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INDTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY It began as a branch of psychology in December 1901,when Dr. Walter Dill Scott in the U.S.

A spoke on the possibilities of the application of psychological principles to the field of advertising Industrial Psychology is the third or fourth of the most popular branches of psychology in India. It tries to understand the human problems that have arisen as a result of tremendous expansion of industry in the last few decades People are the essential ingredients in all organizations. Industrial psychology has the potentiality to contribute to the productivity of industry and business on one hand and achieving great ereffectiveness and fulfillment of working on hand on the other Definition and Nature of Industrial Psychology It is defined as the study of man and his behavior with the aid of scientific methodology. Definition and Nature of Industrial Psychology The science of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings) Scope Scope of Industrial Psychology Scope of Industrial Psychology Psychology is an extremely broad field, encompassing many different approaches to the study of mental processes and behavior.The Personnel Selection, Personnel development, Human Engineering, Productivity Study, Management, Accident prevention and safety measures and Labor Relations are the scope of the Industrial Psychology.Industrial psychology is a branch of behavioral science that directs its research and courses of study to business. It is not a new science. In fact one of the earlier books on the subject, Hugo Munsterbergs The Psychology of Industrial Efficiency was published by Houghton Mifflin in 1913. Departments of management, design, production, pricing, marketing and distribution all benefit from knowledge of industrial psychology. 1. Work Behavior:-

The psychology of work behavior is one form of industrial psychology. Attitudes of employees as related to their performance is a main theme. Variables in employee personalities and abilities are listed and situational and background differences are studied. The industrial psychologist also studies human mental and physical abilities, administering tests and assessing values and establishing job-related criteria. Human-error factors also are monitored, as are costs and causes of accidents. 2. Management

Many management skills fall under the umbrella of industrial psychology. Managers must be educated concerning the area of employee supervision. Expertise in perception and assessment is required in order to make proper decisions as to whether to promote or admonish. Determination of training needs and abilities to resolve conflict are skills that managers would learn in their study of industrial psychology. Motivational tactics are imperative to the success of industry, thus the industrial psychologist also may devise financial or other incentives 3. Environmental Design :-

Environmental design is another area of industrial psychology. The psychology of the work space concerns the environment of the worker. Performance can be affected adversely or positively depending upon the employees surroundings. The industrial psychologist recommends physical arrangements, colors, noise, lighting and ergonomics. 4. Product Design

Product design is another avenue of industrial psychology that is important to a successful business. A product that has been designed bearing safety, efficiency and desirability in mind may have a higher chance of being successful in the marketplace. The industrial psychologist can collect data and analyze buying trends to make recommendations for a feasible, salable design. 5. Organizational Studies

The overall function of the business may be evaluated by the industrial psychologist. Data relating to job descriptions and hierarchy may be studied and recommendations put forth. The omnipresent tendency to resist changes of any ort and maintain a status quo has been a great hurdle in the acceptance of industrial psychology by employees and managements all over the world because practice of industrial psychology often demands radical changes in the outlooks and attitudes of both employees and the employers Employers are also averse to changes because often they are not sure about the efficacy of the new ideas and are least inclined to take risks. HISTORY OF INDUSTERIAL PSYCHOLOGY

