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UAV payload trades, analysis and effects based selection


Gregory Gerten
This Presentation is Approved for Public Release Analytical Graphics Inc.
Derived from:

October 29th, 2007

Internet sources

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Problem
UAV proliferation and sensor payload types are increasing Size, weight and power (SWAP) are crucial to small UAVs Interdependencies exist between different sensor systems and communication and navigation needs

AGI

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Agenda
UAV modeling Flight dynamics Ground control Environment/Terrain Effects Based Selection BAMS Boarder Patrol Campaign analysis - MCOs System modeling Communication Navigation Sensors Current use / success Summary

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Flight Dynamics
6DOF route creation
Platform specific models Take-off, landing, cruise Circles, racetracks, figure-8s...

Route optimization
Minimize red/blue threats Maximize sensor coverage/effects Optimize profile to maximize time on target

Inter/ra-object geometry calculations


Coordinate transformations Off axis antenna translations / effects Range, vectors, angles, magnitudes, etc.

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Ground Control
Transmitters (Tx)
Platform Tx and antennas Controller Tx and antennas Red/blue Tx (EA) and antennas

Receivers (Rx)
Platform Rx and antennas Controller Rx and antennas Red/blue Rx (ES) and antennas

Repeater links Network operations


Link Budget analysis Dynamic networks

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Environmental effects
Accuracy errors due to the environment
Terrain (DTED) Ionosphere Obscura / Multipath Weather models

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Analysis outputs
Link budget reports and graphs RF Coverage 2D/3D

Tip-offs and visual cues

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Communication Systems - Tx
Modeling a transmitter
Frequency, Power, Data Rate, Modulation Antenna, Polarization, Gains

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Communication Systems - Rx
Modeling a Receiver
Frequency Bandwidth Antenna Polarization Gains

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Communication Environment
Taking environment into account
Terrain . Urban, Masking Rain, Cloud, and Fog Gaseous Absorption Tropospheric, Plug-ins

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Navigation
UAVs require Navigation
Auto-pilot and situational awareness Precise timing and reference Sensor and weapon hand-off

UAVs are closer to the threats


Less range and body masking Civilian vs military receivers Long durations beyond FLOT

Navwar effects everyone


Blue EA assets may effect Blue EP Need to ensure system interoperability GPS to UAVs as Oxygen to humans

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Sensors
Plethora of sensors to choose
Imagery - SAR, FLIR, EO, IR, etc. Signals Entire bandwidth to consider Geolocation methods TDoA, FDoA, AoA

Sensor dependencies
Size, weight and power Communication and navigation demands Processing (On/Off board) Automation?

Fusion process / capability


Fusion with other on-board sensors Fusion across the battle-space Boiled down nuggets of value

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BAMS (Maritime Surveillance)


Multiple object handling
Land, air, sea, and space Sensors, comms, navigation, radar Red or blue targets / structures

Queuing and targeting


In-view analysis and reporting Time on target reporting Targeting collection analysis

Situational Awareness
Data exchange and visualization Change detection and tip-offs Quick look analysis and reporting

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Boarder Patrol
Coverage analysis
Sensors field of view / targeting Revisit time / duration covered Multiple coverage / platforms

Assured Communications
Terrain / obscura effects Jamming / noise effects Tx / Rx link budget

Multiple UAS
Sensor / Target mixes Airspace deconfliction Network Centric data exchange

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Campaign analysis - MCOs


Many-on-Many analysis
Performance attribute control Engagement level measures Full force on force outcomes

Collaborative approach
DIS/HLA data exchange Components to a large system Ingest and output real-time data

Multiple UAS
Sensor / Target mixes Airspace deconfliction Network Centric data exchange

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Concepts Analysis
JUSTAS Program
Canadian Forces Aerospace Warfare Center Problem: What platform and sensor types will best meet system requirements?
(Joint Unmanned Surveillance Target Acquisition System)

Solution: Model different platform (manned,


unmanned & satellites) and sensor combinations in different missions and analyze surveillance results.

Outcome: System platform and sensor options analysis


using a single low risk COTS product.

Full surveillance system modeling and analysis using a low risk COTS product.
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T&E Planning, Analysis and Visualization


NASA Wallops Island Flight Facility Problem: Lengthy feasibility studies and
costs associated with them BEFORE contract award

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Solution:

STK based Mission Planning Lab re-creates any mission to build feasibility studies and cost analysis quickly and accurately

Outcome: $1M + contract awarded on


the spot

Turn complex concepts into feasible options & secure FUNDS in hours instead of months AGI
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Test and Evaluation Safety


UK JUEP: Thales Aerospace Division
Problem: Major UAV ISTAR Program:
Operational Analysis and Trial Planning. Effective de-risking required prior to live trials.

Solution: Full 3D Analysis environment.


Explore What-ifs? in faster than realtime. React to custom requirement changes on the fly.

Outcome: Significant Cost and Time savings in designing


T&E plans with the customer.

AGI technology used for operational analysis, T&E planning, and post-trial analysis.
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Real-time Trials with SOCOM/AFSOC


Real-time System
Restricted Air Space Analysis Airfield visualization (DAFIF) Coverage Analysis Terrain and imagery Communications Analysis Aircraft 3D Models Tactical Decision Aids

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Real-time data can be analyzed as it happens


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Summary
Leverage efforts across community Program collaboration and risk reduction Sensor trades and collection optimization Requirement validation and analysis Perform effects based selection

Ensure System level Effects based acquisition

You can do it!


Performance Attributes

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Hardware in-the-loop Simulation


Transfers the M&S scenario data/inputs into actual hardware to simulate test conditions and collect this data to determine system performance in real-time

Perform M&S
Bound the problem space Create test scenarios Transfer test parameters to the hardware

Hardware
Import simulation parameters Create signals (power, frequency, phasing, etc.) Combine signals and pass to hardware under test Send truth data to simulation
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Quick look Visualization


Import data feeds Truth Test Hardware Calculate RT differences Visualize entire scenario including environment

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