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COURSE 15

Lets get Organised


Reading1 1 Skim read the article below, ignoring the missing paragraphs. What is the main issue discussed in the article? Choose a, b, or c. a how to cut down the amount of rubbish we produce b how to reduce the cost of rubbish disposal c how to encourage people to recycle rubbish Garbage in, Garbage out Some rituals of modern domestic living vary little throughout the developed world. One such is the municipal refuse collection: usually once a week, your rubbish bags or the contents of your bin disappear into the bowels of a special lorry and are carted away to the local tip. (1) ____ Yet the marginal cost of rubbish disposal is not zero at all. The more people throwaway, the more rubbish collectors and trucks are needed, and the more the local council has to pay in landfill and tipping fees. (2)____ But as Don Fullerton and Thomas Kinnaman, two American economists, have found, this seemingly easy application of economic sense to an everyday problem has surprisingly intricate and sometimes disappointing results. (3)____ In the paper published last year Messrs Fullerton and Kinnaman studied the effects of one such scheme, introduced in July 1992 in Charlottesville, Virginia, a town of about 40,000 people. Residents were charged 80 cents for each sticker. This may sound like the sensible use of market forces. In fact, the authors conclude, the scheme's benefits did not cover the cost of printing stickers, the sticker-sellers' commissions, and the wages of the people running the scheme.
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Tricia Aspinall, Anette Capel, Advanced Masterclasss CAE Workbook, Oxford University Press, 2006, p. 62-66

(4)____ This is inefficient: compacting is done better by machines at landfill sites than by individuals, however enthusiastically. The weight of rubbish collected in Charlottesville (a better indicator of disposal costs than volume) fell by a modest 14%. (5)____ The one bright spot in all this seems to have been a 15% increase in the weight of materials recycled, suggesting that people chose to recycle free rather than pay to have their refuse carted away. But the fee may have little to do with the growth in recycling, as many citizens were already participating in Charlottesville's voluntary recycling scheme. (6)____ Intricate economic models are often needed to sort the out. And sometimes, the results of this rummaging do not smell sweet. A True, the number of bags or cans collected did fall sharply, by 37% between May and September 1992, But rather than buy more tags, people simply crammed more garbage - about 40% more - into each container. B This looks like most basic of economic misunderstanding: if rubbish disposal is free, people will produce too much rubbish. The obvious economic solution is to make households pay the marginal cost of disposing of their waste. That will give them an incentive to throw out less and recycle more. C In the past few years several American towns and cities have started charging households for generating rubbish. The commonest system is to sell stickers or tags which householders attach to rubbish bags or cans. Only bags with these labels are picked up in the weekly collection. D This would be foolish to generalize from this one case, but the moral is clear: economic incentives sometimes produce unforeseen responses. To discourage dumping, for instance, local councils might spend more on catching litterers, or raise for littering, or cut the price of legitimate rubbish collection. E Less pleasing still, some people resorted to illegal dumping rather than pay to have their rubbish removed. This is hard to measure directly, But the authors, observing that a few households in the sample stopped putting rubbish out, guess that illegal dumping may account for 30 - 40% of the 2

reduction in collected rubbish. F Does all this mean that the idea of charging households for the rubbish they generate is draft? Not at all: free disposal, after all, is surely too cheap. But the effects of seemingly simple policies are often complex. G To economists, this ceremony is peculiar, because in most places it is free. Yes, households pay for the service out of local taxes. But at the margin the price is zero: the family that fills four bins with rubbish each week pays no more than the elderly couple that fills one. Vocabulary 1 In the article above you came across the words inefficient and misunderstanding. How do the prefixes, in- and mis-, change the meaning of these words? 2 From the list below choose the words which can combine with either in or mis. experience interpretation fortune convenience correct print management treated competent definite

3 Complete the sentences below with an appropriate word from the list with its correct prefix. 1. The guarantee does not cover damage resulting from _____________________ use. 2. The parcel was not delivered on time and this caused me great _____________________. 3. As a direct result of the director's _____________________ the company went bankrupt. 4. Because the memo was unclear it was open to _____________________. 5. Tom was criticised for his_____________________ handling of the problem. 6. I noticed a _____________________ when I was reading through the article. 7. They had the _____________________ to be hit by a severe storm. 8. The manager is away for an ________ period. 9. He hadn't been driving very long so the accident was largely due to his _____________________. 10. The workers went on strike because one of their colleagues was being_____________________ .

