendix Table 3. Plant Height of NSIC Rc216 Rice at 90 DAT. Treatment T1-SRI T2Farmers Practices Replication Total Grand Total Mean Total Replication R1 95.65 96.18 191.83 R2 97.37 97.31 194.68 R3 101.32 99.48 200.80 587.30 97.88 Total 294.34 292.96 Treatment Mean 98.11 97.65

Appendix Table 3 a. ANOVA of Plant Height of NSIC Rc216 Rice at 90 DAT. Sum of Variance Treatment Replication Error TOTAL
ns

Ftab df 1 2 2 5 SS 0.321 20.999 1.520 22.84 cv=0.89% MS 0.321 10.450 0.76 Fcomp 0.422 13.75
ns ns

5% 18.51 19

1% 98.49 99

- not significant

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Appendix Table 4. Number of Tillers of NSIC Rc216 Rice at 30 DAT. Treatment T1-SRI T2Farmers Practices Replication Total Grand Total Mean Total Replication R1 11.20 19.80 31.00 R2 10.58 21.00 31.58 R3 13.78 22.38 36.16 98.74 16.46 Total 35.56 63.18 Treatment Mean 11.85 21.06

Appendix Table 4 a. ANOVA of Number of Tillers of NSIC Rc216 Rice at 30 DAT. Sum of Variance Treatment Replication Error TOTAL **-highly significant ns - not significant df 1 2 2 5 SS 127.190 7.964 1.110 136.26 cv=4.53% MS 127.190 3.982 Fcomp 229.171** 14.383ns 5% 18.51 19 Ftab 1% 98.49 99

Appendix Table 5. Number of Tillers of NSIC Rc216 Rice at 60 DAT. Treatment T1-SRI T2Farmers Practices Replication Total Grand Total Mean Total Replication R1 11.93 14.20 26.13 R2 13.30 18.35 31.65 R3 12.07 17.80 29.87 87.65 14.61 Total 37.30 50.35 Treatment Mean 12.43 16.78

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Appendix Table 5 a. ANOVA of Number of Tillers of NSIC Rc216 Rice at 60 DAT. Sum of Variance Treatment Replication Error TOTAL
ns

Ftab df 1 2 2 5 SS 28.384 7.757 3.343 39.684 cv=8.85% MS 28.384 3.979 1.672 Fcomp 16.976ns 2.380
ns

5% 18.51 19

1% 98.49 99

- not significant

Appendix Table 6. Number of Tillers of NSIC Rc216 Rice at 90 DAT. Treatment T1-SRI T2Farmers Practices Replication Total Grand Total Mean Total Replication R1 9.95 13.48 23.43 R2 11.85 17.10 28.95 R3 10.80 16.25 27.05 79.44 13.25 Total 32.60 46.84 Treatment Mean 10.88 15.61

Appendix Table 6 a. ANOVA of Number of Tillers of NSIC Rc216 Rice at 90 DAT. Sum of Variance Treatment Replication Error TOTAL *-significant ns - not significant df 1 2 2 5 cv=5.53% SS 33.773 7.615 1.072 MS 33.773 3.808 0.536 Fcomp 63.009* 7.104ns 5% 18.51 19 Ftab 1% 98.49 99

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Appendix Table 7. Number of Productive Tillers per Hill of NSIC Rc216 Rice. Replication Treatment Treatment R1 R2 R3 Total Mean T1-SRI T2Farmers Practices Replication Total Grand Total Mean Total 7.88 11.17 19.05 11.05 14.13 25.18 8.08 14.40 22.48 66.70 11.12 27.00 39.70 9.00 13.23

Appendix Table 7 a. ANOVA of Productive Tillers per Hill of NSIC Rc216 Rice. Sum of Variance Treatment Replication Error TOTAL
ns

Ftab df 1 2 2 5 cv=12.16% SS 26.520 9.422 3.655 MS 26.520 4.711 1.828 Fcomp 14.508ns 2.577
ns

