You are on page 1of 27

Space Based Instrumentation for Future Detection of Artificial ULF/ELF/VLF waves and Their Effects using the Canadian

Sponsored Enhanced Polar Outflow Project (ePOP) Satellite

Paul Bernhardt1, Carl Siefring1, Andrew Yau2, H. Gordon James3 1Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 2University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada 3Communication Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (ePOP) Science Team

A. W. Yau, P. V. Amerl, L. L. Cogger, E. Donovan, D. J. Knudsen, J. S. Murphree, T. S. Trondsen, University of Calgary P. A. Bernhardt, C.L. Siefring, Naval Research Laboratory M. Connors, University of Athabasca A. Hamza, R. Langley, University of New Brunswick H. Hayakawa, K. Tsuruda, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science H. G. James, Communications Research Centre S. Kostov, G. Sofko, University of Saskatchewan J. Laframboise, York University J. MacDougall, J. P. St. Maurice, University of Western Ontario D. D. Wallis, Magnametrics

Enhanced - Polar Outflow Probe (NRL-0101) Concept

Experiment Description
Directly Monitor Polar Ionosphere and Disturbances with a Suite of 8 Space Environment Sensors Orbit: 350 x 1500 km > 70o Inclination Satellite Mass: < 100 kg

Monitor Reduction of Trapped Radiation Using HAARP Radio Transmissions. Develop Understanding of Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (M-I) Coupling on DoD Systems using Radio Propagation and Satellites Demonstrate Capability of Forecasting the Plasma Environment in Near-Earth Space Identify System Impacts of Ionospheric Ion Acceleration and Outflow Study Plasma/Atmospheric Outflow and Wave-Particle Interactions

e-POP Science Objectives: Ion Outflow and Acceleration Polar wind ions and electrons Collisional-collisionless transition region dynamics Neutral outflow Ion-neutral charge exchange and geocorona Auroral bulk flow Role of cold O+ plasma in auroral substorm onset Topside auroral ion acceleration and heating Wave particle interaction and propagation Temporal/spatial relationship with aurora Small-scale plasma irregularities

Ionospheric Ion Heating and Outflow

diverging geomagnetic field lines mirror force causes heated ions to migrate higher altitudes broadband, low-frequency electrostatic waves heat ions transverse to B electrostatic potential structures AMICIST sounding rocket data Courtesy P. Kintner & J. Bonnell, Cornell

satellite detects upwelling ionospheric plasma entering the magnetosphere

- sounding rocket data show transverse ion energization associated with BroadBand Extremely Low Frequency (BBELF) oscillations (f ~ WO+ and below) - the BBELF, in turn, is frequently associated with highly structured cross-field flows

e-POP Micro-Satellite: Instrument Payload

Imaging particle instruments for unprecedented resolution on satellites

IRM: Imaging rapid ion mass spectrometer SEI: Suprathermal electron imager NMS: Neutral mass and velocity spectrometer

Auroral imager and wave receivertransmitter for first micro-satellite measurements

FAI: Fast auroral imager RRI: Radio receiver instrument CERTO: Coherent electromagnetic radio tomography

Integrated instrument control/data handling, and science-quality orbitattitude system data to maximize science return
MGF: Magnetometer GAP: Differential GPS Attitude and Position System

e-POP Instrument Payload

Instrument IRM Component IRM-E IRM-S IRM-B SEI-E SEI-S SEI-B NMS FAI-E FAI-SV FAI-SI RRI GAP-T GAP-A (total) MGF CERTO-E CERTO-B Total Volume (cm3) 2,880 1,178 707 (1 m boom) 4,800 236 707 (1 m boom) 7,500 720 1,178 1,178 ~800 1,977 1,463 TBD 263 1,250 (TBC) 35,800 + TBD Mass (kg) 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.0 2.0 7.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 < 5 kg 3.2 2.5 TBD 0.8 1.0 30.5 + TBD Power (W) 9/7




18/18 14/10*


10*/5* 15*/8*

5*/5* 9.6/6.4


e-POP In-situ Measurement Requirements

Polar wind and suprathermal ions Composition, density, velocity, temperature (1-40 amu, 0.1-70 eV) Atmospheric neutrals Composition, density, velocity, temperature (1-40 amu, 0.1-2 km/s) Ambient and suprathermal electrons Energy and pitch angle distributions (<200 eV); including photoelectrons Convection electric field from perpendicular ion drift velocity Auroral images Fast broadband images (10 per sec) and slower monochromatic images Field-aligned current density from magnetic field perturbations Ionospheric irregularities from differential GPS and CERTO beacon

