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$EVWUDFW- The continuous increase of power demand has


resulted in an excess of the rated capacity of the distributed
power transformer and the replacement with the larger power
transformer is under consideration. However, the larger power
transformer has lower impedance, which increases the short-
circuit current and exceeds the cut-off-ratings of the circuit
breaker in a distribution system. The superconducting fault
current limiter (SFCL) has been noticed as the promising method
to decrease the short-circuit current in a power system, because it
has no power loss in a normal time and can limit the fault current
rapidly without additional device to detect the fault current.
These merits of the SFCL have made many researchers to adopt
the SFCL as one of better solutions to decrease the short-circuit
current effectively due to the replacement of the larger power
transformer with its lower impedance. However, the protection
coordination of the protection devices such as the over-current
relay (OCR) and the recloser in a distribution system gets out of
the original setting rule due to the introduction of the SFCL.
In this paper, we studied on the impedance of the SFCL for
the protection coordination with the protection devices in a
distribution system. Through the analysis using PSCAD/EMTDC,
it was obtained that the range of the impedance of SFCL would
be drawn to keep the protection coordination.
I. INTRODUCTION

ITH increase oI the power demand and the growth oI
industry, the importance oI the stable power supply in
the distribution power system has been noticed and the
investment oI the power generation Iacilities has been
increased. In recent, the renewable energy resource such as the
photovoltaic, the wind power and the Iuel cell has been
introduced into the distribution power system |1-2|.
However, the increase oI the power generation Iacilities
and the introduction oI the renewable energy resource have
occurred the ratings oI power transIormers to be exceeded. As
one oI these countermeasures, the replacement with the larger

This work has been supported by KESRI(R-2008-38), which is Iunded by
MKE(Ministry oI Knowledge Economy).
J. S. Kim is with the Department oI Electrical Engineering, Soongsil
University, Seoul, Korea (e-mail: redwolI832ssu.ac.kr).
J. F. Moon is with the Department oI Electrical Engineering, Soongsil
University, Seoul, Korea (e-mail: pichardssu.ac.kr).
S. H. Lim is with the Department oI Electrical Engineering, Soongsil
University, Seoul, Korea (e-mail: superlsh73ssu.ac.kr).
J. C. Kim is with the Department oI Electrical Engineering, Soongsil
University, Seoul, Korea (e-mail: jckimssu.ac.kr).
power transIormer is under consideration. However, the Iault
current can be increased due to the lower impedance oI the
larger power transIormer. This increased Iault current can
exceed the cut-oII ratings oI the related power devices |2-3|.
To decrease the increased Iault current within the cut-oII
ratings oI the circuit breaker, the various methods are being
considered as solutions, which are the installation oI series
reactors or the replacement with either high impedance
transIormer or circuit breaker with larger power capacity.
However, these methods have disadvantages such as the
occurrence oI the power loss and the voltage drop during a
normal time |4-5|. As one oI more eIIective solutions,
superconducting Iault current limiter (SFCL) has been
proposed. However, the limited eIIect oI Iault current by
SFCL depends on the impedance oI SFCL and the operation
oI protective device is inIluenced by the limited Iault current
as well. ThereIore, the magnitude oI SFCL`s impedance is
required to be selected with appropriate value under setting
rule oI protective relay such as the overcurrent relay (OCR)
when a SFCL is installed in a power system |6-9|.
In this paper, the impedance oI the SFCL Ior the protection
coordination with the OCR based on the OCR`s setting rule in
a distribution system was analyzed through the
PSCAD/EMTDC simulation. From the analysis, the range oI
the impedance oI SFCL to keep the OCR`s protection
coordination with the SFCL was obtained and was conIirmed
Irom the case study.
II. CONFIGURATION AND MODELING FOR SIMULATION
A. Configuration of Distribution Svstem
Fig. 1 shows the conIiguration oI a distribution system,
which consists oI the main transIormer and 5 Ieeders. In this
distribution system, the circuit breakers to protect the main
transIormer and the Ieeders were installed. The main
transIormer in Fig. 1 is required to be replaced with the one oI
the larger capacity to supply more electric power Ior the
increased load. However, to prevent the destruction oI the
circuit breakers Irom the increased Iault current due to the
replacement oI the main transIormer, the SFCL is installed
between the secondary side oI the main transIormer and the
bus line. The detailed speciIications oI the distribution system
are shown in Table I.
The OCR Ior the operation oI the circuit breaker installed at
Study on Selection oI SFCL`s Impedance Ior
Protection Coordination with Overcurrent Relay
in a Distribution System
J. S. Kim, J. F. Moon, S. H. Lim, J. C. Kim
W
IEEE T&D Asia 2009
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the secondary side oI the main transIormer was set by the
setting rule that OCR is operated within 0.5 seconds when a
three-phase short circuit Iault occurs at a way out oI substation,
point oI Fault 1 in Fig. 1. The Iinal setting values oI the OCR
were shown in Table II.

