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Learning Outcomes

Describe what an organisation is and how the concept of organisation has changed. Describe the nature of management, define management and managers and identify their importance to contemporary work organisations.
Identify the core concepts of management. Describe the basic management functions and the management as a process.

Describe the types of managers, roles performed by them and the requisites to become effective managers.
Identify the emerging characteristics of new work organisation.
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Management can be Exercised in Different Contexts

Individual Family Organisational National


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Session 01 - Contents
What is an organisation? Common features of an organisation Different perspectives on organisations Why we need organisations? What is a business organisation? Classification of business organisations Objectives of organisations
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What is an Organisation ?

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An Organisation - Definitions
A group of people who work together in a structured way for a shared purpose
(Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary)

An organisation is a two or more people who work together in a structured way to achieve a specific goal or set of goals.
(Stoner and Freeman,2009)

An organisation is a deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose.


(Robbins and Coulter, 2007)
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Common Features of an Organisation


People Structure Common objective/goal
(Robbins and Decenzo,2004)

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Other Perspectives on Understanding an Organisation

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An Organisation is
a socio-economic entity.
This perspective views that organisations are entities which engaged in social as well as economic activities.

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An Organisation is
a social sub-system.
This perspective views an organisation as a subsystem of the society.

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Organisations as Social Sub-systems


What is a system? How can we identify an organisation as a system?

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What is a System ?
A system is an assemblage of interacting and interdependent components working together to achieve a common goal.

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Main Features of a System


Set of interacting components Integrated as a whole Operates within a certain boundary Work together to achieve a common goal

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Organisation as a System

System perspective views the organisation as a unified, purposeful system composed of interrelated parts.

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Why we need Organisations?


Accomplishment of otherwise impossible tasks

Provision of means to achieve human needs Organisations create and preserve knowledge
Organisations make the whole society

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What is a Business ?
A business is an any economic activity carried out to satisfy human needs and wants.

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Business Organisation
A business organisation is a collection of individuals and deliberately structured entity which produces goods and/or services utilising limited resources to achieve its specific goals and objectives.
Apply to all organisations: for profit, non-profit and not-for profit.
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Bases for Classification of Business Organisations


Objective Product Ownership Scale Stage of Production Legal Structure Liability Technology Market
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Objectives of Business Organisations


What is an objective?
Objectives are those end results toward which the organisational activities are directed.
(Koontz and Donnel)

Classification of objectives
Objectives can be classified based on the level of significance and time horizon.

Multiple objectives of an organisation


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Trade Unions

Political Parties

Customers General Community Media Debtors Employees

Competitors

Business Organisations

Suppliers

Owners Government Creditors

Educational Institutions

Customers

Financial Institutions

Trade Associations

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Questions and Clarifications


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Thank You

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Session 02 - Contents
What is management? Management as a process Management is an Art or a Science? Core concepts of management Why management?

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Management in Business Organisations

Business

Organisation

Management

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What is Management?
There is no universally accepted definition of Management.

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Different Definitions of Management

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Management Definitions
Definition 1

Management is the art of getting things done through other people.


Mary Parker Follet (1868-1933)

Definition 2

Management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organized group.
(Koontz)

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Management Definitions
Definition 3 Management is the process of planning, organising, commanding, coordinating and controlling.
(Fayol,1930)

Definition 4 Management is the process of planning, organising, leading and controlling, the efforts of organisation members and of using all other organisational resources to achieve organisational goals.
(Stoner and Freeman,2009)

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Management Definitions
Definition 5

Management is the attainment of organisational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organising, leading and controlling organisational resources.
(Daft,2012)

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Hence, Management can be broadly defined as a process of planning, organising, leading and controlling the limited resources efficiently and effectively to achieve predetermined goals and objectives in an ever changing business environment.

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Management in Organisations
Environment

Planning
Inputs from the environment Human resources Financial resources Physical resources Information resources

Organizing

Goals Attained
Efficiently Effectively

Controlling

Leading

(Source: Adapted from Van Fleet, David D., Contemporary Management, Second Edition.)
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Core Concepts of Management


Resources Efficiency Effectiveness Productivity Process Goals/Objectives Environment
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( Core Concept is a notion or an idea, and in this context it refers to the key terms used to define and understand what management is?)

Resources
An organisations resources include, Human Resources Financial Resources Physical Resources Information Resources
(Griffin,2012)

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Efficiency
Doing things right
(Drucker,2010)

The ability to minimize the use of resources in achieving organisational objectives.


(Stoner and Freeman, 2009)

Getting the most output from the least amount of inputs.


(Robbins and Coulter, 2012)

A measure of how well or how productively resources are used to achieve a goal.
(Jones and George, 2009)
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Effectiveness
Doing the right thing
(Drucker,2010)

The ability to determine appropriate objectives.


(Stoner, Freeman and Gibert, 2008)

A measure of the appropriateness of the goals an organisation is pursuing and of the degree to which the organisation achieves those goals.
(Jones and George, 2009)
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Efficiency and Effectiveness in Management

(Robbins and Coulter, 2012)


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High performing organisations are effective and efficient

(John R. Schermerhorn)
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Productivity
Productivity is the relationship between the output generated by a production or service system and the input provided to create this output.
Productivity = Efficiency + Effectiveness

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Management as a Process
Planning

Controlling

Organizing

Leading
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Four Functions of Management

(Jones and George, 2008)


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Management Is it a Science or an Art?

