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The Maldives National University Faculty of Education Subject Name: Science for Beginners Subject Code: SCI 019

Credit Points: 12 Contact Hours: 4 hours per week:lectures, tutorials & Workshops Pre-requisites: None Co-requisites: None Minimum Qualifications and Experience Required by Instructors/Lecturers: Maximum Class Size per Instructor: 25 Modes of delivery: Lecture/ tutorials/workshops Introduction Science for Beginners is a unit offered at the Foundation Level, developed for students enrolling in Primary Teaching courses, without any formal science background. This unit is aimed to develop students knowledge and understanding of basic science concepts, skills and attitudes, which are of relevance to learning other science units offered at the faculty of education. It also helps develop an awareness of the place of science in modern society.

In this subject, science is viewed as a method of knowing, through which humans try to understand the physical, material and biological components of their world. Doing

science is viewed as a means by which these components of our world are investigated systematically through questioning and testing of ideas, by measurement and observation, discussion and debate on validity and worthiness of ideas.

The above philosophy is used to guide the teaching strategies applied within this unit. Learning through investigations is emphasized. However, teacher-led demonstrations, library research and lectures are used where deemed appropriate.
Faculty of Education, MNU, Maldives

The learning activities provided consider the relevance of curriculum content to the students lives and aim to challenge the students to think and apply the scientific understanding they have gained in the unit and from their personal experience. Development of an attitude of curiosity, interest and inquisitiveness towards understanding of our world is encouraged.

Learning objectives and outcomes

On completion of this subject students should be able to: 1. demonstrate a knowledge and understanding of the science concepts taught within the subject; 2. appreciate that science is a human endeavour and its importance in our daily life; 3. demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of the role of investigations and practical work in science; 4. demonstrate a knowledge of contextually relevant science activities, content, skills and scientific attitudes suitable for learning further science; 5. ability to select and organize information relevant to certain science topics and to communicate this information coherently; 6. Demonstrate an interest for learning science and confidence and enthusiasm for deepening and strengthening these science concepts.

Subject structure and organization

This subject will be delivered through a combination of lectures, workshops, practical activities, and laboratory work and student presentations.

Classes will be offered twice a week (2, 2 hour slots per week), for 15 weeks.

Faculty of Education, MNU, Maldives

Wk 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 5 2 2 6 7 2 2 2 2 8 9 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Hrs

Topics Introduction to the unit Process Skills: Observation skills Process Skills: Measurement and Conversion (length, time, mass and temperature, using variety of equipment to measure these quantities) Process Skills: Measurement and Conversion (Volume regular objects, irregular objects and floating objects, usage of different equipment to measure volume) Process Skills: Classification Controlling variables Interpreting and analysing data, Drawing and interpreting graphs* (line graphs, bar graphs, histograms and pie charts) Interpreting and analysing data, Drawing and interpreting graphs* (line graphs, bar graphs, histograms and pie charts) continued Practical Work in science (Experiments, Investigations and Project Work) Atomic structure and the periodic table Trends across the Periodic Table Elements, Compounds and Mixtures Particulate Nature of matter-states of matter and state changes

Diffusion and reversible and irreversible changes in matter. Bonding & formula writing: bonding in substances and writing chemical formula.
Quiz 1 (On materials covered in Sessions 1 to 10). Characteristics of living things and characteristics of a general living cell Movement in and out of cells Osmosis and Diffusion Organs and their functions Classification of Living things; dichotomous key Quiz 2 (On materials covered in Weeks 5 to 6) Life Cycle Food, Health and Nutrition. Units of measurement Density (solids and liquids, calculations based on this and experimentally determining density of provided substances) Quiz 3 (On materials covered in Weeks 8-10). Kinematics (definitions and simple calculations of distance/displacement, speed/velocity and acceleration) Introduction to linear line graphs of kinematics Newtons Laws of Motion and Introduction to types and examples of Forces Electrostatics Waves, Electromagnetic Spectrum Light and its properties Sound and its properties Quiz 4 (On materials covered in Weeks 11 to 14).

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2 13 14 2 2 2 1 1

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Detailed outline of the lectures/tutorials/workshops: Lecture/Workshop 1: Process Skills: Observation Skills

