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Advance Topics in Process Control Che 522

CHAPTER 5:

1

Enhancement of single-loop PID controller

3. Feed-Forward plus Feedback Control

To combine the advantages of both Feed-forward and feedback controllers, one can consider the hybrid control system with G m = G v =1,

d

y sp _ G sp + G G c2 d + y sp + u
y sp
_
G
sp
+
G
G c2
d
+
y sp
+ u
G
+
G c1
p
+
+
_

y

Figure 20: Feedback + Feed-Forward Control system

From the Block diagram:

u

=

G

c 1

(y

y

sp

=

G

p

y)

u

+

+

G

G

c

2

d

d

(G

sp

y

sp

d)

Substituting for u and rearranging gives:

y =

G

p

(

G

c

1

+

G

c

2

G

sp

)

1

+ G

p

G

c 1

y

sp

+

G

d

G

1+ G

p

p

G

c 2

G

c 1

d

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Advance Topics in Process Control Che 522

We notice:

2

1. The stability of the overall system is still given by the same characteristic equation.

The stability characteristic of a feedback system is not affected by the addition of a feed-forward loop.

2. The feed-forward controller is still given by the same law as before.

Applying the hybrid FF and Feedback control system for the heated tank is shown in the figure:

T i , F i

T _ i T sp G = s +1 τ sp + + + F
T
_
i
T
sp
G
= s +1
τ
sp
+
+
+
F
ρ
Cp
λ
i
1
G
=
K
(
1
+
)
c
1
c
τ
s
1
T, F
e
_
T
sp
+

Figure 21: Hybrid Feed-Forward and Feedback control of Heated Tank

T

Feedforward control Feedforward-Feedback control Deviation remaining from feedforward control only time 0
Feedforward control
Feedforward-Feedback
control
Deviation remaining from
feedforward control only
time
0

Figure 22: Comparison between FF and FF+FB control systems

We notice:

Offset may occur when FF alone is used with some modeling error occurs in the steady state gain of the FF controller.

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3

Remark:

If the dynamic of the disturbance is faster than that of the manipulated variable, i.e. τ d <τ p , then using Hybrid FF and FB leads to double correction, which may cause large overshoot and poor performance.

4. Ratio Control

In some aspects ratio control can be considered as a special type of feed- forward control where two loads are measured and held in a constant ratio to each other.

A

B

A

B

Wild stream

F A Desired Ratio FT + _ Ratio Divider G R controller Measured Error Ratio
F A
Desired Ratio
FT
+
_
Ratio
Divider
G
R
controller
Measured
Error
Ratio
FT
F B
Controlable stream
Valve

Wild stream

Error Ratio FT F B Controlable stream Valve Wild stream F A FT Desired Ratio +
F A

F A

FT
FT
Desired Ratio + FT _ G Error R
Desired
Ratio
+
FT
_
G
Error
R

Ratio

controller

F B

F B

Controlable stream

_ G Error R Ratio controller F B Controlable stream Valve Figure 23: Ratio Control Example

Valve

G Error R Ratio controller F B Controlable stream Valve Figure 23: Ratio Control Example Chemical

Figure 23: Ratio Control Example

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4

4.1 Applications of Ratio Control Ratio control is used for a variety of applications including:

Keep constant the ratio between the feed flow rate and the steam in the reboiler of a distillation column,

Hold constant the reflux ratio in a distillation column.

Control the ratio of two reactants entering a reactor at a desired value.

Hold the ratio of two blended streams constant in order to maintain the composition of the blend at the desired value.

Hold the ratio of a purge stream to the recycle stream constant.

Keep the ratio of fuel/air in a burner at its optimum value

Maintain the ratio of the liquid flow rate to vapor flow rate in an absorption column constant.

FR FC FT A stream B stream
FR
FC
FT
A stream
B stream
R Purge FT FR Recycle
R Purge
FT
FR
Recycle

Stack gas

FT A stream B stream R Purge FT FR Recycle Stack gas Air FT FR Fuel
FT A stream B stream R Purge FT FR Recycle Stack gas Air FT FR Fuel
Air

Air

FT FR
FT
FR

Fuel

R FR FT Distillate Reflux
R
FR
FT
Distillate
Reflux

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Advance Topics in Process Control Che 522

5. Split Range Control (MV > CV)

5

This control configuration has one controlled variable and more than one manipulated variable.

A single process output is controlled by coordinating the actions of several manipulated variables.

Remarks:

This type of control configuration is not very common in chemical industry.