5% 18.51 19

1% 98.49 99

- not significant

Appendix Table 8. Number of Filled Grains per Panicle of NSIC Rc216 Rice. Treatment T1-SRI T2Farmers Practices Replication Total Grand Total Mean Total Replication R1 88.20 61.90 150.10 R2 90.78 58.28 149.06 R3 95.52 60.40 155.92 455.08 Total 274.50 180.58 Treatment Mean 91.50 60.19

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Appendix Table 8 a. ANOVA of Number of Filled Grains per Panicle of NSIC Rc216 Rice. Ftab Sum of Variance Treatment Replication Error TOTAL **-highly significant ns - not significant df 1 2 2 5 cv=4.22% SS 1470.16 13.669 20.516 MS 1470.16 6.853 10.258 Fcomp 143.31** 0.666ns 5% 18.51 19 1% 98.49 99

Appendix Table 9. Number of Unfilled Grains per Panicle of NSIC Rc216 Rice. Treatment T1-SRI T2Farmers Practices Replication Total Grand Total Mean Total Replication R1 29.78 32.66 62.44 R2 31.06 27.46 58.52 R3 25.20 31.10 56.30 177.26 29.54 Total 86.04 91.22 Treatment Mean 28.68 30.41

Appendix Table 9 a. ANOVA of Number of Unfilled Grains per Panicle of NSIC Rc216 Rice. Ftab Sum of Variance Treatment Replication Error TOTAL
ns

df 1 2 2 5

SS 4.472 9.666 23.560 37.698

MS 4.472 4.830 11.780

Fcomp 0.380
ns

5% 18.51 19

1% 98.49 99

0.410ns

- not significant

cv=11.62%

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Appendix Table 10. Weight of 1000 Grains (g) of NSIC Rc216 Rice. Replication Treatment Treatment R1 R2 R3 Total Mean T1-SRI T2Farmers Practices Replication Total Grand Total Mean Total 29.50 29.50 59.00 30.60 29.10 59.70 29.20 28.80 58.00 176.70 29.45 89.30 87.40 29.77 29.13

Appendix Table 10a. ANOVA of Weight of 1000 Grains (g) of NSIC Rc216 Rice. Sum of Variance Treatment Replication Error TOTAL
ns

Ftab df 1 2 2 5 SS 0.602 0.730 0.603 1.935 cv=1.87% MS 0.602 0.365 0.302 Fcomp 1.993ns 1.209ns 5% 18.51 19 1% 98.49 99

- not significant

Appendix Table 11. Grain Yield per Hectare (tons) of NSIC Rc216. Replication Treatment Treatment R1 R2 R3 Total Mean T1-SRI T2Farmers Practices Replication Total Grand Total Mean Total 2.49 4.91 7.40 2.35 4.47 6.82 2.68 5.34 8.02 22.24 3.71 7.52 14.72 2.51 4.91

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Appendix Table 11 a. ANOVA of Grain Yield per Hectare (tons) of NSIC Rc216. Sum of Variance Treatment Replication Error TOTAL **-highly significant ns - not significant df 1 2 2 5 SS 8.640 0.360 0.074 9.074 cv=2.59% MS 8.640 0.180 0.037 Fcomp 233.514** 4.865ns 5% 18.51 19 Ftab 1% 98.49 99

Appendix Table 12. Number of Days to Flowering (DAT) of NS8IC Rc216 Rice Treatment T1-SRI T2Farmers Practices Replication Total Grand Total Mean Total Replication R1 66.98 54.55 121.53 R2 65.93 53.85 119.78 R3 65.13 53.90 119.03 360.33 60.05 Total 198.03 162.30 Treatment Mean 66.01 54.10

Appendix Table 12 a. ANOVA of Number of Days to Flowering (DAT) of NSIC Rc216 Rice. Ftab Sum of Variance Treatment Replication Error TOTAL **-highly significant ns - not significant df 1 2 2 5 SS 212.712 1.645 0.382 214.739 cv=0.73 MS 212.712 0.823 0.191 Fcomp 113.68** 4.309ns 5% 18.51 19 1% 98.49 99

