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BE, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, NUST, PAKISTAN, 2000

BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS, BUAA, P.R.CHINA, 2006

BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS, BUAA, P.R.CHINA, 2009

qsmzeeshan@yahoo.com ; 0321-9595510

SPACECRAFT DYNAMICS

LECTURE #

Cross Product

i ax bx a y bz j ay by k az bz a z bx a x bz a x by a y bx

a b

a b

a z by

Cross Product

a b a y bz a z by a z bx a x bz a x by a y bx

c a b cx 0 bx a z by cy cz a z bx 0 by a z bx a x by

a y bz a x bz 0 bz

Cross Product

C

A B

B sin

B A A sin

The cross product of two vectors says something about how perpendicular they are. Magnitude:

A B

AB sin

y

is smaller angle between the vectors Cross product of any parallel vectors = zero j i

Cross products of Cartesian unit vectors:

i j i i

; i k k 0; j j

j; 0; k

i j k 0 k

i

j k

Cross Product

Right hand, not left hand Four fingers are pointed along the first vector A sweep from first vector A into second vector B through the smaller angle between them Your outstretched thumb points the direction of C

A B B A?

A B -B A

First practice

A B B A?

February 24, 2011

The direction of C is perpendicular to the plane formed by A and B Cross product is not commutative

A B -B A

A (B C)

A B A C

d A B dt

dA dB B A dt dt

Ay Bx )k

( Az Bx Az By )i

Ax Bz ) j ( Ax By

Cross Product

cx cy cz cx cy cz 0 bx a z by a z bx 0 by a z bx 0 az ay a x by az 0 ax a y bz a x bz 0 bz ay ax 0 bx by bz

Cross Product

cx cy cz 0 az ay 0 az ay az 0 ax az 0 ax ay ax 0 ay ax 0 bx by bz

b a b a a

Lets say that vector r is rotating around the origin, maintaining a fixed distance At any instant, it has an angular velocity of

dr dt

r

r

If matrix A is a rigid 3x3 matrix rotating with angular velocity This implies that the a, b, and c axes must be rotating around The derivatives of each axis are xa, xb, and xc, and so the derivative of the entire matrix is:

dA dt

Product Rule

d ab dt d abc dt

da db b a dt dt da db dc bc a c ab dt dt dt

Product Rule

da b dt da b dt d A B dt

da db b a dt dt da db b a dt dt dA dB B A dt dt

DYNAMICS OF PARTICLES

Kinematics of a Particle

x v a dx dt dv dt position veloc ity d x 2 dt

2

accelerati on

m p mv dp f ma dt mass momentum force

Moment of Momentum

L r p

Also known as angular momentum (the two terms mean basically the same thing, but are used in slightly different situations) Angular momentum has parallel properties with linear momentum In particular, like the linear momentum, angular momentum is conserved in a mechanical system

The moment of force (or torque) about a point is the rate of change of the moment of momentum about that point

dL dt

L r p dL dr dp p r dt dt dt v p r f v mv r f r f

Rotational Inertia

L=rxp is a general expression for the moment of momentum of a particle In a case where we have a particle rotating around the origin while keeping a fixed distance, we can re-express the moment of momentum in terms of its angular velocity

Rotational Inertia

L L L L L I r p r mv mr mr r r mr I r mr

v mr

Rotational Inertia

I I r mr 0 m rz ry

2 y

rz 0 rx

2 z

ry rx 0 rx ry 2 2 rx rz ry rz

0 rz ry

rz 0 rx rx rz ry rz 2 2 rx ry

ry rx 0

r r rx ry rx rz

Rotational Inertia

mr r mrx ry mrx rz

2 y 2 z

mrx ry 2 2 m rx rz mry rz

mrx rz mry rz 2 2 m rx ry

L I

Rotational Inertia

The rotational inertia matrix I is a 3x3 matrix that is essentially the rotational equivalent of mass It relates the angular momentum of a system to its angular velocity by the equation

L I

This is similar to how mass relates linear momentum to linear velocity, but rotation adds additional complexity

p mv

Systems of Particles

n

mtotal

i 1

mi

x cm

mi x i mi pi

p cm

mi v i

to tal momentum

v cm dx cm dt d dt mi x i mi mi v i mi

v cm v cm p cm

dx i mi dt mi p cm mtotal mtotalv cm

Force on a Particle

The change in momentum of the center of mass is equal to the sum of all of the forces on the individual particles This means that the resulting change in the total momentum is independent of the location of the applied force

p cm

pi

dp cm dt

d dt

pi

dp i dt

fi

Systems of Particles

L cm L cm

ri p i x i x cm pi

L cm cm cm cm ri p i dL cm d ri p i dt dt d ri p i dt ri fi

Systems of Particles

We can see that a system of particles behaves a lot like a particle itself It has a mass, position (center of mass), momentum, velocity, acceleration, and it responds to forces

fcm

fi

We can also define its angular momentum and relate a change in system angular momentum to a force applied to an individual particle

cm

ri fi

Internal Forces

If forces are generated within the particle system (say from gravity, or springs connecting particles) they must obey Newtons Third Law (every action has an equal and opposite reaction) This means that internal forces will balance out and have no net effect on the total momentum of the system As those opposite forces act along the same line of action, the torques on the center of mass cancel out as well

x cm v cm a cm dx cm dt dv cm dt

d x cm 2 dt

A d dt

Offset Position

Lets say we have a point on a rigid body If r is the world space offset of the point relative to the center of mass of the rigid body, then the position x of the point in world space is:

x x cm r

Offset Velocity

The velocity of the offset point is just the derivative of its position

x cm r dx dt

dx cm dt

dr dt

v cm r

Offset Acceleration

v cm r dv cm dt

dv dt

d dr r dt dt r

a a cm

x v

x cm r v cm r r r

a a cm

Rigid Bodies

We treat a rigid body as a system of particles, where the distance between any two particles is fixed We will assume that internal forces are generated to hold the relative positions fixed. These internal forces are all balanced out with Newtons third law, so that they all cancel out and have no effect on the total momentum or angular momentum The rigid body can actually have an infinite number of particles, spread out over a finite volume Instead of mass being concentrated at discrete points, we will consider the density as being variable over the volume

m

i 1

mi

For a rigid body, we will define it as the integral of the density over some volumetric domain

x cm

xd d

ry2 rz2 d I rx ry d rx rz d I xx I xy I xz I xy I yy I yz I xz I yz I zz rx ry d rx2 rz2 d ry rz d rx rz d ry rz d rx2 ry2 d

