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Assignment of services in bus lines under congestion

EUROXXIV, Lisbon 11-14th July

Esteve Codina1, ngel Marn2 Francisco Lpez1


1- Universitat Polit Politcnica de Catalunya 2- Universidad Polit Politcnica de Madrid

by

Spanish Research Grants


TRA2008-06782-C02-02, PT-2007-003-08CCPP 19/07/2010 EURO XXIV, Lisboa 1

CONTENTS

Motivation of this work. Bus Bridging problem Statement of the problem Operational times review and modelization - Queues of buses at stations - Passenger queues

Nonlinear integer programming problem Conclusions and further work

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Madrids Rapid Transit Network. Madrids Tunel de la Risa

Kepaptsoglou, K., Karlaftis, M.G. (2008) Bus Bridging Problem in Metro Operations: Mathematical Framework and Decision Support System. Transportation Research Board 87th Meeting, Washington USA.

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Traversal Matrix for Tnel de la Risa. 37740 trips/3hours


Atochas Station traffic is ~80.000 passengers a day
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Candidate Bus lines

All lines are circular stopping twice at each intermediate stop. i.e.: L9:
At NM Ch NM At (although many other possibilities exist, i.e. asymmetric lines for asymmetric demand)

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CONTENTS

Motivation of this work. Bus Bridging problem Statement of the problem Operational times review and modelization - Queues of buses at stations - Passenger queues

Nonlinear integer programming problem Conclusions and further work

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Problem statement
For a previously specified set of bus lines ( some of the bus lines to be discarded after the models run ) a) If no limitation on the fleets size available, which is number of units for each of the lines, taking into account o-d demand pattern, and the number of services? b) Where bottlenecks may occur? c) Take into account operational and service setting costs d) What is maximum capacity of the system?
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CONTENTS

Motivation of this work. Bus Bridging problem Statement of the problem Operational times review and modelization - Queues of buses at stations - Passenger queues

Nonlinear integer programming problem Conclusions and further work

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Review of operational times for vehicles


- Station to station (transit segment)

- Maneuver time for entering the station - In-station time:


- (possible) queueing time to access boarding/alighting berths - maneuver time to access boarding/alighting berths - PST (passenger service time) = max(boarding time, alighting time) (or maybe fixed time) (includes open/close doors)

- Exiting the station


- (possible) blocking time by preceeding buses - Queuing time to get the exit position - Time to incorporate on the next segment

Many of these times depend strongly on the physical configuration of the station
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Hypothesis of a simple link restoration model


(Codina and Marn 2008) Demand will surpass the possibilities of the Bus Bridging System. An alternative transport is required to be taken into account in the model (the simplest one is pedestrian) Maximum number of buses of type r with capacity qr Traversal O-D matrix known pq Queueing of buses at stations aprx. By GI/G/s Allen Cuneens aproximation Constant bus cycles not affected by bus queueing; Costs for renting and operational costs are considered Passengers Total Travel Time is taken into account through a value of time of ~5/hour To determine:

pax

- nrl Number of buses of type r to operate on line l.


-

zrl Number of services for buses of type r at line l


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Queueing of buses at stations


Schema of the bus stop model considered

L0 Waiting queue Berth for service L0 Waiting System

L1 Waiting queue

L1 Waiting System

L0 and L1 are tandem queues with blocking of L1 on L0. L0 modelled as a GI/G/s queue. Approximate modelling of blocking
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N of services of incoming lines at a station (input flow) at a station is limited by:


- Space L0 for queuing - Maneuver times for entering at the station
L0 Waiting L0 queue Waiting System Berth for servic e L1 Waiting L1 queue Waiting System

- Operational service times of passengers (boarding, alighting) - Spillback of L1 waiting system on L0 waiting system. A bus cannot leave its berth after servicing passengers because there is another blocking bus ahead

Waiting times of buses increases cycle times - So, indirectly, the maximum number of services is reduced

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A simplified way of preventing spillback: Limitations on input flow entering at station b

= maneuver + passenger service time at stop b

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Allen Cuneens formula for GI/G/s queue

Piecewise linear approximation to Allen Cuneens formula for different number s of servers (berths)

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Piecewise linear approximation to Allen Cuneens formula for different number s of servers (berths)

= loading factor for waiting system L0

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Factors to take into account in the model:


Our intuituion for modelling Bus-Bridging is that passenger waiting times at stations is a very relevant factor. Passenger waiting times at stations is seldomly mentioned in literature or technical manuals. Complex Queueing problem. Conventional Queueing Models: M/M/s M/MX/s (bulk service) One queue for each line stopping at a station is the most that can be expected

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M/GX/s
(bulk service) The number of passengers that cannot board the first bus increases as passenger input flow increases at the station. Congestion is due to limited capacity of buses and probably busbunching.