Outcomes: At the end of the lessons, students should be able to: Understand that scientists need to use many process skills to understand and explain natural phenomena Explain observation as a process skill used in science using suitable examples Demonstrate the observation skills Content: Observation skill definition and some examples Practical activities on demonstrating observation skills Some suggested Activities: Power-Point Presentation on the topic. Activities on observation such as: o Spot the difference o Observing a candle ( lit and unlit) and recording the observation o Observing a covered object and using the senses to identify the object o Observing and recording of colours on adding methyl orange to a set of given solutions. References: Johnson, K. et al. (1994) Spotlight Science: Teachers Guide 7.; StanelyThornes (Publishers) Ltd Young B. L. (1995) Teaching Primary Science. Longman Lancour, K.R. (n.d) Process Skills for Life Science: Teaching Guide: retrieved June 19th, 2011 from: .www.tufts.edu/as/wright_center/.../pslsl_training_hammond.pdf. Unknown. (n.d). Teaching the Science Process Skills: retrieved June 19th, 2011 from: www.longwood.edu/cleanva/images/sec6.processskills.pdf. Unknown. (n.d). Practical Activity in Science: retrieved June 19th, 2011 from: www.cemca.org/Malaysia/Science/sciencetext.pdf. Padilla, M.J. (1990). The Science Process Skills: retrieved June 19th, 2011 from: http://www.educ.sfu.ca/narstsite/publications/research/skill.htm. Lecture/Workshop 2: Process Skills: Measurement and Conversions-1

Outcomes:
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At the end of the lessons, students should be able to: Explain measurement as a process skill used in science using suitable examples Explain basic quantities basic units; Explain the S.I units and derived units for the basic quantities; Convert measurements into S.I units; Use different measuring equipment. Demonstrate the measurement skills Content: Measurement skill definition and some examples Practical activities on demonstrating measurement skills Six basic quantities: mass, length, temperature, amount of substance, time and electric current. Six basic SI units: kilogram, metre, Kelvin, mole, second and amperes. Conversion of units: Some suggested Activities: PowerPoin Presentation on the topic. Activities on measurement involving mass, time, temperature and length: o Measuring the length, breadth and perimeter of given everyday objects ( such as books, paper, pencil etc) using ideal units and a variety of equipment ( such as ruler, screw gauge, micro meter, meter rule etc) and convert them into standard units o Measuring the mass of given everyday objects ( such as a spoonful of salt, paper, pencil etc) using ideal units and a variety of equipment ( such as top pan balance, or scale etc) and convert them into standard units o Measuring the time taken to do a given activity ( such as solve a mathematical/logical problem etc) using ideal units and a variety of equipment ( such as stop watch, hand watch etc) and convert them into standard units o Measuring the temperature of given solutions ( such as heating some water etc) using ideal units and a variety of equipment ( such as mercury thermometer) and convert them into standard units References: Johnson, K. et al. (1994) Spotlight Science: Teachers Guide 7.; StanelyThornes (Publishers) Ltd Young B. L. (1995) Teaching Primary Science. Longman

Lecture/Workshop 3: Process Skills: Measurement and Conversions-2


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Outcomes: At the end of the lessons, students should be able to: Explain measurement as a process skill used in science using suitable examples Explain derived quantities basic units; Explain the S.I units and derived units for the basic quantities; Use different measuring equipment. Demonstrate the measurement skills is measuring volume using given set of equipment Content: Measurement skill definition and some examples Practical activities on demonstrating measurement skills Six basic quantities: mass, length, temperature, amount of substance, time and electric current. Six basic SI units: kilogram, metre, Kelvin, mole, second and amperes. Conversion of units: Some suggested Activities: PowerPoint Presentation on the topic. Activities on measurement for volume: o Measuring volume of a regular object and stating its units in appropriate units and SI units o Measuring volume of an irregular object ( using equipment such as beakers, measuring cylinders, bottles etc) and stating its units in appropriate units and SI units o Measuring volume of a floating object ( using equipment such as beakers, measuring cylinders, bottles etc) and stating its units in appropriate units and SI units References: Johnson, K. et al. (1994) Spotlight Science: Teachers Guide 7.; StanelyThornes (Publishers) Ltd Young B. L. (1995) Teaching Primary Science. Longman

