Sie sind auf Seite 1von 36

Policy

2 exams
1 project
Home work
Lectures will be posted on moodle
Please note that 50% student overlap with
Nanoelectronics
It is recommended that you audit one course as POT is
like a prerequisite for Nanoelectronics.
Please get Sentaurus (MCL lab) and MATLAB (PC
lab) access
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 1
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 2
Introduction to Semiconductors
Electronic properties of solid state materials
Semiconductors in equilibrium: band diagram and
statistics
Semiconductors under perturbation: carrier transport,
generation, and recombination
(Many concepts have been covered in 207 and 733, and
therefore this chapter will go through quickly).
Chapter 1
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 3
Bandgap viewpoints on solid state materials (and
why Si is close to perfect in this perspective)
Equilibrium carrier statistics (and the fermi level)
in intrinsic semiconductors
Equilibrium carrier statistics (and the fermi level)
in extrinsic semiconductors (degenerate and
nondegenerate)
(Reading Assignments: Chap 1, Sec. 2.1, Appendix A.3 and
A.4 of Taur and Ning)
Three Most Important Topics (MIT) Today
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 4
Semiconductor is the class of material where the
conductivity of the material can be controlled to vary a
large orders of magnitude.
Elemental semiconductor: Si, Ge
Compound semiconductor (fixed composition): SiC, GaAs,
GaN
Alloy: Si
1-x
Ge
x
, Al
1-x
Ga
x
As, Hg
1-x
Cd
x
Te, etc.
Purity: VLSI devices are made of semiconductors with
ultra purity: unintentional doping < 10
-9
in composition,
i.e., 0.001 ppm in solids (how to maintain the periodical
potential, instead of governing by traps).
To increase range of control in conductivity
To increase mobility (faster and more powerful devices)
Introduction to Semiconductors
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 5
Amorphous (no short/long-range order, glass phase included?)
Poly-crystalline (short-range order, typically, 1nm - 50m
range)
Crystalline (long-range order, irregularity treated as defects,
faults, stacked faults or line faults)
There is also another class of quasi-crystals, and other types of
long-range orders such as those in oligomers and polymers.
To achieve nanoscale devices, usually we need crystalline, fine-
grain poly-crystalline, or amorphous.
Crystals can be described by the unit cell, which can be repeated
to form the entire crystal. Lattice + base = crystal.
crystalline poly-crystalline
grains
grain boundary
Structure of Solids
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 6
Amorphous Polycrystalline Crystal
Grain/domain
Grain
boundary
Diamond lattice cell
(C, Si, Ge, etc.)
Zincblende lattice cell
(GaAs, AlAs, GaP, ZnS, etc.)
Atomic Structures
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 7
Crystal Orientation of Cubic Materials
Planes are represented by the
normal vector
Face-center-cubic (FCC) has
8 corner and 6 face atoms in
the Cartesian lattice
Diamond (covalent, Si, Ge,
C, etc.) and Zinc-blend
(ionic, GaAs, InP, etc.)
consist of 2 interleaved FCC
with 1/4 diagonal offset
Tetrahedral bonding sp3
corner atom in FCC
face atom in FCC
(110) (111)
offset by d/4
Zinc Blende
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 8
Can you see the interpenetrating FCC ?
Simple cubic body center cubic face center cubic
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 9
Use of Crystal Orientation
Electrical anisotropy: (100) has
the highest mobility, also
scattering rates are slightly
different
Mechanical anisotropy: different
surface has different modulus
components (later)
Chemical anisotropy: e.x., KOH
will not etch (111)
Angles: (100) vs. (110): 45, 90
; (100) vs. (111): 54.74; (110)
vs. (111): 35.26, 90 or 144.74
Important for strain engineering
Newer wafers (8 and 12) now
use a groove to mark the
orientation, instead of a cut to
save some area for test structures
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 10
Equilibrium implies detailed balance: carriers relaxed to
steady state for both spatial, momentum and energy states
Frame of reference before perturbation (driving forces)
Not QM-exact description, but to build a model usable for
rapid device analysis. More QM in EE 723. Also, since
much material has been gone through in 207 and 733, I
will emphasize more on the physical concepts.
Atom can be approximated with the core and the
valence electrons (similar to the pseudo-potential
approximation: The core is the filled states of all electrons
with the same major quantum number (not so true for the
d orbit), such as 1S
2
, 2S
2
, 2P
6
, etc...
Semiconductor Carriers in Equilibrium
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 11
Valence electrons are:
outermost electrons in orbital concepts
easiest to break off from the nucleus
participate in the chemical reactions
can break the Coulombic potential (ionization) and contribute to
conduction
dominant in chemical and semiconductor discussions (why the
periodic table is very important)
Two descriptions of crystal lattice: the bond (spatial)
model and the band (energy) model
Orbit Model:
Connection to Chemistry
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 12
The bond model
simplification from the 3D lattice (usually plotted in 2D)
every core has nearest neighbors described by chemical covalent bond.
Remember that electrons are indistinguishable.
Electrons breaking free from localization (but still remain in solid) need
energy smaller than, but comparable to, the covalence bond strength, due to
lattice readjustment and harmonic/aharmonic vibration:
point defect (substitutional vacancy, atomically compressive stress)
interstitial Si (interstitials, atomically tensile stress)
bond breaking and electrons shared.
E
X = bond strain
Lattice spacing
at 0K
The Bond and Band Models
Point-defect
in the bond model
Ionization
in the bond model
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 13
In compressive stress: E
gap
In tensile stress: E
gap
T increases: E
gap
for Si around 300K:
A totally filled (or totally empty) band cannot contribute to electrical
conduction (momentum will cancel for filled bands)
If somehow a valence electron absorbs E
gap
energy and enters into the
conduction band, it can contribute to conduction
Relations between atomic spacing
and energy gap
K eV
dT
dE
gap
/ 10 7 . 2
4
~
Atomic Spacing and Bandgap
The band model: (describe the
energy of carriers)
remember that the carriers are
usually indistinguishable
when atoms are brought to close
proximity, the energy associated with
valence electrons change
significantly
Bands
Free electron model is close to Nearly Free Electron
Model except at brillouin zones
What happens when Fermi level is in E1 vs E2? Can we
obtain current for small bias?
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 14
E1
E2
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 15
Insulator (in room temperature) : E
gap
> 4eV (SiO
2
: 9.1eV,
Si
3
N
4
: ~5eV)
Conductor: E
gap
< 3 kT ~ 0.1eV, or even negative bandgap
Semiconductor: anything in between, depending on what
temperature we are talking about.
Regular semiconductor in room temperature: Si: E
gap
= 1.12
eV; Ge: E
gap
= 0.66eV and GaAs: E
gap
= 1.42 eV: this is the
system that can be dealt with most easily.
For wide-bandgap materials (E
gap
~ 2-3eV), conduction is
usually governed more by the structural imperfection (less
different than crytalline insulator)
For narrow-bandgap materials (E
gap
~ 0.25eV), conduction is
usually governed by DOS of available states and Mott
transition.
Material Characterization by Bandgap
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 16
Material Characterization by Bandgap
Metal Semi-metal Semiconductor Insulator
E(k) is replaced by E(x) => adding the potential/Efield
info
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 17
Properties of carriers (electrons and holes) in
regular semiconductors
Charge: as classical (n, p, N
D
+
, N
A

