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EDITOR'S COMMENT
Your feedbacks are welcome and should be sent to: The Editor, The Masterbuilder, 102/11 (New No. 46/11), Tripti Apartments, Marshalls Road, Egmore, Chennai, India. Phone: +91 44 28555248 Telefax: +91 44 28586703
Editor-in-Chief K.P . Pradeep editor@masterbuilder.co.in Vice-Chairman K G K Moorthy moorthykgk@yahoo.co.in Director Editorial, Construction Chemicals Dr. Y P Kapoor Editor-in-Charge Ravi Damodaran Editor Nigel Narayan Associate Editors M.J. Krishna, M.K. Prabhakar Head - Content Development CE, Infrastructure & Environment Sadagopan Seshadri Contributors Bhavani Balakrishna, Sonjay, Priya Vice President Marketing H. Usha Devi Head-New Media Initiative Pradeep Nair Credit Controller G.B. Muralidharan Finance R. Prema Manager Digital Production K. Sravanthi Kiran Manager Digital Media Lakshmi Creative Head S. Nithiyanandam Production Manager Caroline D'sylva Digital Production Assistant R. Anand, Sudhir Kumar Singh Subscription & Circulation Team Sateesh Kuniyil, S. Sasi, Rajesh, C. Sumi Corporate Office MB Publishers Pvt. Limited 102/11 (New No. 46/11), Tripti Apartments, Marshalls Road, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008. Ph: 044-28555248 Telefax: 28586703. Subscription & Circulation subscription@masterbuilder.in Website www.masterbuilder.co.in Karnataka No.40, 2nd Floor, 7th "C" Cross, Ashwini Layout, Koramangala, Bangalore - 560047. Phone: 080 - 25701079 / 25705888 Mobile: 09343833191 Owned and Published by K.P . Pradeep 102/11 (New No. 46/11), Tripti Apartments, Marshalls Road, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008. Printed By Ashok Natarajan Times Printers & Publishers, New No. 57 (29), Dr. Besant Road, Ice House, Chennai - 600 014. Disclaimer All rights reserved. Reproduction, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, in whole or part without prior written permission is prohibited. All views expressed in this magazine are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the publisher, neither do the publishers endorse any of the claims made in the advertisements.

Penciling-in Change
t is now that time of the year when India Inc. reviews its accounts and forecasts ahead of what is being billed by many in the country as a Do-or-Die budget for the UPA. Mr. Pranab Mukherjee, who recently went on record about losing sleep over subsidy leakage, shall be presenting his latest blueprint for the allocation of finance and the means of getting towards it at a time when the industry is penciling an action oriented budget in-lieu of the usual sops meant for UPA's vote bank. While the Finance Minister has no magic wand to swish and put things back on track, there is perhaps only one way out of the mess. Reforms and more reforms. The start should perhaps be made from the mining and quarrying sector. This key segment is likely to report negative growth for 2011-12 on account of weak coal output growth, restrictions imposed on iron-ore production, decline in natural gas production and negative growth in crude oil output. The government needs to take immediate steps to open up the sector with respect to mineral exploration. The country requires to make optimum utilization of its coal reserves, to ensure a healthy turn around. If the government is serious about achieving a growth of about 7.5-8 percent during 2012-13 then this is the right moment to accelerate on mega construction projects. The government needs to also aggressively woo FDIs in numerous industrial corridors that have been planned almost everywhere across the country; this would automatically give a fillip to the construction industry. Perhaps one of the most important segments in the country's infrastructure domain that is seeking the FM's attention is the power sector. With mounting project costs, lack of funding and erratic coal supply, the power generation companies have already pushed many parts of the country back into the 'dark ages'. There is an urgent need for the FM to come up with ways and means to reduce high interest rates, so that low cost funds can flow into the power sector. Several stalled power projects do not speak well for a country that is aspiring to be an economic superpower. Along with funding for new projects and resources, both natural in the form of coal and monetary for capacity expansion and technology up gradation, also need to be made available to existing power plants. While the restrictions on mining by the Ministry of Environments and Forests (MoEF) are understandable, the government should still try and work out a more liberal stance in order to reduce dependence on coal imports, which just add to the burden for power companies. It is also time to walk the talk in the renewable energy sector. State governments should be given sops for starting solar energy parks and wind farms. Overseas expertise in latest technologies including biomass and tidal wave energy should be given thrust. With respect to the road sector, The Ministry and NHAI need to thrash out plans to make highway projects attractive to bidders. No longer can the authorities concerned pull wool over the eyes. The virtual absence of leading global players in the bidding fray points out a deep rooted malady. What remains to be seen is whether UPA II has the political will to admit that all is not hunky-dory with the economy and is capable of garnering consensus for further reforms.

K.P Pradeep, Editor-in-Chief


editor@masterbuilder.co.in

Gandhi Automations Pvt.Ltd

Contents

Everlasting: Roads
Chaitanya Goyal

Lifetime Engineering for Roads: The Path to a Sustainable Future

44
108
1 1

Editor's Comment........................ 8 News & Events............................18 E-Scape.....................................238 Advertisers Index........................14 Classification Index.....................16

52

Recycled: Asphalt Pavement Making inroads into Sustainability Using Recycled Asphalt Material for Re-laying of Roads Can Be Economical and Environment-friendly Too!
Ramanathan. Krishnan, Special Correspondent

Dr. B.V. Kiran Kumar, 2Dr. H.S. Jagadeesh, 3Dr. R. Sathyamurthy Assistant Professor in Civil Engineering, Govt. SKSJTI, Bangalore 2 Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, BMSCE, Bangalore 3 Visiting Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, BMSCE, Bangalore

Compaction: Laboratory Study Roller Compactor Cum Rut Analyzer (RCRA) an Alternative Compactor for Bituminous Mix Design