Faculty of Education, MNU, Maldives

Lecture/Workshop 4: Process Skills: Classification Skills Outcomes: At the end of the lessons, students should be able to: Understand that scientists need to use many process skills to understand and explain natural phenomena Explain classification as a process skill used in science using suitable examples Demonstrate the classification skill Content: Classification skill definition and some examples Practical activities on demonstrating classification skills Some suggested Activities: PowerPoint Presentation on the topic. Activities on classification such as: o Classifying a given set of objects (such as a variety of leaves, buttons, shapes, animal pictures, etc) and identifying the criteria used to do the classification. References: Johnson, K. et al. (1994) Spotlight Science: Teachers Guide 7.; StanelyThornes (Publishers) Ltd Young B. L. (1995) Teaching Primary Science. Longman Lancour, K.R. (n.d) Process Skills for Life Science: Teaching Guide: retrieved June 19th, 2011 from: .www.tufts.edu/as/wright_center/.../pslsl_training_hammond.pdf. Unknown. (n.d). Teaching the Science Process Skills: retrieved June 19th, 2011 from: www.longwood.edu/cleanva/images/sec6.processskills.pdf. Unknown. (n.d). Practical Activity in Scince: retrieved June 19th, 2011 from: www.cemca.org/Malaysia/Science/sciencetext.pdf. Padilla, M.J. (1990). The Science Process Skills: retrieved June 19th, 2011 from: http://www.educ.sfu.ca/narstsite/publications/research/skill.htm. Lecture/Workshop 5: Process Skills: Controlling Variables Outcomes: At the end of the lessons, students should be able to: Understand that scientists need to use many process skills to understand and explain natural phenomena Differentiate between independent and dependent variables Explain the need to control variables and how this is done in a science investigation Identify the variables involved in a given scientific investigation or inquiry
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Content: Controlling variables definition and some examples Definitions and examples of independent, dependent and controlled variables. Some suggested Activities: PowerPoint Presentation on the topic. Activities/worksheet on identifying and controlling variables: o Given some scientific investigation topics, identify the variables involved, define them and identify the controlled, dependent and independent variables. References: Johnson, K. et al. (1994) Spotlight Science: Teachers Guide 7.; StanelyThornes (Publishers) Ltd Young B. L. (1995) Teaching Primary Science. Longman Lancour, K.R. (n.d) Process Skills for Life Science: Teaching Guide: retrieved June 19th, 2011 from: .www.tufts.edu/as/wright_center/.../pslsl_training_hammond.pdf. Unknown. (n.d). Teaching the Science Process Skills: retrieved June 19th, 2011 from: www.longwood.edu/cleanva/images/sec6.processskills.pdf. Unknown. (n.d). Practical Activity in Scince: retrieved June 19th, 2011 from: www.cemca.org/Malaysia/Science/sciencetext.pdf. Padilla, M.J. (1990). The Science Process Skills: retrieved June 19th, 2011 from: http://www.educ.sfu.ca/narstsite/publications/research/skill.htm. Lecture/Workshop 6: Process Skills: Interpreting and Analyzing data

Outcomes: At the end of the lessons, students should be able to: Understand that scientists need to use many process skills to understand and explain natural phenomena Methods of presenting and analyzing data in different types of graphs; Drawing the most suitable graphs for a given set of data ( use of Excel to draw the graph is highly encouraged) Identify the type of graph that would best represent a set of data collected in a science investigation Interpret and make generalised conclusions on trends and patterns represented by a graph Content: Methods of presenting and analysing data in different types of graphs; Drawing (using Excel) and interpreting graphs.
Faculty of Education, MNU, Maldives

Some suggested Activities: PowerPoint Presentation on the topic. Draw different types of graphs from given and generated data Interpret graphs and draw conclusions from them. Draw different types of graphs using given data and analysing these Activities/worksheet on drawing graphs using Excel References: Johnson, K. et al. (1994) Spotlight Science: Teachers Guide 7.; StanelyThornes (Publishers) Ltd Young B. L. (1995) Teaching Primary Science. Longman Lancour, K.R. (n.d) Process Skills for Life Science: Teaching Guide: retrieved June 19th, 2011 from: .www.tufts.edu/as/wright_center/.../pslsl_training_hammond.pdf. Unknown. (n.d). Teaching the Science Process Skills: retrieved June 19th, 2011 from: www.longwood.edu/cleanva/images/sec6.processskills.pdf. Unknown. (n.d). Practical Activity in Scince: retrieved June 19th, 2011 from: www.cemca.org/Malaysia/Science/sciencetext.pdf. Padilla, M.J. (1990). The Science Process Skills: retrieved June 19th, 2011 from: http://www.educ.sfu.ca/narstsite/publications/research/skill.htm. Lecture/Workshop 7-8: Practical Work in Science Outcomes: At the end of the lessons, students should be able to: Explain the nature and role of practical work in science; Differentiate between a practical activity and an investigation; Describe the relationship between practical work/ science investigations and subject knowledge; Discuss the role of practical work in teaching and learning of science; Content: Use of practical work in science; Difference between a simple practical activity and an investigation; Relationship between science investigations and subject knowledge; Role of practical work in teaching and learning of science;

Some suggested Activities:


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Brainstorm on what is practical work? and Relationship between investigations/practical work and subject knowledge Activity to distinguish between a practical activity and an investigation. E.g. observing diffusion vs. designing an experiment to determine the effect of temperature/other factors on diffusion. Brainstorm on the Role of practical work in teaching and learning of science ( refer to http://www7.nationalacademies.org/bose/Robin_Millar_Presentation_Jun_04.pdf ) Listing/Tabulating variety of practical activities and discussing their outcomes and examples (Refer Dawson)

References: Dawson, C. (1994). Science Teaching in the Secondary Schools. Longman House Johnson, K. et al. (1994) Spotlight Science: Teachers Guide 7.; StanelyThornes (Publishers) Ltd Millar, R. (2004) The Role of Practical Work in Teaching and Learning of Science retrieved March 29th, 2010. http://www7.nationalacademies.org/bose/Robin_Millar_Presentation_Jun_04.pdf Bentley, D. and Watts, M. (1989). (Chapter2 pp 21-41). Learning & Teaching in School Science: Practical Alternatives. Philadelphia: Open University PressPadilla, M.J. (1990). The Science Process Skills: retrieved June 19th, 2011 from: http://www.educ.sfu.ca/narstsite/publications/research/skill.htm. Lecture/Workshop 9: Process Skills: Planning a Science Investigation Outcomes: At the end of the lessons, students should be able to: Understand that scientists need to use many process skills to understand and explain natural phenomena Plan and conduct a scientific investigation on a given topic.