and traps)
Effective mass: almost as classical. It can be defined
differently such as effective mass of DOS, effective
mass of conduction, etc.
Equilibrium Carriers statistics (this concerns the
number of carriers, and can be exponentially
controlled)
Similar to [H
+
][OH

] = constant for H
+
+ OH

H
2
O
Carriers in Semiconductors
2
i
n np =
True in equilibrium regardless of doping
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 18
Intrinsic case (electrical properties of pure semiconductor)
All conduction caused by thermal breakup of electron-hole pairs
n=p=n
i
, 1.410
10
cm
-3
for Si, 210
6
for GaAs, and 210
13
for Ge at 300K
There are about 5 10
22
atoms/cm
3
, and 2 10
23
valence electrons
Because the energy for generating electron-hole pairs is from the thermal
energy, n
i
increases exponentially with temperature.
Intrinsic Semiconductors
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 19
Use of doping (impurity) to create conduction carriers more
easily
The bond model: E
B
= q
4
m*/2(4tc
s
c
0
)
2
~E
H
m*/m
0
c
s
2
~0.1eV
N-type material: n ~ N
D
, p ~ 0 (in linear scale)
P-type material: p ~ N
A
, n ~ 0 (in linear scale)
There is solid solubility limit depending on temperature.
Above the limit, the dopants will form segregates.
N-type E
B
(eV) P-type E
B
(eV)
Donors Acceptors
P 0.045 B 0.045
As 0.054 Al 0.067
Sb 0.039 Ga 0.072
In 0.16
Doping in Semiconductors
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 20
N-type Semiconductors
Charge species: n and N
D
+
and n ~ N
D
+
in bulk N-type
semiconductors for charge neutrality.
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 21
P-type Semiconductors
Charge species: p and N
A

