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# ARTICLE IN PRESS

## JOURNAL OF SOUND AND VIBRATION

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## Forced vibration of EulerBernoulli beams by means of dynamic Green functions

M. Abu-Hilal*
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Applied Sciences University, Amman 11931 Jordan Received 21 June 2002; accepted 10 October 2002

Abstract A method for determining the dynamic response of prismatic damped EulerBernoulli beams subjected to distributed and concentrated loads is presented. The method yields exact solutions in closed form and may be used for single and multi-span beams, single and multi-loaded beams, and statically determinate and indeterminate beams. Also Green functions for various beams with different homogenous and elastic boundary conditions are given. In order to demonstrate the use of the Green functions method, several examples are given. Some of the obtained results are compared with those given in the references. r 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction The forced transverse vibration of beams due to steady and moving loads is a very important research topic in all branches of engineering. The most used method for determining these vibrations is the expansion of the applied loads and the dynamic responses in terms of the eigenfunctions of the undamped beams [1,2]. This method leads to solutions presented as innite series, which will be truncated after a number of terms and approximate solutions are then ! ba  used the Fourier sine (nite) integral transformation and the LaplaceCarson obtained. Fry integral transformation to determine the dynamic response of beams due to moving loads and obtained this response in the form of series solutions. Leissa  presented an exact method for determining the dynamic deection of single-span EulerBernoulli beams subjected to distributed

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loads of the form Px sin Ot: He used a solution for the deection similar to the exciting load function and obtained a fourth order spatially dependent ordinary differential equation. Then he solved the ordinary differential equation and applied the boundary conditions to evaluate the integration constants. Although the dynamic response of the undamped beam was readily obtained, the determination of the response of the damped system is more complicated. Finally, he compared the obtained solution with the series solution obtained through expansion in normal modes. Hamada  solved the response problem of a simply supported and damped Euler Bernoulli uniform beam of nite length traversed by a constant force moving at a uniform speed by applying the double Laplace transformation with respect to both time and the length coordinate along the beam. He obtained in closed form an exact solution for the dynamic deection of the considered beam. Nicholson and Bergman [6,7] used Green functions for analyzing the free vibration of a combined linear undamped dynamical system consisting of beams and discrete springmass oscillators. They used the method of separation of variables to separate the governing partial differential equation for the system into a second order time-dependent and a fourth order spatially dependent ordinary differential equations and derived the characteristic equation for the eigenfrequencies of the system. Finally, the characteristic equation was solved and exact natural frequencies and exact normal modes obtained. Also they determined in Ref.  the dynamic response of the studied system due to an arbitrary excitation using the method of expansion in eigenforms. Broome  used a Green function approach and a particular integral approach to study the economical analysis of combined dynamical systems. Bergman and McFarland  used Green functions to study the free vibration of an EulerBernoulli beam with homogeneous boundary conditions, supported in its interior by arbitrarily located pin supports and translational and torsional linear springs. Furthermore, they determined the forced response of the beam to an arbitrary excitation by modal analysis method. Kukla and Posiadala  utilized the Green function method to study the free transverse vibration of EulerBernoulli beams with many elastically mounted masses. They obtained closed form expressions of the equations for the natural frequencies. Also Kukla  applied the Green function method to determine the natural frequencies of a Timoshenko beam with attached multi-mass oscillators. Foda and Abduljabbar  used a Green function approach to determine the dynamic deection of an undamped simply supported EulerBernoulli beam of nite length subject to a moving mass traversing its span at constant speed. In this paper a Green functions method for determining the dynamic response of Euler Bernoulli beams subjected to distributed and concentrated loads is presented. This method may be used for single and multi-span beams, single and multi-loaded beams, and statically determinate and indeterminate beams. Also Green functions for various beams with different homogeneous and elastic boundary conditions are determined. Several examples are given to illustrate the use of the Green functions method. The method of Green functions is more efcient than the series methods because this method yields exact solutions in closed forms. This is in particular essential for calculating dynamic stresses and determining the dynamic response of beams other than simply supported. Also by the use of the Green functions method, the boundary conditions are embedded in the Green functions of the corresponding beams. Furthermore, by using this method, it is not necessary to solve the free vibration problem in order to obtain the eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenfunctions which are required while using series solutions.

