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American History Gilded Age Test

1. Did government policies encourage economic growth and promote innovation in technology

2. Did advancements in technology and new business practices have an impact economical, political, and social life of Americans?

3. Did the actions of groups or individuals push forth change in business practices and government policies?

4. What were the benefits and drawbacks of industrialization for various groups?

5. Is it better to have large private benefactions or to have the government tax wealth and engage in benefactions itself?

How did the governments role in economic and political affairs change during this era?

To what extent was the governments changing role necessary and positive in this era? How did immigration and industrialization shape urban life?

How did technological advancements affect immigrates and the growth of industry?

What elements allowed industrialist to gain wealth and power during the Gilded Age?

Should the industrials of this time be referred to as Captains of Industry or Robber Barons?

Was the growing class division of the time a threat to American democracy? Why or why not?

What social, economic, and political factors led to the need for the formation of labor unions?

How effective were labor unions in improving the lives of American workers?

Credit Mobilier Scandal: Congress gives money and western land to union pacific railroad company to build railroad. UPR hires credit mobilier to build tracks and they overcharge them and gave cheap shares of the company to members of congress so they would agree to keep funding union pacific Whiskey Ring Scandal: Spoils System: Presidents appointed their friends/supporters as government officials regardless of qualifications. Much bribery and corruption, unqualified dishonest employees (used their jobs for personal profit). Hayes didnt use it- hire qualified people and fired those who werent. after Garfield was assassinated country against spoils system Civil Service: governments non-elected workers. (appointed officials) James Garfields Election: repub party split into 2 sections- stalwarts (wanted spoils system), half-breeds (mixed), and independents (opposed spoils system). Garfield won as half-breed w/ vice president chester Arthur (stalwart). Garfield shot by lawyer charles guiteau after he expected a job from Garfield but didnt get it- made people outcry against spoils system Pendleton Civil Service Act: after garfields assassination pres Arthur passed this act which created a civil service commission, which classified gov jobs and tested applicants fitness for them + federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds/ couldnt be fired for political reasons Munn v. Illinois: supreme court allowed state regulations on businesses (including railroads) within their boarders but most railroads were interstate so they argued it should be federally regulated and then it was left unregulated.

Coxeys Army: coxey (a wealthy ohio quarry owner) want gov to create more jobs during a depression during clevelands presidency . Out of many small armies only coxeys made it to Washington Political Machine: unofficial city organization designed to keep a particular group in power usually headed by a boss. Worked through exchange of favors. Gave out city jobs in exchange for the residents giving their votes to their candidates. Graft major income for machines. Immigrants tended to support because they were poor/uneducated and it helped poor ppl. Boss Tweed: one of most famous mob bosses. William Macy Tweed, controlled tammany hall. Gained access to NY treasury and used illegal methods to plunder it. Got millions of dollars through fraud and graft, ie. Made fake construction plans w/ fake expenses and kept money for selves. Convicted of crimes in 1873 and died in jail Tammany Hall: run by boss tweed. Political club that ran NYCs democratic party. Dominated new york politics for almost a century Thomas Nast: German immigrant political cartoonist. Helped bring down tweed by depicting him as a thief and dictator to the public Graft: use of ones job to gain profit, major source of income for machines. (bribery/fraud) Laissez-Faire: government plays very limited role in business. If gov doesnt interfere the strongest will succeed and bring wealth to the whole nation. Electricity: meant new machines/technology. Typwriter, telephone, elevator, commercial light bulb. Could now light up work places (better conditions/more hours, machines ie sewing machine = easier work, cost of clothes decreased. Fridges. Electric Trolleys: cities could be bigger cause people could travel further. Replaced horse drawn carriages and let people move out of cities into suburbs Elevator: buildings could be much taller Telephone: Railroad Industry: transcontinental railroad completed in 1869. Employeed many immigrants (especially Chinese). Central Pacific built railroad, gov funded. Credit mobilier scandal, much graft. Mass Production: cars invented in 1890s and began mass producing. Bessemer process made mass production of steel possible

