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The Fundamentals of In-Building Wireless Solutions

Presented By: Gary Young

Agenda • Introduction to In-Building & Campus Wireless Solutions
– Enterprise Market Trends – Benefits of In-Building Wireless Systems – In-Building Wireless Architectures & Technologies – Application Profiles

• Wireless Solution Deployment Process/Considerations
– Installation Project Phases and Challenges – Stakeholder Considerations

smaller cells. not a location Rich Call • Shift in cell phone usage patterns – Outside to inside • – Browsing 70%+ of mobile traffic occurs inside buildings Picture Messaging SMS Multimedia Messaging Service Mobile Multimedia Voice to data • • • E-mail.Why The Need For In In-Building Building Coverage? • Mobile devices are becoming the preferred means of communication: – – ”One person one number” Call a person. video clips. emphasis on covering areas of high user density Large buildings are an important revenue generator for the mobile operator Large buildings have a big impact on the overall performance of the mobile network Data service is on the rise . specialized apps for verticals Wide area wireless nets are ubiquitous 3G/4G data speeds equivalent to WiFi Messaging • Shift in operators’ network build-out and emphasis – – – 2G to 3G to 4G. pictures.

K Keep Th The U Users of f th the Building B ildi H Happy The advantages for the users of the building • • Full mobile coverage – Maximum data performance Mobility is key – – – Modern businesses are project oriented Dynamic project groups Office relocation is frequent • Open to all operators – – – Enterprises are reluctant to enter into long-term contracts with operators Better pricing with multi operators Better service profiles • • • Reduced radiation with ADC – 100-1000 times lower exposure Dedicated capacity – Always online A typical large building needs the same mobile capacity as a small city! 4G – WiMAX. WiMAX LTE .

radios Compliance with local code for Fire / Life / Safety Employees are always in touch .E Enterprise i B Benefits fi • Improved quality of service – – G d call Good ll connection ti anywhere h – no dropped d d calls ll High speed data connections – applications that are actually compelling • Ubiq ito s wireless Ubiquitous ireless application access – Use mobile devices anywhere in the building/campus • • • Convert existing data apps for mobile operations Improved security – wireless cameras.

called picocells and femtocells to create an internal cellular network Do not rely on the macro network for switching and hand-offs Evolving technology often used for ‘Hotspot’ solutions Only wireless carriers can provide this .In Building Wireless System Solutions In-Building What Are The Options? • RF Source (needed for all DAS solutions) – – Antenna/Repeater – brings in RF from the outdoor cellular network BTS – carrier installed base transceiver station provides dedicated RF • Passive Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) – – RF is distributed over coax cables to each antenna from an RF source (repeater or base station) Coax cable losses limit their effectiveness in large buildings for higher frequency transmissions • Active Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) – – – Fiber optic cabling backbone overcomes the transmission losses that occur w/ coax Fiber-optic coax-based based system Electric components convert and amplify signals to RF for radiation by the antenna Preferred solution for medium to large buildings • Distributed Radios – – – – The systems consist of small cellular radios.

but the ADSL backhaul 3G/4G will give faster user speeds . New laptops come with mobile card integrated • Less hassle to g get service – – – – No need for shopping “scratch cards” at various WiFi service providers Less cost per Mb Seamless billing g with the mobile p phone Fast to connect.B tt Data Better D t Performance P f Why will the users prefer to use 3G/4G over WiFi? • Mobility y – – Coherent coverage. no need to scan for WiFi and try to connect • Data speed can easily compare with WiFi – – Typical yp the limitation is not the radio interface of a WiFi AP.

but the future is data • Example 3G HSPA coverage – – Ch Channel l loading l di will ill effect ff t systems t equally ll Coax distribution systems will require as many as 5 times the number of antennas compared to active DAS • WiMAX might be the next upgrade – – Operating on even higher frequencies Coax loss increases at higher frequencies New laptops come with integrated 3G data cards Data is more sensitive to the loss of a coax solution Active i systems are better b f for d data i intensive i l locations i .D t Service Data S i I Is The Th Future F t Data is on the rise • Coax solutions do not perform well with the higher data rates – Was ok when designed for voice service only.

higher frequency bands have high loss .Passive Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) • • • • Essentially a “sprinkler sprinkler system system” for cell phone signals Distribution via large coaxial cables L Losses th through h th the cable bl li limit it the size New.

Active Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) • • • • • LAN/WLAN-like topology Standard structured cabling .fiber optic and CAT5 or CATV cabling Less disruptive install Amplifiers at the antenna point means zero “loss” Significant cost and performance advantages in medium and large buildings Excellent performance regardless of frequency • .

Installation Project Phases and Challenges .

parking levels. metal.) ) – Determine capacity requirements • Site survey – – – – – – – Confirm RF propagation p p g Determine locations for equipment Confirm antenna locations Measure interference thresholds Confirm cable routes and lengths Power Security . public areas. etc. . concrete.I B ildi Wi In-Building Wireless l I Implementation l t ti St Steps • Budgetary design – usually based on floor plans – Determine which areas of the building require coverage (entire building.) – Determine the building’s construction materials (sheetrock. etc.