58 66

Pre-fabricated: Pavement Pre-Fabricated Pavement Systems

Sonjay Deb, B.Tech.Civil. N.I.T.Silchar, Research Scholar, Indian Institute of Technology

118

H.Soenen1, T.Tanghe1, P.Redelius1, J. De Visscher2, F.Vervaecke2, A.Vanelstraete2 Nynas Bitumen AB, Noorderlaan, Belgium, 2Belgian Road Research Centre, Woluwedal, Belgium
1

Research: Paving Temperatures A Laboratory Study on the use of Waxes to Reduce Paving Temperatures

Urooj Masood, Dr. B.L.P. Swami, Dr. A.K.Asthana Asssociate Professor, Civil Engineering, Deccan College of Engineering and Technology, Darussalam, Hyderabad, India. Professor, Coordinator, Research and Consultancy, Vasavi College of Engineering, Ibrahimbagh, Hyderabad, India. Professor, Principal, Keshav Memorial College of Engineering and Technology, Narayanguda, Hyderabad, India.

MFRC: Experimental Study Behavior of Mixed Fiber Reinforced Concrete (MFRC) Exposed to Acids - An Experimental Study

80 88 96 100

Infrastructure: Asset Management Road Asset Valuation and Management: The Comprehensive Approach to Infrastructure Handling
Chaitanya Goyal

128 133 136 144 146

CE: Asphalt Batch Plants Asphalt Mix Plants: Treading the Green Line
M.K. Prabhakar, Associate Editor

CE: Batching Plants Clean and Green Sustainable Hot Mix Plant Road Equipments: Industry Analysis Road Construction Equipments: Global Majors Flock to Tap Indian Demand

Road: Restoration 'Surface Dressing: A Quick, Efficient and Cost-Effective Method of Restoring Roads
Bhavani Balakrishna

M.K. Prabhakar, Associate Editor

Focus: Soil Stabilization Pioneering Polymer Road Stabilization Technology in India Focus: Asphalt Binder New Technologies in Asphalt Binder

Face to Face Ace Infrastructure: Providing a Host of Infrastructure Equipment Solutions CE: New Roll-Out Solid Cat 770G & 772G Off-Highway Trucks Now in India

Sonjoy Deb, B.Tech.Civil. N.I.T.Silchar, Research Scholar, Indian Institute of technology

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10 The Masterbuilder - February 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in

80

136

H & K Rolling Mill Engineers Pvt.Ltd

Contents
Management: Waste Recycling 148 Site Recycling of Construction & Demolition Waste: An Overview
Mohan Ramanathan, B.Tech., M.S. (USA), Managing Director, Advanced Construction Technologies

Engineering: Mega Projects 196 Urban Gujarat International Finance Tec-City (GIFT) The Rise of a Megacity
Sadagopan Seshadri, Chief - Content Development, CE - Infrastructure - Environment

Cutting Tools 154 Concrete: On The Cutting Edge: The Indian Concrete Core Cutting & Drilling Industry
Bhavani Balakrishna

Accessories: Communication Feature 206 Equipment Trendsetter Focussed on Consolidating Market Presence Stabilisation 208 Soil: Asphalt Zipper: Long Lasting Foundations Engineering : JNNURM 211 Urban JNNURM Mission NOT Impossible
M.K.Prabhakar, Associate Editor

to Face 162 Face Cutting Edge Solutions for the Demolition Industry Tools 166 Cutting: Cutting Tools for All Kinds of Constructions New Generation Tools 168 De-construction: Next - Gen Diamond Tools for Nuclear Decommissioning
Mohan Ramanathan, B.Tech., M.S. (USA), Managing Director, Advanced Construction Technologies

Event: Achievement Award 218 15 Years of Civil-Aid Technoclinic (P) Ltd


Bhavani Balakrishna

Demolition and Cutting 174 CE: Demand for Productivity & Safety Ushers in New Technologies Case Study 176 De-construction: Demolition of De Mineralization Plant: A Case Study Crystalline Systems 180 Waterproofing: Cement Based Crystalline Waterproofing System for New and Old Structures Communication Feature 182 CE: Geared up for Commex 2012 with an Innovative Range of Products

Show 222 Trade IFAT ENSORGA 2012: Series of New Technologies Expected to be Showcased during Premier Trade Show

Executive: Workshop 224 CIDC's Executive Program on Managing Project Sites Soil Stabilizer 226 Equipment: Stabilized Soil Mixtures: Key Ingredient for a Sound Construction Engineering: Pile Breaking 230 Ground Hydraulic Pile Breakers: Pile Breaking in Just a Matter of Minutes
Bhavani Balakrishna

184

Indoor: Air Quality Radon Indoors: Risk Really Exists!

Sadagopan Seshadri, Chief - Content Development, CE - Infrastructure - Environment

Feature 194 Communication Hydraulic Dock Leveler from Gandhi Automation: Balance of Power and Performence at its Best Thermal Barriers with a Difference

234 Off-Beat Fruitful Co-operation: India-Japanese Coast Guard


MJ Krishna

210

Engineering: Communication Feature 235 Ground Varshitha Introduces Fastest Way to Crush Concrete Piles

196 154
12 The Masterbuilder - February 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in