Content: Planning and conducting an investigation: identifying the variables, defining them, and writing the procedure for the investigation. Some suggested Activities: PowerPoint Presentation on the topic. Activities on planning the investigation: o Given a topic ( eg: does chewing a chewing-gum increase or decrease its mass), plan an in-class investigation.

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References: Johnson, K. et al. (1994) Spotlight Science: Teachers Guide 7.; StanelyThornes (Publishers) Ltd Young B. L. (1995) Teaching Primary Science. Longman Lancour, K.R. (n.d) Process Skills for Life Science: Teaching Guide: retrieved June 19th, 2011 from: .www.tufts.edu/as/wright_center/.../pslsl_training_hammond.pdf. Unknown. (n.d). Teaching the Science Process Skills: retrieved June 19th, 2011 from: www.longwood.edu/cleanva/images/sec6.processskills.pdf. Unknown. (n.d). Practical Activity in Scince: retrieved June 19th, 2011 from: www.cemca.org/Malaysia/Science/sciencetext.pdf. Padilla, M.J. (1990). The Science Process Skills: retrieved June 19th, 2011 from: http://www.educ.sfu.ca/narstsite/publications/research/skill.htm. Lecture/Workshop 10: Process Skills: Conducting a Science Investigation Outcomes: At the end of the lessons, students should be able to: Understand that scientists need to use many process skills to understand and explain natural phenomena Conduct a scientific investigation on a given topic. Recording results from a science investigation and analyzing them Content: Conducting an investigation: recording results, analysing them and making conclusions Some suggested Activities: PowerPoint Presentation on the topic. Conducting the investigation on their assigned topics.

References: Johnson, K. et al. (1994) Spotlight Science: Teachers Guide 7.; StanelyThornes (Publishers) Ltd Young B. L. (1995) Teaching Primary Science. Longman Lancour, K.R. (n.d) Process Skills for Life Science: Teaching Guide: retrieved June 19th, 2011 from: .www.tufts.edu/as/wright_center/.../pslsl_training_hammond.pdf. Unknown. (n.d). Teaching the Science Process Skills: retrieved June 19th, 2011 from: www.longwood.edu/cleanva/images/sec6.processskills.pdf. Unknown. (n.d). Practical Activity in Scince: retrieved June 19th, 2011 from: www.cemca.org/Malaysia/Science/sciencetext.pdf.
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Padilla, M.J. (1990). The Science Process Skills: retrieved June 19th, 2011 from: http://www.educ.sfu.ca/narstsite/publications/research/skill.htm. Lecture/Workshop 11: Quiz 1 (On materials covered in sessions 1 to 10). Lecture/Workshop 12: Atomic Structure Outcomes: At the end of the lessons, students should be able to: describe the structure of an atom define the terms atomic number and mass number use values for atomic number and mass number to calculate the number of protons and neutrons in an atom explain the term isotope use isotopic symbols to describe the composition of the nucleus Content Models of the atom: protons, electrons and neutrons, atomic number, mass number and isotopes Some Suggested Activities Simulation of atom builder Use of models of atoms and isotopes References: Gallagher,R. & Ingram, P. (2000). Complete Chemistry. Oxford University Press. Pp 26-31 Lecture/Workshop 13: Trends across the Periodic Table Outcomes: At the end of the lessons, students should be able to: Explain the arrangement of the elements in the Periodic Table Explain the trends in properties of elements in the Periodic Table (basic properties and trends in major groups) Content: Trends across the periodic table ( atomic number, size of atoms, reactivity and physical properties) Some suggested Activities: PowerPoint Presentation on the topic. Group activity on arranging elements/building up the Periodic Table

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References:
Gallagher,R. & Ingram, P. (2000). Complete Chemistry. Oxford University Press. Pp 32-39

Lecture/Workshop 14: Elements, Compounds and Mixtures Outcomes: At the end of the lessons, students should be able to: Explain what are molecules and compounds State the difference between a compound and a mixture Name some common compounds and mixtures Content: Elements, compounds and mixtures ( definitions and examples) Some suggested Activities: PowerPoint Presentation on the topic. Classifying materials into elements, compounds, mixtures and pure substances References:
Gallagher,R. & Ingram, P. (2000). Complete Chemistry. Oxford University Press. Pp 26-31

