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DEPARTMENT OF ECE

PROJECT REPORT 2013

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION:
This Project REMOTE CONTROLLER is used to switch on/off the Home Appliances by using a standard Remote control. The system is used to switch on/off electrical devices. All the above processes are controlled by the Decade counter. With most pieces of consumer electronics, from camcorders to stereo equipment, an infrared remote control is usually always included. Video and audio apparatus, computers and also lighting installations nowadays often operate on infra-red remote control. The carrier frequency of such infra-red signals is typically in the order of around 38 kHz. The Decade Counter receives the Infrared Signal from the receiver and it decodes and switch on/off the appropriate Device. The Range of the system is up to 10 meters. The project can switch on/off electrical devices of maximum load current of 7Amperes. High power loads can also be connected by changing the Relay. Decade Counter is used receive the Infrared signal from the Transmitter, the received signal is processed by the Decade counter and according to the signal the corresponding device is switched On/off.

1.1 PROJECT OVERVIEW: The project explains the implementation of TV REMOTE BASED DEVICE SWITCHING using CD4017 Counter Detector. The organization of the project is explained here with: Chapter 1 Presents introduction to the overall thesis and the overview of the project. In the project overview a brief introduction of TV remote based device switching and its applications are discussed. Chapter 2 Presents the circuit designing principles of the circuit construct.

Chapter 3 Presents the hardware description. It deals with the block diagram of the project and explains the purpose of each block. In the same chapter the explanation of power supplies, relay and TV remote are considered. Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Presents the project description along with TSOP1738 module. Presents the advantages, disadvantages and applications of the project. Presents the results and future scope of the project. Presents the conclusion.

DEPARTMENT OF ECE

PROJECT REPORT 2013

CHAPTER 2
DESIGNING PRINCIPLES:
The TV/DVD remote controller produces 38kHz frequency. The IR receiver module operates at this frequency. It is used to control relay RL2. The relay triggers IC2, which is wired in a bistable mode to control the home appliance connected at the contacts of relay RL1. Timer IC2 toggles relay RL1 when switch S1 is pressed momentarily. Threshold and trigger input pins 6 and 2 of IC2 are held at one-half of the power supply voltage (5V) by resistors R2 and R3. When output pin 3 of IC2 is high, capacitor C4 charges through resistor R4, and discharges when the output pin 3 is low. When switch S1 is pressed, capacitor C4 voltage is applied to pins 2 and 6 of IC2, which causes the output of IC2 to change from low to high, or high to low. When switch S1 is released capacitor C4 charges or discharges to the original level at the output pin 3 of IC2. At normal condition, when IR rays are not incident on TSOP1738, its output at pin 3 remains high. When any TV remote key is pressed, IR rays fall on the TSOP1738 and its output goes low. At the same time relay RL2 energizes for a few seconds through pnp transistor T2 (BC558). The working of the circuit is simple. Initially, when there are no IR rays falling on the IR receiver module, its output remains high. Transistor T2 is in cut-off condition. Relay RL2 does not energize and hence IC2 does not toggle. As a result home appliance connected at the contacts of relay RL1 remains switched off. When you press any remote key for the first time, IR receiver modules output goes low and collector of the transistor T2 goes high. Relay RL2 energizes and triggers IC2. Output of IC2 goes high and relay RL1 energizes to switch on the appliance. Once relay RL1 is energized it remains in that state.

Fig: Circuit Diagram 2.1

CHAPTER 3
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CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION:
3.1 POWER SUPPLY Power supply is a supply of electrical power. A device or system that supplies electrical or other types of energy to an output load or group of loads is called a power supply unit or PSU. The term is most commonly applied to electrical energy supplies, less often to mechanical ones, and rarely to others. A power supply may include a power distribution system as well as primary or secondary sources of energy such as

Conversion of one form of electrical power to another desired form and voltage, typically involving converting AC line voltage to a well-regulated lower-voltage DC for electronic devices. Low voltage, low power DC power supply units are commonly integrated with the devices they supply, such as computers and household electronics. Batteries. Chemical fuel cells and other forms of energy storage systems. Solar power. Generators or alternators. Fig 3.1.1 Regulated Power Supply

The basic circuit diagram of a regulated power supply (DC O/P) with led connected as load is shown in fig: 3.1.2.

Fig 3.1.2 Circuit diagram of Regulated Power Supply with Led connection
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The basic circuit diagram of a regulated power supply (DC O/P) with led connected as load is shown in fig: 3.1.3.

Fig 3.1.3 Circuit diagram of Regulated Power Supply with Led connection

The components mainly used in above figure are 230V AC MAINS TRANSFORMER BRIDGE RECTIFIER(DIODES) CAPACITOR VOLTAGE REGULATOR(IC 7805) RESISTOR LED(LIGHT EMITTING DIODE) The detailed explanation of each and every component mentioned above is as follows:

Transformation: The process of transforming energy from one device to another is called transformation. For transforming energy we use transformers. Transformers: A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors without changing its frequency. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core, and thus a varying magnetic field through the secondary winding. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or "voltage" in the secondary winding. This effect is called mutual induction. If a load is connected to the secondary, an electric current will flow in the secondary winding and electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit through the
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transformer to the load. This field is made up from lines of force and has the same shape as a bar magnet. If the current is increased, the lines of force move outwards from the coil. If the current is reduced, the lines of force move inwards. If another coil is placed adjacent to the first coil then, as the field moves out or in, the moving lines of force will "cut" the turns of the second coil. As it does this, a voltage is induced in the second coil. With the 50 Hz AC mains supply, this will happen 50 times a second. This is called MUTUAL INDUCTION and forms the basis of the transformer. The input coil is called the PRIMARY WINDING; the output coil is the SECONDARY WINDING. Fig: 3.1.4 shows step-down transformer.

Fig 3.1.4: Step-Down Transformer The voltage induced in the secondary is determined by the TURNS RATIO.