230 211

Bekaert Industries Pvt Ltd

Contents

Advertisers Index
A
Abcon Tech & build Aids Pvt Ltd Abhay Construction ACD Machine Control Co Pvt Ltd ACE Infrastructure Pvt Ltd Action Construction Equipment Ltd Advanced Construction Technologies Pvt Ltd Ajax Fiori Engineering (I) Pvt. Ltd. Allen Buildwell Pvt. Ltd. Apollo Infratech Pvt. Ltd. Aquarius Technologies Pvt.Ltd Atul Fasteners Ltd Aura Bucket Crusher B&B Machines Baicon 2012 Bekaert Industries Pvt Ltd Bharat Road Development Combines Pvt Ltd BRDC India Facilities Management Summit 2012 Case New Holland Equipment Pvt Ltd Chetra Machinery India Pvt. Ltd. Columbia Pakona Engineering Pvt. Ltd. Consolidated Machines Contract Management Seminar (IITarb) Cosmos Construction Machineries & Equipments Pvt.Ltd Cosmos Sales Corporation Credence Engineers Pvt Ltd DCS Trading & Services Pvt Ltd Dextra India Pvt. Ltd Diabu Diamond Tools (India) Pvt Ltd (Dr. Fixit) Pidilite Industries Ltd. Esquire CMAC Pvt.Ltd 187 163 203 97 79 99 51 105 43 91 147 2nd Wrapper Gandhi Automations Pvt.Ltd Greaves Cotton Ltd H & K Rolling Mill Engineers Pvt.Ltd Hilti India Pvt Ltd Hyderabad Industries Limited Igloo Tiles Indo Spark Construction & Consultancy Services Instruct IQPC (Cost Effective Sustainable Design Construction) Ironite Co. of India Ltd. JBA Concrete Solutions JK Cement Ltd Lipi Polymer Pvt Ltd Liugong India Pvt. Ltd. Madras Diamond Tools Mahindra Genio Marini India Pvt Ltd.(Fayat India) MB Corporate MB Subscription Form Mc Bauchemie (India) Pvt. Ltd. Metecno India Pvt.Ltd MM Castings Pvt. Ltd. Modern Formwork Systems MRT Chemicals Pvt Ltd Nawa Engineers & Consultants Pvt Ltd. NICMAR Nina Concrete Systems Pvt Ltd FAE Australia Pacific Pty Ltd

F
29 Prime Technologies Rapid Cutting Technologies India Private Limited Reliance Industries Ltd Relyon Facility Services Pvt. Ltd. Revathi Equipments Ltd Rockwell India Roof India '2012 RSB Transmission (I) Ltd. (International Auto Work)

P
37

G
9 6

R
199 173 195 73 47 205

H
11 157 Front Inner

I
33 203 225 211 131

Roshan Lal Jain & Sons (Roljack Industries) 143 27

S
Safari Construction Equipment Pvt. Ltd. Saifi Group Sanwa Diamond Tools Pvt Ltd Schwing Stetter India Pvt. Ltd. Sika India Pvt.Ltd Silicone Concepts Int'l.Pvt.Ltd Singh Construction Equipments & Machinery Pvt. Ltd. Sleek Board (India) Ltd. Speedcrafts Ltd STP Ltd Thermatek Toshaniwal Systems & Instruments Pvt Ltd Tyrolit India Superabrasive Tools Pvt Ltd Unisteel Engineering Works United Steel and Structurals Pvt Ltd Universal Construction Machinery & Equipment Ltd. 19 161 191 25 167 83 15 35 69 115

B
135 229 13 85

J
123 17

C
221 23 55 31 195 217 171 179 165

L
21 103

Chowgule Construction Technologies Back Cover

M
203 5 7 233 215 127 2nd Front Inner 77 236 & 237 195

T
111 183 159

U
63 87 139

D
61 187 153 Back Inner

V
Varshitha Concrete Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Venus Equipments And Tools Pvt Ltd 65 95

N
57 203 119 / 151

E
107

W
Wendt (India) Ltd Wirtgen India 191 49

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The Masterbuilder - February 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in