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2. Green functions of beams with homogeneous boundary conditions The transverse vibration of a uniform elastic homogeneous isotropic EulerBernoulli beam is described by the partial differential equation EIv0000 mv 1 . ra v ri v 0000 px; t; where EI ; m; ra ; and ri are the exural rigidity of the beam, the mass per unit length of the beam, the coefcient of external damping of the beam, and the coefcient of internal damping of the beam, respectively. vx; t is the deection of the beam at point x and time t and px; t denotes the load per unit length of the beam at point x and time t: A prime denotes differentiation with respect to position x and an overdot denotes differentiation with respect to time t: Assuming the load function px; t is given in the form px; t f x cos Ot; 2 where f x is an arbitrary but deterministic distributed load, then Eq. (1) becomes EIv0000 mv . ra v ri v 0000 f x cos Ot: 3

By the action of a concentrated harmonic force F t at a position x; the load px; t is given as px; t dx xF0 cos Ot 4 and by the action of a harmonic moment load M t at a position x; the load px; t is given as px; t d0 x xM0 cos Ot; 5 where d(.) is the Dirac delta function. Since the beam is damped, it is recommended to write Eq. (3) in the complex form p where i 1 is the imaginary unit and vx; t Refwx; tg: The solution of Eq. (6) is assumed in the form wx; t X xeiOt : Substituting this solution into Eq. (6) and dividing by eiOt yields f x X 0000 k4 X ; EI iri O where k4 The solution of Eq. (9) may be given as X x mO2 ira O : EI iri O
L

## EIw0000 mw . ra w ri w 0000 f xeiOt ;

6 7 8

10

Z
0

f xG x; x dx;

11

where L is the length of the beam and G x; x is a Green function which is to be determined. Since a Green function of a beam is its response due to a unit concentrated force acting at an arbitrary

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## position x, we write Eq. (9) in the form X 0000 k4 X dx x EI iri O 12

to get the desired Green function. Although any method for solving differential equations of the form given in Eq. (12), for example the method of variation of parameters or the method of undetermined coefcients, may be used to obtain the desired Green function, in this work the method of Laplace transform will be used since this method seems to be easier to use. The Laplace transformed solution of Eq. (12) with respect to position variable x is   1 esx 3 2 0 00 000 # 13 s X 0 s X 0 sX 0 X 0 ; Xs 4 s k4 EI iri O where s is a suitable transform parameter which is in general a complex variable and X 0; X 0 0; X 00 0; and X 000 0 are the values of the function X and their derivatives at x 0: In general, only two of these conditions are known for beam problems with homogeneous boundary conditions. Therefore, the two unknown conditions will be left as parameters which can be then evaluated by applying two boundary conditions at x L to the obtained inverted solution. The inverse transform of Eq. (13) is found to be X x; x f4 x xux x X 0 0 f2 x X 0 f x 1 k3 EI iri O k X 00 0 X 000 0 f x f4 x; k2 3 k3

14

## where ux is the unit step function and

1 f1 x 1 2 cosh kx cos kx; f2 x 2 sinh kx sin kx; 1 f3 x 1 2 cosh kx cos kx; f4 x 2 sinh kx sin kx:

15

Eq. (14) represents the sought Green function of Eq. (1), i.e., G x; x X x; x: Knowing that f01 kf4 f02 kf1 f03 kf2 f04 kf3
2 f00 1 k f3 2 f00 2 k f4 2 f00 3 k f1 2 f00 4 k f2 3 f000 1 k f2 3 f000 2 k f3 3 f000 3 k f4 3 f000 4 k f1

