Sie sind auf Seite 1von 3

What are mutations?

Mutation is a change in the normal base pair sequence. They are a genetic disorder which means that harmful mutations in gametes are passed onto the next generation.

Types of mutations

Functionally: Harmful mutation a mutation that decreases the fitness of the organism. This type of mutation causes errors in protein sequence creating nonfunctional proteins. Example, Drosophila Melanogaster which is a name of a harmful mutation where legs grown over the head. Beneficial mutation a mutation that increases fitness of the organism or which promotes traits that is desirable. This type of mutation is use as source of all genetic variation, raw material for evolution, able to evolve & adapt to environmental changes. Example, Protection against HIV infection. Neutral mutation has no harmful or beneficial effect on the organism. Such mutation occurs at a steady rate. It occurs in amino acid codon but it has no impact. Example, a change in a base pair results in an amino acid change but the new amino acid has the same chemical properties as the old

amino acid.

Mutation on the basis of inheritance Somatic mutation Germline mutation

Treatments for mutations


Cure for genetic disorders:
In general, mutations including genetic disorders are rarely curable because they are a fundamental error in the molecules of someones DNA and can this can not be corrected. However, there are some treatments which are currently still on research that could perhaps treated the effect of genetic disorder which causes mutation. These are: Gene Therapy Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to treat gene disorder (mutation). This technique may allow doctors to treat a disorder by inserting a gene into a patients cells instead of using drugs or surgery. However, researchers are still testing and trying to approach this therapy, including:

Replacing an abnormal gene that causes disease with a healthy copy of the gene. Inactivating, or knocking out, a mutated gene that is not functioning properly. Introducing a new gene into the body to help fight a disease.

Although gene therapy is a promising treatment option for a number of diseases (including inherited disorders, some types of cancer, and certain viral infections), the technique remains risky and is still under study to make sure that it will be safe and effective. Gene therapy is currently only being tested for the treatment of diseases that have no other cures.

Stem Cell Therapy


Stem cells are special type of cells that have the potential to develop into many different kinds of cells. They are the foundation for every cell, tissue and organ in our body. These stem cells are produced and present in the bone marrow. Stem cell therapy includes the process of transplanting healthy bone marrow to replace the patients abnormal bone marrow of a matching donor. This procedure is used to treat leukemia, blood-diseases and other types of cancer and mutations. Successful transplants enable donated stem cells to migrate into the patient's bone marrow where they can begin producing healthy leukocytes (infection-fighting white blood cells) and replacing abnormal cells.

Cure for Cancer:


Some mutations of DNA in body cells affect genes that control cell division , which can result in the cells growing and dividing quickly which produces cancer.

Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy is the general term for any treatment involving the use of chemical agents to stop cancer cells from growing. Chemotherapy can be administered through a vein, injected into a body cavity, or delivered orally in the form of a pill, depending on which drug is used. However, it cannot tell the difference between a cancer cell and some healthy cells. So chemotherapy eliminates not only the fast-growing cancer cells but also other fast-growing cells in your body e.g. hair and blood cells.

Radiation
Radiation therapy uses high-energy radiation to shrink tumors and kill cancer cells. X-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles are types of radiation used for cancer treatment. Radiation therapy kills cancer cells by damaging their DNA which carries genetic information. Cancer cells whose DNA is damaged beyond repair stop dividing or die. When the damaged cells die, they are broken down and eliminated by the bodys natural processes. However, radiation therapy can also damage normal cells which lead to side effects.