I I xx I xy I xz I xy I yy I yz I xz I yz I zz Ix 0 0 0 Iy 0 0 0 Iz

A I0 A

where

I0

dI dt dI dt dI dt dI dt dI dt d A I0 A dt

T

dA I 0 AT dt A I0 A

T

A I0

T

dA dt

A I 0 AT

A I A I0

T I A I 0 AT I I

T I I

L I dL d I d I dt dt dt I I I I I I I I

Newton-Euler Equations

f ma I I

f cg cg fi ri f i

1 a f m 1 I I

m x v a p mv f ma

I A L I r f I I

Center of Mass

Consider a system made up of n particles. A typical particle, i, has mass mi, and, at the instant considered, occupies the position ri relative to a frame xyz. We can then define the center of mass, G, as the point whose position vector, rG, is such that, Here, m is the total mass

It is important to note that the center of mass is a property of the system and does not depend on the reference frame used. In particular, if we change the location of the origin O, rG will change, but the absolute position of the point G within the system will not.

Forces

In order to derive conservation laws for our system, we isolate it a little more carefully, identify what mass particles it contains and what forces act upon the individual particles. We will consider two types of forces acting on the particles :

External forces arising outside the system. We will denote the resultant of all the external forces N.

Internal forces due to pairwise particle interactions. This force could arise from gravitation attraction or from internal force due to the connections between particles. It could also arise from collisions between individual particles that, as we have seen, produce equal and opposite impulsive forces that conserve momentum.

These ideas also describe the conservation of linear momentum under external and internal collisions. Since individual internal collisions between particles in the system conserve momentum, the sum of their interactions also conserves momentum. If we consider an external particle imparting momentum to the system, it could be treated as an external impulse. Conversely we can consider the particle about to collide to be a part of the system, and include its momentum as part of total system momentum, which is then conserved by Newtons law.

L has the same direction as L is positive when object rotates in CCW L is negative when object rotates in CW

Calculate L of a 10 kg disc when = 320 rad/s, R = 9 cm = 0.09 m

L = 1/2MR2 = (10)(0.09)2(320) = 12.96 kgm2/s

A solid sphere and a hollow sphere have the same mass and radius. They are rotating with the same angular speed. Which one has the higher angular momentum? A) the solid sphere B) the hollow sphere C) both have the same angular momentum D) impossible to determine

Linear motion: apply force to a mass The force causes the linear momentum to change The net force acting on a body is the time rate of change of its linear momentum dv dp Fnet F ma m dt dt

mv

L t

Fnet t

Rotational motion: apply torque to a rigid body The torque causes the angular momentum to change The net torque acting on a body is the time rate of change of its angular momentum dp dL Fnet F net dt dt

and to be measured about the same origin The origin should not be accelerating, should be an inertial frame

Demonstration

Fnet

F

dL dt

dp dt

net

dL dt

Start from

d d (r p) m (r v ) dt dt

dv dt

mv v r a

(ma ) r Fnet

net

Rotational 2

nd

dLsys dt

dLi dt

Lsys

i i

Li

dL i dt

BUT internal torques in the sum cancel in Newton 3rd law pairs. Only External Torques contribute to Lsys

dLsys dt

i ,ext i

net

Nonisolated System: If a system interacts with its environment in the sense that there is an external torque on the system, the net external torque acting on a system is equal to the time rate of change of its angular momentum.

A sphere mass m1 and a block of mass m2 are connected by a light cord that passes over a pulley. The radius of the pulley is R, and the mass of the thin rim is M. The spokes of the pulley have negligible mass. The block slides on a frictionless, horizontal surface. Find an expression for the linear acceleration of the two objects.

ext

m1 gR

a

Masses are connected by a light cord Find the linear acceleration a. Use angular momentum approach No friction between m2 and table Treat block, pulley and sphere as a nonisolated system rotating about pulley axis. As sphere falls, pulley rotates, block slides Constraints: Equal v's and a' s for block and sphere

I

a

net 1 about center of wheel

Ignore internal forces, consider external forces only Net external torque on system: m gR Angular momentum of system: (not constant)

Lsys

dLsys dt

m1aR m2 aR MR 2 (m1R m2 R MR)a net m1 gR m1 g same result followed from earlier a method using 3 FBDs & 2nd law M m1 m2

Isolated System

ext

dLtot dt

0

Li Lf

Ltot

constant

or

Ltot

constant

or

Li

Lf

where i denotes initial state, f is final state L is conserved separately for x, y, z direction For an isolated system consisting of particles,

Ltot Ln L1 L2 L3 constant

Ii

i

If

constant

First Example

A puck of mass m = 0.5 kg is attached to a taut cord passing through a small hole in a frictionless, horizontal surface. The puck is initially orbiting with speed vi = 2 m/s in a circle of radius ri = 0.2 m. The cord is then slowly pulled from below, decreasing the radius of the circle to r = 0.1 m. What is the pucks speed at the smaller radius? Find the tension in the cord at the smaller radius.

m = 0.5 kg, vi = 2 m/s, ri = 0.2 m, rf = 0.1 m, vf = ? Isolated system? Tension force on m exert zero torque about hole, why?

Li

Lf

L r p r (mv )

Li

vf

mri vi sin 90

ri vi rf

mri vi L f

T

mrf v f sin 90

mac m v2 f rf

mrf v f

42 0.5 80 N 0.1

Isolated System

net

L

about z -axis

L

I f f

final

constant

Moment of inertia changes

I i i

initial

The student on a platform is rotating (no friction) with angular speed 1.2 rad/s.

His arms are outstretched and he holds a brick in each hand. The rotational inertia of the system consisting of the professor, the bricks, and the platform about the central axis is 6.0 kgm2.

By moving the bricks the student decreases the rotational inertia of the system to 2.0 kgm2.

(a) what is the resulting angular speed of the platform?

(b) what is the ratio of the systems new kinetic energy to the original kinetic energy?

Ii = 6 kg-m2

i

If = 2 kg-m2

f

= 1.2 rad/s

= ? rad/s

Zero external torque ... about a fixed axis

L final Ii

6 1.2 2

i

L initial L If

3.6 rad/s

f f

Solution (a):

f

Ii If

1 2 1 2

Solution (b):

Kf Ki

If Ii

2 f 2 i

If Ii

If Ii

Ii 2 ) If

Ii If

KE has increased!!