16

17

then the rst, second, and third derivatives of X x; x with respect to x for xXx are X 0 x; x f3 x x 2 k EI iri O 00 kX 0f4 x X 0 0f1 x 18

X 0 X 000 0 f2 x f3 x; k k2

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X 00 x; x

19 20

X 000 x; x

## f1 x x k3 X 0f2 x k2 X 0 0f3 x kX 00 0f4 x X 000 0f1 x: EI iri O

The relationship between the boundary vectors of the left-hand end x 0 and the right-hand end x L of the beam are obtained using Eqs. (14), (18)(20): 2 f2 L f3 L f4 L 3 f1 L 3 2 3 2 6 k k2 k3 7 X L f1 x 7 X 0 6 6 f2 L f3 L 76 0 7 6 0 7 X 0 7 6 kf4 L f1 L 7 6 X L f2 x 7 2 76 6 k k 21 7 6 6 74 X 00 0 5 4 X 00 L f x 7 6 5 3 7 6 2 f L 2 7 6 k f3 L kf4 L f1 L 000 4 X 000 L f4 x k 5 X 0 k3 f2 L k2 f3 L kf4 L f1 L or TX0 XL f ; where f1 x f4 L x ; k3 EI iri O f2 L x ; kEI iri O f2 x f3 L x ; k2 EI iri O f1 L x : EI iri O 23 22

f3 x

f4 x

The Green function for a certain beam may be now determined using Eqs. (14) and (21) and appropriate boundary conditions. As an example, a simply supported beam is considered. Because the deection and the internal bending moment of this beam must vanish at x 0; i.e., X 0 EIX 00 0 0; then the rst and third columns of the matrix T may be omitted. On the other hand, since the slope X 0 and shear force EIX 000 are unknown at x L; the second and fourth rows of the matrix T may be ignored. Knowing that X L X 00 L 0; Eq. (21) becomes 3 3 2 2 f4 L x f2 L f4 L " # 6 k 6 k3 EI iri O 7 X 0 0 k3 7 7 7: 6 6 24 4 4 f2 L 5 X 000 0 f2 L x 5 kf4 L k kEI iri O Solving this equation yields for the unknown conditions 1 f4 Lf2 L x f2 Lf4 L x X 0 0 2 : 2 k EI iri O f2 2 L f4 L X 000 0 1 f4 Lf4 L x f2 Lf2 L x : 2 EI iri O f2 2 L f4 L

25 26

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With X 0 0 and X 000 0 dened in Eqs. (25) and (26), the Green function for a simply supported beam is obtained from Eq. (14) as G x; x f4 x xux x X 0 0 X 000 0 x f4 x: f 2 k3 EI iri O k k3 27

Using Eqs. (15), (25) and (26) yields 1 G x; x 3 sin hkx x sin kx xux x; 2k EI iri O 2k3 EI 1 sin kx sin hkL sin kL x sin hkx sin kL sin hkL x ; iri O sin kL sin hkL 28

or in the more familiar form ( sin kx sinh kL sin kL x sinh kx sin kL sinh kL x xpx; G x; x A sin kx sinh kL sin kL x sinh kx sin kL sinh kL x xpx; where A 2k3 EI 1 : iri O sin kL sinh kL

29

30

Table 1 includes Green functions for beams with different boundary conditions derived by using Eqs. (14) and (21) and appropriate boundary conditions.