For example, if the secondary has half the primary turns; the secondary will have half the primary voltage. Another example is if the primary has 5000 turns and the secondary has 500 turns, then the turns ratio is 10:1. If the primary voltage is 240 volts then the secondary voltage will be x 10 smaller = 24 volts. Assuming a perfect transformer, the power provided by the primary must equal the power taken by a load on the secondary. If a 24-watt lamp is connected across a 24 volt secondary, then the primary must supply 24 watts. To aid magnetic coupling between primary and secondary, the coils are wound on a metal CORE. Since the primary would induce power, called EDDY CURRENTS, into this core, the core is LAMINATED. This means that it is made up from metal sheets insulated from each other. Transformers to work at higher frequencies have an iron dust core or no core at all.

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Note that the transformer only works on AC, which has a constantly changing current and moving field. DC has a steady current and therefore a steady field and there would be no induction. Some transformers have an electrostatic screen between primary and secondary. This is to prevent some types of interference being fed from the equipment down into the mains supply, or in the other direction. Transformers are sometimes used for IMPEDANCE MATCHING. We can use the transformers as step up or step down. Step Up transformer: In case of step up transformer, primary windings are every less compared to secondary winding. Because of having more turns secondary winding accepts more energy, and it releases more voltage at the output side. Step down transformer: Incase of step down transformer, Primary winding induces more flux than the secondary winding, and secondary winding is having less number of turns because of that it accepts less number of flux, and releases less amount of voltage. Battery power supply: A battery is a type of linear power supply that offers benefits that traditional lineoperated power supplies lack: mobility, portability and reliability. A battery consists of multiple electrochemical cells connected to provide the voltage desired. Fig: 3.1.5 shows Hi-Watt 9V battery

Fig 3.1.5: Hi-Watt 9V Battery The most commonly used dry-cell battery is the carbon-zinc dry cell battery. Drycell batteries are made by stacking a carbon plate, a layer of electrolyte paste, and a zinc plate alternately until the desired total voltage is achieved. The most common dry-cell batteries have one of the following voltages: 1.5, 3, 6, 9, 22.5, 45, and 90. During the discharge of a carbon-zinc
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battery, the zinc metal is converted to a zinc salt in the electrolyte, and magnesium dioxide is reduced at the carbon electrode. These actions establish a voltage of approximately 1.5 V. The lead-acid storage battery may be used. This battery is rechargeable; it consists of lead and lead/dioxide electrodes which are immersed in sulfuric acid. When fully charged, this type of battery has a 2.06-2.14 V potential (A 12 volt car battery uses 6 cells in series). During discharge, the lead is converted to lead sulfate and the sulfuric acid is converted to water. When the battery is charging, the lead sulfate is converted back to lead and lead dioxide A nickelcadmium battery has become more popular in recent years. This battery cell is completely sealed and rechargeable. The electrolyte is not involved in the electrode reaction, making the voltage constant over the span of the batteries long service life. During the charging process, nickel oxide is oxidized to its higher oxidation state and cadmium oxide is reduced. The nickel-cadmium batteries have many benefits. They can be stored both charged and uncharged. They have a long service life, high current availabilities, constant voltage, and the ability to be recharged. Fig: 3.1.6 shows pencil battery of 1.5V.

Fig 3.1.6: Pencil Battery of 1.5V

Rectifier: The output from the transformer is fed to the rectifier. It converts A.C. into pulsating D.C. The rectifier may be a half wave or a full wave rectifier. In this project, a bridge rectifier is used because of its merits like good stability and full wave rectification. Filter: Capacitive filter is used in this project. It removes the ripples from the output of rectifier and smoothens the D.C. Output received from this filter is constant until the mains voltage and load is maintained constant. However, if either of the two is varied, D.C. voltage received at this point changes. Therefore a regulator is applied at the output stage. Regulation: The process of converting a varying voltage to a constant regulated voltage is called as regulation. For the process of regulation we use voltage regulators.

DEPARTMENT OF ECE

PROJECT REPORT 2013

Voltage regulator: As the name itself implies, it regulates the input applied to it. A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. In this project, power supply of 5V and 12V are required. In order to obtain these voltage levels, 7805 and 7812 voltage regulators are to be used. The first number 78 represents positive supply and the numbers 05, 12 represent the required output voltage levels. A voltage regulator (also called a regulator) with only three terminals appears to be a simple device, but it is in fact a very complex integrated circuit. It converts a varying input voltage into a constant regulated output voltage. Voltage Regulators are available in a variety of outputs like 5V, 6V, 9V, 12V and 15V. The LM78XX series of voltage regulators are designed for positive input. For applications requiring negative input, the LM79XX series is used. Using a pair of voltage-divider resistors can increase the output voltage of a regulator circuit. It is not possible to obtain a voltage lower than the stated rating. You cannot use a 12V regulator to make a 5V power supply. Voltage regulators are very robust. These can withstand over-current draw due to short circuits and also over-heating. In both cases, the regulator will cut off before any damage occurs. The only way to destroy a regulator is to apply reverse voltage to its input. Reverse polarity destroys the regulator almost instantly. Fig: 3.1.7 shows voltage regulator.

Fig 3.1.7: Voltage Regulator

DEPARTMENT OF ECE

PROJECT REPORT 2013

3.2 IR RECEIVER (TSOP1738): The TSOP17 series are miniaturized receivers for infrared remote control systems. PIN diode and preamplifier are assembled on lead frame, the epoxy package is designed as IR filter. The demodulated output signal can directly be decoded by a microprocessor. TSOP17 is the standard IR remote control receiver series, supporting all major transmission codes.
Table 1: TSOP 17.. Series

Type TSOP1730 TSOP1736 TSOP1738 TSOP1756

f 30 kHz 36 kHz 38 kHz 56 kHz

GND VS OUT

Fig 3.2.1: TSOP 17.. Series

Introduction to IR communication: As next-generation electronic information systems evolve, it is critical that all people have access to the information available via these systems. Examples of developing and future information systems include interactive television, touch screen-based information kiosks, and advanced Internet programs. Infrared technology, increasingly present in mainstream applications, holds great potential for enabling people with a variety of disabilities to access a growing list of information resources. Already commonly used in remote control of TVs, VCRs and CD players, infrared technology is also being used and developed for remote control of environmental control systems, personal computers, and talking signs. For individuals with mobility impairments, the use of infrared or other wireless technology can facilitate the operation of information kiosks, environmental control systems, personal computers and associated peripheral devices. For individuals with visual impairments, infrared or other wireless communication technology can enable users to locate and access talking building directories, street signs, or other assistive navigation devices. For individuals using augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices, infrared or other wireless technology
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can provide an alternate, more portable, more independent means of accessing computers and other electronic information systems. A discussion specific to infrared technology then follows, with advantages and disadvantages of the technology presented along with the infrared applications. Infrared (IR) is a type of light that is not visible to the human eye. Our eyes are detectors which are designed to detect visible light waves (or visible radiation). Visible light is one of the few types of radiation that can penetrate our atmosphere and be detected on the Earth's surface. Actually we can only see a very small part of the entire range of radiation called the electromagnetic spectrum.