Industrial Psychology is almost as old as Psychology itself. Psychology came about in 1879 in the laboratory of Wilhelm Wundt in Germany and William James at Harvard. Both of them were philosophers and physicians fascinated with the mindbody debate. The older discipline of philosophy could not alone deal with this debate, more room and new tools were needed, giving way to Psychology. Texts applying psychology to business first appeared in 1903; the first IndustrialOrganizational (I/O) psychology text appeared in 1910 (Landy, 1997). It is believed that four men developed the tone and structure of I/O psychology: Hugo Munsterberg, James Cattell, Walter Dill Sco tt, and Walter Bingham (Landy, 1997).Moore and Hartmann (1931) stated that while psychology moved into the educational and clinical fields, no psychologist who respected his position dared venture into the office or workshop, and Hugo Munsterberg was the first man to break the ice (p4). It is speculated that Munsterberg was forced to the field of I/O psychology because of conflict with his Harvard colleagues (Landy, 1997). His book, Psychology and Industrial Efficiency, is regarded as the first I/O psychology textbook, published first in 1910. Krumm (2001) states that formal training in Industrial Psychology began when the book was published, while Landy (1997) asserts: This book was the bible for the application of differential psychology in industry later publications did not replace the structure Munsterberg has put in place; they built on it (p470). Munsterberg was primarily interested in personnel selection and use of psychological tests in industry. Career Management:Career Management ensures others know about you and your value. Although Career Management is one of the five phases of career development planning in our model, it is deliberately front and center since activities related to career management are relevant to all the other phases. Also, career management, unlike the other phases, is a continuous process that occurs throughout one's career and not just at discrete times. It may be helpful to think of career management as a philosophy and set of habits that will enable you to achieve career goals and develop career resiliency.Successful career management is accomplished through regular habits of building relationships, engaging in career development conversations, updating your career development plan, and setting new goals as life and career needs change. Being proficient at career management also means possessing basic skills related to job searching and managing changes in a resilient manner Career Development is a process where employees strategically explore, plan, and create their future at work by designing a personal learning plan to achieve their potential and fulfill the organization's learning, seeking opportunities, taking risks, and finding ways to contribute to the organization in a productive and motivated fashion. Goddard's Career Development Training Program is designed to help employees take responsibility for their careers by offering courses in the following three areas: 1. Career Planning (CP) - Training Programs and services that assist employees in conducting individual assessments and establishing a professional career development plan that helps them reach their full potential and fulfill the organization's mission. Career Enrichment (CE) - Training Programs and services that enable employees to develop, expand, and full utilize existing competencies in their current career field, participate in a rotational or developmental assignment, engage in coaching and mentoring activities in order to propagate a motivated, productive, and resilient workforce. Career Transition (CT) - Training Programs and services that help employees assess, explore, and reality-test their potential for changing career fields, transitioning into management, transferring into other directorates, leaving the Center, Agency or the Federal Government, or phasing into partial or full retirement. Company Closure, Relocation & Restructuring PSM recently managed a large restructuring project for a client involving the closure and relocation of a major manufacturing and sales site leading to redundancies, promotions and outplacement support and the negotiation of temporary and permanent relocation packages. PSM were able to support our client at all stages throughout the restructuring programme linking with both the existing and new site management teams and including the following: 1. Strategy - Meetings with senior management prior to initiation of the program to discuss the HR and legal implications and produce an appropriate strategy plan including timetable, communication process and projected costings. Communication Development of the initial announcement to all employees of the proposed restructure and impact on jobs, offering the right to elect appointed representatives and including the production of redundancy skills matrices, where appropriate. Consultation - Developing and co-ordinating with line management, an effective consultation process and attend individual meetings with affected employees to discuss the impact on jobs and receive their feedback and ideas on alternative solutions in moving forward. Relocation Working with line management and supporting individuals who transfer into alternative either temporary or permanent employment, including developing relocation/ information packs, visits to the new location and proposal of relocation benefit packages where appropriate. Outplacement The preparation and delivery of outplacement workshops to provide the necessary support and assistance to employees to assist their search for new employment e.g. production of e ffective CVs, job search techniques etc. Exit Packages To propose appropriate exit packages for employees who leave the company.








Restructuring In conjunction with the senior management team, review the initial implementation of new organisational structures and as they develop, to assess their effectiveness in line with the future needs of the business.

Individual Differences Individual differences are the facts that make people different from each and other. We all know that we are different from each other.. in may ways such as : our physical aspects, our likes, dislikes, interests, values, psychological makeup (and the list goes on) in other words... the whole "Personality". That people differ from each other is obvious. How and why they differ is less clear and is the subject of the study of Individual differences (IDs). Although to study individual differences seems to be to study variance, how are people different, it is also to study central tendency, how well can a person be described in terms of an overall within-person average. Indeed, perhaps the most important question of individual differences is whether people are more similar to themselves over time and across situations than they are to others, and whether the variation within a single person across time and situation is less than the variation between people. A related question is that of similarity, for people differ in their similarities to each other. Questions of whether particular groups (e.g., groupings by sex, culture, age, or ethnicity) are more similar within than between groups are also questions of individual differences. Personality psychology addresses the questions of shared human nature, dimensions of individual differences and unique patterns of individuals. Research in IDs ranges from analyses of genetic codes to the study of sexual, social, ethnic, and cultural differences and includes research on cognitive abilities, interpersonal styles, and emotional reactivity. Methods range from laboratory experiments to longitudinal field studies and include data reduction techniques such as Factor Analysis and Principal Components Analysis, as well as Structural Modeling and Multi-Level Modeling procedures. Measurement issues of most importance are those of reliability and stability of Individual Differences. Research in Individual Differences addresses three broad questions: 1) developing an adequate descriptive taxonomy of how people differ; 2) applying differences in one situation to predict differences in other situations; and 3) testing theoretical explanations of the structure and dynamics of individual differences.