Singh Construction Equipments

Contents

Advertisers Index / Classification


AAC Hyderabad Industries Limited Building Materials MRT Chemicals Pvt Ltd Thermatek Cement JK Cement Ltd Concrete Batching Plant Ajax Fiori Engineering (I) Pvt. Ltd. Apollo Infratech Pvt. Ltd. Revathi Equipments Ltd Schwing Stetter India Pvt. Ltd. Universal Construction Machinery & Equipment Ltd. Concrete Block Machinery B&B Machines Columbia Pakona Engineering Pvt. Ltd. Construction Chemicals Abcon Tech & build Aids Pvt Ltd Dr. Fixit (Pidilite) Mc Bauchemie (India) Pvt. Ltd. Nina Concrete Systems Pvt Ltd Silicone Concepts Int'l.Pvt.Ltd STP Ltd ACD Machine Control Co Pvt Ltd ACE Infrastructure Pvt Ltd Action Construction Equipment Ltd Advanced Construction Technologies Pvt Ltd Ajax Fiori Engineering (I) Pvt. Ltd. Allen Buildwell Pvt. Ltd. Apollo Infratech Pvt. Ltd. Aquarius Technologies Pvt.Ltd Bharat Road Development Combines Pvt Ltd Case New Holland Equipment Pvt Ltd Chetra Machinery India Pvt. Ltd. Consolidated Machines Cosmos Construction Machineries & Equipments Pvt.Ltd DCS Trading & Services Pvt Ltd Esquire CMAC Pvt.Ltd FAE Australia Pacific Pty Ltd Greaves Cotton Ltd Liugong India Pvt. Ltd. Mahindra Genio Marini India Pvt Ltd. (Fayat India) Revathi Equipments Ltd Safari Construction Equipment Pvt. Ltd. Schwing Stetter India Pvt. Ltd. 17 51 43 73 25 139 135 31 187 Back Inner 127 119 / 151 83 115 203 97 79 99 51 105 43 91 85 23 55 195 171 61 107 29 6 103 5 7 73 19 25 195 111 Front Inner Singh Construction Equipments & Machinery Pvt. Ltd. Speedcrafts Ltd Toshaniwal Systems & Instruments Pvt Ltd Unisteel Engineering Works Universal Construction Machinery & Equipment Ltd. Venus Equipments and Tools Pvt Ltd Wirtgen India Hilti India Pvt Ltd Madras Diamond Tools Prime Technologies Sanwa Diamond Tools Pvt Ltd Wendt (India) Ltd Tyrolit India Superabrasive Tools Pvt Ltd Cranes DCS Trading & Services Pvt Ltd Bucket Crushers Aura Bucket Crusher Crushing Nawa Engineers & Consultants Pvt Ltd. Roshan Lal Jain & Sons (Roljack Industries) Demolition Excavators Advanced Construction Technologies Pvt Ltd Diamond Core cutting Diabu Diamond Tools (India) Pvt Ltd Doors Automatic Gandhi Automations Pvt.Ltd Facility Services Relyon Facility Services Pvt. Ltd. Fibre Reinforced Concrete Bekaert Industries Pvt Ltd Nina Concrete Systems Pvt Ltd Flooring Bekaert Industries Pvt Ltd Ironite Co. of India Ltd. JBA Concrete Solutions Nina Concrete Systems Pvt Ltd Reliance Industries Ltd Silicone Concepts Int'l.Pvt.Ltd Green Building Products Hyderabad Industries Limited Long Reach Excavators ACE Infrastructure Pvt Ltd Metal Building / PEB Metecno India Pvt.Ltd 2nd Front Inner 97 Front Inner 13 131 123 119 / 151 173 83 13 119 / 151 195 9 153 99 57 143 2nd Wrapper 61 15 69 183 63 139 95 49 157 203 37 191 191 159 OEM Suppliers MM Castings Pvt. Ltd. RSB Transmission (I) Ltd. (International Auto Work) Paving Machinery Allen Buildwell Pvt. Ltd. BRDC Venus Equipments and Tools Pvt Ltd Piling Vibrators Varshitha Concrete Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Repair & Rehabilation Chowgule Construction Technologies Mc Bauchemie (India) Pvt. Ltd. Nina Concrete Systems Pvt Ltd Silicone Concepts Int'l.Pvt.Ltd STP Ltd Road Technology Rockwell India Roofing Lipi Polymer Pvt Ltd United Steel and Structurals Pvt Ltd Roofing Fastners Atul Fasteners Ltd Rubber Doors Sleek Board (India) Ltd. Scaffolding Cosmos Sales Corporation 179 Service Providers-Controlled Dismantling Abhay Construction 163 Credence Engineers Pvt Ltd 165 Indo Spark Construction & Consultancy Services 203 Rapid Cutting Technologies India Private Limited 199 Saifi Group 161 Splicing Systems Dextra India Pvt. Ltd Technical Instuitue NICMAR Tiles Manufacturers Igloo Tiles TMT-Technology Suppliers H & K Rolling Mill Engineers Pvt.Ltd Waterproofing Chowgule Construction Technologies Dr. Fixit (Pidilite) Mc Bauchemie (India) Pvt. Ltd. Nina Concrete Systems Pvt Ltd Sika India Pvt.Ltd Silicone Concepts Int'l.Pvt.Ltd STP Ltd 11 Back Cover Back Inner 127 119 / 151 167 83 115 33 187 203 35 147 47 21 87 Back Cover 127 119 / 151 83 115 65 105 85 95 77 27

Concrete Core Cutting Tools Manufacturers

Construction Equipment & Machinery

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The Masterbuilder - February 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in

JK Cement Ltd

News & Events

CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT
Fleet Management Software key to Proper Maintenance of Construction Machinery
avoided through such innovative training methods. The cost effective training through simulators is gradually gaining acceptance across the country and helping operators get thorough with the controls before they actually begin working on construction sites.

Software that Provides Smooth Readings for Concrete in Paving Machines

Given the fact that the construction equipment industry has grown by leaps and bounds, it is not surprising that a number of other industries too have benefitted from its growth. The software industry is one such industry. The requirement for fleet management software has been on the rise and it represents a multimillion dollar business opportunity for the software industry, an area where India is counted among the global giants. Fleet management software has become essential in these days

where contractors or rental companies own a fleet of construction machinery. Adhering to timely maintenance schedules holds the key to keeping construction equipment running in top condition. The latest software tools are designed to provide alerts at regular intervals of time, apart from their helpfulness in getting insights into the fuel consumption patterns of the machines. This is one segment which is expected to grow exponentially in India over the next few years.

Crane Simulators Play a Key Role in Training Operators


Simulation training is no longer limited to airline pilots. Construction equipment is another field where it holds immense potential, especially in a country like India, which is grappling with the problem of severe shortage of trained operators. If there is one type of equipment where simulator training is absolutely necessary then it is in the case of cranes. Just imagine a new tower crane operator working on a crane on a high rise project in a crowded metro city in India. In case of an untrained operator the very process could be fraught with risk. This is where crane simulators offer the perfect solution. Developers also agree that most of the construction site accidents can be

The relationship between construction machinery and specialized software packages designed exclusively for them is growing more intense by the day. The latest to join the list is the Gomaco Smoothness Indicator (GSI), which is being considered a tool that has the potential to revolutionize the way paving machines worked. The tool, provides smoothness readings for both wet, as well as cured concrete and asphalt slabs. The userfriendly system works with the help of a non-contact surface smoothness instrument. The tool helps in building a profile of the grade and estimating the concrete yield of the particular project. The tool is akin to the intelligent compaction system that has been provided with compaction machines in recent times, which measures the degree of compaction and informs the operator, with the help of strategically placed sensors.