English in Use 1 Read the following extract from an article about moving house, ignoring the spaces. Moving house is a particularly stressful event. What does the article suggest you should do to minimize stress? 2 Now read the article again and choose the best phrase given on the right to fill in each of the blanks. Write one letter (A-K) in the blank. Some of the suggested answers do not fit at all. The exercise begins with an example. A B C D E F G H I J K Arrange your moving date Hassle can be avoided With moving house Its worth asking the removal company The removal firm will provide You should get cost quotations If you pack yourself If you are concerned So this means that forward planning You will probably be expected The first, and most important, step Making All The Right Moves It is a well-documented fact that moving house can be a stressful event. (0)__C_ the more control you have, the less anxiety you will experience. (1 ) _____ , keeping yourself informed, and good organization are absolutely crucial. (2) _____ by taking three simple steps: hiring a reputable moving company; stating what is required, preferably in writing; and planning your move like a military operation. (3) _____ is choosing your removals company - personal recommendation is often best. (4) _____from at least two companies (they should be free). Prices can vary by several hundred pounds for exactly the same job. (5) _____ ideally around four weeks in advance, and confirm this in writing with the removals company. (6) _____to take care of the packing. After all, they do it every day and are likely to do a perfectly decent job. (7) _____ any damage or loss may not be covered by the removal company's insurance unless they have been clearly negligent - which could be hard to prove. 4

3 Read the article below, ignoring the spaces, and decide on the title. a. Mission Impossible b. Household Management c. Grand Strategy Every head of household should strive to be cheerful, and should never fail to show a deep interest in the well-being of those who claim the protection of her roof. Thus spoke Isabella Beeton, whose pioneering Book of Household Management (0)______________generations of women how to run the not-for-profit small businesses that were Victorian homes. Published in 1861 when she was in her early twenties, the book was a (1) ______________bestseller: 60,000 copies sold in its first year. But Mrs Beeton had not learnt her management (2) ______________in large corporations. Stephen Covey, a successful management guru, already has a best-seller to his (3) ______________: his tome on The 7 habits of Highly Effective People has sold 7m copies. Now, going one better than Mrs Beeton, he has just published a book on The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Families which applies (4) ______________of good corporate management to, as the sub-title puts it, building a beautiful family culture in a turbulent world. Mr Covey (5) ______________the family (he is in the 19th century league, with nine children); Mrs Beeton was mainly concerned with rules for organizing the 5 to 35 full-time resident employees that her readers would (6) ______________have had to deploy. Both stress the need for clear guidance. To have a sense of (7) ______________is one of the most effective things a family can accomplish;' says Mr Covey. He is (8) ______________on family mission statements and regular meetings to discuss its common (9) ______________. Other management experts see ways to (10) the rules of the boardroom in the kitchen. Men tend to (11) ______________as non-executive chairman in the home, says Cary Cooper of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology. Women usually carry out the human resources management (12) ______________. But most management gurus are male. Perhaps it is time for another Mrs Beeton to (13 ) ______________the principles learnt in the home to the corporate world. Robin Wensley, a management professor who has analysed Mrs Beeton's approach, points out that her emphasis was on (14) ______________operational control. The grand questions of strategy that (15) ______________most gurus are, he says, often irrelevant for corporate managers. As Mrs Beeton nearly said, First, catch your hare. (350 words) 5

0 A disciplined 1. A runaway 2. A manners 3. A title 4. A beliefs

B taught B runner B facilities B honour B principles

C coached C running C techniques C fame Claws C impresses C conventionally C purpose C forceful C ambitions C fit C work C duty C increase C precise C preserve

D presented D rundown D procedures D name D codes D strengthens D typically D point D keen D ends D practice D play D function D reach D exact D preoccupy

5. A emphasizes B focuses 6. A essentially B characteristically 7. A aim 9. A objects 10. A apply 11. A manage 12. A business 13. A continues 14. A accurate 15. A prepare GRAMMAR B intention B goals B try B operate B job B extend B definite B prescribe 8. A enthusiastic B intense

Modals: past Explanations2 Had to and must have Had to is the past form of must and refers to a past obligation. Sorry I'm late, I had to post some letters. The negative form is didn't have to and refers to an absence of obligation. Must have refers to past certainty. (see below) Should have and ought to have Where *should appears, ought to is also possible. Expectation Should have refers to something which was supposed to happen. The parcel I sent you *should have arrived by now.
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Michael Vince, Peter Sunderland, Advanced Language Practice, Oxford, Macmillan, 2003, p. 72-77