3. Green functions of beams with elastic boundary conditions Consider a beam supported on torsional and translational springs at both ends. The torsional and translational spring constants at the left-hand (right-hand) end of the beam are denoted by kLt kRt and kL kR ; respectively. The boundary conditions of this beam at the left-hand side
Table 1 Green functions for different EulerBernoulli beams Beam type Pinnedpinned Fixedxed Fixedpinned Pinnedxed Fixedfree Freexed Pinnedsliding Fixedsliding Slidingfree Pinnedfree Slidingsliding Freefree Gx; x C f4 x xux x C g1 xf4 x g2 xf2 x C f4 x xux x C g3 xf4 x g4 xf3 x C f4 x xux x C g5 xf4 x g6 xf3 x C f4 x xux x C g7 xf4 x g8 xf2 x C f4 x xux x C g9 xf4 x g10 xf3 x C f4 x xux x C g11 xf2 x g12 xf1 x C f4 x xux x C g13 xf4 x g14 xf2 x C f4 x xux x C g15 xf4 x g16 xf3 x C f4 x xux x C g17 xf3 x g18 xf1 x C f4 x xux x C g19 xf4 x g20 xf2 x C f4 x xux x C g21 xf3 x g22 xf1 x C f4 x xux x C g23 xf2 x g24 xf1 x

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## x 0 are given as V kL v; and at the right-hand side x L as V kR v; M kRt v0 ; 32 M kLt v0 31

where V EIv000 is the shear force and M EIv00 is the bending moment of the beam. Using the product solution vx; t X xT t and their derivatives, One obtains for the boundary conditions at x 0 X 0 EI 000 X 0; kL EI 00 X 0 0 X 0 kLt

33

and at x L EI 000 X L; kR EI 00 X 0 L X L: kRt X L Using Eqs. (14), (18)(20), (33) and (34) yields the unknown boundary conditions at x 0 X 0 f1 x ; C1 35

34

X 0 0

f2 x ; k C1

36

X 00 0

kLt f2 x ; EI kC1

37

X 000 0

kL f1 x ; EIC1

38

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where
2 4 C1 f2 1 LEI k kL kR kRt KLt

EI k3 f1 Lf2 L f3 Lf4 LEI 2 k4 kLt kRt kLt kRt kL kR EI kf1 Lf4 L f2 Lf3 LEI 2 k4 kL kR kL kR kLt kRt
2 4 EI k2 f2 2 L f4 Lk kLt kRt kL kR 4 8 2 4 f2 3 LEI k EI k kLt kR kL kRt kL kR kLt kRt

f2 Lf4 LEI 4 k8 EI 2 k4 kL kLt kR kRt kL kR kLt kRt ; f1 x kR f4 L x EI k3 f1 L xEI kkLt kRt f1 L kLt kRt f2 L EI k2 f4 L EI kf2 L x kRt f3 L xEI kkR f2 L EI 2 k4 kLt kR f3 L EI k3 kLt f4 L; f2 x kR f4 L x EI k3 f1 L xEI kkL f2 L EI 2 k4 kL kRt f3 L EI k3 kRt f4 L EI kf2 L x kRt f3 L xEI k3 kL kR f1 L EI 2 k6 f2 L kL kR f4 L:

39

40

41

Substituting Eqs. (35) to (38) with C1 ; f1 x; and f2 x dened in Eq. (39) to (40) into Eq. (14) yields the Green function of a beam with elastic boundary conditions: X x; x f4 x xux x k3 EI iri O   1 f2 x kLt f2 x kL f1 x f1 xf1 x 2 f2 x f x f x : C1 k EI k3 3 EI k3 4

42

In order to obtain the Green function for a certain beam, we let the stiffness constants at the righthand and/or the left-hand ends of the beam go to zero or innity. Consider, for example, a beam xed supported at the left-hand end and elastically supported in translational direction at the right-hand end. To obtain the Green function of this beam from the equations above, let kL and kLt go to innity and kRt go to zero. Doing so, one obtains for the unknown boundary conditions at x 0: X 0 X 0 0 0; X 00 0 kR f4 L EI k3 f1 Lf2 L x f2 LEI k3 f1 L x kR f4 L x ; 3 EI kEI k3 f2 1 L kR f1 Lf4 L f2 LkR f3 L EI k f4 L EI k3 f4 L kR f3 Lf2 L x f1 LEI k3 f1 L x kR f4 L x : 3 EI EI k3 f2 1 L kR f1 Lf4 L f2 LkR f3 L EI k f4 L 43

X 000 0

44

Substituting these values into Eq. (14) yields the desired Green function.