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The Masterbuilder - February 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in

Safari Construction Equipment Pvt. Ltd

News & Events

CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT
Caterpillar Announces New Roll-Out
private equity firm, CITIC PE Advisors Ltd will buy 100 % stake in Putzmeister, which has around 3,000 employees and sales of over US$ 750 million, at an undisclosed price. Mr.Norbert Scheuch will retain his position at the top of Putzmeister even after the acquisition. The move comes at a time when global sales of truck mounted concrete pumps have sagged on account of economic slowdown in the US and Europe. However, news reports indicate that Putzmeister would continue to retain its brand, along with the management. Sany's Chairman and Founder, Mr.Liang Wengen, widely considered China's richest man, has been quoted stating "With this merger, Putzmeister and Sany will create a new and global market leader for concrete pumps, while Putzmeister's founder, Mr. Karl Schlecht, said that the merger is a global showcase transaction. Sany is the market leader in concrete pumping machinery in China commanding about 60 % market share in the country. Globally though, Putzmeister is considered the leading player with over 40 % of market share, followed by another German company, Schwing which has over 25% market share. China is considered the largest market for concrete pumping machinery in the world. According to industry analysts, the acquisition is different from some other recent acquisitions from Chinese companies. They feel that this deal is not a case of distress sale and that the acquisition offers just about the perfect win-win scenario for the two companies. While Sany gets to increase its global footprint and firmly entrench it as the numer uno when it comes to concrete pumping machines, it also offers Putzmiester to further strengthen its brand around the world. The move is also expected to give Sany access to Putzmeister's strength, vis--vis technological expertise. From a business perspective experts feel that with this single move, Sany has become a global powerhouse, almost overnight.

Caterpillar, a global major in construction equipment has announced the launch of several new products. A recent company briefly intended for the North American region announced the launch of New Cat D3K2, D4K2 and D5K2 track-type tractors, which benefit from refinement in blade control, fuel economy, power management, operator comfort and emissions control. The Cat F Series Backhoe Loaders featuring new engine, refined hydraulics, redesigned linkage, and easier maintenance is another launch from the company. The other product in line is the Cat K Series Small Wheel Loader featuring, new engines, hydrostatic drive and redesigned loader linkage. The Cat D Series Skid-Steer and Compact Track Loaders, featuring more powerful engine, stronger lift forces and increased high flow capacity are among the other products that have been added to the company's vast product range, according to a press release of the company intended for the North American region. They are joined by New Cat E Series Mini Hydraulic Excavators, with new engines, new compass monitor, refined auxillary hydraulics and eco-mode savings.

to adopt modern technologies and equipment, said a recent press release from the Ministry of Coal. In CIL, out of the 271 underground mines, 227 mines are at various stage of modernization and adoption of modern technology. Remaining mines which are not yet mechanized are in the process of mechanization. Singareni Collieries Company Ltd. (SCCL) is also operating 36 underground mines. Out of these, semi mechanization (SDL and LHD) and mechanization (Long Wall/Blasting gallery /Continuous Miner/Short wall) has been introduced in 34 mines. In the remaining 2 mines Semi-mechanization / mechanization could not be introduced, because of difficult geological conditions, further added the release.

Sany to Acquire German Concrete Pump Major Putzmeister


In what is being considered the biggest business transaction involving China and Germany, Sany, a market leader in construction equipment, has acquired German concrete pump manufacturer Putzmeister. The move is being seen as yet another indication of ambitious plans of Chinese companies to increase their global footprint in the highly competitive construction equipment market. With this acquisition, Aitchal in Germany will become the new headquarter for Sany's concrete machinery division, according to recent news reports. Sany, along with China-based

Govt Advises Mechanization of Coal Mines


The government has advised coal companies for adopting state of the art technologies for improving coal production, productivity, and safety in underground mines. Coal India Ltd., (CIL) and Singareni Collieries Co. Ltd. (SCCL) have taken number of initiatives

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Lipi Polymer Pvt Ltd

News & Events

INFRASTRUCTURE
Prime Minister Looks Forward to Cooperation with EU on Infrastructure Development
are practical, mutually beneficial, and acceptable to both sides. He also added that, I conveyed to the EU leadership the importance India attaches to EU's participation in our growth agenda including in infrastructure development, clean energy technologies, innovation, research and skill development. Greater investment flows in both directions in a win-win proposition for both sides. The Prime Minister said that the signing of a Joint Declaration on Research and Innovation Cooperation and the Memorandum of Understanding on Statistical Cooperation are forward looking documents which will further integrate the two economies. the state, though outsiders can invest in non-agricultural land after obtaining the relaxation provisioned in the Himachal Pradesh Tenancy and Land Reforms Act, further added the report. The state is also reportedly planning to give push to investments in the food processing units' sector.

Green Signal for 115-crore Anti-erosion Project at Majuli Island

The Prime Minister, Dr.Manmohan Singh has once again reiterated India's position in seeking strong relationship with European Union (EU) countries. In his address during the recently held 12th India-EU Summit, which was released by the PMO, Dr.Singh spoke about the growing relationship between the two entities. The Prime Minister said, We have just concluded extremely productive and wide-ranging discussions in a very cordial and friendly atmosphere. India and the European Union are strategic partners in a fast changing and complex world. The success of Europe's political and economic integration is vital for global stability and prosperity. The European Union leaders informed me of the steps being taken by Europe to deal with the debt crisis in the Eurozone. I conveyed to them our best wishes for an early and sustained recovery. Given our rapidly growing links with Europe, this is in India's interest. Europe's recovery is also essential for ensuring the recovery of the global economy and bringing back market confidence. Speaking about the growing trade relationship, he observed, Our trade with Europe has reached 107 billion US dollars in 2011. Both sides have made considerable progress in the negotiations on the Broad-Based Trade and Investment Agreement. There are complex issues involved, but we have both agreed to expedite discussions so that we can conclude an Agreement at the very earliest. We seek solutions that

New industrial estate in Himachal Pradesh


The Planning Commission has sanctioned the investment for implementing the second and third phase of the Majuli Island Protection Project, an antierosion project estimated to cost ` 115.99 crores. The objective of the project is to protect 22 sattaras and make way for economic growth and social improvement once the roads and bridges that are subject to flood damages have been reconstructed. Further, the tradition and culture of Vaishnavism, an important part of the Assamese heritage will be protected, according to a recent news report. The project which is aimed to improving the economic and living conditions of tribals is expected to be completed soon. The Ministry of Water Resources along with the Brahmaputra board will ensure that the expenditure is within the approved limits, unless it is revised and approved according to a stipulated procedure, said a recent news report in The Assam Tribune. They will also take care of the regular maintenance before and after monsoons and during the course of the project. Aimed at providing 'technoeconomic protection', the plan has been approved after a model study,