Lecture/Workshop 15: Particulate Nature of Matter Outcomes: At the end of the lessons, students should be able to: Explain particulate theory of matter Explain the three states of matter using particulate nature of matter Explain the phase changes Content: Theory on particulate nature of matter Three states of matter and phase changes Some suggested Activities: PowerPoint Presentation on the topic. Use of analogies to explain the arrangement of particles in solids, liquids and gases. Practical activities on changes of state of water References:
Gallagher, R. & Ingram, P. (2000). Complete Chemistry. Oxford University Press. Pp 6-13

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Lecture/Workshop 16: Particulate Nature of Matter: Diffusion

Outcomes At the end of the lessons, students should be able to: Describe and explain the effect of diffusion .explain everyday effects of diffusion in terms of particles, e.g. the spread of perfumes and cooking aromas; tea and coffee grains in water state qualitatively the effect of molecular mass on the rate of diffusion and explain the dependence of rate of diffusion on temperature Content Definition of diffusion Examples of diffusion Effect of temperature and molecular weight on rate of diffusion

Some suggested activities Demonstrate examples of diffusion Experimenting rate of diffusion (in water using a dye) with temperature

References: Gallagher,R. & Ingram, P. (2000). Complete Chemistry. Oxford University Press.Pp 6-7

Lecture/Workshop 17: Reversible and Irreversible changes in Matter. Outcomes At the end of the lessons, students should be able to: Describe the differences between reversible and irreversible physical and chemical changes and give examples of these.

Content Reversible and Irreversible Physical and Chemical Changes in Matter

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Some suggested activities Demonstrate examples of Reversible Changes: Examples of physical and chemical changes that are reversible such as changes of state, reversible decomposition such as the heating of hydrated copper sulphate or cobalt chloride Irreversible changes such as the decomposition of carbonates, nitrates, heating magnesium, copper and a mixture of iron and sulphur

References: Gallagher,R. & Ingram, P. (2000). Complete Chemistry. Oxford University Press. Pp 132-133, 76-77 Harwood, R. (2002).Chemistry. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Pp 44-45

Lecture/Workshop 18: BONDING & FORMUAL WRITING: Bonding in substances and writing chemical formula Outcomes At the end of the lessons, students should be able to: Describe the ionic bond in terms of transfer of electrons and Describe the covalent bond in terms of electron sharing Construct dot and cross diagrams of simple ionic compounds and covalent compounds Describe metallic bonding and describe conduction of heat and electricity by metals in terms of mobility of electrons. Relate the type of bonding to the property of materials Write down the chemical formula for chemical compounds (ionic and covalent) given their names. Write the chemical names for compounds given their chemical formula.

Content Ionic bonds and structure of ionic compounds, Covalent bonds Metallic bonds Properties of materials in relation to the type of bonding Chemical names and formula

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Some suggested Activities Group work on classifying a given set of materials based on properties (consider physical states, solubility, conductivity of heat and electricity) Worksheet practicing dot and cross diagrams for ionic and covalent compounds Worksheets on writing chemical formula and names

References: Gallagher,R. & Ingram, P. (2000). Complete Chemistry. Oxford University Press.Pp 42-54

Lecture/Workshop : Quiz 2 (On materials covered in sessions 12to 18).

Lecture/Workshop 19: Characteristics of Living things & Features of a general Living Cell Outcomes: At the end of the lessons, students should be able to: Define the following characteristics of living organisms: feeding/nutrition; respiration; excretion; growth; sensitivity; movement and locomotion; reproduction Describe the cell theory Describe the basic structure of general living cell ( such as: Cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum AND chloroplast and cell wall as features of a general plant cell). State one function of each of the structures listed above

Content: Characteristics common to all living things and needed to maintain life including: Respiration; feeding/nutrition; Excretion; Irritability/sensitivity; Movement/Locomotion; Reproduction; and Growth. Organization and structure of a general cell: including cell membrane; cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum; At least one function of each structure/organelle., and cell wall and chloroplast in a general plant cell. Functions of the organelles above.

Some suggested Activities:


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PowerPoint Presentation on the topic. Categorization of live specimens, photographs and inanimate objects into living and non-living things; compilation of students responses; Listing the characteristics/attributes. Writing definitions for each characteristic. Use models & simple teaching materials to identify structures of animal and plant cells from diagrams or photomicrographs.