• The error signal is split into several parts, either equally or at specified ratio,
• The error signal is split into several parts, either equally or at
specified ratio, to regulate several manipulated variables.
TC
TT
Cold water
Steam

Figure 24: Example of Split Range Control

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6

6. Selective (override) control (MV<CV)

If a process has fewer manipulated variables than controlled variables, a strategy is needed for sharing the manipulated variables among the controlled variables. A common strategy is to use selectors to choose the appropriate process variables among a number of available measurements.

6.1 Maintaining Safety of the Equipment

Examples of these situations include:

Safeguard the operation of variable speed pumps.

Safeguard the operation of high temperature or pressure reactors.

Avoid flooding in distillation columns

Safeguard the operation of furnace.

The selector compares signals P 1 and P 2 and chooses the highest one. This type of control is also called override control.

If

q < q min

switch from level control to Flow control

Slurry in LT LC p 2 h p 1 HS FC Holding Tank FT Slurry
Slurry in
LT
LC
p 2
h
p 1
HS
FC
Holding Tank
FT
Slurry out

q

Figure 25: A selective control for sand-water slurry system

6.2 Improving Control Performance

Plug flow reactor with moving hot spot. A control strategy that accomplishes this goal is shown in Fig 21. The high selector selects the transmitter with the highest output and the control is based on this temperature.

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Advance Topics in Process Control Che 522 Reactants Products SP TT TT TT TT TC
Advance Topics in Process Control
Che 522
Reactants
Products
SP
TT
TT
TT
TT
TC
HS
Cooling meduim

7

Figure 26: A plug flow reactor with selective control

6.3 Optimization of the process (See Corripio)

Consider the furnace of Figure 26, where fuel oil is used to provide heat to a number of process units. Each individual unit manipulates the flow of oil required to maintain its controlled variable at set point. A bypass control loop is also provided. A bad or inefficient operation of the process is the one for which the oil temperature is heated above the value that would satisfy the need of the users. In this case most of the valves would not be wide open and large quantity of fuel would be burned to reach the unnecessary high oil temperature.

Stack gas

Hot oil T sp sp Fuel T sp T sp h sp
Hot oil
T
sp
sp
Fuel
T
sp
T
sp
h
sp

Figure 27: Hot oil system

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8

The effective operation that would save energy is the one that would maintain the oil leaving the furnace at a temperature just enough to provide the necessary energy to the users with hardly any flow through the bypass valve. In this case most of the temperature control valves would be open most of the time. To achieve this goal, the selective control strategy, shown in Figure 26, first selects the most open valve using a high selector. The valve position controller controls the selected valve position at large value i.e. 90 % open by manipulating the set point of the furnace temperature. This saves energy because it will maintain the temperature just hot enough to provide needed heat to the users.

6.4 Protecting against sensor/transmitters failures

Selectors are also used to protect against transmitter failures by selecting a valid transmitter signal among several. Redundant transmitters monitor the process variable and the median selector chooses the right one for control. Redundant sensors are commonly used in a hostile environment of high temperature or corrosive where failures rate are high thus avoiding the shutdown of the process.

6.5 Other Override Control examples

Protection of Boiler system

Protecting a compressor system

Water

PT Boiler LT LC HS PC
PT
Boiler
LT
LC
HS
PC

Hot gas

HS FC
HS
FC
SC
SC

Motor

PC PT FT Gas out Compressor
PC
PT
FT
Gas out
Compressor
PC Hot gas HS FC SC Motor PC PT FT Gas out Compressor Gas in Chemical

Gas in

PC Hot gas HS FC SC Motor PC PT FT Gas out Compressor Gas in Chemical

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Advance Topics in Process Control Che 522

7. Inferential Control

9

In some case, the controlled variable can not be measured directly or continuously such as

Reid Vapor pressure

Density

Melt Index

Molecular weight

Gas composition

Therefore, inferential control makes use of a secondary measurement to estimate (infer) the unmeasured variable.

Inferring the unmeasured output can be achieved through:

Using physical laws, (Relating T to C through thermodynamic)

Using a model equation

Using Empirical modeling

7.1 Inferential control through modeling Consider the block diagram of the process shown in Fig 28, with one unmeasured controlled output y and one secondary measured output z.