employee development Definition Encouraging employees to acquire new or advanced skills, knowledge, and view points, by providing learning and training facilities, and avenues where such new ideas can be applied. Training and development What is Employee Development ? Employee development is a joint initiative of the employee as well as the employer to upgrade the existing skills and knowledge of an individual. It is of utmost importance for employees to keep themselves abreast with the latest developments in the industry to survive the fierce competition. Believe me, if you are not aware of what is happening around you, even before you realize you would be out of the game. As they say there is really no age limit for education. Upgrading knowledge is essential to live with the changes of time. Employee development goes a long way in training, sharpening the skills of an employee and upgrading his/her exist ing knowledge and abilities. In a laymans language, employee development helps in developing and nurturing employees for them to become reliable resources and eventually benefit the organization. Employees also develop a sense of attachment towards the organization as a result of employee development activities.

Organizations must encourage their employees to participate in employee development activities. Employees also must take skill enhancement or employee development activities seriously. Do not attend trainings or other employee development activities just because your Boss has asked you to do so. Dont just attend trainings to mark your attendance. You just cannot use same ideas or concepts everywhere.

It is excellent if you know Microsoft Excel or for that matter Microsoft Word. Remember simply knowing few basic functions of MS excel would not help you in the long run. It might help you in the short run. Excel is not just to store your required data. There are many other formulae and advanced applications which one should be aware of.

Enhance your skills with time. Employee development can also be defined as a process where the employee with the support of his/her employer undergoes various training programs to enhance his/her skills and acquire new knowledge and learnings. Every organization follows certain processes which not only help in the professional but also personal growth of an employee. Employee development activities help an employee to work hard and produce quality work. Examples of Employee Development Activities Professional Growth Employee development activities must be defined keeping in mind an employees current stage and desired stage. Knowing an employees current and desired stage helps you find the gaps and in which all genres h e/she needs to be trained on. Human resource professionals must encourage employees to participate in internal or external trainings, get enrolled in online courses to increase their professional knowledge and contribute effectively. Personal Growth Employees start taking their work as a burden only when an organization does not provide any added benefits or advantages which would help in their personal growth. Soft skills classes, fitness sessions, loans with lower interest rates are certain initiatives which not only motivate an employee to do quality work but also help in employee development. Employee development not only helps in enhancing knowledge of employees but also increases the productivity of organizations. Employees, as a result of employee development activities are better trained and equipped and work harder to yield higher profits. What Are the Big Five(TRAITS )Dimensions of Personality? Today, many researchers believe that they are five core personality traits. Evidence of this theory has been growing over the past 50 years, beginning with the research of D. W. Fiske (1949) and later expanded upon by other researchers including Norman (1967), Smith (1967), Goldberg (1981), and McCrae & Costa (1987).The "big five" are broad categories of personality traits. While there is a significant body of literature supporting this five-factor model of personality, researchers don't always agree on the exact labels for each dimension. However, these five categories are usually described as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Extraversion: This trait includes characteristics such as excitability, sociability, talkativeness, assertiveness and high amounts of emotional expressiveness. Agreeableness: This personality dimension includes attributes such as trust, altruism, kindness, affection, and other prosocial behaviors. Conscientiousness: Common features of this dimension include high levels of thoughtfulness, with good impulse control and goal-directed behaviors. Those high in conscientiousness tend to be organized and mindful of details. Neuroticism: Individuals high in this trait tend to experience emotional instability, anxiety, moodiness, irritability, and sadness. Openness: This trait features characteristics such as imagination and insight, and those high in this trait also tend to have a broad range of interests.

Full Personality Structures One of the earliest -- and perhaps the most wide taught -- models of dividing personality was Freud's division of the mind into the id, ego, and superego. A good place to find out about the id, ego and superego is at Victorian Science. The essay there is by David B. Stevenson.