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4. Numerical examples and discussion The following examples demonstrate the use of Green functions for determining the dynamic response of different beams 4.1. Statically indeterminate cantilevered beam In this example a cantilevered beam with intermediate simple support as shown in Fig. 1 is . and Erol . They used considered. The dynamic response of this beam was studied by Gurg . oze for the solution the receptance matrix method, which uses an approximate series solution and therefore yields an approximate solution. In order to prove the validity of this method, they used a solution through boundary value problem formulation. In doing so, they divided the beam into three portions and used a product solution for each portion. This leads to a solution with twelve unknown coefcients, which may be determined from the boundary and continuity conditions. Although this method gives an exact solution, it is circumstantial and time-consuming. The use of the Green function method as we see in the following, gives an exact solution and leads to the same results but in a simpler and faster way. By applying this method the support reaction at B was considered as an external force, which can be determined from the condition va; t 0 after the dynamic response of the beam has been found. Since the exciting load (F cos Ot) is harmonic and the studied beam behaves linearly, the reaction at B must be harmonic. Thus, the load may be given as px; t F dx b Bdx a cos Ot f x cos Ot: 45 The Green function of a cantilevered beam is obtained from Table 1 as 1 46 G x; x 3 f4 x xux x g9 xf4 x g10 xf3 x k EI with g9 x; g10 x dened in the appendix and f3 x; f4 x dened in Eq. (15). Substituting f x as given in Eq. (45) and Eq. (46) into Eq. (11) yields Z L 1 f x xF dx b Bdx aux x dx X x k3 EI 0 4 Z L 1 g9 xf4 x g10 xf3 xF dx b Bdx a dx 47 k3 EI 0 The evaluation of the rst integral in this equation gives three solutions depending upon the product of the step and the delta-functions. This product gives for all x over the interval 0pxpL
v(x,t) b A x a L B C Fcost

## Fig. 1. Statically indeterminate cantilevered beam.

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the value of 0 for 0pxpa; Bdx a for apxpb; Thus, using the relation 8 > Z b < 0 f xdx x dx f x > a : 0

and F dx b Bdx a for bpxpL: for for for xoaob apxpb aobox 48

One obtains for the rst integral in Eq. (47) 8 0 for 0pxoa > > > > < B for apxob I1 x k3 EI f4 x a 49 > > > 1 > : F f4 x b Bf4 x a for bpxpL k3 EI The second integral in Eq. (47) can be readily evaluated by using Eq. (48) 1 50 I2 x 3 fF g9 bf4 x g10 bf3 x Bg9 af4 x g10 af3 xg: k EI Combining the obtained results in Eqs. (49) and (50) gives for the dynamic response of the beam 8 for 0pxoa I2 x > > > > < B for apxob vx; t cos Ot I2 x k3 EI f4 x a 51 > > > > : I2 x 1 F f x b Bf x a for bpxpL 4 4 k3 EI The unknown support reaction B may be now obtained from the condition va; t 0: This gives for B the value g9 bf4 a g10 bf3 a F: 52 B g9 af4 a g10 af3 a In order to compare the results obtained from Eq. (51) with those in Ref. , the nondimensionalized displacement v %x; t vx; t=FL3 =EI of the beam at three positions (x 0:5L; x 0:8L; x L) are plotted in Fig. 2 for values given in ; namely: O p 5 EI =mL4 ; b L; and a 0:1L: The amplitudes are found to be v %max x 0:5L 0:1618507; v %max x L 0:5304795: Comparison of these values with those %max x 0:8L 0:3790165; and v given in Ref. [13, Table 1] yields excellent agreement. 4.2. Comparison of Green functions solution with series solution In order to compare the method of eigenfunction expansion with the method of Green functions, an undamped cantilevered beam acted upon by a force P0 cos Ot at the right-hand side is considered. For that, the dynamic deection of the beam at x L and the bending moment and shear force at x 0; will be calculated using both methods and compared with each others. A cantilevered beam is chosen to make the difference between both methods clearer, because the series solution of beams others than simply supported converges slower . Using the