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Appendix Table 13. Number of Days to Maturity of NSIC Rc216 Rice. Replication Treatment Treatment R1 R2 R3 Total Mean T1-SRI T2Farmers Practices Replication Total Grand Total Mean Total 111.30 108.72 220.02 111.62 108.65 220.27 111.95 108.15 220.1o 660.39 110.07 334.87 325.52 111.62 108.51

Appendix Table 13 a. ANOVA of Number of Days to Maturity of NSIC Rc216 Rice. Sum of Variance Treatment Replication Error TOTAL *-significant ns - not significant df 1 2 2 5 SS 14.571 0.017 0.378 14.975 cv=0.40% MS 14.571 0.0085 0.194 Fcomp 75.108* 0.044ns 5% 18.51 19 Ftab 1% 98.49 99

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PRODUCTION COST AND INCOME PER HECTARE FOR LOWLAND IRRIGATED RICE USING FARMERS PRACTICES Method of Planting : Transplanting (Wet Season) Variety NSIC Rc 216 Seeds 1 bag certified seeds at P730.00 / sack Soil Condition High/Medium NPK (Soil Test Results) (RR=80-30-60) Land Preparation Seed and Seedbed Preparation 2 MD @ P150/day Wetbed - 0.5 MAD @ P250/day Plowing -10 MAD @ P250/day Harrowing and Leveling - 8 MAD Repair and Dike Clearing - 4 MD Sub-Total Crop Management Sowing and care of seedlings - 2 MD Pulling and bundling of seedlings - 10 MD Transplanting - 15 MD Weeding (Manual) 10 MD - 10 MD Irrigation - 5 MD Application of Herbicides - 1 MD Application of Insecticides - 4 MD Application of Fertilizers (Basal and Sidedressing) - 4 MD Sub-Total Other Major Operations Harvesting, threshing, winnowing, and hauling (contractual basis) @ 2 cavans / 12 cavans produced - 15 cav Drying and Hauling @ P5 / cav Sub-Total Agricultural Inputs Herbicides Machete (1.5 liter) - P680/li Insecticides Karate (1 liter) - P1,020/lit Fertilizers 4.25 bags 14-14-14 @ P 1,500/bag 2.25 bags 46-0-0 @ P 1,300/bag 1 bag 0-0-60 @ P1,600/bag Sub-Total P 300.00 125.00 2,500.00 2,000.00 600.00 P 5,525.00 300.00 1,500.00 2,250.00 1,500.00 750.00 150.00 600.00 600.00 P 7,650.00 P

P 4,200.00 491.00 P 4,691.00 P 1,020.00 1,020.00 6,375.00 2,925.00 1,600.00 P12,940.00

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COST AND RETURN ANALYSIS OF ONE HECTARE RICE PRODUCTION USING FARMERS PRACTICES (Lowland Irrigated Wet Season Culture) I. Labor Seedbed preparation 2 MD & 0.5 MAD P 425.00 Land preparation 18 MAD 4,500.00 Care, pulling, and transplanting 27 MD 4,050.00 Repair of dikes 4 MD 600.00 Weeding and irrigation 15 MD 2,250.00 Fertilizer application 4 MD 600.00 Application of Insecticides 4 MD 600.00 Application of Herbicides 1 MD 150.00 *Harvesting, threshing, winnowing, & hauling 4,200.00 Drying and Hauling (P 5/cav) 491.00 Sub-Total P17,866.00 II. Material Input P 730.00 1,020.00 1,020.00 P 13,670.00

Seeds ( 1 bag certified seeds) Fertilizer Herbicides Pesticides Sub-Total III. Fixed Cost