Fig. 1. ConIiguration oI the distribution system

TABLE I
Detailed SpeciIications oI the distribution system
ConIiguration
Components
Parameters
Source 154 |kV| / 1.75 ||
TransIormer
BeIore : 154/22.9 |kV|, 45 |MVA| / j15 ||
AIter : 154/22.9 |kV|, 100 |MVA| / j20 ||
Distribution Line
(ALOC 160 )
Z0 8.68 j22.86 || / 100 |MVA|
Z1 Z2 3.48 j7.44 || / 100 |MVA|
Load
Feeder 1 : 10 |MVA| / p.I. 95 || Lag
Feeder 2 : 7 |MVA| / p.I. 95 || Lag
Feeder 3 : 9 |MVA| / p.I. 95 || Lag
Feeder 4 : 8 |MVA| / p.I. 95 || Lag
Feeder 5 : 8 |MVA| / p.I. 95 || Lag

TABLE II
Setting values oI the OCR
Parameters Setting value
Load Current 1.13 |kArms|
Full Load Current 1.51 |kArms|
Pickup Current oI Time Delay Operation 2.1 |kArms|
Lever 1

B. Modeling of Superconducting Fault Current Limiter
The developed SFCLs can be classiIied into the resistive
type, the inductive type and the rectiIier type ones. Recently,
the trigger type SFCL, which can reduce the amount oI the
superconducting material comprising the SFCL and decrease
the SFCL`s recovery time, has developed. This trigger type
SFCL is Iirst expected to be applied into the distribution
system |10-14|. ThereIore, in this paper, the trigger type SFCL
was selected Ior analysis oI the protection coordination with
OCR. Fig. 2 shows the conIiguration oI the trigger type SFCL.
As seen in Fig. 2, it consists oI the mechanical switch (SW
1), the superconducting element and the current limiting
reactor (CLR). Its basic operation can be divided into two
states : the normal time operation and the Iault time operation.
In a normal time, the SW 1 is closed and the resistance oI
the superconducting element is zero. ThereIore, the line
current Ilows through the SW 1 and the superconducting
element. When its quench happens due to the Iault occurrence,
the resistance oI superconducting element starts to increase
and the part oI line current passes the CLR. The Iault current
Ilows into the CLR by the opening operation oI the SW 1 and
the Iault current, thereIore, can be limited with the impedance
oI CLR. The opening operation oI the SW 1 separates the
superconducting element Irom the circuit and the
superconducting element begins to recover into the
superconducting state.

Fig. 2. ConIiguration oI trigger type SFCL

C. Modeling of Overcurrent relav
OCR is mainly used Ior protection oI the distribution
system. The operational characteristics oI OCR can be
expressed as Iollows :

( ) 1
1
trip p
A
Time B TD
M
| |
= +
|

\


where A, B and p are constants that represent the inverse,
the very inverse and the extremely inverse types oI the OCR.
The constants in this paper are decided by very inverse type oI
Korea Electronic Power Corporation (KEPCO) and shown in
Table III. The M means multi-rate oI current which is made up
oI I
input
that is equal to Iault current, and I
pickup
that is
calculated by setting rule. TD (Time Dial) is also decided by
protection coordination Irom the setting rule |9|.