Radio Science on e-POP

RRI Science (10 Hz -18 MHz)
Transionospheric Imaging of Density Structures Wave-Particle Interactions Ionospheric Heater-Triggered Nonlinear Processes

GPS Occultation (1.2-1.5 GHz) Limb Scan

L-Band TEC and Scintillations

CERTO Beacon
VHF/UHF Transmissions for Tomography Irregularity Detection Via Scintillations

Radio Receiver Instrument Frequency Range

100 MHz 10 MHz 1 MHz 100 kHz 10 kHz 1 kHz 100 Hz 10 Hz fg[O+] fg[H+] fpi

Programmable in 30 kHz steps

Measurements With RRI

flh fpe fge





HF Heaters

Radio Receiver Instrument

Differenced or Direct Inputs



Data and Control Signals

Radio Receiver Instrument Parameters

Frequency range: 10 Hz 18 MHz Noise threshold (LSB): 0.4 mV Maximum signal for linearity: 1 V Sample size: 14 bits Max. sample rate/channel: 60,000 s-1 Number of channels: 4 Antennas: 4 tubular 3-m monopoles Absolute time stamp (GPS): 1 ms Mass with antennas, preamps: 8 kg Power: 5 W

HAARP HF Transmitter, Alaska

ePOP Diagnostic Package

300 km



Precipitating Reflected ELF/VLF Electrons Waves HF Waves Interaction ePOP Orbit HAARP Transmitter B-Field

Pitch Angle Scattered Electrons Interaction Region

Trapped Electrons Ionosphere Reflected Waves

HF Heater Radio Induced Aurora (RIA) and Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE) Observation Geometry
Altitude (km)

Supra-Thermal Electrons RIA Optical Cloud SEE Radiation


F-Layer Reflection Level


HF Beam



West Distance (km)




0 10

0 20
100 200

0 -20

0 -10

North Distance (km)

Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissio

(Adapted from:

fpump = 4 fce - Df
HF Pump Frequency, fpump

fpump = 4 fce + Df

Downshifted Peaks



Broad Upshifted Maximum


05 February 2002, HAARP Alaska, 630.0 nm Excited by 5.8 MHz 30 Second Exposures, 37 x 37 Field-of-View

Altitude (km)

F-layer Ionospheric Irregularity Observations by Radio Induced Auroral

ePOP 630.0 and 557.7 nm Artificial Airglow



200 100

HF Radio Beam



0 20 0 10 100

West (km) 200 North (km)

0 -20

0 -10

Arecibo HF Facility

17 February 2002, HAARP Alaska, 557.7 nm Excited by 4.8 MHz 30 Second Exposures, 18.5 x 18.5 Field-of-View

HAARP Antenna Pattern (7)

Space Based Diagnostics for HAARP

Required Diagnostic: HF Receiver and Antenna (3 to 9 MHz) ePOP Instrument: Radio Receiver Instrument (1-18 MHz with 30 KHz Bandwidth) Required Diagnostic: Receiver Covering 1 to 30 kHz ePOP Instrument: RRI [100 (10?) Hz to 30 kHz] Required Diagnostic: Thermal Detector 0.0 to 0.3 eV ePOP Instrument: Suprathermal Electron Imager (0 to 200 eV) Required Diagnostic: Thermal Detector 0 to 20 eV ePOP Instrument: SEI (0 to 200 eV) Required Diagnostic: High Energy Electrons (~1 Mev) ePOP Instrument: Fast Auroral Imager (MCP Scintillations) or Imaging Rapid Ion Mass Spectrometer Required Diagnostic: Detector at N21P, 630, 557.7, 427.8, and 777.4 nm ePOP Instrument: Fast Auroral Imager (630 to 850 nm) Required Diagnostic: In Situ Electron or Ion Probe ePOP Instrument: None Required Diagnostic: Radio Scintillation/TEC Beacon and Antenna ePOP Instrument: CERTO (150, 400, and 1067 MHz Transmissions) Required Diagnostic: HF Receiver and Antenna (3 to 9 MHz with 100 kHz Bandwidth)
Near Plasma Frequency New Harmonics of Plasma Frequency

ELF/VLF Waves (10)

Elevated F-Region Electron Temperatures (5)

Suprathermal Electron Fluxes (7)

Stimulated Precipitation (9)

Optical Emissions (6)

Field Aligned Irregularities (Aspect Ratios) (8)

Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions (5)

ePOP Instrument: Radio Receiver Instrument (1-18 MHz with 30 KHz Bandwidth)

Space-Based, Diagnostic Requirements for HAARP

Measurement ELF/VLF Waves Stimulated Prescipitation Suprathermal Electron Fluxes Field Aligned Irregularities Optical Emissions Importance Very High Very High Diagnostic Receiver Covering 1 Hz to 30 kHz High Energy Electrons (~1 MeV) Thermal Detector 0 to 20 eV In Situ Probe or Radio Beacon Photo Detector N21P, 630, 557.7, 427.8, 777.4 nm Thermal Electron Detector 0.0 to 0.3 eV HF Receiver/Antenna (3 to 9 MHz with 100 kHz Bandwidth) ePOP Instrument RRI VLF Band 10 Hz to 30 kHz IRM or FAI Particle and Optical Sensors SEI Low Energy Electron Detector (0 to 200 eV) CERTO Radio Beacon (150, 400, 1067 MHz) FAI Optical Sensor (630 to 850 nm) SEI Low Energy Electron Detector (0 to 200 eV) RRI HF Band (1-18 MHz, 30 kHz Bandwidth)


High High

Elevated F-Region Electron Temperature Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions



Note: RRI = Radio Receiver Instrument, SEI = Suprathermal Electron Imager, FAI = Fast Auroral Imager, CERTO = Coherent Electromagnetic Radio Tomography, IRM = Rapid Ion Mass Spectrometer

High Latitude Scintillation Models

Climatological Climatological Models Models for for Global Global Scintillations Scintillations Seasonal Seasonal and and Solar Solar Cycle Cycle Dependencies Dependencies No No Capability Capability for for RealRealTime Time Scintillation Scintillation Predictions Predictions Variable Variable Occurrence Occurrence Unpredictable Unpredictable Intensity Intensity Complex Complex Dynamics Dynamics

In Situ Measurements of O+-Ion Gradient-Drift Flow are Instability and Nonlin a Proxy for F-Region Irregularities that Produce Radio Wave Scintillations Isosurfaces of the d
Structuring of Polar Cap Patches High Latitude Ionospheric Gradient-Drift Instability and Nonlinear Inertial Effect Constant Instability Drive: b = 20,000,n(z) R=N /N =2 Irregularities
max min

Constant Instability Drive: b = 20,000,n


U. of Maryland Simulation Isosurfaces of the density Longitude Ref.: Guzdar et al., 2001

t=0 s

Plasma Turbulence on Wide Range of Scales

Parallel Electric Fields Polar Outflow of O+ Ions Ion Signature of F-Region Irregularities
t=0 s

t=5880 s

Enhanced - Polar Outflow Probe (NRL-0101) Radio Wave Propagation and Particle Interactions
Impact Determination
Orbiting e-POP Receiver, HF Radar, and Ionospheric Irregularities Coordinated observation of radar echo propagation with ground radar facility In-situ observation of scattered HF waves in the highlatitude ionosphere

e-POP receiver

Ionospheric Irregularities

HF/VHF Radar

e-POP Microsatellite - Project Status

Mission Development
Enhanced POP (e-POP) selected by CSA and NSERC in 2001/08 for mission (instrument and spacecraft bus) development NSERC funding for Science Team and CSA funding for instrument development to start in FY01/02

Instrument Payload
Original POP instruments (IRM, SEI, NMS): preliminary design in progress; development of engineering model to commenced 2002 FAI and RRI: Concept design & feasibility study completed 2001/07, preliminary design commenced 2001/08 CERTO: Inclusion of instrument on e-POP via US DoD

Spacecraft Bus
CSA to procure spacecraft bus under separate industrial contract

Enhanced - Polar Outflow Probe e-POP (NRL-0101) Summary

The National Security Space Architect (NSSA) Space Weather Architecture Study (1999) identifies ionospheric specification and forecast (including high latitude scintillations and D-region absorption) as a National Security Priority. The HAARP/Tether Panel on Military Applications of HAARP (2002) identifies radiation belt mitigation as a high priority. The ePOP diagnostics package directly addresses the generation and detection of ELF/VLF for radiation belt particle depletion using HAARP.

Scintillation, Scattering and Absorption have a significant operational impact, which impact UHF SATCOM, GPS navigation, and Aircraft HF Communications at high latitudes.
ePOP provides vital measurements of ionospheric parameters that control the generation of scintillation-producing irregularities and radio wave absorption at high latitudes.