In the air, net = 0 L is constant

Ii

If

A 40-kg child running at 4.0 m/s jumps tangentially onto a stationary circular merry-goround platform whose radius is 2.0 m and whose moment of inertia is 20 kg-m2. There is no friction.

Find the angular velocity of the platform after the child has jumped on.

The Merry-Go-Round

The moment of inertia of the system = the moment of inertia of the platform plus the moment of inertia of the person. Assume the person can be treated as a particle As the person moves toward the center of the rotating platform the moment of inertia decreases. The angular speed must increase since the angular momentum is constant.

Ltot

Li Ii I

I i i

mc vT r

If

mc vT r

Lf

I = 20 kg.m2 VT = 4.0 m/s mc = 40 kg r = 2.0 m 0= 0

I f f (I

(I

mc r 2 ) f mc vT r

1.78 rad/s

mc r 2 ) f

mc vT r I mc r 2

40 4 2 10 40 2 2

Radius of Gyration

It is common to report the moment of inertia of a rigid body in terms of the radius of gyration, k. This is defined as can be interpreted as the root-mean-square of the mass element distances from the axis of rotation. Since the moment of inertia depends upon the choice of axis, the radius of gyration also depends upon the choice of axis. Thus we write for the radius of gyration about the center of mass, and for the radius of gyration about the fixed point O.

Equations of Motion for a Rigid Consider a rigid body acted upon Body by several external forces.

Assume that the body is made of a large number of particles. For the motion of the mass center G of the body with respect to the Newtonian frame Oxyz,

ma

For the motion of the body with respect to the centroidal frame Gxyz,

MG

H G

G

Angular momentum of the slab may be computed by n

HG ri vi mi

i 1 n i 1

ri

ri mi

I

HG

ri 2 mi

After differentiation,

I I

Results are also valid for plane motion of bodies which are symmetrical with respect to the reference plane.

Results are not valid for asymmetrical bodies or three-dimensional motion.

Motion of a rigid body in plane motion is completely defined by the resultant and moment resultant about G of the external forces.

Fx

ma x

Fy

ma y

MG

The external forces and the collective effective forces of the slab particles are equipollent (reduce to the same resultant and moment resultant) and equivalent (have the same effect on the body). dAlemberts Principle: The external forces acting on a rigid body are equivalent to the effective forces of the various particles forming the body.

The most general motion of a rigid body that is symmetrical with respect to the reference plane can be replaced by the sum of a translation and a centroidal rotation.

The forces F and F act at different points on

a rigid body but but have the same magnitude, direction, and line of action. The forces produce the same moment about any point and are therefore, equipollent external forces. This proves the principle of transmissibility whereas it was previously stated as an axiom.

The fundamental relation between the forces acting on a rigid body in plane motion and the acceleration of its mass center and the angular acceleration of the body is illustrated in a free-body-diagram equation. The techniques for solving problems of static equilibrium may be applied to solve problems of plane motion by utilizing - dAlemberts principle, or - principle of dynamic equilibrium These techniques may also be applied to problems involving plane motion of connected rigid bodies by drawing a freebody-diagram equation for each body and solving the corresponding equations of motion simultaneously.

Sample Problem.1

SOLUTION:

Calculate the acceleration during the skidding stop by assuming uniform acceleration. At a forward speed of 30 ft/s, the truck brakes were applied, causing the wheels Draw the free-body-diagram equation expressing the equivalence of the to stop rotating. It was observed that the external and effective forces. truck to skidded to a stop in 20 ft. Determine the magnitude of the normal reaction and the friction force at each wheel as the truck skidded to a stop.

Apply the three corresponding scalar equations to solve for the unknown normal wheel forces at the front and rear and the coefficient of friction between the wheels and road surface.

Sample Problem1

16 - 83

SOLUTION: Calculate the acceleration during the skidding stop by assuming uniform acceleration.

v2

v0 ft 30 s x 20 ft

2 v0

2a x

2

x0 2a 20 ft

a 22.5 ft s

ft 30 s

Draw a free-body-diagram equation expressing the equivalence of the external and effective forces. Apply the corresponding scalar equations.

Fy Fy

eff

NA

NB W

FA FB NB

kW k

0

ma W ga a g 22.5 32.2 0.699

Fx

Fx

eff

k

NA

Sample Problem 1

16 - 84

MA

5 ft W NB

MA

eff

12 ft N B 4 W a g

4 ft ma W a 5 4 12 g

1 5W 12

N B 0.650W N A W NB

0.350W

1 2

N rear

1N 2 A

0.350W

Nrear Frear

0.175W 0.122W

0.325W 0.0.227W

Frear

k N rear

0.690 0.175W

N front

F front

1N 2 V

1 2

0.650W

N front

k N front

Sample Problem 2

SOLUTION:

16 - 85

Note that after the wire is cut, all particles of the plate move along parallel circular paths of radius 150 mm. The plate is in curvilinear translation.

Draw the free-body-diagram equation expressing the equivalence of the external and effective forces.

Neglecting the mass of the links, determine immediately after the wire has been cut (a) the acceleration of the plate, and (b) the force in each link.

Resolve into scalar component equations parallel and perpendicular to the path of the mass center.

Solve the component equations and the moment equation for the unknown acceleration and link forces.

Sample Problem 2

16 - 86

SOLUTION: Note that after the wire is cut, all particles of the plate move along parallel circular paths of radius 150 mm. The plate is in curvilinear translation. Draw the free-body-diagram equation expressing the equivalence of the external and effective forces. Resolve the diagram equation into components parallel and perpendicular to the path of the mass center.

Ft

W cos 30 mg cos 30

a

Ft

eff

ma

60o

Sample Problem 2

16 - 87

Solve the component equations and the moment equation for the unknown acceleration and link forces.

MG

MG

eff

FAE sin 30 250 mm FDF sin 30 250 mm 38.4 FAE FDF 211.6 FDF 0 0.1815 FAE

Fn

a 8.50 m s 2

Fn

eff

60o

FDF

W sin 30

0 0

0.1815 FAE

W sin 30

0.619 8 kg 9.81m s 2

FAE FDF

47.9 N T 8.70 N C

FDF

0.1815 47.9 N

SOLUTION:

16 - 88

Determine the direction of rotation by evaluating the net moment on the pulley due to the two blocks.