References: Pickering, S. (2000). Complete Biology, Chennai: Oxford University Press: pp 6-7 and 18-23. Living and Non-living Things. (n.d). Retrieved April 8th, 2010 from http://www.saburchill.com/chapters/chap0001.html

Lecture / workshop 20Topic: Organs and Functions Outcomes: At the end of the lesson, students should be able to: Identify the major organs and systems of the human body. Explain the functions of the major organs and systems of the human body

Content: Major functions/roles and parts of the following systems: o Skeletal system, Circulatory system, Digestive system, Respiratory system, Nervous system Composition of bones and how to keep bones healthy Role of heart in the circulatory system and how to keep it healthy Brief description of how food passes through the digestive tract (details and names of the parts not required) Brief description of how messages are passed through the nervous system. (details and names of the parts not required) Brief description of how the oxygen inhaled through the nose reaches the red blood cells and how the carbon dioxide produced in the cells are removed from the body. (details and names of the parts not required)

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Some Suggested Activities: Jigsaw cooperative group activity: o Role and functions of the Skeletal system, Circulatory system, Digestive system, Respiratory system, Nervous system Use of models or simulations to explain the structure and functions of the systems (check: http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/ )

References: Pickering, W.R. (2000). Complete Biology, Oxford: Oxford University Press: pp 22, 42-43, 64-69, 76-79, 88-98, 120-123,

Lecture/Workshop 21: Classification of Living Things Outcomes: At the end of the lessons, students should be able to: Define the following characteristics of living organisms: feeding/nutrition; respiration; excretion; growth; sensitivity; movement and locomotion; reproduction. Classify living organisms into the five kingdoms: o Monera/Prokaryotae; Protoctista; Fungi; Plants and Animals List the main characteristics of each of the kingdoms

Content: Characteristics common to all living things and needed to maintain life including: Respiration; feeding/nutrition; Excretion; Irritability/sensitivity; Movement/Locomotion; Reproduction; and Growth. Definition of classification Kingdoms and subdivision of kingdom into groups: Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species; Basic and simple characteristics of the kingdoms: Monera, prokaryotae, fungi, animals and plants;

Some suggested Activities: PowerPoint Presentation on the topic.

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References: Pickering, W.R. (2000). Complete Biology, Oxford: Oxford University Press: pp 225239 Lecture/Workshop 22: Classification using Dichotomous Key Outcomes: At the end of the lessons, students should be able to: Use a dichotomous key to identify given organism Construct a dichotomous key for a given group of organism Content: Drawing and using dichotomous keys Some suggested Activities: PowerPoint Presentation on the topic. References: Pickering, W.R. (2000). Complete Biology, Oxford: Oxford University Press: pp 225239 Lecture/workshop 23 Topic: Life cycle of (butterfly, mosquito...)
At the end of the lesson, students should be able to: Identify the kingdom, phylum, class and order for the general butterfly Identify the kingdom, phylum, class and order for the general mosquito Identify the general body structure of a butterfly and a mosquito Describe the components of the life cycle of a butterfly Draw and label the components of the life cycle of a butterfly Describe the components of the life cycle of a mosquito Draw and label the components of the life cycle of a mosquito

Content: kingdom, phylum, class and order for the general butterfly and mosquito General body structure for the butterfly and mosquito life cycle of a butterfly life cycle of a mosquito

Some Suggested Activities:


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Group work: o Make models of the different components of the life cycle of a mosquito o Imaginative writing for the different components of the life cycle of a mosquito and butterfly

Draw and label the diagram of life cycle of a mosquito and butterfly

References: Biological notes on Mosquito(n.d). Retrieved March 28th April, 2010, from http://www.mosquitoes.org/LifeCycle.html Miers, J. (2007). The Butterfly Lifecycle. Retrieved April 28th , 2010 from: http://www.teachers.ash.org.au/jmresources/butlifecycle/index.html Lecture/ workshop 24 Topic: Food health and nutrition Outcomes: At the end of the lessons, students should be able to: List the chemical elements that make up carbohydrates, fats, proteins Describe test for starch, reducing sugars, protein and fats. List the principal sources for and describe the dietary importance of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins (C & D only), mineral salts (calcium and iron only), fibre (roughage) and water Describe the deficiency symptoms of vitamins and mineral salts (calcium and iron) Understand the concept of balanced diet Explain why diet, especially energy intake, should be related to age, sex and activity of an individual State the effects of malnutrition in relation to starvation, heart disease, constipation and obesity Discuss the problems that contribute to famine (unequal distribution of food, drought and flooding, increasing population).

Content: The need for food Classes of food, diet Balanced diet, malnutrition

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Preserving and processing,

Some Suggested Activities Practical Work: Food tests for reducing sugars, starch, proteins and fats. Make a leaflet for dietary deficiency diseases.

References: Pickering, W.R. (2000). Complete Biology, Oxford: Oxford University Press: pp 3440.