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0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04

201

t (s)
Fig. 2. Dimensionless dynamic deection versus time of the beam shown in Fig. 1 at three positions: () x 0:5L; (- - - -) x 0:8L; ( ) x L:

eigenfunction expansion, the deection of the beam is given in series solution as N X vx; t cn Xn x cos Ot;
n1

53

where Xn x is the nth eigenfunction of the cantilevered beam given as sin ln L sinh ln L cos ln x cosh ln x Xn x sin ln x sinh ln x cos ln L cosh ln L and cn is the nth expansion coefcient where mn m P0 Xn L 2 mn o2 nO Z
0 L 2 Xn x dx

54

55

56

is the generalized mass and on is the circular eigenfrequency of the beam associated with the nth mode. The used eigenvalues ln are correct up to 12 decimal places. On the other hand, the dynamic deection of the cantilevered beam by means of Green functions is given as Z L f xG x; x dx; 57 vx; t cos Ot
0

where f x P0 dx L and Gx; x is obtained from Table 1 as f x x 1 ux x 3 g9 xf4 x g10 xf3 x 58 G x; x 4 3 k EI k EI with g9 x; g10 x dened in the Appendix and f3 x; f4 x dened in Eq. (15). Substituting f x and G x; x into Eq. (57) and carrying out the integration yields P0 59 vx; t 3 g9 Lf4 x g10 Lf3 x cos Ot: k EI

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Table 2 Non-dimensionalized amplitudes of dynamic deection v %max at x L and non-dimensionalized amplitudes of bending % max and shear force V % max at x 0 for a cantilevered beam moment M v %max Green functions solution (exact) Series solution: n 1 n2 n3 n4 n5 n 10 n 20 n 30 n 40 n 50 6.6885 6.6586 6.6839 6.6871 6.6879 6.6882 6.6885 6.6885 6.6885 6.6885 6.6885 % max M 7.6624 7.8039 7.6184 7.6834 7.6503 7.6703 7.6604 7.6619 7.6622 7.6623 7.6623 % max V 10.1581 10.7422 9.8550 10.3653 10.0012 10.2843 10.0946 10.1253 10.1359 10.1412 10.1444

The bending moment M x; t and shear force V x; t are obtained from Eqs. (53) and (59) through differentiation with respect to x as M x; t EIv00 x; t; V x; t EIv000 x; t: 60 61

To make numerical calculations, the following data are used: L 2 m, m 117:45 kg/m, EI 640625 Nm2, and O 60 rad/s. In Table 2, the non-dimensionalized amplitudes of dynamic deection v %max ; bending moment % max are given, where % max and shear force V M v %max vmax L ; P0 L3 =3EI % max M Mmax 0 ; P0 L % max V Vmax 0 : P0 62

In the rst row of Table 2, the exact values are given. These are obtained from the Green functions solution. In the remaining rows partial sums for several terms of the series (53) and their derivatives multiplied by EI are set out. As the table indicates, the convergence of the series solution is comparatively very fast for the dynamic deection, but much less so for the bending moment, and particularly for the shear force. That is because each differentiation of the dynamic deection with respect to x impairs the convergence of the series . 4.3. Cantilevered beam with elastic support As a third example, a damped cantilevered beam with elastic support at the right-hand end as shown in Fig. 3 is presented. The Green function of this beam may be given as G x; t C f4 x xux x h1 xf3 x h2 xf4 x; 63

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## v(x,t) L A L/2 x M 0 cost B kR C

Fig. 3. Fixed elastic-supported beam.