Fig 3.2.2: Electromagnetic Spectrum The electromagnetic spectrum includes gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwaves, and radio waves. The only difference between these different types of radiation is their wavelength or frequency. Wavelength increases and frequency decreases from gamma rays to radio waves. All of these forms of radiation travel at the speed of light (186,000 miles or 300,000,000 meters per second in a vacuum). Infrared radiation lies between the visible and microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Infrared waves have wavelengths longer than visible and shorter than microwaves, and have frequencies which are lower than visible and higher than microwaves. With wavelengths from 750 nm to 1 mm, infrared starts at the end of the microwave spectrum and ends at the beginning of visible light. Infrared transmission typically requires an unobstructed line of sight between transmitter and receiver. Infrared is broken into three categories: near, mid and far-infrared. Near-infrared refers to the part of the infrared spectrum that is closest to visible light and far-infrared refers to the part that is closer to the microwave region. Mid-infrared is the region between these two. The primary source of infrared radiation is heat or thermal radiation. This is the radiation produced by the motion of atoms and molecules in an object. The higher the temperature, the more the atoms and molecules move and the more infrared radiation they produce. Even objects that we think of as being very cold, such as an ice cube, emit infrared. When an object is not quite hot enough to radiate visible light, it will emit most of its energy in the infrared. For example, hot charcoal may not give off light but it does emit
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infrared radiation which we feel as heat. The warmer the object, the more infrared radiation it emits. The following figure shows the transmitter and receiver of IR communication.

Fig3.2.3: Schematic for Transmitter Working of infrared communication:

Fig3.2.4: Schematic for Receiver

Various types of infrared based applications are available in the market. The circuit for infrared based applications is designed along with the transmitter and receiver sections i.e. we cant use it for other application. But the infrared communication project which we have done here can be used in any application just by replacing the application at the place of infrared LED in the circuit diagram of infrared communication. By using this project we can design infrared based applications easily. The entire circuit consists of two sections named as 1. Transmitter section and 2. Receiver section 1. Transmitter section: The transmitter section consists of a 555 timer IC functioning in astable mode. It is wired as shown in figure. The output from astable mode is fed to an IR LED via resistor which limits its operating current. Infrared LED in the transmitter section emits IR radiation which is focused by a plastic lens (optics) in to a narrow beam. 2. Receiver section: The receiver section consists of a silicon phototransistor to convert the infrared radiation to an electric current. It responds only to the rapidly pulsing signal created by the transmitter, and filters out slowly changing infrared radiation from ambient light. The receiver section comprises an infrared receiver module, and a led indicator. When the signals are interrupted, the IR Led goes off after a few seconds depending upon the value of RC combination.

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We can increase the distance between the IR transmitter and receiver just by placing the lens between them. After connecting the IR transmitter and receiver circuit, we can get the output by applying 6V Power supply to the circuit. We can use this circuit with any application very simply. For example a buzzer circuit is placed at the output of IR circuit, when the signals are interrupted, the buzzer produces sound. Both the transmitter and receiver parts can be mounted on a single bread board or PCB. The infrared receiver must be placed behind the IR Led to avoid false indication due to infrared leakage. An object moving nearby actually reflects the IR rays emitted by the IR Led. 3.3 DIODE (IN4007): These diodes are used to convert AC into DC these are used as half wave rectifier or full wave rectifier. Three points must he kept in mind while using any type of diode. 1. Maximum forward current capacity 2. Maximum reverse voltage capacity karissa grace dela cerna 3. Maximum forward voltage capacity awesome The number and voltage capacity of some of the important diodes available in the market are as follows:

Diodes of number IN4001, IN4002, IN4003, IN4004, IN4005, IN4006 and IN4007 have maximum reverse bias voltage capacity of 50V and maximum forward current capacity of 1 Amp. Diode of same capacities can be used in place of one another. Besides this diode of more capacity can be used in place of diode of low capacity but diode of low capacity can not be used in place of diode of high capacity. For example, in place of IN4002; IN4001 or IN4007 can be used but IN4001 or IN4002 can not be used in place of IN4007.The diode BY125made by company BEL is equivalent of diode from IN4001 to IN4003. BY 126 is equivalent to diodes IN4004 to 4006 and BY 127 is equivalent to diode IN4007.

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Fig3.3.1: Schematic for IN4007 Diode

3.4 RESISTORS: Resistors are the most commonly used component in electronics and their purpose is to create specified values of current and voltage in a circuit. The following shows all resistors from 0R1 (one tenth of an ohm) to 22M:

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Table 2: Resistors Color Code

NOTES:
The resistors above are "common value" 5% types. The fourth band is called the "tolerance" band. Gold = 5% (tolerance band Silver =10% but no modern resistors are 10%!!) "common resistors" have values 10 ohms to 22M.