Lecture/Workshop 25: Quiz 3 (On materials covered in sessions 19 to 24). Lecture/Workshop 26: Density

Outcomes: At the end of the lessons, students should be able to: Estimate the density of some materials using regular and irregular objects; Calculate the density of solids, liquids and gases; Content Calculate the volume and density of regular and irregular objects; Finding the volume and density of an irregular object; Calculating Density of solids liquids and gases using the formula
m ; V

Suggested Activities Group practical and presentation; o Finding the volume of an irregular and regular object and using them to estimate the density of the materials from which they are made. o Finding the volume of a floating object o Mixing liquids with different densities and determining a density gradient. Worksheet on calculations on density. References Pople, S. (1999). Complete Physics, Chennai: Oxford University Press. (pg 14-16). The Density of Solids and Liquids. (n.d) Retrieved March 31st , 2010 from http://chemmovies.unl.edu/Chemistry/DoChem/DoChem012.html Density. (1996). Retrieved March 31st , 2010 from http://www.spacegrant.hawaii.edu/class_acts/Density.html
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Lecture/Workshop 27: Kinematics

Outcomes: At the end of the lessons, students should be able to: Define the following basic terms associated with kinematics (Distance, Displacement, Speed, Velocity and acceleration). Differentiate between the following terms: (Distance, Displacement, Speed, Velocity and acceleration) Use basic formula and calculate unknown quantities from the quantities discussed above. Interpret a simple kinematic graph ( only straight lines) Draw a simple kinematic graph (straight lines only) for a given set of data. Content: Definitions of : Distance, Displacement, Speed, Velocity and acceleration Calculations of the above mentioned units using simple equations of motion Drawing and interpreting kinematic graphs ( only straight lines) Some suggested Activities: PowerPoint Presentation on the topic. Worksheet questions on practicing using the equations on motion References: Pople ,S. (1999). Complete Physics. Oxford University Press. pp 21-23

Lecture/Workshop 28: introduction to linear line graphs of kinematics, Newtons Laws of motion and introduction to types and examples of Forces. Outcomes: At the end of the lessons, students should be able to: Explain the three Newtons Laws of Motion Define different types of forces Draw simple free body diagrams Conduct simple calculations using the three laws of motion Content: Definitions of the three Newtons laws of motion Definitions of different types of forces and examples Drawing free body diagrams
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Simple calculations using Newtons Laws of Motion

Some suggested Activities: PowerPoint Presentation on the topic. Worksheet questions on practicing drawing free body diagrams and applying Newtons Laws of motion References: Pople ,S. (1999). Complete Physics. Oxford University Press. pp 30-39. Lecture/Workshop 29: Electrostatics Outcomes: At the end of the lessons, students should be able to: comment and explain the nature and origin of charges define insulators and conductors use gold-leaf electroscope to investigate the electrostatic charges, insulators and conductors explain the dangers and uses of electrostatics Content: Nature and origin of electrostatic charges Investigating nature of charges using the gold leaf electroscope Electrostatic induction Dangers of static electricity Uses of static electricity Some suggested Activities: PowerPoint Presentation on the topic. Demonstration of electrostatics using the gold leaf electroscope Practical work: Investigate electrostatic induction References: Pople ,S. (1999). Complete Physics. Oxford University Press.Pp 178-181 Lecture/workshop 30: Wave Properties and Electromagnetic Spectrum Outcomes: At the end of the lessons, students should be able to: Classify waves as either longitudinal or transverse Define electromagnetic and mechanical waves

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Give examples of electromagnetic and mechanical waves Demonstrate transverse and longitudinal waves using a slinky Describe wave speed, frequency, wavelength and amplitude Perform calculations using the equation v f Demonstrate wave effects using ripple tank or slinky springs Explain the wave properties: Refraction, reflection, diffraction and interference of waves State and explain the properties of electromagnetic waves Describe the electromagnetic spectrum Explain the properties and nature of different of different types of electromagnetic waves Relate electromagnetic waves and everyday experiences and uses

Content Classification of waves as either Transverse or longitudinal waves and Classification of waves as either Electromagnetic and transverse waves Definitions Wave speed, frequency, amplitude and wavelength Calculations based on Wave Equation v f Demonstration of refraction, reflection, diffraction and interference (using simulations or using the ripple tank or slinky). Properties of electromagnetic waves: focus on wavelength, frequency and energy Properties of different electromagnetic waves Uses of electromagnetic waves

Some Suggested Activities Demonstration of transverse and longitudinal waves using the slinky Worksheet on waves with calculations Group Activity ( possible activities) o Poster presentation on the EM spectrum and the uses of different wavelength of light. Demonstration of filters in action Practical group work: addition and subtraction of colours. 24

Faculty of Education, MNU, Maldives

References Pople, S. (1999). Complete Physics, Chennai: Oxford University Press. (pp 123-127). Waves (1999). Retrieved April 6th , 2010 from http://theory.uwinnipeg.ca/mod_tech/node119.html Lets Make Waves. (1997). Retrieved April 6th , 2010 from http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/gen_act/ocean/wave.html Pople, S. (1999). Complete Physics. Oxford University Press, Oxford.(pg 164 - 169)