Relate the acceleration of the blocks to the angular acceleration of the pulley.

Draw the free-body-diagram equation expressing the equivalence of the external and effective forces on the A pulley weighing 12 lb and having a radius complete pulley plus blocks system. of gyration of 8 in. is connected to two blocks as shown. Assuming no axle friction, determine the angular acceleration of the pulley and the acceleration of each block. Solve the corresponding moment equation for the pulley angular acceleration.

Sample Problem 3

16 - 89

SOLUTION: Determine the direction of rotation by evaluating the net moment on the pulley due to the two blocks.

MG

10 lb 6 in

5 lb 10 in

10 in lb

mk 2

W 2 k g

2

12 lb 8 ft 2 12 32.2 ft s 0.1656 lb ft s 2

Relate the acceleration of the blocks to the angular acceleration of the pulley.

aA

rA

10 ft 12

aB

rB

6 ft 12

Sample Problem 3

16 - 90

Draw the free-body-diagram equation expressing the equivalence of the external and effective forces on the complete pulley and blocks system. Solve the corresponding moment equation for the pulley angular acceleration.

MG

10 lb 10

6 12 6 ft 12

MG

5 lb

10 12

eff

10 ft 12

mB aB

10 6 32.2 12

6 ft 12 6 12

m Aa A

0.1656

10 ft 12 5 10 10 32.2 12 12

2.374 rad s 2

I aA aB

0.1656 lb ft s 2

10 12 6 12

Then,

ft s 2 ft s

2

aA

rA

10 ft 12

2.374 rad s 2

a A 1.978 ft s 2 1.187 ft s 2

aB

rB

6 ft 12

2.374 rad s 2

aB

SOLUTION:

16 - 91

Draw the free-body-diagram equation expressing the equivalence of the external and effective forces on the disk.

Solve the three corresponding scalar equilibrium equations for the horizontal, vertical, and angular accelerations of the disk.

A cord is wrapped around a homogeneous disk of mass 15 kg. The cord is pulled upwards with a force T = 180 N. Determine: (a) the acceleration of the center of the disk, (b) the angular acceleration of the disk, and (c) the acceleration of the cord.

Determine the acceleration of the cord by evaluating the tangential acceleration of the point A on the disk.

Sample Problem 4

SOLUTION: Draw the free-body-diagram equation expressing the equivalence of the external and effective forces on the disk. Solve the three scalar equilibrium equations.

Fx

Fx

eff

0 max Fy Fy

T W ay ma y

ax

eff

T W m

180 N - 15 kg 9.81m s 2 15 kg

ay

2.19 m s 2

MG

Tr I 2T mr

MG

eff

1 mr 2 2

2 180 N 15 kg 0.5 m

48.0 rad s 2

Sample Problem 4

16 - 93

Determine the acceleration of the cord by evaluating the tangential acceleration of the point A on the disk. acord a A t a a A G t

2.19 m s 2

0.5 m 48 rad s 2

acord 26.2 m s 2

ax

ay

2.19 m s 2

48.0 rad s 2

Sample Problem 5

SOLUTION:

16 - 94

Draw the free-body-diagram equation expressing the equivalence of the external and effective forces on the sphere. Solve the three corresponding scalar equilibrium equations for the normal reaction from the surface and the linear and angular accelerations of the sphere.

A uniform sphere of mass m and radius r is projected along a rough horizontal surface with a linear velocity v0. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the sphere and the surface is k. Determine: (a) the time t1 at which the sphere will start rolling without sliding, and (b) the linear and angular velocities of the sphere at time t1.

Apply the kinematic relations for uniformly accelerated motion to determine the time at which the tangential velocity of the sphere at the surface is zero, i.e., when the sphere stops sliding.

Sample Problem 5

16 - 95

SOLUTION: Draw the free-body-diagram equation expressing the equivalence of external and effective forces on the sphere. Solve the three scalar equilibrium equations.

Fy Fy

eff

N W 0 Fx Fx eff

N W

mg

F k mg

ma

a

eff

kg

MG

MG

Fr

k mg r

I

2 mr 2 3

5 kg 2 r NOTE: As long as the sphere both rotates and slides, its linear and angular motions are uniformly accelerated.

Sample Problem 5

16 - 96

Apply the kinematic relations for uniformly accelerated motion to determine the time at which the tangential velocity of the sphere at the surface is zero, i.e., when the sphere stops sliding.

v v 0 at v 0

0

kg

5 kg t 2 r

kg

v1

v0

1

k gt1

5 kg 2 r

5 kg t1 2 r

5 kg 2 r 2 v0 7 kg

t1

2 v0 7 kg

1

5 kg t1 2 r

5 v0 7 r

5 v 7 0

v1

5 v0

v1

16 - 97

Most engineering applications involve rigid bodies which are moving under given constraints, e.g., cranks, connecting rods, and non-slipping wheels. Constrained plane motion: motions with definite relations between the components of acceleration of the mass center and the angular acceleration of the body.

Solution of a problem involving constrained plane motion begins with a kinematic analysis. e.g., given and , find P, NA, and NB. - kinematic analysis yields a x and a y . - application of dAlemberts principle yields P, NA, and NB.

16 - 98

Noncentroidal rotation: motion of a body is constrained to rotate about a fixed axis that does not pass through its mass center. Kinematic relation between the motion of the mass center G and the motion of the body about G,

at

an

r 2

The kinematic relations are used to eliminate at and an from equations derived from dAlemberts principle or from the method of dynamic equilibrium.

16 - 99

Constrained Plane Motion: Rolling For a balanced disk constrained to Motion roll without sliding,

x

F F

r

sN sN kN

Rolling, no sliding:

a a

r r

Rotating and sliding:

a , r independent

aO

aG

aO aO

aG O aG O

aG O

Sample Problem 6

SOLUTION:

16 - 100

Draw the free-body-equation for AOB, expressing the equivalence of the external and effective forces.

mE kE mOB

4 kg 85 mm 3 kg

Evaluate the external forces due to the weights of gear E and arm OB and the effective forces associated with the angular velocity and acceleration.

Solve the three scalar equations derived from the free-body-equation for the tangential force at A and the horizontal and vertical components of reaction at shaft O.

The portion AOB of the mechanism is actuated by gear D and at the instant shown has a clockwise angular velocity of 8 rad/s and a counterclockwise angular acceleration of 40 rad/s2. Determine: a) tangential force exerted by gear D, and b) components of the reaction at shaft O.