## where C is given in the appendix and h1 X 00 0 ; k2 h2 X 000 0 k3 64

with X 00 0 and X 000 0 dened in Eqs. (43) and (44), respectively. The acting load is given as px; t d0 x L=2M0 cos Ot: 65

According to Eqs. (8) and (11), the dynamic response of the damped beam may be given in the complex form Z L iOt d0 x L=2G x; x dx; 66 wx; t M0 e
0

where the real-valued dynamic deection corresponding to Eq. (7) is given as vx; t Refwx; tg: Making use of the relation R c n n n 67 a d x bf x dx 1 f b apbpc gives for the complex dynamic deection wx; t where r1 x kR f4 L EI k3 f1 Lf1 L x f2 LEI k3 f4 L x kR f3 L x ; 3 EI k3 f2 1 L kR f1 Lf4 L f2 LkR f3 L EI k f4 L EI k3 f4 L kR f3 Lf1 L x f1 LEI k3 f4 L x kR f3 L x : 3 EI k3 f2 1 L kR f1 Lf4 L f2 LkR f3 L EI k f4 L 69 M0 eiOt f x L=2ux L=2 r1 L=2f3 x r2 L=2f4 x; k2 EI 3 68

r2 x

70

In order to make numerical calculations, the following data for the beam are used: beam length L 2:5 m, width of the beams cross-section b 300 mm, height of the cross-section h 50 mm, density of the used material r 7830 kg/m3, and modulus of elasticity E 205 (109) N/m2. Using these values yields for the exural rigidity EI 640625 Nm2 and for the mass per unit length m 117:45 kg/m. In Table 3, the rst ve circular natural frequencies for different values of

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Table 3 The rst ve natural frequencies of the beam shown in Fig. 3 in rad/s for different values of dimensionless stiffness % kR =72EI =L3 k % k 0 0.1 0.25 0.5 1 2 5 N o1 41.548 73.925 100.444 125.176 148.083 163.994 174.792 182.192 o2 260.375 268.338 280.988 302.865 344.552 409.008 500.846 590.419 o3 729.056 731.842 736.124 743.528 759.266 793.626 899.350 1231.862 o4 1428.659 1430.072 1432.214 1435.844 1443.322 1459.150 1512.858 2106.556 o5 2361.676 2362.529 2363.816 2365.978 2370.369 2379.424 2408.760 3214.503

stiffness kR are set out. These frequencies are obtained by using the frequency equation l3 where on ln =L2 p EI =m: 72 kR L3 cos l sinh l sin l cosh l ; 1 cos l cosh l EI 71

The frequency Eq. (71) is obtained by setting k=l/L in the denominator of Eq. (69) or Eq. (70) and then equating it to zero. The rst and last rows in the table give the natural frequencies of a cantilevered beam (kR 0) and a xed-pinned beam kR N; respectively. The table shows that increasing the stiffness kR leads to an increase in the natural frequencies. Furthermore, the effect of this stiffness on the lower frequencies is greater than on the higher frequencies. Fig. 4 shows the dimensionless dynamic deection v % v=vmax at x xmax for different values of the dimensionless stiffness k kR =k0 and different excitation frequencies O; where vmax ; xmax ; and k0 are dened as vmax M0 L2 ; 72EI xmax 2L=3; k0 72EI =L3 : 73

The quantities vmax and xmax are the maximum static deection of a xed-pinned beam (kR N) due to a static moment load acting at x L=2 and the position at which vmax occurs, respectively. The gure shows clearly the effect of the stiffness kR on the dynamic deection of the beam. Varying the value of this stiffness leads to increasing or decreasing the amplitudes of the dynamic deection of the beam. This is dependent upon, weather the natural frequencies of the beam thereby approaches the excitation frequency O or they will be removed from it. Fig. 5 shows the dimensionless dynamic response of the beam at x xmax due to the acting % 1; and different values moment for the excitation frequency O 160 rad/s, the stiffness ratio k of damping z; where only the external damping ra ; is considered (ri 0). For that, a damping ratio

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M. Abu-Hilal / Journal of Sound and Vibration 267 (2003) 191207
8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8
(a)

205

0.02

0.04

0.06 t (s)

0.08

0.1
(b)