The new industrial estate in the BaddiBarotiwala-Nalagarh industrial area of Himachal Pradesh is prepared for investment projects. The State government has invited investments in the estate for further development, according to a recent news report. The state government has taken a series of steps to attract industrial investments in recent times. Located at Davni, Solan district, the industrial estate spans an area of 612 'bighas.' As per official data, investments worth ` 17,253 crores have been made in the last four years under the Bharatiya Janata Party government, said the recent Press Trust of India news report. An IT Park near Waknaghat is also on the pipeline. The state's law permits only its permanent residents to purchase land within

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The Masterbuilder - February 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in

Case New Holland Equipment Pvt Ltd

News & Events

INFRASTRUCTURE
said the news report. Success of the project is expected to spawn similar projects elsewhere in the country.

Japanese SMEs set to invest in Tamil Nadu


Japanese SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises) have started seeking investment opportunities in Tamil Nadu. A Japanese business delegation headed by the Chairman of JapanIndia Business Cooperation Committee held consultations with the Chief Minister of the state, J.Jayalalithaa on the same, according to a recent news report. The Chairman has assured of sizeable Japanese investment in the State and hopes to get the Chief Minister's support as well. The Chief Minister in turn, has given assurance that the government will upgrade the state infrastructure to comply with global standards, said a recent news report in The Hindu Businessline. The delegation intends to visit industrial estates and meet industrialists to carry out the investment plans. There has been increased bonhomie between Japanese and Indian entrepreneurs, after the visits of President Pratibha Patil to Japan and the Japanese premier to India. Areas in south Tamil Nadu which are suited for solar power projects and port gateway projects are said to be among the investments that the Japanese are interested in the state.

Finance Minister Calls for FDI in Infrastructure Chicago

In a recent meeting organized by CCGA (Chicago Council on Global Affairs) at Chicago, the Union Finance Minister, Mr. Pranab Mukherjee asked US investors to approach the debt market in India via infrastructure debt funds, which form regulated entities with sustained long-standing interest rate, according to a recent news report. The news comes at a time when the government is planning investments to the tune of US$ 1 trillion for infrastructure development during the 12th Five Year Plan period. Stating that it is a mechanism developed by India to access its debt market, the Finance Minister sought for more involvement from foreign investors as the infrastructure sector has a huge debt requirement, said the recent PTI news report. Starting from January 1, 2012, qualified foreign investors are allowed to invest in the country's equity and purchase stocks of Indian companies. Therefore, foreign participation in the Indian debt-equity market is much easier now. He observed that the outflow of foreign institutional funds had been higher than the inflow during the past months, but the situation has reversed recently said Mr.Mukherjee, the report added. The minister also spoke about the huge investment opportunities available as par t of the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor project.

mental increase in power cycle efficiency will not only reduce the generation cost, but will also result in quantum jump in energy saving and reduce the emission level. He said that the establishment of Excellence Enhancement Centre will play a major role in addressing the challenges in power sector and facilitate achieving higher cycle efficiency. Highlighting the issue of renovation and modernization aging power stations, the minister said that the works relating to 87 units having an aggregate capacity of 19,366 MW have been completed during 11th Five Year Plan. The minister added that another 135 units with a total capacity of 34,681 MW would be taken up during 12th Five Year Plan. Mr.Venugopal said that the Excellence Enhancement Centre should channelize the best of the technologies and methodologies available in the world for carrying out the renovation and modernization of aging power stations for optimum results. The press release quoted the minister further adding that regarding the improvement in the distribution network the Ministry of Power is finalizing eight smart grid pilots worth ` 500 crore. The minister said the focus will be on building a distribution business that is smart grid compatible and connects the proposed smart grid to the end consumer through smart metering and related technological interventions

POWER
Excellent Enhancement Centre for Indian Power Sector Launched
The Minister of State for Power, Mr. K.C.Venugopal recently launched the Excellence Enhancement Centre (EEC) for the Indian power sector, according to a recent press release from the ministry. Speaking during the function in New Delhi , the minister said that that the present level of average efficiency of power generation in the country is only 32.5%, the Minister said even incre-

Central panel decides to Quit Talks over Kudankulam


The Central Experts Committee designated to dispel the fears of protestors disputing over the KKNPP (Kudankulam

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Schwing Stetter India Pvt. Ltd.

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INFRASTRUCTURE
in time, they also have their share of supporters. Experts in the field, including former President and renowned scientist Dr.A.P.J.Adbul Kalam have vouched for the safety of nuclear power plants in the country. The government too is showing keen interest in boosting investment in the nuclear power sector. India will see investments in excess of US $ 100 billion in the next two decades in the nuclear power sector, with at least a quarter of the investment from France alone, according to a recent officials statement from the Ministry of Commerce, Industry & Textiles. France is considered a world leader in nuclear power technology. Addressing the 4th India-France CEOs Forum at Paris recently, the Union Minister for Commerce, Industry and Textiles, Mr.Anand Sharma said in the energy sector, we greatly value our partnership with France especially in the nuclear power sector where France is a global leader. In the coming two decades, India will see investments in excess of US$ 100 billion in the nuclear power sector alone and I am sure that at least a quarter of these will come from France. India in partnerships with the indigenous lifestyles industry. Referring to recent decision to allow 100% FDI in single brand retail Mr.Anand Sharma expressed the hope that French luxury goods companies will establish manufacturing bases in India. This will create a win-win situation as India has emerged as a huge market for luxury goods and establishment of manufacturing in India will provide maximum value pointed out the minister. Recalling the success of Capgemini in India, which alone employs 30,000 people in developing off shore IT solutions across seven Indian cities, the minister invited French investments in Indian IT sector. He said that the Indian BPO operations have moved up the value chain from being a mere data processing centres to carrying out value added research and software development. Similarly, , the Minister welcomed the interest shown in the Indian automobile sector by French companies like Renault and Peugeot for investing in India and also by Michelin which would strengthen India's position as an automobile and auto part manufacturing hub. Dwelling on the topic of establishment of National Investment and Manufacturing Zones as green field integrated townships under recently announced National Manufacturing Policy, Mr. Sharma invited collaboration with French companies in both the establishment of these Zones as well as in making investment for manufacturing. French expertise in urban water management and waste water systems would be especially useful in developing these regions. France has some of the largest infrastructure and utility management companies of the world including Vinci, Bouygues, Suez who would stand to gain from investments in India. Bilateral trade between India and France stands at over US$ 8 billion. France is currently India's 5th largest trading partner and investor in Europe, and 4rd largest recipient in Europe of Indian investments.