Sample Problem 6

SOLUTION: Draw the free-body-equation for AOB.

16 - 101

Evaluate the external forces due to the weights of gear E and arm OB and the effective forces.

WE WOB

IE

4 kg 9.81m s 2 3 kg 9.81m s 2

2 mE k E

39.2 N 29.4 N

2

4kg 0.085 m

40 rad s 2

1.156 N m

mE kE mOB 4 kg 85 mm 3 kg

40 rad s 2 8 rad/s

mOB aOB

mOB r 24.0 N

2

3 kg 0.200 m 40 rad s 2

mOB aOB

mOB r 38.4 N

3 kg 0.200 m 8 rad s

I OB

1 m L2 12 OB

1 12

3kg 0.400 m

40 rad s 2

1.600 N m

Sample Problem 6

16 - 102

Solve the three scalar equations derived from the free-body-equation for the tangential force at A and the horizontal and vertical components of reaction M at O.M

O O eff

F 0.120m

IE

mOB aOB

0.200m

IOB 1.600N m

63.0 N

1.156 N m

24.0 N 0.200m

F

Fx

Fx

t

eff

WE WOB

IE

39.2 N 29.4 N

1.156 N m

t n

Rx

mOB aOB

Fy

24.0 N

Rx

eff

24.0 N

Fy

IOB

24.0 N 38.4 N

Ry Ry

F WE WOB

Ry 24.0 N

1.600 N m

Sample Problem 8

SOLUTION:

16 - 103

Draw the free-body-equation for the sphere, expressing the equivalence of the external and effective forces.

A sphere of weight W is released with no initial velocity and rolls without slipping on the incline.

With the linear and angular accelerations related, solve the three scalar equations derived from the free-body-equation for the angular acceleration and the normal and tangential reactions at C.

Calculate the friction coefficient required for the indicated tangential reaction at C.

Determine: a) the minimum value of the coefficient of friction, b) the velocity Calculate the velocity after 10 ft of of G after the sphere has rolled 10 ft uniformly accelerated motion. and c) the velocity of G if the sphere were to move 10 ft down a frictionless Assuming no friction, calculate the linear acceleration down the incline and the incline. corresponding velocity after 10 ft.

Sample Problem 8

16 - 104

SOLUTION: Draw the free-body-equation for the sphere, expressing the equivalence of the external and effective With the forces. linear and angular accelerations related,

solve the three scalar equations derived from the free-body-equation for the angular acceleration and the normal and tangential reactions at C.

MC MC

eff

W sin

a r

ma r mr W r g r

I

2 mr 2 5

2W 2 r 5g

5 g sin 7r

5 g sin 30 7

a 11.50 ft s 2

5 32.2 ft s 2 sin 30 7

Sample Problem 8

Solve the three scalar equations derived from the free-body-equation for the angular acceleration and the normal and tangential reactions at C. Fx Fx eff W sin F ma

16 - 105

W 5 g sin g 7 2 W sin 30 7

0.143W

Fy

5 g sin 7r

a r 11.50 ft s 2

Fy

eff

Calculate the friction coefficient required for the indicated tangential reaction at C.

F

s

sN

F N

0.143W 0.866W

0.165

Sample Problem 8

Calculate the velocity after 10 ft of uniformly accelerated motion.

16 - 106

v2

2 v0

2a x

x0

0 2 11.50 ft s 2 10 ft

v 15.17 ft s

Assuming no friction, calculate the linear acceleration and the corresponding velocity after 10 ft. MG M G eff 0 I 0

5 g sin 7r

a r 11.50 ft s 2 Fx Fx

eff

W sin a

ma

W a g 16.1ft s 2

32.2 ft s 2 sin 30

v2

2 v0

2a x

x0

0 2 16.1ft s 2 10 ft

v 17.94 ft s

Sample Problem 9

SOLUTION:

16 - 107

Draw the free-body-equation for the wheel, expressing the equivalence of the external and effective forces. Assuming rolling without slipping and therefore, related linear and angular accelerations, solve the scalar equations for the acceleration and the normal and tangential reactions at the ground.

A cord is wrapped around the inner hub of a wheel and pulled horizontally Compare the required tangential reaction with a force of 200 N. The wheel has to the maximum possible friction force. a mass of 50 kg and a radius of gyration of 70 mm. Knowing s = 0.20 If slipping occurs, calculate the kinetic and k = 0.15, determine the friction force and then solve the scalar acceleration of G and the angular equations for the linear and angular acceleration of the wheel. accelerations.

Sample Problem 9

16 - 108

SOLUTION: Draw the free-body-equation for the wheel,. Assuming rolling without slipping, solve the scalar equations for the acceleration and ground reactions. MC M C eff

I mk 2 50 kg 0.70 m

2

ma 0.100 m

2

I 0.245 kg m 2

50 kg 0.100 m

10.74 rad s 2 a

Fx

0.245 kg m 2

Assume rolling without slipping, a r 0.100 m

Fx

eff

1.074 m s 2

F F

Fx

200 N ma 146.3 N

Fx

eff

50 kg 1.074 m s 2

N W N mg

Sample Problem 9

16 - 109

Compare the required tangential reaction to the maximum possible friction force. Fmax 98.1 N s N 0.20 490.5 N

F > Fmax , rolling without slipping is impossible. Calculate the friction force with slipping and solve the scalar equations for linear and angular accelerations. F Fk 73.6 N k N 0.15 490.5 N

Fx Fx

eff

490.5 N

200 N 73.6 N

MG MG

eff

50 kg a

2.53 m s 2

200 N 0.0.060 m

18.94 rad s 2

0.245 kg m 2

Sample Problem 10

SOLUTION:

16 - 110

Based on the kinematics of the constrained motion, express the accelerations of A, B, and G in terms of the angular acceleration. Draw the free-body-equation for the rod, expressing the equivalence of the external and effective forces. The extremities of a 4-ft rod weighing 50 lb can move freely and with no friction along two straight tracks. The rod is released with no velocity from the position shown. Determine: a) the angular acceleration of the rod, and b) the reactions at A and B.

Solve the three corresponding scalar equations for the angular acceleration and the reactions at A and B.