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Fig3.4.1: b. Four-band resistor, c. Five-band resistor, d. Cylindrical SMD


resistor, e. Flat SMD resistor

Resistor Markings Resistance value is marked on the resistor body. Most resistors have 4 bands. The first two bands provide the numbers for the resistance and the third band provides the number of zeros. The fourth band indicates the tolerance. Tolerance values of 5%, 2%, and 1% are most commonly available. The following table shows the colors used to identify resistor values:
COLOR Silver Gold Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey White 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 DIGIT MULTIPLIER x 0.01 x 0.1 x1 x 10 x 100 x 1 k x 10 k x 100 k x 1 M x 10 M x 100 M x 1 G
** TC - Temp. Coefficient, only for SMD devices

TOLERANCE 10% 5% 1% 2%

TC

100*10-6/K 50*10-6/K 15*10-6/K 25*10-6/K

0.5% 0.25% 0.1% 10*10-6/K 5*10-6/K 1*10-6/K

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DEPARTMENT OF ECE Table 3: Resistor Markings

PROJECT REPORT 2013

3.5 TRANSISTOR: BC 548

Fig 3.5.1: BC 548

The BC548 transistor is a semiconductor that works to switch electronic signals, and in some cases amplify them. Transistors are one of the most important circuit board components, and replaced vacuum tubes in the mid-20th century, allowing for the true miniaturization of electronics. To the untrained eye, a circuit board simply looks like a green piece of plastic with innumerable small electronic chips, wires and other parts. In reality each component plays a vital role in making a circuit, and electronic devices as a whole, work. BC548 transistor are mainly used in Europe. They are fairly common there, used typically in lower power household electronics such as netbook processors and plasma televisions. In the United States and Canada, a similar transistor is named 2N3904. Japan's near-equivalent is the 2SC1815. The BC548 can be replaced with similar BC transistors without the danger of burning out or failing. The strengths and weaknesses of the BC548 transistor are derived mainly from its design. A transistor at its most basic consists of a semiconductor material, a number of terminals referred to
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as leads, and an overall packaging or enclosure. Like many similar designs, the BC548 transistor has three leads that connect to the rest of a circuit. This makes it a bipolar junction transistor; the other main type of transistors are known as field-effect transistors. Each lead - respectively the collector, base, and emitter - serves a different purpose. Electric charge will flow from the collector through the base to the emitter at varying levels, depending on the level of current in the base. This level is determined by the type of semiconductor material used in the transistor. For packaging, the BC548 transistor incorporates an enclosure design known as TO-92. This nomenclature comes from the official description, Transistor Outline Package, Case Style 92, assigned by the electronics trade association known as the Joint Electron Devices Engineering Council (JEDEC) Solid State Technology Association. The TO-92 enclosure is plastic, though other types of transistor enclosures can be glass, metal or ceramic. The various properties of a transistor, including the type of semiconductor and number of terminals, are generally reflected in its name. For instance, the BC prefix in the case of the BC548 indicates the semiconductor is made out of silicon and is intended for general, all-around use. By comparison, AC or AF indicates a germanium semiconductor, and BL indicates a silicon transistor intended for high power applications. QUICK REFERENCE DATA:
SYMBOL VCBO PARAMETER collector-base voltage BC546 BC547 BC548 VCEO collector-emitter voltage BC546 BC547 BC548 ICM Ptot hFE peak collector current total power dissipation DC current gain BC546 BC547 BC548 fT transition frequency IC = 10 mA; VCE = 5 V; f = 100 MHz Tamb 25 C 110 110 110 100 IC = 2 mA; VCE = 5 V 450 800 800 MHz open base 65 45 30 200 500 V V V mA mW open emitter 80 50 30 V V V CONDITIONS MIN. MAX. UNIT

Table 4: Reference Data

FEATURES Low current (max. 100 mA) Low voltage (max. 65 V). APPLICATIONS General purpose switching and amplification.
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DESCRIPTION NPN transistor in a TO-92; SOT54 plastic package. PNP complements: BC556, BC557 and BC558. BC 558 BC558 is a general purpose PNP transistor. It is used in switching and amplifier applications. The DC current gain varies in range 110 to 800. It is also used as a complement for transistors BC546 to BC550. The transistor terminals require a fixed DC voltage to operate in the desired region of its characteristic curves. This is known as the biasing. For amplification applications, the transistor is biased such that it is partly on for all input conditions. The input signal at base is amplified and taken at the emitter. BC558 is used in common emitter configuration for amplifiers. The voltage divider is the commonly used biasing mode. For switching applications, transistor is biased so that it remains fully on if there is a signal at its base. In the absence of base signal, it gets completely off. Pin Diagram:

Figure 3.5.2: BC 558

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3.6 DECADE/JOHNSON COUNTER (CD4017): The CD4017BC is a 5-stage divide-by-10 Johnson counter with 10 decoded outputs and a carry out bit. The CD4022BC is a 4-stage divide-by-8 Johnson counter with 8 decoded outputs and a carry-out bit. These counters are cleared to their zero count by a logical 1 on their reset line. These counters are advanced on the positive edge of the clock signal when the clock enable signal is in the logical 0 state. The configuration of the CD4017BC and CD4022BC permits medium speed operation and assures a hazard free counting sequence. The 10/8 decoded outputs are normally in the logical 0 state and go to the logical 1 state only at their respective time slot. Each decoded output used as a ripple carry signal to any succeeding stages completes a full cycle for every 10/8 clock input cycles and remains high for 1 full clock cycle. The carry-out signal is used as a ripple carry signal to any succeeding stages.

Pin Assignments for DIP, SOIC and SOP CD4017B Top View

Figure 3.6.1: LOGIC DIAGRAM


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Figure 3.6.1: TIMING DIAGRAM

Features Wide supply voltage range: 3.0V to 15V High noise immunity: 0.45 VDD (typ.) Low power: 10 W (typ.) Fully static operation

Applications
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Automotive Instrumentation Medical electronics

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Industrial electronics

3.7 LED INDICATOR: A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices, and are increasingly used for lighting. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962, early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness. The internal structure and parts of a led are shown in figures 3.4.1 and 3.4.2 respectively.