Nuclear Power Plant) has decided to quit holding talks after the state panel members refused to take part in the fourth round of negotiations because of attacks from pro-Kudankulam activists, according to a recent news report. It all started when protestors clashed with Hindu Munnani members at Idinthakari village. A group headed by the Hindu Munnani State Vice President made attempts to attack a few of the state panel members during their arrival at the Collector's office, damaging their vehicle. Clashes between Hindu Munnani members and protestors in another vehicle led to the arrest of the former, according to a recent news report in The Indian Express. So far, the central and state panels have held talks three times, under the head of the PMANE (People's Movement Against Nuclear Energy), but to no avail. The report further added that according to the convener of the central committee, experts have submitted a seventypage supplementary report, which affirms that the KKNP meets the necessary safety requirements and is secure for operations. However, after this incident, the central committee has decided to quit.

Government Woos French Investment in Nuclear Power and Manufacturing Sector


The protests against setting up of nuclear power plants in different parts of the country, notwithstanding, the government is keen to attract investment in the sector. While there have been voices of dissent raised against nuclear power plants at various points

The minister said that though investment of over US$ 14 billion from France are in the pipeline there is a need to enhance French investment in India. Given the strong position of French companies, the level of French investment in India is way below the potential. There are 800 French companies in India which engage over 80,000 people and we would like to see this growing in the coming years the minister said. He invited fashion design institutes from France to bring their best practices to

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RSB Transmission (I) Ltd. (International Auto Work)

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INFRASTRUCTURE

A Fresh Twist in the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project Issue


The deadlock over the Kudankulam nuclear power project continues with different viewpoints being expressed from various quarters. While the Prime Minister had stated recently that the plant cannot be kept idle and needs to be commissioned, the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, J.Jayalalithaa has now announced that the state government would set up a panel consisting of experts for studying the safety aspects of the plant, according to a recent news report. The Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu said that the state government would take steps based on the report of the panel, according to a recent news report in The Hindu. The Kudankulam nuclear power project issue has been hogging national headlines, with

several key experts being roped in to study about the safety of the project. The former President, Dr.A.P .J.Abdul Kalam, also a renowned nuclear scientist had given a thumbs up to the project. However, incidents of protests have been continuing in the vicinity of the project site, although their intensity seems to have come down in the recent few weeks.

ROADS
Transport Hubs to be set up on Pilot Basis

shortly, according to a recent official statement from the ministry The IDTR and I&C projects are being implemented with the support of private partners who will take care of the operational issues of these centres. As a consequence of these investments on IDTR Institutes and I&C Centres, it is expected that these projects will catalyze the emergence of these places into transport hubs after these projects start functioning by 2013, further added the statement.

Gurgaon expressway, according to a recent news report. Huda's Chief Administrator emphasized that the project might have to be implemented at the cost of the existing green belts and stated that the NHAI needs to put forth a definite plan before taking measures, according to the recent news report in The Hindustan Times. The city traffic police blame the NHAI and Huda for withholding the implementation of necessary measures to decongest traffic. The Gurgaon Police Commissioner raised the issue in a recent meeting with NHAI, Huda and DGSCL, said the news report. It remains to be seen whether the issue is resolved amicably and the two parties help in ensuring that the project is not delayed.

172 roads in Chennai to be Revamped


The Chennai Corporation is all set to revamp 172 roads in the new areas of the Corporation limit. The initiative is an integrated scheme including stormwater drains, streetlights, footpaths, and electrical cable ducts, apart from re-laying roads. Corporation officials have started surveying roads to make out the problems related to inundation, overhead cables, lighting and pedestrian conveniences, according to a recent news report The survey results would form the basis for the decisions regarding road dimensions and other amenities for the project proposed to span 112 kilometers of roads across various zones. The project does not include roadwidening, but the revamping process will not decrease the current road width,

Huda not prepared to give land for NHAI Project


The Union Ministry of Road Transport and Highways has approved projects under two schemes, viz. Institute of Driving Training Research (IDTR) and Inspection & Certification Centres (I&C) during the Eleventh Five Year Plan at a cost of ` 14.00 crores and Rs. 14.40 crores respectively per centre. The land for these projects have been identified by the State Governments and the work is expected to commence Things coming to a standstill because of differences between two different state run authorities are not something new in India. The latest is the confrontation between Huda (Haryana Urban Development Authority) and NHAI. The Huda (Haryana Urban Development Authority) has reverted from its intention to provide a 15-metre stretch of land for the NHAI's lane-widening project along the corridor of the Delhi-

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FAE Australia Pacific Pty Ltd

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INFRASTRUCTURE
towards temperature variations and improving the desirable properties of bitumen thereby giving overall better performance. The statement further added that as per the policy of the ministry, the modified bitumen can be used for the entire surfacing of the National Highways.