10,900.00

Irrigation Fee Sub-Total Total Cost of Production

P 840.00 P 840.00 P 32,376.00

65

INCOME ANALYSIS Average yield per hectare 4.91 tons or 98.2 cavans Gross Income @ P 14.00/kg P 68,740.00 Net Income P 36,364.00 ROI (net income / total cost of production) 112.32%

66

PRODUCTION COST AND INCOME PER HECTARE FOR LOWLAND IRRIGATED RICE USING SRI APPROACH Method of Planting : Transplanting (Wet Season) Variety HYV Seeds 1 bag certified seeds at P730.00 / sack Soil Condition High/Medium NPK (Soil Test Results) (RR=80-30-60) Land Preparation Seed and Seedbed Preparation 2 MD @ P150/day Wetbed - 0.5 MAD @ P250/day Plowing -10 MAD @ P250/day Harrowing and Leveling - 8 MAD Repair and Dike Clearing - 4 MD Sub-Total Crop Management Sowing and care of seedlings - 2 MD Pulling and bundling of seedlings - 10 MD Transplanting - 15 MD Weeding (Manual) 10 MD - 10 MD/ weeding @ 3 times weeding per cropping Irrigation - 10 MD Application of Fertilizers (Side dressing) - 4 MD Sub-Total Other Major Operations Harvesting, threshing, winnowing, and hauling (contractual basis) @ 2 cavans / 12 cavans produced - 15 cav Drying and Hauling @ P5 / cav Sub-Total Agricultural Inputs Fertilizers -116 bags 0f vermicompost @ P 500/bag with analysis 1.37-1.12-1.2 Sub-Total P 300.00 125.00 2,500.00 2,000.00 600.00 P 5,525.00 P 300.00 1,500.00 3,000.00

4,500.00 1,500.00 600.00 P 11,400.00

P 4,200.00 251.00 P 4,451.00

58,800.00 P 58,800.00

67

COST AND RETURN ANALYSIS OF ONE HECTARE RICE PRODUCTION USING SRI APPROACH (Lowland Irrigated Wet Season Culture) I. Labor Seedbed preparation 2 MD & 0.5 MAD P 425.00 Land preparation 18 MAD 4,500.00 Care, pulling, and transplanting 27 MD 4,050.00 Repair of dikes 4 MD 600.00 Weeding and irrigation 40 MD 6,000.00 Fertilizer application 4 MD 600.00 *Harvesting, threshing, winnowing, & hauling 4,200.00 Drying and Hauling (P 5/cav) 251.00 Sub-Total P 20,626.00 II. Material Input P 730.00

Seeds ( 1 bag certified seeds) Fertilizer Sub-Total III. Fixed Cost

58,800.00 P 59,530.00

Irrigation Fee Sub-Total Total Cost of Production INCOME ANALYSIS Average yield per hectare Gross Income @ P 14/ kg Net Income ROI (net income / total cost of production)

P 840.00 P 840.00 P 80,996.00

2.51 tons or 50.2 cavans P 35, 140.00 - P 45,856.00 -56.62%

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FIGURES

69

70

Figure 2. Preparation of Experimental Area

Figure 3. Planting of Rice

71

Figure 4. The Experimental Area

Figure 5. Rice plant at 7 DAT.

72

Figure 6. Rice Plant at 60 DAT

Figure 7. Measuring the Plant Height at 60 DAT

73

Figure 8. Panicle of NSIC Rc216 Rice

Figure 9. Obtained 1 000 Sample Grains of NSIC Rc216 Ric

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CIRCULATION COPY

The research paper attached here to Researcher Manage Trial On System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and Farmers Practice for NSIC Rc216 RICE Under Mauban Quezon Conditions, prepared and submitted by MANIPOL, ALDRICH V., in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Agriculture Major in Crop Science is hereby recommended for the preparation of the final manuscript.

Prof. NOEMI R. VILLAVERDE Research Adviser

Prof. JUANITA T. SAN JOSE Member of Guidance Committee

Prof. BEATO V. MACASERO Member of Guidance Committee

DR. GONDELINA A. RADOVAN Chairman, Guidance Committee