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Management as a Science
Science is a body of knowledge pertaining to a specific field of study. It contains theories, principles and facts.

Management as an Art
Art implies the application of knowledge and skills to bring about the desired results.

Management is both a science as well as an art.


Science(theory) and art (practice) are both essential for the success of management.
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Why Management?
To maximise the utilisation of scarce resources To face the increasing competition for inputs and outputs To enhance the quality of the products and services To adopt/plan for the changes in the business environment
The ultimate aim of management is to enhance the organisational productivity and performance.

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Questions and Clarifications

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Thank You
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Session 03 - Contents
Managers Who is a manager? Types of managers Managerial skills Managerial roles Characteristics of new work organisations Challenges faced by modern-day managers
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Who is a Manager?

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Manager/s
The people responsible for directing the efforts aimed at helping organisations achieve their goals. (Stoner, Freeman and Gilbert, 2008)

Someone who coordinates and oversees the work of other people so that organisational goals can be accomplished. (Robbins and Coulter, 2012) Someone whose primary responsibility is to carry out the management process.
(Griffin,2012)

In general we can define a manager as someone who performs management functions in an organisation.
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Types of Managers
The Managerial Levels
First line managers Middle managers Top managers

Scope of the Activities


Functional managers General managers

Responsibility of the Activities


Line managers Staff managers
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Classification of Managers by the Managerial Level

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Types of Managers based on Managerial Level in an Organisation


First-line managers
Supervisors responsible for directing the day-to-day activities of operative employees

Middle managers
Individuals at levels of management between the first-line manager and top management

Top managers
Individuals who are responsible for making decisions about the direction of the organisation and establishing policies that affect all organisational members
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Types of Managers based on the Scope of Activities in an Organisation


General Manager

Production Manager

Marketing Manager

Finance Manager

HR Manager

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Functional and General Managers


Functional manager A manager who is responsible for one business function in an organisation.

General manager The individual responsible for all the business functions in an organisation.

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Line and Staff Managers


Line managers are responsible for work activities that directly affect organisations outputs and objectives.

Staff managers use technical expertise to advise and support the efforts of the line managers and workers .

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Managerial Skills
Managerial skills is generally a pre-requisite for management success. (Certo and Certo 2009) What type of skills do managers need?
Robert L. Katz proposed that managers need three critical skills in managing an organization. Conceptual skills Human skills Technical skills
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Managerial Skills
Conceptual skills: the ability to analyze and diagnose a situation and find the cause and effect. Human skills: the ability to work well with other people individually and in a group.

Technical skills: the job-specific knowledge required to perform a task. Common examples include marketing, accounting, and manufacturing.
All three skills are enhanced through formal training, reading, and practice.
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Relative Skills Needed for Effective Performance at Different Levels of Management

(Jones and George, 2008)


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What Managers Do?


Henry Mintzbergs Managerial Roles
Managerial roles refers to specific actions or behaviours expected of and exhibited by a manager.
(Robbins and Coulter, 2011)

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Key Managerial Roles (Mintzberg)


Key Management Roles

Interpersonal Roles
Figurehead Leader Liaison

Informational Roles
Monitor Disseminator Spokesperson

Decisional Roles
Entrepreneur (Innovator) Disturbance Handler Resource Allocator Negotiator
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Interpersonal Roles
Roles managers assume to coordinate and interact with employees and provide direction to the organisation.

Figurehead role: Perform ceremonial and symbolic duties such as greeting visitors, signing legal documents. Leader role: Direct and motivate subordinates, train counsel and communicate with subordinates.

Liaison role: Maintain information links and coordinate people inside and outside the organisation to help achieve goals.
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Informational Roles
Associated with the activities needed to obtain and transmit information for management of the organisation.

Monitor role: Seek and receive information from both the internal and external environment.
Disseminator role: Forward information about the changes taking place in the external and internal environment to the organisation members. Spokesperson role: Transmit information through speeches and reports to outsiders of the organisation.
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Decisional Roles
Associated with the methods managers use to plan strategy and utilize resources to achieve goals.

Entrepreneur role: decide and initiate projects; identify new ideas, delegate idea responsibility to others.

Disturbance handler role: assume responsibility for handling an unexpected event or crisis.
Resource allocator role: assign resources between functions and divisions, set budgets of lower managers.

Negotiator role: seeks to negotiate solutions between other managers, unions, customers, or shareholders.
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Requirements to be an Effective and Efficient Manager


Knowledge (know what, know how) Skills (general and specific) Positive Attitudes (on work, people, environment and on self)

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The New Workplace


New workplace Old workplace

Forces technology markets workforces pace events Characteristics resources work workers

digital global diverse change, speed turbulent

mechanical local, domestic markets homogeneous stability, efficiency calm, predictable

information, knowledge flexible, virtual empowered

physical assets structured, localized loyal

Management competencies Leadership dispersed, empowering doing work by teams relationships collaboration design experimentation, learning
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autocratic by individuals conflict, competition top down control

(Daft, 2012)

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Challenges faced by Modern-day Managers


Managing global competition. Facing the competition through superior efficiency, quality, innovation, and responsiveness. Increasing performance while being an ethical manager. Balancing the interests of different stakeholders. Managing a diversified workforce. Adopting new technologies. Managing creativity, innovation and continuous change.

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Questions and Clarifications


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Thank You

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