Criticism of an action You *shouldn't have eaten so much last night. Should have and verbs of thinking The past form knew in the example is an unreal verb form, and the should have form is used according to 'sequence of verb forms'. I should have thought you knew. With be and adjectives describing chance It was strange that you should have been staying in the same hotel last year. As a polite expression of thanks on receiving a gift or a favour I've done the washing up for you. - Oh, you really shouldn't have! The intonation should be friendly, as this is not a criticism. Could have Could have refers to past possibility or uncertainty. David could have won the race if he had tried. (possibility/ability) It could have been Sue, I suppose. (uncertainty) Couldn't have can be used with comparative adjectives. We couldn't have been happier in those days. Could have can also express unwillingness. She could have gone to the party with her friends. (but she didn't) We couldn't have left the dog on its own. (so we didn't) Could Could refers to past permission or past ability. When I was sixteen I could stay out till 11.00. (1 was allowed to). Mary could swim when she was three. (she actually did) Compare: Mary could have swum when she was three. (but she didn't) May have and might have Might have refers to past possibility which did not happen. You might have drowned! Might have and may have refer to uncertainty. I suppose I may have been rather critical. Both can be used in the negative to express uncertainty. They might not have received our letter yet. 7

Might have is used to express annoyance at someone's failure to do something. There is strong stress on the words underlined. You might have told me my trousers were split! I might have known
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would is an idiom by which the speaker expresses ironically that an action was

typical of someone else. I might have known that he would be late.


A: It

was Jack who broke the vase. B: I might have known! Must have and cant have

These refer to the speaker's certainty about a past action. Someone must have taken it. (1 am sure they did) You can't have lost it. (I am sure you didn't) Both can also be used with surely in exclamations. Surely you can't have eaten all of it! Surely you must have noticed it! Would not This expresses an unwillingness in the past. Everyone was angry because Sam wouldn't turn off the television. Would have Would have can refer to events in the past which did not actually happen. I would have accepted this job, but I didn't want to move house. Assumptions about the past are also possible with would have.
A: Someone

called after you left but didn't leave a message. Neddnt have and didnt need to

B: That would have been Cathy, probably. Needn't have done refers to an unnecessary action which was actually done. You needn't have paid all at once. (you did pay) Didn't need to refers to an unnecessary action which was not done. I didn't need to go to the dentist again, luckily. Adverbs and modals Adverbs such as well, easily, obviously, really, just are often used to emphasise modal expressions, in both present and past time. You could easily have been killed. I might well decide to come. 8

She obviously must have left. You couldn't really have managed without me. I might just take you up on that. Practice 1 Underline the correct word or phrase in each sentence. a. That can't have been/shouldn't have been Nick that you saw. b. You must have given/might have given me a hand! c. I caught a later train because I had to see/must have seen a client. d. I suppose Bill should have lost/might have lost his way. e. I didn't refuse the cake, as it should have been/would have been rude. f. I don't know who rang, but it could have been/must have been Jim. g. It was odd that you should have bought/would have bought the same car. h. I asked them to leave but they might not/wouldn't go. i. It's a pity you didn't ask because I can't help/could have helped you. j. It's your own fault, you can't have/shouldn't have gone to bed so late. 2 Complete each sentence using one of the phrases from the box. can't have shouldn't have may have can't have didn't need to shouldn't have must have may not have shouldnt have ought to have

a. You and your big mouth! It was supposed to be a secret. You ___shouldnt have ___told her! b. The plane is late. It _______________ landed by now. c. You _______________ met my brother. I haven't got one! d. There is only one explanation. You _______________ left your keys on the bus. e. You _______________ heard me right. I definitely said 204525. f. The meat is a bit burnt. You _______________ cooked it for so long. g. I'm sorry. I accept I _______________ been a little bit rude. h. You really _______________ taken so much trouble over me. i. Was it really necessary? You _______________ tell the police, you know. j. Keep your fingers crossed! The traffic warden _______________ noticed the car's parking ticket has run out! 9

3 Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. 1. It wouldn't have been right to leave you to do all the work on your own. couldn't I couldnt have left you to do .all the work on your own. 2. Perhaps they didn't notice the tyre was flat. might They might have noticed that the tyre was flat. 3. All that trouble I went to wasn't necessary in the end. needn't I all that trouble. 4. Apparently someone has borrowed the cassette player. have Someone the cassette player. 5. I'm disappointed that you didn't back me up! might You me up! 6. Our worrying so much was a waste of time. needn't We so much. 7. It's just not possible for the cat to have opened the fridge. possibly The cat the fridge. 8. It would have been possible for Helen to take us in her car. could Helen us a lift. 9. It's possible that the last person to leave didn't lock the door. might The last person the door unlocked. 10. School uniform wasn't compulsory at my school. wear We school uniform at my school.

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