Sample Problem 10

16 - 111

SOLUTION: Based on the kinematics of the constrained motion, express the accelerations of A, B, and G in terms of the angular acceleration. Express the acceleration of B as aB a A aB A With aB A 4 , the corresponding vector triangle and the law of signs yields

aA

5.46

aB

4.90

The acceleration of G is now obtained from a a G a A aG A where aG A 2 Resolving into x and y components,

ax ay

5.46

2 cos 60 1.732

4.46

2 sin 60

Sample Problem 10

16 - 112

Draw the free-body-equation for the rod, expressing the equivalence of the external and effective forces. Solve the three corresponding scalar equations for the angular acceleration and the reactions at A and M B. M

E E eff

50 1.732

6.93

4.46

2.69

1.732

2.07

2.30 rad s 2

2.30 rad s 2

1 ml 2 12

1 50 lb 4 ft 12 32.2 ft s 2

2

Fx

Fx

eff

2.07 lb ft s I ma x ma y

RB sin 45 RB 22.5 lb

6.93 2.30

RB

eff

22.5 lb

45o

Fy

Fy

RA

22.5 cos 45

50

Kinetic energy of a system of particles T

Introducing a center of mass:

mi ri

i

MR

mi ri

i

1 2

2 mi (ri ) i

mi ri

i

mi

i

ri

ri ' R

r i

' R r i

T 1 2

1 2

i ) mi (r

i 2

i ' ) mi (r

i

1 mi (ri ' R) 2

1 2

i

1 T 2 1 2 1 2

mi ri

i

i ' ) mi (r

i

i ' ) mi (r

i

R R

i ' ) mi (r

i

MR

mi ri ' MR'

In the center-of-mass coordinate system, the center of mass is at the origin, therefore

1 2

i ' ) mi (r

i

1 2 ( R) M 2

Kinetic energy of the system of particles consists of a kinetic energy about the center of mass plus a kinetic energy obtained if all the mass were concentrated at the center of mass This statement can be applied to the case of a rigid body: Kinetic energy of a rigid body consists of a kinetic energy about the center of mass plus a kinetic energy obtained if all the mass were concentrated at the center of mass

Recall Chasles theorem!

1 2

i ' ) mi (r

i

1 2 ( R) M 2

Chasles: we can represent motion of a rigid body as a combination of a rotation and translation

If the potential and/or the generalized external forces are known, the translational motion of center of mass can be dealt with separately, as a motion of a point object Let us consider the rotational part or motion

TR 1 2

1 2

i ' ) 2 mi (r

i

i ' ) mi (r

i

1 2 ( R) M 2

TR

') Rate of change of a vector (r i s

1 2

i ' ) mi (r

i

1 2

' mi ri ' r i

i

1 2

mi ( ri ' ) ( ri ' )

i

') (r i r

ri '

For a rigid body, in the rotating frame of reference, all the distances between the points of the rigid body are fixed:

(ri ' ) r

(ri ' ) s

ri '

TR

1 2

mi ( ri ' ) ( ri ' )

i

1 2

mi

i

3 m,n 1

( ri ' ) j ( ri ' ) j

m ri 'n

j 1

1 2

3 jkl k ,l 1

mi

i j 1

k ri 'l

jm n

TR 1 2

3 3 k ,l 1

mi

i j 1

jkl k ri 'l

3 m,n 1

jm nm ri 'n

jkl j 1

jm n

km l n

lm kn

1 2

mi

i j , k ,l , m , n 1

jkl

jm n

k m ri 'l ri 'n 1 2

3

mi (

i k ,l , m , n 1

3

km l n

lm kn

)k m ri 'l ri 'n

k ri 'k ri 'l l

k ,l 1

ri 'k ri 'l ]

2 kl

1 3 k I kl l 2 k ,l 1

~ I 2

I kl

i

mi [(ri ' )

ri 'k ri 'l ]

TR ~ I 2

I kl

i

mi [(ri ' ) 2

kl

ri 'k ri 'l ]

(3x3) matrix I is called the inertia tensor Inertia tensor is a symmetric matrix (only 6 independent elements):

I kl

I lk

For a rigid body with a continuous distribution of density, the definition of the inertia tensor is as 2 follows: I [(r ) r r ]dV

kl kl k l

Introducing a notation

TR

~ I 2

~In n 2

I 2 2 ~In I n

TR

On the other hand:

I2 2

2 2 mi (n ri ' ) (n ri ' )

i

TR

1 2

mi ( ri ' ) ( ri ' )

i

Therefore

I

i

mi (n ri ' ) (n ri ' )

The moment of inertia depends upon the position and direction of the axis of rotation

For a constrained rigid body, the rotation may occur not around the center of mass, but around some other point 0, fixed at a given moment of time

Then, the moment of inertia about the axis of rotation is:

I0

i

mi (n ri ) (n ri )

2

i

2 mi (n ri ' )

R)) ri ' R

2 mi (n R )

2(n

i

I CM 2 mi ri ') (n R) (n R) M

I0 I CM 2 M (n R)

Parallel axis theorem: the moment of inertia about a given axis is equal to the moment of inertia about a parallel axis through the center of mass plus the moment of inertia of the body, as if concentrated at the center of mass, with respect to the original axis

Does the change of axes affect the vector?

Let us consider two systems of coordinates defined with respect to two different points of the rigid body: x1y1z1 and x2y2z2 R R R

2 1

( R) r

1 R

(1 2 ) R 0

Any difference in vectors at two arbitrary points must be parallel to the line joining two points It is not possible for all the points of the rigid body Then, the only possible case:

The angular velocity vector is the same for all coordinate systems fixed in the body

Let us consider a homogeneous cube of mass M and side a Let us choose the origin at one of cubes corners Then

a a a

I kl

V

[(r )

2 kl

rk rl ]dV

a a a

I11

0 0 0 a a

0 0 0

a

0 0

2 a5 3

2Ma 2 3

I 22

I 33

I kl

V

[(r )

2 kl

rk rl ]dV

a a a

a a

I12

0 0 0

I12 I 21 I13

a

0 0

[r1r2 ]dr1dr2

I 23 I 32

a5 4

Ma 2 4

I 31

Ma 2

2 3 1 4 1 4

1 4 2 3 1 4

1 4 1 4 2 3

Angular momentum of a system of particles is:

i s

) (r i r

ri

For a rigid body, in the rotating frame of reference, all the distances between the points of the rigid body are fixed: (r ) r