Ellis Island: millions of immigrants came through. Tagged w/ name and number. Checked for diseases (Trachoma-eye lids, cholera, typhoid, tuberculosis) questioned on name/intentions. Settlement Houses: young ppl put social gospel into practice (settlement movement). They settled into a house in a poor neighborhood and used it as a community center to offer social services. Ie child care, playgrounds, clubs, camps, help find jobs, help w/ legal problems, health care clinics. Laid foundation for future reforms Social Gospel Movement: sought to apply the teachings of jesus to society. Focused on ideas of charity/justice especially labor reforms. Wanted to improve living condit Dumbbell tenements: New NY law required that each room have a window. Dumbbell shape. Narrow in middle and gaps on sides. Polluted drinking water/disease Chinese Exclusion Act: prohibited Chinese laborers from entering country but didnt prevent entry of those previously established as residents. Finally repealed after 60 years. Built angel island Jacob Riis: wrote how the other half lives showed what life in the tenements was like. Used flash photography to document. In response NY passed nations first meaningful laws to improve tenements Central Park: Department Stores(Macys, Woolworth): Working Conditions: ruled by the clock. Not always safe- could be deafening. Poor lighting/ventilation. Faulty equipment. Careless training. Fatigue. Division of Labor: factory workers performed the same one task over and over- proved to be efficient but took much joy out of work. Almost no relationship between workers and owners Sweat shops: shops where employees worked long hours at low wages and under poor working conditions Child Labor: had to work in factories and mines. many children became stunted in mind/body growth. Because of Jacobs riis children of the poor child labor laws started to be put into effect. Children made up 5% of work force. Gap b/w rich and poor: Andrew Carnegie: u.s. steel. people should be free to make as much

money as they can, but then they should give it away. Donate 80% of fortune. Rockefeller: formed standard oil company. Had given over $500 mil to charity Standard Oil Company: formed by Rockefeller. Horizontal consolidation. As the company sold more oil he could undersell his competitors. Law prohibited him from buying out competitors tho U.S. Steel: Bessemer process had steel replacing iron. Carnegie got super rich bought out all the middle men- vertical consolidation. Allowed company to keep very low production costs Bessemer Process: new way of making steel, much easier and cheaper. Monopoly: complete control of a product/service. Buy out competitors or drive them out so they are the only business and can raise prices as high as they want Cartel: loose association of businesses that make the same product. All agree to limit supply of product and keep prices high Trust: a single unit made of combined companies. Way to get around laws prohibiting buying out. Companies turned over their assests to trustees and were promised a share of profits. New kind of monopoly Sherman Antitrust Act: attempt to limit the amount of control a business could have over and industry. Outlawed any combination of companies that restrained interstate trade/commerce. Proved ineffective against trusts Vertical Integration: raw materialszx>production/processing>shipping/transportation Horizontal Integration: owning many firms in the same businessbuy as many as possible. Cut out middle man. Own manufacturing, production, and processing. Socialism: economic and political philosophy that favors public instead of private control of property/income. Wealth should be evenly distributed throughout everyone. Knights of Labor: nation labor union. Wanted or organize all working men/ women( skilled and unskilled) into 1 union. Equal pay for equal work, 8 hour work day, no child labor. Not so much strikes. American Federation of Labor:Samuel gompers. Craft union, rather than organizing all workers, only skilled workers in a network of

smallers unions devoted to specific craft. Women not welcome. Focused mainly on workers wages, hours, and working conditions. Relied on strikes/boycotts. Wobblies: opposed to AFL. Also called industrial workers of the world. Focused on unskilled workers, radical union with many socialist. Violent strikes Samuel Gompers: Lockout: Scabs: negative term for worker called in by employer to replace striking laborers Blacklist: Collective Bargaining: process in which workers negotiate as a group with employers. More power than just single worker Great Railroad Strike 1877: began when announced a wage cut of 10% b/c of depression. 2nd cut in 8 months, workers very angry. Started to strike and tried to prevent others from running trains, much violence, hayes sent in fed troops. Fired/wounded rioters. Caused up roar, set fire to railroad $5 mil in damage. Started violent labor streak Haymarket Riot: 1886 workers wanted 8 hour work day. Strikers vs. scabs. Someone threw a bomb killing a police, gunfire killed many on both sides. Homestead Strike 1892: while Carnegie was away henry frick tried to cut his workers wages which led to strike. Frick called in pinkertons to shoot at strikers. Ppl on strikers side until berkman (unrelated to strikers) tried and failed to assassinate frick Pullman Strike 1894: george Pullman created the town of Pullman as a place just for workers. Workers thought Pullman was controlling their lives (bans on alcohol etc) then Pullman laid of workers and cut wages 25% but kept all prices the same. Workers tried to protest so he fired them which led union to strike. Shut down plant, workers joined American railway union. Strike got out of hand, interfered with nations mail