TABLE III
Parameters oI very inverse type in KEPCO
Parameters A B p
Constants 39.85 1.084 1.95
III. ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
A. Studv on Selection of Impedance
As mentioned above, there is a problem in applying the
SFCL that the limited eIIect oI Iault current depends on a
impedance oI SFCL and the operation oI protective device is
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also inIluenced by limited Iault current. To solve the problem,
this study investigates the impedance Ior operation oI OCR
according to setting rule. The setting rule oI OCR`s operation
is as Iollows :
The OCR is operated within 0.5 seconds when a three-phase
short circuit Iault occurs at the point where the Ieeder is drawn
out Irom substation, Fault 1 in Fig. 1.
According to above rule, the magnitude oI Iault current is
also limited by M in equation (1), because the Iault current
aIIects the operation time oI OCR. In order to keep the setting
rule, the M is calculated Irom equation (1) with Table II and
Table III. As a result oI computation, the M is got to 3.2 multi-
rate. Using the given date oI I
pickup
(Time Delay Operation
Current) which is contained in M, Irom Table II, the I
input
(The
Fault Current) is estimated Ior available minimum Iault
current, in other words, the impedance oI SFCL has maximum
value because the OCR has the characteristics oI very inverse
within the time oI delay operation under setting rule. With the
result in that the I
input
is Iound as 7.1 |kArms|.
Finally, the impedance oI SFCL can be searched through
equation (2) which Iinds the Iault current on the basis oI 100
|MVA|. Using provided Iault current Irom above step, Z
S
and
Z
Tr
Irom Table I, the impedance oI SFCL can be obtained.


100
2521.18 2
f
S Tr SFCL
I
Z Z Z
u



From all step, the Z
SFCL
is calculated as j13.7 || which is
equal to j0.72 || and describes the impedance diIIerence
between transIormers with 45 |MVA| and 100 |MVA|.

B. Simulation using PSCAD/EMTDC
The simulation has been executed Ior review oI proposed
impedance by PSCAD/EMDTC. In simulation, three-phase
short circuit Iault occurred by setting rule at 0.1 |sec| and
continued Ior a long time. Fig. 3 shows waveIorm oI Iault
current without SFCL in case oI capacity oI transIormers
when the setting oI OCR is equal.
BeIore replacement oI the main transIormer, the OCR
operates normally. With maintaining the state oI OCR, aIter
change oI the transIormer with larger capacity, the Iault
current has been increased and it aIIects an operation time oI
OCR to run early. When the SFCL is installed on secondary
side oI transIormer to decrease the Iault current, Fig. 4 shows
the results. Consequently, the SFCL limits the Iault current
that can be compared without SFCL at 100 |MVA| in Fig. 3.
Although higher impedance is more eIIective, the operation
time oI OCR is kept by setting rule. As the chosen impedance
through equation (2) is applied, the result shows Fig. 4. (a) in
Fig. 4 has j0.7 ||, and limited Iault current and operation
time oI OCR are almost likely to the Iault current at 45
|MVA|. II the impedance is higher than proposed value, the
eIIect shows (b) in Fig. 4. The inIluence oI SFCL is better
than (a), however, operation time over the regulation.
From the result oI above all, the chosen magnitude oI SFCL`s
impedance can conIirm exact impedance because the Iault
current is interrupted correctly within operation time under
setting rule.

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
-30
-15
0
15
30
-30
-15
0
15
30
(b)
(a)
LImItcd tImc
nf 5cttIng ru!c
Fau!t start

TImc [scc]
C
u
r
r
c
n
t

[
k
A
]

Fig. 3. WaveIorm oI Iault current without SFCL in the case that the setting
parameters oI OCR are equal. (a) With 45 |MVA|. (b) With 100 |MVA|.

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
-30
-15
0
15
30
-30
-15
0
15
30
Fau!t start

C
u
r
r
c
n
t

[
k
A
]
TImc [scc]
LImItcd tImc
nf 5cttIng ru!c
(b)
(a)

Fig. 4. WaveIorm oI Iault current with SFCL in case oI impedance at 100
|MVA|. (a) j0.7 ||. (b) j0.8 ||.

IV. CONCLUSIONS

This study proposed the impedance oI the SFCL
considering the OCR`s operation. The SFCL is introduced to
solve the Iault current problem by replacing transIormer, and
the impedance oI SFCL has upper boundary to keep the
setting rule oI protection relay. This paper suggested the
impedance and was veriIied through simulation tool oI
PSCAD/EMTDC.
V. REFERENCES

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Superconducting Fault Current Limiters in Electric Power
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2002
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