and p ~ N
A

in bulk N-type
semiconductors for charge neutrality.
-
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 22
Thermalization of Dopants
This is because the carrier looks at the ionized impurity through
the sea of other Si atoms and valence band, and the bond
strength needs to be corrected with the dielectric constant
(polarization effect) and the effective mass (periodic potential)
The binding energy of carriers to impurity atom is much
weaker than the Si valence electron to the Si atom.
In room temperature, regular semiconductors are extrinsic.
Freeze-out extrinsic intrinsic
n
i
n/N
D
T
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 23
QM Concepts of Density of States (DOS)
(see Appendix 3 for derivation from QM)
From QM and the Pauli principle, there is one allowed state in
a phase space of 3D volume (AxAp
x
)(AyAp
y
)(AzAp
z
)=h
3
.
If N(E)dE is the number of carrier states per unit volume with
an energy between E and E+dE:
2: spin degeneracy; g: equivalent minima (valley) of the band.
For Si conduction band: g=6 (called six-fold degeneracy)
If the drift energy is much less than the thermal energy, i.e.,
the carrier kinetic energy close to the bottom of the parabolic
conduction band:
Notice that the effective mass here is the inverse of the band
curvature, and can have anisotropy.
3
2 ) (
h
dp dp dp
g dE E N
z y x
=
z
z
y
y
x
x
C
m
p
m
p
m
p
E E
2 2 2
2
2
2
+ + =
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 24
If we normalize p with , then the spherical shell
of radius p

has volume of 4tp


2
dp

, and dE = 2p

dp

, we can
derive DOS in the 3D crystals as (assume m
x
=m
y
=m
z
=m
*
):
Observation: DOS - how many available states for carriers
if 0, the classical approximation gives N
C
(E) (infinite
number of states at the band edge).
The analogy with the Wankhede stadium: usually there are a lot of
empty states (seats) available. However, if somehow it gets
crowded, the carrier has to pile up the higher-energy states.
If m
n
*
= m
p
*
, the pile-up will be symmetrical.
DOS is zero at the band edge in QM sense.
N(E)dE is the available states from E to E + dE, not the carrier
concentration yet!
3 2
* *
3 2
* *
) ( 2
) (
) ( 2
) (
t t
E E m m
E N
E E m m
E N
v p p
v
c n n
c

=
Density of States (Band Model)
x x x
m p p 2 /
'
=
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 25
How many states will be filled in a given carrier
system?
The carrier distribution will be described by the Fermi
functions (both electrons and holes are Fermions. In
contrast, photons and phonons are Bosons). This
describes the number of carriers in a specific energy
level.
Given the Fermi energy E
F
of the system (E
F
is a
constant in equilibrium), the Fermi distribution function
with respect to carrier energy is:
T k E E
B F
e
E f
/ ) (
1
1
) (

+
=
Detailed balance in equilibrium!!
Fermi Distribution (Occupancy of States)
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 26
if E >> E
F
, f(E) exp( (E
F
- E)/k
B
T ), which is the
Boltzmann distribution for electrons
if E << E
F
, f(E) ~ 1 - exp(- (E
F
- E)/k
B
T ) or holes for
exp( -(E
F
- E)/k
B
T ),
if E = E
F
, f(E) = 0.5
f(E)
E
F
f(E)
E
F
T=0
T>0
T k E E
B F
e
E f
/ ) (
1
1
) (

+
=
0.5
0.5
The Fermi Function
Below E
F
: occupied Above E
F
: occupied
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 27
The electron and hole concentrations (in both intrinsic and
extrinsic cases) are defined as:
For convenience, we will define N
C
and N
V
as the effective
DOS of the conduction band and the valence band.
} }



v
bot
top
c
E
E
v
E
E
c
dE E f E N p dE E f E N n )) ( 1 )( ( ) ( ) (
3 19 3
2
3
0
*
19
2
3
2
*
3 19 3
2
3
0
*
19
2
3
2
*
10 8 . 1 10 51 . 2
2
2
10 2 . 3 10 51 . 2
2
2


=
|
|
.
|

\
|
~
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
~
|
|
.
|

\
|

cm cm
m
m

T k m
N
cm cm
m
m

T k m
N
p B p
v
n B n
c

DOS and the Distribution Function:


Carrier Concentration
Define:
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 28
The fermi function is necessary for degenerate materials or
heavy injection/inversion/accumulation.
Notice that N
c
(E
c
) = N
v
(E
v
) = 0 at the band edge and then
increase according to the square root.
f(E) = 0 and f(E-)=1 (states much above E
F
is empty!)
}

0
2 / 1
2 / 1
1
) (
c
e
d
F
c
q q
q q
q
( )
( )
T k E E if e N
T k
E E
F N p
T k E E if e N
T k
E E
F N n
B v F
T k E E
v
B
F v
v
B F c
T k E E
c
B
c F
c
B F v
B c F
3
2
3
2
/
2 / 1
/
2 / 1
> ~
|
|
.
|