8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8

0.02

0.04 t (s)

0.06

0.08

0.1

4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4
(c)

0.02

0.04

0.06 t (s)

0.08

0.1
(d)

0.02

## 0.04 0.06 t (s)

0.08

0.1

Fig. 4. Dimensionless dynamic deection versus time of the beam shown in Fig. 3 at x 2L=3 for different frequencies and different dimensionless stiffnesses: (a) O 120 rad/s, (b) O 160 rad/s, (c) O 200 rad/s, (d) O 250 rad/s; () % 0; ( ) k % 0:25; ( ) k % 1; (- - - -) k % N: k

## 8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 0 0.02 0.04 t (s)

Fig. 5. Dimensionless dynamic deection versus time of the beam shown in Fig. 3 at x=2L/3 for different values of damping: () z 0; (- - - -) z 0:05; ( ) z 0:1; ( )z 0:2:

0.06

0.08

0.1

is dened as z ra ; 2mo1 74

where o1 is the rst natural frequency of the considered beam and is equal to 148.083 rad/s in the studied case. The gure shows that the damping ratios z 0:05; 0:1 and 0:2 reduces the

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206 M. Abu-Hilal / Journal of Sound and Vibration 267 (2003) 191207

amplitudes of the deection down to 84%, 61% and 37% of the amplitude without damping, respectively.

5. Conclusions A method for determining the dynamic response of damped EulerBernoulli beams is presented. This method is based on the use of Green functions and yields exact solutions. It can be used to study the dynamic behavior of single and multi-span beams, single and multi-loaded beams, and statically determinate and indeterminate beams. Also Green functions for different beams are given. To verify the analysis performed, three numerical examples are presented and discussed. Appendix A C g1 x k3 EI 1 ; iri O g2 x f4 Lf2 L x f2 Lf4 L x ; 2 f2 2 L f4 L f4 Lf3 L x f3 Lf4 L x ; f2 3 L f2 Lf4 L f4 Lf2 L x f2 Lf4 L x ; f2 Lf3 L f1 Lf4 L f4 Lf3 L x f3 Lf4 L x ; f2 Lf3 L f1 Lf4 L f2 Lf1 L x f1 Lf2 L x ; f2 1 L f2 Lf4 L f2 Lf3 L x f1 Lf4 L x ; f2 1 L f2 Lf4 L f3 Lf1 L x f1 Lf3 L x ; 2 f2 1 L f3 L f3 Lf1 L x f1 Lf3 L x ; f1 Lf2 L f3 Lf4 L f4 Lf2 L x f1 Lf1 L x ; f1 Lf2 L f3 Lf4 L

f4 Lf4 L x f2 Lf2 L x ; 2 f2 2 L f4 L f2 Lf4 L x f3 Lf3 L x ; f2 3 L f2 Lf4 L f1 Lf4 L x f3 Lf2 L x ; f2 Lf3 L f1 Lf4 L f1 Lf4 L x f2 Lf3 L x ; f2 Lf3 L f1 Lf4 L f4 Lf2 L x f1 Lf1 L x ; f2 1 L f2 Lf4 L f4 Lf4 L x f1 Lf3 L x ; f2 1 L f2 Lf4 L f3 Lf3 L x f1 Lf1 L x ; 2 f2 1 L f3 L f4 Lf3 L x f2 Lf1 L x ; f1 Lf2 L f3 Lf4 L f3 Lf1 L x f2 Lf2 L x ; f1 Lf2 L f3 Lf4 L

g3 x

g4 x

g5 x g7 x g9 x

g6 x g8 x g10 x

g11 x

g12 x

g13 x

g14 x

g15 x g17 x

g16 x g18 x

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## f1 Lf2 L x f2 Lf1 L x ; f2 Lf3 L f1 Lf4 L f4 Lf3 L x f2 Lf1 L x ; 2 f2 2 L f4 L f4 Lf1 L x f3 Lf2 L x : f2 3 L f2 Lf4 L

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