Unmeasured

Process disturbance d G G d1 d2 Manipulated Controlled + u variable output G P1
Process
disturbance
d
G
G d1
d2
Manipulated
Controlled
+
u
variable
output
G P1
+
y
(unmeasured)
+
+
Secondary
G P2
z
measurement

Figure 28: Process with need for inferential control

The open loop transfer function:

y(s) = G p1 (s) u(s) + G d1 (s) d(s)

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(1)

Advance Topics in Process Control Che 522

z(s) = G p2 (s) u(s) + G d2 (s) d(s)

10

(2)

We can solve for d(s) in the second equation to find the following estimate of the unmeasured disturbance

 

1

(

)

G

p 2

(

s

)

(

u s

)

 

G

d

(

s

)

z s

 

G

d

2

(

s

)

G

d

1

(

s

)

G

d

1

(

s

)

G

 

+

 

p 2

(

u s

)

 
 

G

d

2

(

s

)

 

G

d

2

(

s

)

d

(

s

) =

Substituting back in equation (1) yields,

y s

(

)

=

G

p 1

(

s

)

z s

(

)

(3)

(4)

This equation provides the estimator needed which relates the unmeasured controlled output to measured variables u(s) and z(s). Figure 29 shows the resulting block diagram for the inferential control.

y Controller u y sp + G Process z c Set point _ G d
y
Controller
u
y sp
+
G
Process
z
c
Set point
_
G
d
1
G =
p 1
G p 2
G
d
2
+ G
d
1
+ G
d
2
Estimates of unmeasured
output y
Estimator

Figure 29: Process under inferential control system

Remarks:

Generally inferential control is used when composition is the desired controlled variable. Temperature is the most common secondary measurement.

From Equation (4), the accuracy of the inferential control scheme depends on the good estimation, e.g. depends on the good knowledge of the process G p1 (s), G p2 (s), G d1 (s) and G d2 (s). Generally these process elements are not known perfectly and

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11

therefore the inferential control would provide control with varying quality.

7.2.1 Example: Inferential control of a distillation column

Consider a distillation column, which separates a mixture of propane-butane in two products. The reflux ratio is the manipulated variable. The feed and overhead compositions are unmeasured so there is need for inferential control. The secondary measurement to infer the overhead composition is the temperature at the top tray. The process inputs are the feed composition (disturbance) and reflux ratio (manipulated variable) while the outputs are the overhead propane composition (unmeasured controlled variable) and temperature of top tray (secondary measurement).

− 2 s − s (5) 0 9 e . 1 2 e . y
2 s
s
(5)
0 9 e
.
1 2 e
.
y ( s
)
=
d
(
s
) +
u s
(
)
70
s +
1
30
s +
1
− 0 2 s
.
(6)
0 2 e
.
1
z s
(
) =
d
(
s
)
+
u s
(
)
60
s +
1
20
s +
1
Unmeasured
Process
disturbance
d
2 s
2 s
0
.
9 se
0
.
2 se
G
=
G
=
d
1
d 2
70
s +
1
60
s +
1
Manipulated
+
u
variable
1 s
1
.
2 se
G
=
p 1
+
y
30
s +
1
Overhead
composition
+
1
+
Temperature
G
=
p 2
20
s +
1
z
of top tray

(a)

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Advance Topics in Process Control Che 522

Controller

y

Advance Topics in Process Control Che 522 Controller y z y sp + Set point u

z

Advance Topics in Process Control Che 522 Controller y z y sp + Set point u

y

sp +
sp
+

Set point

u G c _ − s 1 . 2 e 4 5 60 . (
u
G
c
_
− s
1 . 2 e
4 5 60
.
(
s +
1
)
30
s +
1
(
70
s
+
1
)(
20
s
+
1
)
+
1 ) − 30 s + 1 ( 70 s + 1 )( 20 s +
1 ) − 30 s + 1 ( 70 s + 1 )( 20 s +

+

Process

60 s + 1 4 5 . 70 s + 1
60
s
+
1
4 5
.
70
s
+
1
20 s + 1 ) + + Process 60 s + 1 4 5 . 70

Estimates of unmeasured output y

Estimator

(b)

12

Figure 30: (a) Block diagram of distillation column; (b) corresponding inferential

7.2 Nonlinear (Empirical) Inferential systems

Recently, online estimation techniques such neural networks have been

used to estimate unmeasured variables from available plant data. The output estimator is called soft sensor.

Empirical inferential system is not limited to the use of NN. Any linear regression methods can be used to correlate the unmeasured variable to the measurements of secondary variable or other measured process variables.

7.3 Implementation issues

Inferential control is appropriate when:

Measurement

because:

of

the

true

controlled

variable

is

not

available

o

An on-stream sensor is not possible

o

An on-stream sensor is too costly

o

Sensor has unfavorable dynamics (long time delay, lab analysis)

A measured inferential variable is available.

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