Uncongested interval

Congested interval

(a)

(b)

O. Debesi. (1986) A mathematical model for headway variance of fixed route buses. Trans. Res.B N1

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Delays of passengers at stations effects on passengers travel times (A) Regularity of services may be affected by external factors (i.e. street traffic) dispersion of the bus headway distribution
Mean waiting times (minutes) at stations for passengers under ctant. bus headway (simulation for a 3 hours period)

Mean waiting times (minutes) for passengers at stations under exp. distributed bus headway (simulation for a 3 hours period)

Comparison with wating time for M/M/1 queue

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Analytic solution of M/M[X]/1

Effect of random servers capacity on passengers delay at stations For the M/G[X]/1 queue simulations confirm that the effect of random capacity of servers is moderate.

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Factors to take into account in a more realistic and robust model:


Transit assignment models consider usually strategies (boarding on first arriving atractive bus)

PASSENGER STRATEGIES AT STATIONS?

Different queues interacting each other, one for each strategy, need to be considered.
(Cominetti, R., Correa, J., 2001. Common-lines and passenger assignment in congested transit networks. Transportation Science 35 (3), pp 250-267.)

Stations may be crowded and queueing discipline should be observed


UNCONGESTED Spiess, H., Florian, M., 1989. Optimal strategies: a new assignment model for transit networks. Transportation Research Part B 23 (2), 83-102. CONGESTED MODELS Cepeda, M., Cominetti, y R. Florian, M. (2006) "A frequency-based assignment model for congested transit networks with strict capacity constraints : characterization and computation of equilibria". Trans. Res B 40 pp. 437-459. 19/07/2010 EURO XXIV, Lisboa 20

CONTENTS

Motivation of this work. Bus Bridging problem Statement of the problem Operational times review and modelization - Queues of buses at stations - Passenger queues

Nonlinear integer programming problem Conclusions and further work

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Network Model
Multidestination network flow problem

Alternative transportation mode In-vehicle Alighting link Boarding link

Link Travel Time functions

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Modelling of total waiting time for passengers at a stop

( )

If is convex and increasing then is convex as well and can be approximated by a piecewise linear convex function

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Mixed Integer Linear programming model


Obj. function Operational costs of lines + value of passengers travel time

Relationships between line cycles, # services and buses assigned to lines

Flow feasibility constraints

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Constraints for queueing time of buses at stations

Constraints for the limited queueing space at stations for buses

Constraints for the capacity in maximum number of passengers at stations

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Constraints modelling waiting times of passengers at stations


- Integer Variables - Non-linear - An heuristic approach must be used

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Constraints modelling waiting times of passengers at queues

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Tnel de la Risas Model


148 links, 72 nodes, 12 O-D pairs

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Tnel de la Risas Model


Sigma=2 eta=0.5 z n C1 HH0 CCl L-L8 132 45 57.4 1.36 13200 Pcklen Cappck Pcksize T a Pie Tppax 12.0 100.0 1.0 0.000 25.0 : prklots prklength L0Q(m) L1spai L0SE At 3 42 180 24 18 Re 3 42 50 24 7 NM 3 42 50 24 7 Ch 3 42 250 24 23 : L1SE L1SEoc MaxPax PaxOc At 2 0.55 2500 2404.47 Re 2 0.55 900 192.61 NM 2 0.55 1200 84.51 Ch 2 0.55 800 91.46 : Zmaxb wpck rhob kappa At 132.8 4.81 0.820 3.35 Re 208.8 0.28 0.311 1.27 NM 159.2 0.64 0.411 1.68 Ch 444.4 0.39 0.342 1.40
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F.Obj