Fig 3.7.1: Inside a LED Working:

Fig 3.7.2: Parts of a LED

The structure of the LED light is completely different than that of the light bulb. Amazingly, the LED has a simple and strong structure. The light-emitting semiconductor material is what determines the LED's color. The LED is based on the semiconductor diode. When a diode is forward biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine with holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. An LED is usually small in area (less than 1 mm2), and integrated optical components are used to shape its radiation pattern and assist in reflection. LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size, faster switching, and greater durability and reliability. However, they are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than traditional light sources. Current LED products for general lighting are more expensive to buy than fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output. They also enjoy use in applications as diverse as replacements for traditional light sources in automotive lighting
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(particularly indicators) and in traffic signals. The compact size of LEDs has allowed new text and video displays and sensors to be developed, while their high switching rates are useful in advanced communications technology. The electrical symbol and polarities of led are shown in fig: 3.4.3.

Fig 3.7.3: Electrical Symbol & Polarities of LED LED lights have a variety of advantages over other light sources: High-levels of brightness and intensity High-efficiency Low-voltage and current requirements Low radiated heat High reliability (resistant to shock and vibration) No UV Rays Long source life Can be easily controlled and programmed

Applications of LED fall into three major categories:


Visual signal application where the light goes more or less directly from the LED to the human eye, to convey a message or meaning. Illumination where LED light is reflected from object to give visual response of these objects. Generate light for measuring and interacting with processes that do not involve the human visual system.

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3.8 RELAY: A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism, but other operating principles are also used. Relays find applications where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits, repeating the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another. Relays found extensive use in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly drive an electric motor is called a contactor. Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device triggered by light to perform switching. Relays with calibrated operating characteristics and sometimes multiple operating coils are used to protect electrical circuits from overload or faults; in modern

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electric power systems these functions are performed by digital instruments still called "protection relays". Figure 3.8.1: Controlling circuit Types of relays: 1. Simple electromechanical relay:

Figure 3.8.2: SER A simple electromagnetic relay, such as the one taken from a car in the first picture, is an adaptation of an electromagnet. It consists of a coil of wire surrounding a soft iron core, an iron yoke, which provides a low reluctance path for magnetic flux, a movable iron armature, and a set, or sets, of contacts; two in the relay pictured. The armature is hinged to the yoke and mechanically linked to a moving contact or contacts. It is held in place by a spring so that when the relay is deenergized there is an air gap in the magnetic circuit. In this condition, one of the two sets of contacts in the relay pictured is closed, and the other set is open. Other relays may have more or fewer sets of contacts depending on their function. The relay in the picture also has a wire connecting the armature to the yoke. This ensures continuity of the circuit between the moving contacts on the armature, and the circuit track on the printed circuit board (PCB) via the yoke, which is soldered to the PCB. Basic design and operation:

Figure 3.8.3: When an electric current is passed through the coil, the resulting magnetic field attracts the armature and the consequent movement of the movable contact or contacts either makes or breaks a connection with a fixed contact. If the set of contacts was closed when the relay was Deenergized, then the movement opens the contacts and breaks the connection, and vice versa if the
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contacts were open. When the current to the coil is switched off, the armature is returned by a force, approximately half as strong as the magnetic force, to its relaxed position. Usually this force is provided by a spring, but gravity is also used commonly in industrial motor starters. Most relays are manufactured to operate quickly. In a low voltage application, this is to reduce noise. In a high voltage or high current application, this is to reduce arcing. If the coil is energized with DC, a diode is frequently installed across the coil, to dissipate the energy from the collapsing magnetic field at deactivation, which would otherwise generate a voltage spike dangerous to circuit components. Some automotive relays already include a diode inside the relay case. Alternatively a contact protection network, consisting of a capacitor and resistor in series, may absorb the surge. If the coil is designed to be energized with AC, a small copper ring can be crimped to the end of the solenoid. This "shading ring" creates a small out-ofphase current, which increases the minimum pull on the armature during the AC cycle. By analogy with the functions of the original electromagnetic device, a solid-state relay is made with a thyristor or other solid-state switching device. To achieve electrical isolation an opt coupler can be used which is a light-emitting diode (LED) coupled with a photo transistor. Small relay as used in electronics 2. Latching relay

Figure 3.8.3: LR Latching relay, dust cover removed, showing pawl and ratchet mechanism. The ratchet operates a cam, which raises and lowers the moving contact arm, seen edge-on just below it. The moving and fixed contacts are visible at the left side of the image. A latching relay has two relaxed states (bi stable). These are also called "impulse", "keep", or "stay" relays. When the current is switched off, the relay remains in its last state. This is achieved with a solenoid operating a ratchet and cam mechanism, or by having two opposing coils with an over-center spring or permanent magnet to hold the armature and contacts in position while the coil is relaxed, or with a remnant core. In the ratchet and cam example, the first pulse to the coil turns the relay on and the second pulse turns it off. In the two coil example, a pulse to one coil turns the relay on and a pulse to the opposite coil turns the relay off. This type of relay has the advantage that it consumes power only for an instant, while it is being switched, and it retains its last setting across a power outage. A remnant core latching relay requires a current pulse of opposite polarity to make it change state.
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3. Reed relay A reed relay has a set of contacts inside a vacuum or inert gas filled glass tube, which protects the contacts against atmospheric corrosion. The contacts are closed by a magnetic field generated when current passes through a coil around the glass tube. Reed relays are capable of faster switching speeds than larger types of relays, but have low switch current and voltage ratings.

Figure 3.8.4: RR 4. Mercury-wetted relay A mercury-wetted reed relay is a form of reed relay in which the contacts are wetted with mercury. Such relays are used to switch low-voltage signals (one volt or less) because of their low contact resistance, or for high-speed counting and timing applications where the mercury eliminates contact bounce. Mercury wetted relays are position-sensitive and must be mounted vertically to work properly. Because of the toxicity and expense of liquid mercury, these relays are rarely specified for new equipment. See also mercury switch. 5. Polarized relay A polarized relay placed the armature between the poles of a permanent magnet to increase sensitivity. Polarized relays were used in middle 20th Century telephone exchanges to detect faint pulses and correct telegraphic distortion. The poles were on screws, so a technician could first adjust them for maximum sensitivity and then apply a bias spring to set the critical current that would operate the relay. 6. Machine tool relay A machine tool relay is a type standardized for industrial control of machine tools, transfer machines, and other sequential control. They are characterized by a large number of contacts (sometimes extendable in the field) which are easily converted from normally-open to normallyclosed status, easily replaceable coils, and a form factor that allows compactly installing many relays in a control panel. Although such relays once were the backbone of automation in such industries as automobile assembly, the programmable logic controller (PLC) mostly displaced the machine tool relay from sequential control applications. 7. Contactor relay A contactor is a very heavy-duty relay used for switching electric motors and lighting loads. Continuous current ratings for common contactors range from 10 amps to several hundred amps.
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High-current contacts are made with alloys containing silver. The unavoidable arcing causes the contacts to oxidize; however, silver oxide is still a good conductor. Such devices are often used for motor starters. A motor starter is a contactor with overload protection devices attached. The overload sensing devices are a form of heat operated relay where a coil heats a bi-metal strip, or where a solder pot melts, releasing a spring to operate auxiliary contacts. These auxiliary contacts are in series with the coil. If the overload senses excess current in the load, the coil is deenergized. Contactor relays can be extremely loud to operate, making them unfit for use where noise is a chief concern. 8. Solid-state relay