Another kind of personality structure involves divisions of personality based on the functions they carry out. One of the most promising of these functional divisions is the Systems Set, which is described in part on this to pull up the special topic. The Systems Set: New Opportunities in Dividing Personality The Systems Set is a division of personality into its functional areas. [Note: The Systems Set is not technically a part of the Systems Framework, but rather an offshoot of it. Nevertheless it is covered on this web site because it has proven useful in many contexts where a division of personality is called for.] The development of the Systems Set involved a several-step process. First, about 400 parts of personality were surveyed, collected from personality textbooks and other sources. Next, these were arranged in functional groups and defined (Mayer, 1995). A number of these functional clusters is shown below. Each cluster is itself made up of many subsidiary parts. For example, models of the self include one's own autobiographical story, the self concept or self concepts, self-esteem, and many other parts (see Mayer, 1995). These functional clusters, however, are a fairly comprehensive group, including, as they do, most areas necessary to describe parts of personality. The problems involved in dividing personality are fairly apparent: There are no distinct boundaries between systems. Rather, they interpenetrate and blend into one another. In addition, multiple groupings are possible. That said, it is possible to identify distinctions from the past that have proven useful and apply them to personality function. The System Set employs several distinctions: Those between the inner personality and its plans for outward expression, that between consciousness and non-conscious systems, and that between cognition, on the one hand, and motivation and emotion on the other. Applying these time-honored distinctions to a comprehensive collection of functions, one possible solution to the division issue is to identify four more-or-less discrete groups of function (Mayer, 2001). The energy lattice. This functional group provides direction to the person, drawing on subsystems that both motivate the individual and qualify those motives with emotions that guide the individual's social behavior. The knowledge works. This functional group involves the individual's models of the self and the world, along with the intelligences that operate to construct those models and to think with them. The social actor. This functional group involves the individual's characteristic or preferred styles of social expression, including attachment patterns, as well as the person's social skills. The conscious executive. This functional group involves the capacity to self-reflect and self-govern, as well as the conscious experience of those portions of personality to which the individual has access. (Most personality processes are regarded as non-conscious; that is, unconnected or disconnected from consciousness) An example of these divisions, applied to the overall functional clusters above, can be seen in the next figure. This division of mind has now been used in a number of studies and shows considerable promise in performing well. When compared to other structural models, it tends to outperform them. For example, in one study, knowledgeable judges were asked to sort traits according to the functions of personality the traits described. Some judges used the functions described by the Trilogy-of-Mind division (motivation -- emotion -- cognition). Other judges employed the Systems Set. Judges using the Systems Set were able to include far more traits, and to assign them with greater inter-judge reliability. The Systems Set has also been used to classify clinical change techniques and psychiatric disorders of DSM-IV-TR, according to the areas of personality influenced Emotional intelligence Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the ability to perceive, control, and evaluate emotions. Some researchers suggest that emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened, while other claim it is an inborn characteristic. A number of testing instruments have been developed to measure emotional intelligence, although the content and approach of each test varies. The following quiz presents a mix of self-report and situational questions related to various aspects of emotional intelligence. What is your emotional intelligence quotient? Take the quiz to learn more.

Question: In my group of friends, I am generally aware of how each person feels about the other people in our social circle.

Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree Visual Skills - Definition The term 'visual skills' includes all neuro-muscular and perceptual elements that together give rise to reflexive-passive, and volitional-active vision. These are not limited to the neuromuscular and neurosensory elements of the eye and retina, but integrate inputs from and outputs to other sensory modalities and neurocognitive functions. Visual skills involve the combined efforts of the eyes, eyelids, extra- and intra-ocular muscles, several cranial nerves, cortical and subcortical pathways, brainstem and spinal connection, various cortical loci and subcortical nuclei, audition, kinesthesia and proprioception, and balance. The functional elements of visual skills include vergence and duction movements, binocular coordination, saccades, pursuits, accommodation, target acquisition and fixation, and a number of distinct perceptual elements including "spatial organization, object perception, visual memory, visual thinking, allocation of visual attention, and the ability to integrate visual information with other sensory and output modalities Psychomotor learning:- is the relationship between cognitive functions and physical movement. Psychomotor learning is demonstrated by physical skills such as movement, coordination, manipulation, dexterity, grace, strength, speed; actions which demonstrate the fine motor skills such as use of precision instruments or tools, or actions which evidence gross motor skills such as the use of the body in dance, musical or athletic performance. Behavioral examples include driving a car, throwing a ball, and playing a musical instrument. In psychomotor learning research, attention is given to the learning of coordinated activity involving the arms, hands, fingers, and feet, while verbal processes are not emphasized Career management The word career refers to all types of employment ranging from semi-skilled through skilled, and semi professional to professional. The term careers has often been restricted to suggest an employment commitment to a single trade skill, profession or business firm for the entire working life of a person. In recent years, however, career now refers to changes or modifications in employment during the foreseeable future. There are many definitions by management scholars of the stages in the managerial process. The following classification system with minor variations is widely used: Development of overall goals and objectives, Development of a strategy (a general means to accomplish the selected goals/objectives), Development of the specific means (policies, rules, procedures and activities) to implement the strategy, and Systematic evaluation of the progress toward the achievement of the selected goals/objectives to modify the strategy, if necessary. Employee Welfare:Employee Welfare includes anything that is done for the comfort and improvement of employees and is provided over and above the wages. Welfare helps in keeping the morale and motivation of the employees high so as to retain the employees for longer duration. The welfare measures need not be in monetary terms only but in any kind/forms. Employee welfare includes monitoring of working conditions, creation of industrial harmony through infrastructure for health,industrial relations and insurance against disease, accident and unemployment for the workers and their families. Labor welfare entails all those activities of employer which are directed towards providing the employees with certain facilities and services in addition to wages or salaries. Labor welfare has the following objectives: 1. To provide better life and health to the workers

2. 3.

To make the workers happy and satisfied To relieve workers from industrial fatigue and to improve intellectual, cultural and material conditions of living of the workers.

The basic features of labour welfare measures are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Labour welfare includes various facilities, services and amenities provided to workers for improving their health, efficiency, economic betterment and social status. Welfare measures are in addition to regular wages and other economic benefits available to workers due to legal provisions and collective bargaining Labour welfare schemes are flexible and ever-changing. New welfare measures are added to the existing ones from time to time. Welfare measures may be introduced by the employers, government, employees or by any social or charitable agency. The purpose of labour welfare is to bring about the development of the


whole personality of the workers to make a better workforce.

Succession planning :Succession planning is a process for identifying and developing internal people with the potential to fill key business leadership positions in the company. Succession planning increases the availability of experienced and capable employees that are prepared to assume these roles as they become available. Taken narrowly, "replacement planning" for key roles is the heart of succession planning. Effective succession or talent-pool management concerns itself with building a series of feeder groups up and down the entire leadership pipeline or progression (Charan, Drotter, Noel, 2001). In contrast, replacement planning is focused narrowly on identifying specific back-up candidates for given senior management positions. For the most part positiondriven replacement planning (often referred to as the "truck scenario") is a forecast, which research indicates does not have substantial impact on outcomes. Fundamental to the succession-management process is an underlying philosophy that argues that top talent in the corporation must be managed for the greater good of the enterprise. Merck and other companies argue that a "talent mindset" must be part of the leadership culture for these practices to be effective. Succession planning is not a new phenomenon. Companies have been wrestling with ways to identify, develop, and retain their talent for decades. So, why is succession planning suddenly popping up on every companys radar screen? Todays organizations are facing higher demands in a global market with the retirement of the Baby Boomers and the widening talent gap. The home-grown and paper-based succession planning that companies relied on in the past are no longer meeting the needs of todays workforce. In order to achieve results, companies need to start with the basics, create a strong process and then invest in the tools and technology to instill a talent development mindset in their organization. This report highlights research findings on succession planning efforts in Best in Class organizations across multiple industries. Succession planning is a process whereby an organization ensures that employees are recruited and developed to fill each key role within the company. Through your succession planning process, you recruit superior employees, develop their knowledge, skills, and abilities, and prepare them for advancement or promotion into ever more challenging roles. Actively pursuing succession planning ensures that employees are constantly developed to fill each needed role. As your organization expands, loses key employees, provides promotional opportunities, and increases sales, your succession planning guarantees that you have employees on hand ready and waiting to fill new roles.