3 3 jkl ik k ,l 1 m,n 1

(ri ) r

i s

mi (ri ( ri ))

i

lm n

Lj

i

mi

m rin

3 i k ,l , m , n 1 jkl lm n ik in

r r m mi

3

Lj

i 3 k ,l , m , n 1 jm kn

jkl lm n ik in

r r m mi )rik rin m mi

3

(

i

3 k 1

jn km

k ,m,n 1

k

i

mi [(ri )

2 jk

rij rik ]

k 1

I jk k

TR

~ I 2

~L 2

~ L 2

Inertia tensor is a symmetric matrix

In a general case, such matrices can be diagonalized we are looking for a system of coordinates fixed to a rigid body, in which the inertia tensor has a form: I1 0 0

0 0

I2 0

To diagonalize the inertia tensor, we have to find the solutions of a secular equation

0 I3

I11 I I 21 I 31

I12 I 22 I I 32

I13 I 23 I 33 I

Coordinate axes, in which the inertia tensor is diagonal, are called the principal axes of a rigid body; the eigenvalues of the secular equations are the components of the principal moment of inertia After diagonalization of the inertia tensor, the equations of motion for rotation of a free rigid body 3 look like

i Ii

ijk j ,k 1

j k I k

After diagonalization of the inertia tensor, the rotational kinetic energy a rigid body looks like

TR

1 2

3 i 1

I i i

To find the directions of the principal axes we have to find the directions for the eigenvectors

When the rotation occurs around one of the principal axes In, there is only one non-zero component n In this case, the angular momentum has only one component

Lk

I k k

kn

In this case, the rotational kinetic energy has only one term 2 3

TR

1 2

in i i 1

I i

I n n 2

Let us choose the body axes along the principal axes of a free rotating rigid body

Let us assume that the rotation axis is slightly off the direction of one of the principal axes ( - small parameter):

1i 1

2 2

3 3

1 2 3 ( I 3 I 2 ) I1 2 13 ( I1 I 3 ) I 2 3 12 ( I 2 I1 ) I 3 0 0 0 1 I1

2 3

3 ijk j ,k 1

j k I k

0 0 0

(I3 (I2

I2 ) I1 )

I 2 2 1 I 3 3 1

3 2

( I1 I 3 )

1 I1

2 3 (I3

I2 ) I1 )

0 0 0

0

3

I 2 2 1 I 3 3 1

I3 ) 3 ( I1

2

2 1 3 1

(I2

I1 I 3 I2 I2 I1 I3

0 0

1 2 (3)

const

2 ( 3)

1 ( I1 I 2 )( I1 I 3 ) I 2 I3

2

2(3)

2( 3)

1 ( I1 I 2 )( I1 I 3 ) I 2 I3

2(3)

2( 3)

12 ( I1 I 2 )( I1 I 3 ) I 2 I3

I1 I1

The behavior of solutions of this equation depends on the relative values of the principal moments of 2 inertia 2(3) 0 2 ( 3)

I 2 ; I1

I3

I 2 ; I1

I3

2( 3)

A2(3) cos( t

2(3)

2 2 ( 3)

2( 3)

Always stable

I3 I2

I1 I1

I2 I3

0

t

2

2 ( 3) 2 ( 3)

A2(3) e

Exponentially unstable

A2(3) e t

Previously, we have found the inertia tensor for a uniform cube with the origin at one of the corners, and the coordinate axes along the edges:

Ma 2

2 3 1 4 1 4

2

1 4 2 3 1 4

I 2Ma 3

1 4 1 4 2 3

2 2

2Ma 2 I 3 Ma 2 4 Ma 2 4

Ma 2 4 2 2Ma I 3 Ma 2 4

Ma 2 4 Ma 2 4 2 2Ma I 3

11Ma 12

M 2a 4 8

Ma 2 2Ma 2 4 3

11Ma 12

2

I

2

2Ma 3

M a 8

Ma 4

2Ma 3

I1

11Ma 12

I2

11Ma 2 ; I3 12

Ma 2 6

To find the directions of the principal axes we have to find the directions for the eigenvectors Let us consider I 3

Ma 2 6

3

I3

I 3 13

13 23 33

2Ma 2 13 3 Ma 2 13 4 Ma 2 13 4

13 13

Ma 2 23 4 2Ma 2 23 3 Ma 2 23 4

23 33

Ma 2 33 4 Ma 2 33 4 2Ma 2 33 3

13 23

Ma 2 13 6 Ma 2 23 6 Ma 2 33 6

33

213 33 13 33 13 33

23 33 223 33 23 33

1 1 2

Given a system of particles translating through space, each particle i being acted upon by external force Fi, and each particle located relative to an inertial reference frame, the governing equations are

Z Fi ri XYZ inertial mi mi + 1

rc

cm

"s ystem" mn

m1

m2

Y

Fc = m ac

M= H

c Mc = H

where

ac = acceleration of center of mass (cm) of all mass particles

Hi = ri x mivi = angular momentum of particle i (also called moment of momentum) H, Hc = angular momentum summed over all particles, measured about inertial point, cm point, respectively

M, Mc = moment of all external forces applied to system of particles, measured about inertial point, cm point, respectively

(translating and rotating)

The time rate of change of any vector V capable of being viewed in either XYZ or xyz is

z

[ ] =[ ]

XYZ

dV dt

dV dt

xyz

xV

x

where is the angular velocity of a secondary translating, rotating reference frame (xyz).

Y

X

(translating and rotating)

Another common form of the equation is:

z y

r+ V

xV

x Y

r+ H

xH

X

By integrating the motion over the rigid body, we can express the angular momentum relative to the xyz axes as H = Hx i + H y j + H z k

z dm =

d

dV y

or r P

(Jxx

+ (Jyx + (Jzx

+ Jxy

+ Jyy + Jzy

+ Jxz

+ Jyz + Jzz

z) z) z)

i

j

moments products

x y

or in matrix form

x y

H= J

Taking the derivative of (6.20) and substituting into (6.16), also assuming the body axes to be aligned with the principal axes, we get Eulers moment equations:

x+ My = Jyy y +

Mx = Jxx

Mz = Jzz

z

(Jzz - Jyy)

(Jxx - Jzz)

+ (Jyy - Jxx)

P z

Z

r y R

x

Y

By taking two derivatives and applying (6.13) appropriately, the absolute acceleration of point P can be shown to be a= r where = acceleration of xyz origin x = tangential acceleration x( x = centripetal acceleration r = acceleration of P relative to xyz 2 x = Coriolis acceleration r