Figure 3.8.5: SSR

Solid state relay, which has no moving parts

Figure 3.8.6:

25 A or 40 A solid state contactors A solid state relay (SSR) is a solid state electronic component that provides a similar function to an electromechanical relay but does not have any moving components, increasing long-term reliability. With early SSR's, the tradeoff came from the fact that every transistor has a small voltage drop across it. This voltage drop limited the amount of current a given SSR could handle. As transistors improved, higher current SSR's, able to handle 100 to 1,200 Amperes, have become commercially available. Compared to electromagnetic relays, they may be falsely triggered by transients.

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9. Solid state contactor relay A solid state contactor is a very heavy-duty solid state relay, including the necessary heat sink, used for switching electric heaters, small electric motors and lighting loads; where frequent on/off cycles are required. There are no moving parts to wear out and there is no contact bounce due to vibration. They are activated by AC control signals or DC control signals from Programmable logic controller (PLCs), PCs, Transistor-transistor logic (TTL) sources, or other microprocessor and microcontroller controls. 10. Buchholz relay A Buchholz relay is a safety device sensing the accumulation of gas in large oil-filled transformers, which will alarm on slow accumulation of gas or shut down the transformer if gas is produced rapidly in the transformer oil. 11. Forced-guided contacts relay A forced-guided contacts relay has relay contacts that are mechanically linked together, so that when the relay coil is energized or de-energized, all of the linked contacts move together. If one set of contacts in the relay becomes immobilized, no other contact of the same relay will be able to move. The function of forced-guided contacts is to enable the safety circuit to check the status of the relay. Forced-guided contacts are also known as "positive-guided contacts", "captive contacts", "locked contacts", or "safety relays". 12. Overload protection relay Electric motors need over current protection to prevent damage from over-loading the motor, or to protect against short circuits in connecting cables or internal faults in the motor windings. One type of electric motor overload protection relay is operated by a heating element in series with the electric motor. The heat generated by the motor current heats a bimetallic strip or melts solder, releasing a spring to operate contacts. Where the overload relay is exposed to the same environment as the motor, a useful though crude compensation for motor ambient temperature is provided.

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13. Pole and throw:

Figure 3.8.7: OPR Circuit symbols of relays. "C" denotes the common terminal in SPDT and DPDT types.

The diagram on the package of a DPDT AC coil relay Since relays are switches, the terminology applied to switches is also applied to relays. A relay will switch one or more poles, each of whose contacts can be thrown by energizing the coil in one of three ways:

Normally-open (NO) contacts connect the circuit when the relay is activated; the circuit is disconnected when the relay is inactive. It is also called a Form A contact or "make" contact. Normally-closed (NC) contacts disconnect the circuit when the relay is activated; the circuit is connected when the relay is inactive. It is also called a Form B contact or "break" contact. Change-over (CO), or double-throw (DT), contacts control two circuits: one normallyopen contact and one normally-closed contact with a common terminal. It is also called a Form C contact or "transfer" contact ("break before make"). If this type of contact utilizes make before break" functionality, then it is called a Form D contact.

The following designations are commonly encountered:

SPST Single Pole Single Throw. These have two terminals which can be connected or disconnected. Including two for the coil, such a relay has four terminals in total. It is ambiguous whether the pole is normally open or normally closed. The terminology "SPNO" and "SPNC" is sometimes used to resolve the ambiguity. SPDT Single Pole Double Throw. A common terminal connects to either of two others. Including two for the coil, such a relay has five terminals in total. DPST Double Pole Single Throw. These have two pairs of terminals. Equivalent to two SPST switches or relays actuated by a single coil. Including two for the coil, such a relay has six terminals in total. The poles may be Form A or Form B (or one of each).

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DPDT Double Pole Double Throw. These have two rows of change-over terminals. Equivalent to two SPDT switches or relays actuated by a single coil. Such a relay has eight terminals, including the coil.

The "S" or "D" may be replaced with a number, indicating multiple switches connected to a single actuator. For example 4PDT indicates a four pole double throw relay (with 14 terminals). Applications of Relays: Control a high-voltage circuit with a low-voltage signal, as in some types of modems or audio amplifiers, Control a high-current circuit with a low-current signal, as in the starter solenoid of an automobile,

Detect and isolate faults on transmission and distribution lines by opening and closing circuit breakers (protection relays),

Figure 3.8.8: A DPDT AC coil relay with "ice cube" packaging Isolate the controlling circuit from the controlled circuit when the two are at different potentials, for example when controlling a mains-powered device from a low-voltage switch. The latter is often applied to control office lighting as the low voltage wires are easily installed in partitions, which may be often moved as needs change. They may also be controlled by room occupancy detectors in an effort to conserve energy, Logic functions. For example, the Boolean AND function is realized by connecting normally open relay contacts in series, the OR function by connecting normally open contacts in parallel. The change-over or Form C contacts perform the XOR (exclusive or) function. Similar functions for NAND and NOR are accomplished using normally closed contacts. The Ladder programming language is often used for designing relay logic networks.
o

Early computing. Before vacuum tubes and transistors, relays were used as logical elements in digital computers. See ARRA (computer), Harvard Mark II, Zuse Z2, and Zuse Z3. Safety-critical logic. Because relays are much more resistant than semiconductors to nuclear radiation, they are widely used in safety-critical logic, such as the control panels of radioactive waste-handling machinery.