Lecture/workshop 31: Light and its Properties Outcomes At the end of the lessons, students should be able to: Explain that light is a form of energy Differentiate between luminous and non-luminous objects Differentiate between natural and artificial sources of light Explain the properties of light Describe and explain the white light spectrum Describe filters, addition of colours and subtraction of colours

Content Sources of light (classified as luminous and non-luminous; natural and artificial) Properties of light ( light travels in a straight line, as a form of radiation, light can travel through empty space, speed of light) Properties of light (Just a brief introduction: diffraction and refraction)

Some Suggested Activities Group/circus Activity on: diffraction, refraction, light travelling in straight line etc An interesting activity from: http://www.josietrue.com/teachers/2-light.pdf and http://www.tsgc.utexas.edu/spaceexplorers/activities/Light_Energy.pdf

References Pople, S. (1999). Complete Physics, Chennai: Oxford University Press. (pp 147-175).

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Lecture/workshop 32: Sound and its Properties Outcomes At the end of the lessons, students should be able to: Explain the origin and transmission of sound Explain the longitudinal nature of sound waves Describe ear and explain the functions of different parts Identify some diseases or damages to the ear that affects hearing loss. Measure the speed of sound using echoes Explain interference and diffraction of sound Calculate speed of sound

Content Properties of sound waves Transmission of sound waves as a pressure wave Ear and functions of different parts Diseases of the ear Measuring the speed of sound Interference and diffraction of sound

Some Suggested Activities Using a model ear explain the functions of the different parts of the ear. ( A good explanation and images on this can be found at: http://www.worsleyschool.net/science/files/ear/inside.html) Diseases of the ear Measuring the speed of sound using echoes Worksheet on speed of sound

References Pople, S. (1999). Complete Physics, Chennai: Oxford University Press. (pp 123-146). Science of Sounds: Hands on Activities. (1999). Retrieved April 5th, 2010 from http://www.smm.org/sound/nocss/activity/handson.htm
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Lecture/Workshop 33: Quiz 4 (On materials covered in sessions 23 to 32).

ASSESSMENT SCHEDULE

The assessment scheme for this unit is given below: Component Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Examination 60% Weighting 40 % Week Due Week 7 Week 9 Week 11 Week 14 Exam week

Submission of the assignment: Assignments are to be handed over to the Assignment Room on or before the due date. If other arrangements are made, you will be advised. It is also advised that photocopies be made of the assignment before submission. Each assignment must be accompanied by the appropriate coversheet available from the office. Late submission of assignments will receive a penalty of 5% per day late in accordance with the Assessment Policy of the Faculty of Education.

Academic Misconduct: Academic misconduct, which includes but is not limited to cheating, fabrication and falsification, plagiarism, or facilitating academic misconduct, will not be tolerated. Action will be taken towards such misconduct in accordance with the Assessment Policy of the Faculty of Education.

Quizzes Due Date: See Assessment above Word limit (where applicable): not applicable %Value: There will be 4 quizzes conducted and they will be worth 30% of your final mark Details of task and criteria for marking: Each quiz will be out of 30 marks and the time duration is 1 hour. The quiz will be conducted during class hour, during the sessions indicated on the schedule. The Quiz paper will have 5 MCQ questions each worth 1 mark. Structured questions will be worth 25 marks.
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Final Examination Your final examination to be held in the exam week will be structured as below: The final examination paper will be out of 100 marks and 60% of this will count towards your final marks for the unit. The duration for the paper is 3 hours. There will be 4 sections, Section A, Section B, Section C and Section D. The materials assessed and the marked allocated for these section are: o o o o Section A Section B Section C Section D Physical World Living World Chemical World Science Investigation 30 marks 30 marks 30 marks 10 marks

Referencing requirements: APA referencing is required in all assignments in this unit.

Suggested methodology Lectures and workshops will be conducted in 2 hour sessions, with a total contact hours of 6 hours per week. It is recommended that in delivering this unit, student-centred methodologies, be utilized as much as possible.

Learning through investigations and hands-on experimentation is emphasized. However, teacher-led demonstrations, library research and lectures are used where deemed appropriate.

Course Regulations Attendance: 80% attendance to the classes is required to be eligible to sit in the final examination. In the case of missing a quiz, a medical certificate needs to be submitted. However, it does not grant the student automatic exemption from the quiz.

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Submission of the assignment: Assignments are to be handed over to the Assignment Room on or before the due date. If other arrangements are made, you will be advised. It is advised that photocopies be made of the assignment before submission. Each assignment must be accompanied by the appropriate coversheet available from the office.

Late submission of assignments will receive a penalty of 5% per day late in accordance with the Assessment Policy of the Faculty of Education Academic Misconduct: Academic misconduct, which includes but is not limited to cheating, fabrication and falsification, plagiarism, or facilitating academic misconduct, will not be tolerated. Action will be taken towards such misconduct in accordance with the Assessment Policy of the Faculty of Education.

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