F.Obj vs It
60000

55000

50000

45000

40000

35000 0 10 20 It 30 40

L0Qoc 17.98 3.42 5.12 3.94

Time O-D (min) At Re 18.7 At NM 28.2 At Ch 38.3 Re At 12.3 Re NM 16.2 Re Ch 26.3 NM At 21.0 NM Re 10.7 NM Ch 11.8 Ch At 31.5 Ch Re 21.2 Ch NM 12.4

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F.Obj vs It (eta=1.0 sigma=0.0)


120000

Tnel de la Risas Model


F.Obj

110000

Sigma=0.0 eta=1.0 : z n C1 HH0 CCl L-L11 22 7 49.4 8.1 2200 L-L7 62 14 38.9 2.9 6200 L-L8 180 59 58.2 1.0 18000 Pcklen Cappck Pcksize T a Peu Tppax 12.0 100.0 1.0 0.116 27.5 : prklots prklength L0Q(m) L1spai L0SE L0SEoc At 5 64 180 24 20 20.26 Re 5 64 64 24 10 9.37 NM 5 64 64 24 10 8.01 Ch 5 64 250 24 25 17.07 : L1SE L1SEoc MaxPax PaxOc At 2 0.84 2500 2500.0 Re 2 1.00 900 797.2 NM 2 0.75 1200 40.0 Ch 2 1.10 800 202.1 : Zmaxb wpck rhob kappa At 202.9 2.53 0.782 3.48 Re 242.9 0.58 0.467 1.73 NM 212.0 0.50 0.433 2.16 Ch 341.0 1.57 0.675 2.30
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100000

90000

80000 0 10 20 It 30 40

Time OD At Re 24.0 At NM 30.4 At Ch 51.1 Re At 8.6 Re NM 34.5 Re Ch 27.1 NM At 17.9 NM Re 9.5 NM Ch 11.3 Ch At 27.9 Ch Re 19.3 Ch NM 11.4

km/h 5.0 9.1 9.0 14.0 4.5 12.5 15.6 16.4 15.9 16.5 17.5 15.8
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F.Obj vs It (eta=1.0 sigma=0) vel 8,7km/h


155000

Tnel de la Risas Model


F.Obj

150000 145000 140000

Sigma=0.0 eta=1.0 z n C1 H CCl L-L4 149 57 68.4 1.20 14900 L-L8 55 36 115.5 3.27 5500 Pcklen Cappck Pcksize T a Peu Tppax 12.0 100.0 1.0 0.202 41.8 : prklots prklength L0spai L1spai L0SE L0SEoc Time OD km/h At 5 64 180 24 20 20.3 At Re 24.0 5.0 Re 5 64 64 24 10 3.5 At NM 43.3 6.4 NM 5 64 64 24 10 7.1 At Ch 79.8 5.7 Ch 5 64 250 24 25 3.0 Re At 15.1 8.0 : L1SE L1SEoc MaxPax PaxOc Re NM 35.9 4.4 At 2 0.85 2500 2500 Re Ch 71.6 4.7 Re 2 0.85 900 298.3 NM At 34.5 8.1 NM 2 0.85 1200 51.9 NM Re 19.9 7.9 Ch 2 0.22 800 728.1 NM Ch 23.6 7.7 : Zmaxb wpck rhob kappa Ch At 66.1 6.9 At 204.5 2.52 0.785 3.46 Ch Re 51.5 6.6 Re 398.7 0 0.238 1.05 Ch NM 32.4 5.6 NM 249.7 0.38 0.391 1.72 Ch 460.5 0 0.203 3.32
135000 130000 125000 120000 0 10 20 It 30

40

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CONTENTS

Motivation of this work. Bus Bridging problem Statement of the problem Operational times review and modelization - Queues of buses at stations - Passenger queues

Nonlinear integer programming problem Conclusions and further work

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Conclusions and further research

A Bus Bridging (link restoration) network design model has been presented for modeling high levels of disrupted demand. The model assumes a system optimum behaviour and takes into account the main factors of highly congested situations :
-

Passenger queues and passenger waiting times at stations Bus queueing and effects on bus cycles.

The model is computationally feasible and it is to be expected to solve much larger networks rather efficiently. It is solved heuristically and a consistent approximation by integer linear programming is being developed

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THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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