In-Building Wireless Implementation Scope of Work cont’d • Carrier requirements/coordination req irements/coordination – RF Source – Retransmit agreements Fi l d Final design i quote t Installation Commissioning & Acceptance (including as as-built built drawings) • • • .

Open layout.) t ) RF design goals (required strength of signal) Is there fiber available? Are there any special installation requirements? – – – – – – Conduit required? Core drilling? g Building-code requirement or environmental need based on facility type Infection control procedures for hospitals? Working hours. or Non-Union . t l concrete. access arrangements IBEW.Facility and Installation Considerations – Potential Cost Impacts • • • • • Type of environment . k metal. mixed use B ildi ’s construction Building t ti materials t i l ( (sheetrock. CWA. dense. h t k bl block. t etc.

S Special i lR Requirement i t . incumbent installer.g. etc. historic architecture • Corporate Office – Conduit. conduit.Application A li ti P Profiles fil • Hospitals – Tenting. conduit conduit. . O Operating ti Rooms. ll ) proper definition d fi iti of f coverage requirements i t ( (e. high lift • Manufacturing – Conduit.). aesthetics. badging. lift • Hospitality – Work hour restrictions. work hour restriction. work hour restrictions. . executive row . validation of d drawings i (l (lead-lined d li d walls). core drilling. validation of facility drawings and fiber map map. core drilling. work hour restriction. lift • Airport – Security clearance. boiler rooms. • Campus – Incumbent installer installer. work hour restrictions. work hour restriction. conduit.

customer requirements. installation requirements. end-user Benchmarking of existing signal levels and required coverage areas in-building. etc. Solutions Provider Day 7 Kick-off meeting/ scheduling Solutions Provider. resources. Day 1 Receipt of PO Wireless Service Provider. installation. .S Sample l P Project j t Ti Timeline li Date Item Budgetary Design Assignment Solutions Provider Comments Budgetary design based on floor plan coverage analysis/modeling Site Walk Solutions Provider. Solutions Provider Wireless Service Provider or end-user Solutions Provider Coordination of material management. etc. Final Design Solutions Provider Final system design compiled using site walk data. end-user Solutions Provider Solutions Provider Wireless Service Provider. Wireless Service Provider. Day 16 Day 17 Day 22 Day 25 Day 28 Delivery of Product & Material Installation Commissioning/ on-Site Acceptance Acceptance As-built documentation Reference SOW & Design *This outlines a typical project flow and timing may vary based on project size and complexity. Wireless Service Provider. etc. architecture.

Building Evaluation & Design This diagram illustrates the macro signal penetration in the Building. .

Design Layout – Antenna Locations .

4RF Carriers @ 10 dBm/carrier -65 dBm -75dBm -85dBm .Design Layout – RF Coverage Design 1900 MHz.

interference from distant basestations is a problem .Quality Interference & Isolation • User sees signals g from many y base stations – Interference • Metallic coated windows attenuates the signal • The result is –Degraded / no service –Dropped calls Outdoor traffic congestions must not affect the indoor users • The solution is to have a dominant signal Dedicated capacity • Building B ildi not a resource d drain i on outdoor d network k • Not impacted outdoor traffic congestion • Requires a BTS as RF source Elevator Full Coverage g •Steel enclosure of the elevator stops the mobile coverage •Difficult with traditional systems •300m+ elevators In high rise buildings.The Skyscraper Challenges .

one operator Traditional coax installation . station typical 3 x 19” 19 rack per operator • Need dedicated room • High Thermal and Power load (10-20kW) • Extensive cable installation • High Hi h i impact ti installation t ll ti Typical High Power base station.Th Installation The I t ll ti Challenge: Ch ll T Traditional diti lC Coax Specific challenges using the traditional design • Large footprint for base station.

In-Building Business Models .

e.e. cabling g and installation Customer “lock-in”.e. i e Google Google. Airports – – – – Bear the burden of CAPEX and project organization Add technical value and remove all performance risk from the building owner Focused ownership of the wireless assets to add value throughout the life of the project Recurring revenue through “lease” of the system to the carrier(s) .Common Business Models • Carrier/operator pays (traditional model) – i. through long term contract Increase in customer satisfaction • Enterprise pays – i. Intel. Casinos. Sears HQ – – – Enterprise pays for all equipment. Ford – – – Carrier covers cost of all equipment. cabling and installation (carrier provides RF source) No long term commitment to any carrier Generally require support of at least 2 carriers on the system • Neutral Host – i.

Responsibilities Mobile Operator Enterprise/ Building Owner Manufacturer & local partner Design and quality DAS equipment Installation of DAS Installation of BTS Maintenance of DAS Maintenance of BS (X) (X) X X X (X) (X) X X X X .

Conclusions • • • • • Users of the building expect full mobile data service from day one Indoor systems should be pre installed. resulting in longer battery life and lower radiation DAS systems prepare you for the future – – – – 2G (GSM. PCS) 3G (UMTS) Super3G (HSPA) WiMAX • A proprietary DAS that gives full freedom in negotiating with all mobile operators. DCS. like other utilities in the building Large/Tall buildings need dedicated capacity DAS systems can reduce mobile output power. expanding and moving the system as needed .