+ R

x( x

+r + 2

For the special case of xyz fixed to rigid body and P a point in the body,

and reduces to

r r 0

+

a= r

+ R + R

x( x

If P at cm, then ac = x

c

x( x

ATTITUDE DYNAMICS AND KINEMATICS

LECTURE #

Let us suppose that a rigid body is moving in an inertial frame. This motion can be described by the translation motion of its center of mass (cm), together with a rotational motion of the body about some axis through its center of mass.

which simply states that the rate of change of the vector A as observed in the fixed coordinate system (I - "inertial" in our case) equals the rate of change of the vector A as observed in the rotating coordinate system (B - "body" in our case) with angular velocity w, plus the vector product w X A

Total momentum

The problem at hand is to transform the general inertia matrix into a diagonal one. Transformation of a nondiagonal real square symmetric matrix into a diagonal one is a common procedure that is treated in linear algebra

With the body axes chosen to be principal axes,

for the angular momentum vector h, we can write

This is the well-known Euler's moment equation. In this equation, the subscript "I" indicates a derivative in the inertial frame, while the subscript "B" indicates a derivative in the rotating body frame.

Assuming that XB, YB, ZB are the principal axes of inertia and performing the vector product, we obtain the three scalar equations

These equations are nonlinear, so they do not have an analytical closed-form solution. However, they can be solved under some relieving conditions

Previously we assumed an axisymmetric body now we want to find the condition for stability about any principle axis with no external moments acting on the body

As no external moments are present so put Mx = My = Mz = O. To find stability for Z-axis take

if the body is in rotational motion caused by initial conditions but not under the influence of external moments, then the norm of the angular velocity remains constant, IwI = const

Moreover, since there are no applied moments on the body, M = IhiI =0, means hi = const; the momentum vector is constant in inertial space.

the angular momentum and the angular velocity vectors will be resolved into two components, one in the XB-YB plane and another along the ZB body axis (assume once more that the body is symmetric, Ix = Iy): w = Wxy + Wz and h= IxWxy + IzWz Since W and b have components in the same directions (Wxy and Wz), it is evident that h, W, and Wz are coplanar. But since the momentum vector h is constant, its direction is fixed in space. The vector Wxy rotates in the XB-YB body plane, so the angular velocity vector w must also rotate about h;

also fixed in space. Whenever the body ZB axis deviates from the momentum vector h, the body is said to nutate. This nutation forces the spin axis to deviate from the nominal desired direction. Keeping the nutation angle small is one of the important tasks of attitude control systems,

Frames of reference Angular Velocity Vector of a Rotating Frame

The attitude dynamics equations will be obtained from Euler's moment equation present derivations we will allow for the existence of rotating elements inside the satellite - known as momentum exchange devices - and for other kinds of gyroscopic devices. The most common momentum exchange devices are the reaction wheel. the momentum wheel. and the control moment gyro. M is the total external moment acting on the body, which is equal to the inertial momentum change of the system. External inertial moments are products of aerodynamic, solar, or gravity gradient forces, or of magnetic torques or reaction torques produced by particles expelled from the body, such as hydrazine gas or ion particles

Drag NOTE: The magnitudes of the torques is dependent on the spacecraft design.

Torque (au)

Examples

Uncertainty in S/C Center of Gravity (typically 1-3 cm) Thruster Misalignment (typically 0.1 0.5 ) Thruster Mismatch (typically ~5%) Rotating Machinery Liquid Sloshing (e.g. propellant) Flexible structures Crew Movement

Disturbing Torques

T T

H I r F

Tg

where:

Tg maximum gravity gradient Earth' s gravitatio nal parameter R orbit radius I y , I z S/C mass moments of inertia maximum deviation away from vertical

3 Iz 3 2R

I y sin 2

y

Magnetic Torque

where:

Tm

Tm

m xB

m S/C residual magnetic dipole Amp m 2 B strength of Earth' s magnetic field M for points above the equator 3 R 2M for points above the poles R3 M Earth' s magnetic moment 7.96 1015 tesla m 3 R orbit radius meters

*Note value of m depends on S/C size and whether on-board compensation is used - values can range from 0.1 to 20 Amp-m2 - m = 1 for typical small, uncompensated S/C

Aerodynamic Torque

Ta

where:

Ta

F c pa cg

1 C D Av 2 2

atmospheric density C D coefficien t of drag typical S/C values are 2 - 2.5 A cross - sectional area v velocity C pa center of atmospheric pressure Cg center of gravity

Tsrp

where:

F c ps cg

Fs As 1 c cos i

F

Tsrp c ps cg Fs

solar radiation presure disturbanc e torque center of solar radiation pressure center of gravity solar flux density W m2

c speed of light As area of illuminate d surface reflectance factor 0 i sun incidence angle 1, typical value 0.6 for S/C

FireSat Example

We shall break down the external torque T into two principal parts: Tc' the control moments to be used for controlling the attitude motion of the satellite; and Td , those moments due to different disturbing environmental phenomena. The total torque vector is thus T = Tc+Td'

Equation 4.8.2 summarizes the full attitude dynamics that must be implemented in the complete six-degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) simulation necessary for analyzing the attitude control system. Care must be taken in deriving the vector w, since it must be expressed in the correct coordinate frame.

For momentum-biased satellites a constant momentum bias hwyo is applied along the YB axis to give inertial angular stability about the YB axis of the sIc. For that case

hwx' h wy, hwz are the momentum components of the wheels with axes of rotation along the XB, VB, and ZB body axes of the satellite; hwx = IwxWwx, hwy =IwyWwy + hwyo, and hwz = IwzWwz' where Iwx, Iwy, Iwz are the moments of inertia of the individual wheels and Wwx, Wwy' Wwz are the angular velocities of the wheels. The terms hwx, h wy, hwz are the angular moments that the wheels exert on the s/c along the body axes. If Wwx is the angular acceleration of the XB axis wheel, then hwx = IwxWwx is the negative of the angular moment that the XB wheel exerts on the satellite about its XB axis. The same applies for the YB and ZB axes wheel components. Attitude control of a s/c can be achieved by controlling these angular accelerations, which are internal torques exerted on the satellite. If, in addition, external (inertial) torques such as magnetic or reaction torques are applied to the satellite, they are incorporated in Tc the vector of control torques.

QUESTIONS

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