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Time delay functions. Relays can be modified to delay opening or delay closing a set of contacts. A very short (a fraction of a second) delay would use a copper disk between the armature and moving blade assembly. Current flowing in the disk maintains magnetic field for a short time, lengthening release time. For a slightly longer (up to a minute) delay, a dashpot is used. A dashpot is a piston filled with fluid that is allowed to escape slowly. The time period can be varied by increasing or decreasing the flow rate. For longer time periods, a mechanical clockwork timer is installed.

Advantages of relays:

Relays can switch AC and DC, transistors can only switch DC. Relays can switch high voltages, transistors cannot. Relays are a better choice for switching large currents (> 5A). Relays can switch many contacts at once.

Disadvantages of relays: Relays are bulkier than transistors for switching small currents. Relays cannot switch rapidly (except reed relays), transistors can switch many times per second.

Relays use more power due to the current flowing through their coil. Relays require more current than many ICs can provide , so a low power transistor may be needed to switch the current for the relay's coil.

Relay Driver: The current needed to operate the relay coil is more than can be supplied by most chips (op. amps etc), so a transistor is usually needed, as shown in the diagram below.

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Use BC109C or similar. A resistor of about 4k7 will probably be alright. The diode is needed to short circuit the high voltage back emf induced when current flowing through the coil is suddenly switched off.

Fig. 3.8.9: Relay Driver

3.9 CAPACITOR: The Capacitor or sometimes referred to as a Condenser is a passive device, and one which stores energy in the form of an electrostatic field which produces a potential (static voltage) across its plates. In its basic form a capacitor consists of two parallel conductive plates that are not connected but are electrically separated either by air or by an insulating material called the Dielectric. When a voltage is applied to these
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plates, a current flows charging up the plates with electrons giving one plate a positive charge and the other plate an equal and opposite negative charge. This flow of electrons to the plates is known as the Charging Current and continues to flow until the voltage across the plates (and hence the capacitor) is equal to the applied voltage Vcc. At this point the capacitor is said to be fully charged and this is illustrated below. The construction of capacitor and an electrolytic capacitor are shown in figures 3.3.9 and 3.3.10 respectively.

Fig 3.9.1: Construction Of a Capacitor Fig 3.9.2: Electrolytic Capaticor Units of Capacitance: Microfarad (F) 1F 0.000001 = 10-6 F = 1/1,000,000 =

Nanofarad (nF) 1nF = 1/1,000,000,000 = 0.000000001 = 10-9 F Pico farad (pF) 1pF = 1/1,000,000,000,000 = 0.000000000001 = 10-12 F Operation of Capacitor: Think of water flowing through a pipe. If we imagine a capacitor as being a storage tank with an inlet and an outlet pipe, it is possible to show approximately how an electronic capacitor works. First, let's consider the case of a "coupling capacitor" where the capacitor is used to connect a signal from one part of a circuit to another but without allowing any direct current to flow.

If the current flow is alternating between zero and a maximum, our "storage tank" capacitor will allow the current waves to pass through.

However, if there is a steady current, only the initial short burst will flow until the "floating ball valve" closes and stops further flow.
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So a coupling capacitor allows "alternating current" to pass through because the ball valve doesn't get a chance to close as the waves go up and down. However, a steady current quickly fills the tank so that all flow stops. A capacitor will pass alternating current but (apart from an initial surge) it will not pass d.c.

Where a capacitor is used to decouple a circuit, the effect is to "smooth out ripples". Any ripples, waves or pulses of current are passed to ground while d.c. Flows smoothly.

CHAPTER 4
PROJECT DESCRIPTION WITH TSOP1738 MODULE:
TSOP:

Fig TSOP
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4.1.1:

Fig 4.1.2: TSOP1738

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4.1 TSOP1738: TSOP1738 is an Infrared (IR) receiver which is widely used in large number of electronic products for receiving and demodulating infrared signals. The received demodulated signals can be easily decoded by a microcontroller. Specifications: Continuous data transmission possible (up to 2400 bps) High immunity against ambient light Photo detector and preamplifier in one package Improved shielding against electrical field disturbance TTL and CMOS compatibility Active low output Low power consumption Internal filter for PCM freq

Features: Multipurpose Low cost Modulated IR receiver. Active Low output, suitable for Microcontrollers. Works on 5V DC High Switching frequency.

TSOP stands for Thin Small Outline Package. it's a surface-mount memory packaging from Intel. Features of the TSOP include the following: JEDEC and EIAJ standard dimensions, it's the smallest leaded package form factor for flash, 0.5 mm (19.7 mil) lead pitch, reduced total package height, 1.20 mm maximum, gull wing formed leads, and supports future flash density and feature growth. Intel's TSOP package is offered in 32-lead, 40-lead, 48-lead and 56-lead versions in JEDEC and EIAJ registered standard dimensions. TSOP 1738 based proximity sensor:

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Fig 4.1.3: TSOP based proximity sensor This is a simple yet effective IR proximity sensor built around the TSOP 1738 module. The TSOP module is commonly found at the receiving end of an IR remote control system; e.g., in TVs, CD players etc. These modules require the incoming data to be modulated at a particular frequency and would ignore any other IR signals. It is also immune to ambient IR light, so one can easily use these sensors outdoors or under heavily lit conditions. Such modules are available for different carrier frequencies from 32 kHz to 42 kHz. In this particular proximity sensor, we will be generating a constant stream of square wave signal using IC555 centered at 38 kHz and would use it to drive an IR led. So whenever this signal bounces off the obstacles, the receiver would detect it and change its output. Since the TSOP 1738 module works in the active-low configuration, its output would normally remain high and would go low when it detects the signal (the obstacle). 4.2 Features of infrared communication: The following are the features of infrared communication: a) High Security:
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Information concealment is the most important factor in today's society with huge flow of information circulated daily. It is different from wireless communication with the expansion of information; infrared communication is secure with high concealment in its ability to specify its receivers, based on the strong directivity of infrared communication. b) Safety for Human Body: There is a fear that communication with electric devices in a car or crowded place might have an influence on the human body. Infrared Communication is safe for the human body as it's wildly used on TV remote controllers etc. c) High Speed: In comparison with about 100Mbps maximum communication speed in wireless communications, there is a possibility of 1Gbps with infrared communications. Due to its much shorter wavelength than wireless communications, broadband communications are available. In this way, infrared communications are suitable for transmitting large amounts of data such as animations. d) Low Power Consumption: The power consumption for infrared communication is low compared to other communications e) Quick speed transmission: The transmission speed is a key element for Infrared Communications with its adaptability for small amounts of data transmission. Merits and Demerits of infrared communication: IR advantages: 1. Low power requirements: therefore ideal for laptops, telephones, personal digital assistants 2. Low circuitry costs: $2-$5 for the entire coding/decoding circuitry 3. Simple circuitry: no special or proprietary hardware is required, can be incorporated into the integrated circuit of a product. 4. Higher security: directionality of the beam helps ensure that data isn't leaked or spilled to nearby devices as it's transmitted 5. Portable 6. Few international regulatory constraints: IrDA (Infrared Data Association) functional devices will ideally be usable by international travelers, no matter where they may be. 7. High noise immunity: not as likely to have interference from signals from other devices. 8. The absence of complexities in IR technology is limiting the transfer speed. 9. The high-speed characteristics of the transfer channel in IR-systems are defined by the characteristics and efficiency of modulating amplifiers and frequency properties of photo diodes
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IR Disadvantages: 1. Line of sight: transmitters and receivers must be almost directly aligned (i.e. able to see each other) to communicate 2. Blocked by common materials: people, walls, plants, etc. can block transmission 3. Short range: performance drops off with longer distances 4. Light, weather sensitive: direct sunlight, rain, fog, dust, pollution can affect transmission 5. Speed: data rate transmission is lower than typical wired transmission 4.3 Applications of infrared communication: The following are the applications of infrared communication: Infrared Applications in Engineering: Engineers incorporate infrared technology into a variety of equipment and systems used in many industries. The following are just a few examples. 1. Night vision: Infrared is used in night-vision equipment when there is insufficient visible light to see an object. 2. Spectroscopy: Infrared radiation spectroscopy is the study of the composition of (usually) organic compounds, finding out a compound's structure and composition based on the percentage transmittance of IR radiation through a sample. 3. Weather Satellites: Weather satellites equipped with scanning radiometers produce thermal or infrared images which can then enable a trained analyst to determine cloud heights and types, to calculate land and surface water temperatures, and to locate ocean surface features. 4. Space Applications: Astronomers observe objects in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum using optical components, including mirrors, lenses and solid state digital detectors. 5. Heating Applications: Infrared radiation is used in infrared saunas to heat the occupants, and to remove ice from the wings of aircraft (de-icing). Infrared can be used in cooking and heating food as it heats only opaque, absorbent objects and not the air around them, if there are no particles in it. 6. Communication Devices:
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IR data transmission is also employed in short-range communication among computer peripherals and personal digital assistants. Infrared is the most common way for remote controls to command appliances. Infrared imaging application in military and civilian purposes: Military applications include target acquisition, surveillance, and night vision, homing and tracking. Non-military uses include thermal efficiency analysis, remote temperature sensing, short-ranged wireless communication, spectroscopy, and weather forecasting. Other applications: Some common applications of infrared technology are listed below. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Augmentative communication devices Counter applications Car locking systems Computers Emergency response systems Environmentalcontrolsystems a.Windows b.Doors c.Lights d.Curtains e. Beds 7. Headphones 8. Home security systems 9. Navigation systems 10. Signage 11. Telephones 12. TVs, VCRs, CD players, stereos 13. Toys.

CHAPTER 5
ADVANTAGES, DISADVANTAGES & APPLICATIONS:
Advantages: 1. 2. 3. 4.
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This system uses wireless technology. The devices can also be controlled efficiently. Efficient and low cost design. Low power consumption.

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Disadvantages: 1. TV remote used should be placed in line of sight of IR receiver.

Applications for Wireless Industrial Remotes:


Anything that can be switched (i.e. on / off and forward / backward) or anything that can send and receive data can do so wirelessly. From tactical airfield lighting to automating pump operations, Remote Control Technology's goal is to provide a simple wireless solution that is easy to install and operate. Remote Control Technology has designed and manufactured custom wireless systems for Exxon/Mobil, Raytheon, Boeing, Ford, and other Fortune 500 companies. This system can be used to control house hold appliances.

CHAPTER 6
FUTURE SCOPE:
Our project REMOTE CONTROLLER is mainly intended to control electrical appliances using a TV remote. This project uses a TV remote, relay, IR receiver. The IR receiver is interfaced to the decade counter. The decade counter is utilised in such a way that a specified key pressed in the TV remote transmits the data which is received by the IR receiver, which is fed as input to the controller which in switches the corresponding Relay.
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This project can be extended using Zigbee technology which eliminates the line of sight problem. Also 3G technologies can be used to view the PC being operated.

CHAPTER 7
RESULT:
The project REMOTE CONTROLLER was designed such that the electrical appliances through TV remote. The project has been executed successfully and matched expected results. CONCLUSION:
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Integrating features of all the hardware components used have been developed in it. Presence of every module has been reasoned out and placed carefully, thus contributing to the best working of the unit. Secondly, using highly advanced ICs with the help of growing technology, the project has been successfully implemented. Thus the project has been successfully designed and tested.

REFERENCES:
The sites which were used while doing this project: 1. www.wikipedia.com 2. www.allaboutcircuits.com 3. www.microchip.com 4. www.howstuffworks.com

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BOOKS REFERRED 1. Raj kamal Microcontrollers Architecture, Programming, Interfacing and System Design. 2. Mazidi and Mazidi Embedded Systems. 3. PCB Design Tutorial David.L.Jones. 4. PIC Microcontroller Manual Microchip. 5. Embedded C Michael.J.Pont.

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