\
|

> ~
|
|
.
|

\
|

t
t
The Fermi Integral and Its Approximation
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 29
For undoped intrinsic materials: n=p=n
i
since all
electrons and holes are generated in pairs. If we
assume E
F
will be deep in the bandgap (later on we
will see this assumption is valid except for materials
with very narrow bandgap), and the Boltzmann
approximation can be used (instead of the Fermi
integral). Cancel E
F
in n=p= n
i
:
E
n
E
c
E
F
E
v
N
c
f(E)
T k E
v c i
B gap
e N N n
2 /
=
E
i
Carrier Concentrations and the Band Diagram
N
V
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 30
Cancel N
c
and N
v
:
Cancel n
i
to obtain E
F
for intrinsic materials (which
we denote as E
i
)
E
n
2 / ) ( / ) (
i
T k E E
i
T k E E
i
n np e n p e n n
B F i B i F
= = =

) ln(
4
3
2
) ln(
2 2
*
*
n
p
B v c
c
v B v c
i
m
m
T k E E
N
N T k E E
E +
+
= +
+
=
For Si at 300K,
0.3k
B
T
Intrinsic Levels in the Band Diagram
E
c
E
v
N
c
f(E)
E
F
=E
i
N
V
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 31
For extrinsic materials, we still have total charge
neutrality: p - n + N
D
+
- N
A
-
= 0 and constant E
F
in space:
For extrinsic materials we further have
i D
A
i
A D A
D
i
D A D
n p N check
N
n
n N p N N if
N
n
p N n N N if
<< ~ = ~ ~ >>
~ ~ >>
4 16
2
2
10 10
type p
n
N
T k E E type n
n
N
T k E E
i
A
B F i
i
D
B i F

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ln ln
Fully-ionized Dopant in Nondegnerate Materials
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 32
Nondegernate conditions (where Boltzmann approx. can
be used safely)
Above this level, we can use some correction factor on n
i
,
and keep the simpler exponential relations.
Much higher than this level (>510
19
), especially over the
solid soluability, more physical effects such as band
tailing (merging of impurity level and conduction band)
and Mott transition can happen, when the equations
derived above cannot be used anymore. However, E
F
for
heavily-doped n-type can be approximated at E
C
, for p-
type, at E
V
.
3 17 3 18
10 1 . 9 10 6 . 1

< < cm N cm N
A D
Degenerately-Doped Semiconductors
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 33
Dopant Ionization
( ) kT E E
D D
D
D F
e g N
N
/
1
1

+
+
=
( ) kT E E
A A
A
F A
e g N
N
/
1
1

+
=
( )
( ) kT E E
kT E E
T T
T
T F
T F
e
e g N
N
/
/
'
1
1
1
1

+
+
=
+
=
T T T
g kT E E ln
'

For shallow dopants
(N
D
and N
A
) at room
temperature before the
degenerate conditions:
full ionization
For deep levels (NT),
local E
F
is important to
determine ionization
At low temperature, to
keep the ionization in
bounds, E
F
E
D
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 34
Fermi Level and Dopant Ionization
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 35
Approximation for Degenerate Semiconductors
Within the band diagrams, degenerate doped semiconductors have
E
F
at E
C
(N-type) or E
V
(P-type)
Complicated physics or behavior can happen, including band tailing,
Mott transition and heavy dopant segregation.
For carrier statistics, we can correct either n
i
(effective intrinsic
concentration) or E
gap
(apparent bandgap narrowing)
Bandgap narrowing can be expressed from the Fermi integral, but
more often directly from experimental fit.
( ) ( ) ( ) kT E n kT E E N N n np
gap i gap gap V C ie
/ exp / exp
2 2
A = A = =
( )
( )
3 17
17
2
17
3 17
17
10 5 . 0
10
ln
10
ln 0 . 9
10 7
10 7
ln 7 . 18

>
(
(

+
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= A
>
|
.
|

\
|

= A
cm N
N N
meV N E
cm N
N
meV N E
A
A A
A gap
D
D
D gap
Chapter 1 EE 620, IIT Bombay 36
Properties of Si and SiO
2
at room
temperature
Physical property Si SiO
2
Atomic/molecular density (cm
-3
) 510
22
2.310
22
Crystal structure Diamond Amorphous
Covalent radius () 1.11 around 1
E
gap
(eV) 1.12 9.1
Dielectric constant 11.7 below 3.9
Intrinsic density 1.4 10
10
-
Carrier mobility (cm
2
/Vs) Electron: 1440 -
Hole: 470 -
Effective DOS (cm
-3
) N
C
: 3.2 10
19
-
N
V
: 1.8 10
19
-
Breakdown field (V/cm) 3 10
5
> 10
7
Melting point (C) 1410 1600-1700
Thermal conductivity (W/cm C) 1.5 0.014