RAILWAYS
said a recent news report in The Hindu. Another highlight of the project is that shredded plastic in combination with bitumen will be used for the re-laying project. Roads in Chennai have been coming under extreme pressure due to the constantly increasing vehicular traffic. The recent monsoons have also left several roads damaged, leading to the government being criticized in recent times.

Move to Modernize Railway Stations


The scores of railway stations dotting the country are in for some good news. In a path breaking initiative taken by the Ministry of Railways, a formal Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed today for setting up a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) namely Railway Stations Development Corporation Limited to take up work of redevelopment of railway stations along with station maintenance across India in a dedicated manner as a part of the continuous process of augmenting and improving amenities at the railway stations, said a recent press release from the ministry. The MoU was signed recently between the two PSUs of the Ministry of Railways, namely Ircon International Limited (IRCON) and Rail Land Development Authority (RLDA) for formation of this new SPV. The MoU was signed in the presence of the Minister of Railways, Mr. Dinesh Trivedi, the Minister of State for Railways, Mr.K. H. Muniyappa and Chairman, Railway Board, Mr. Vinay Mittal, other Board Members and senior Railway Officials. The signatories to the MoU were Vice Chairman, RLDA, Mr.Pankaj Jain and Managing Director, IRCON, Mr.Mohan Tiwari. Speaking on the occasion, the Railway Minister said that this initiative is a part of the Vision 2020 document which was presented by the then Minister for Railways, Mamata Bannerjee. The minister said that the Vision documents provided comprehensive road map for the development of all aspects of railway opera-

Use of Natural Rubber Modified Bitumen in Road Construction

tions from safety, infrastructure, passenger amenities to modernization. The Railway Minister pointed out that with today's initiative of creating a dedicated institution for modernization of stations, one more significant step has been taken up to implement objectives of the Vision 2020. The new entity will help Railway stations develop as vibrant centres of the life of cities for commerce, entertainment, and social space, further added the press release. The Vision 2020 document had acknowledged that the stations on Indian Railways are far behind those in the advanced countries and the stations located in major metropolitan cities are illequipped to handle growing passenger traffic. Railways also propose to associate State Governments and City Administrations for the development of the stations and areas around in an integrated and holistic manner. City authorities and other stake holders would also be taken on board for such an endeavour for facilitating timely implementation of projects in an integrated manner incorporating development of traffic circulation around stations.

The Centre has formulated a strategy for use of natural rubber in roads as recommended by experts. The use of natural rubber modified bitumen has been specified by the Ministry of Road Transport & Highways for binder courses and wearing courses laid on National Highways, according to a recent official statement from the ministry. The Central Road Research Institute (CRRI) has tested the technology for use of modified bitumen including natural rubber modified bitumen in construction and maintenance of roads under the ministry's sponsored research scheme. According to the findings of the study, natural rubber modified bitumen improves the durability of roads by reducing susceptibility

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Columbia Pakona Engineering Pvt. Ltd.

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CORPORATE
Managing Worker & Chairman, Sahara India Pariwar, Mr. Nicholas E. Billotti President and C.E.O., Turner Construction International and Mr. Annat Jain Managing Partner, Acropolis Capital Group, said a recent press release from the company on the occasion. The new entity which will provide integrated construction services in India, will lead the construction of the chain of 'Sahara City Homes' integrated townships and other projects of Sahara India Pariwar. It is planned that the construction volume of Sahara Prime City Limited will reach $ 25 billion over the next 20 years of which $ 2.5 billion will be completed over the next 5 years. Sahara Turner Construction Limited will be the preferred contractor for the execution of the entire volume of work. Commenting on the development, 'Saharasri' Subrata Roy Sahara, Managing Worker & Chairman, Sahara India Pariwar said, It gives me great pleasure to announce the launch of Sahara Turner Construction Limited. This joint venture is the coming together of people who believe in providing the best available international quality and technology to India. I am sure that this venture will offer the most effective solutions and services to the Indian real estate and infrastructure sector. Mr. Nicholas E. Billotti - President & C.E.O., Turner Construction International while echoing similar sentiments said, We are extremely excited with the partnership we have established with Sahara Prime City Limited and look forward to making a significant contribution to the construction market in one of the world's fastest growing economies. Mr. Annat Jain - Managing Partner, Acropolis Capital Group, added his comments saying, Great partnerships can create great companies. We believe this joint-venture possesses the necessary ingredients for achieving transformative success in the Indian marketplace, and we're honoured to be one of its founding partners. The release said that with India estimated to spend between US 500 billion

New Norm from Apex Bank to Hit Realty Market Further


The realty market which is going through one of its toughest phases got another jolt as the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), asked banks to exclude registration fee and stamp duty, apart from other levies from the total cost from home loan seekers, according to a recent news report. The move according to realty sector experts could further hit the realty market, with buyers adopting a cautious approach and postponing their purchase decisions till the economy looks up. Potential home loan seekers will now to have pay 25% to 30% of the value of the property, as against the earlier 20% according to the news report in The Times of India. Developers had been expecting initiatives from the government for stopping the downward spiral of the realty market, especially the residential segment. It remains to be seen however, as to what would be the impact of the new rule on the housing segment in major metros in the coming months.

Country's First Infrastructure Debt Fund to be launched

state-run banks, further added the news report. A series of measures are expected to be taken by the government towards infusing funds into the infrastructure sector in the near future.

The wait for the first infrastructure debt fund (IDF) seems to be over. The initiative announced by the Finance Minister during his budget speech 2011-12 is now close to becoming a reality. Staterun IDBI Bank will be launching India's first infrastructure debt fund, according to a recent news report. The IDF is expected to raise funds to the tune of US$ 5 billion for building infrastructure in the country. Investment to the tune of US $ 1 trillion is expected in infrastructure development during the 12th Five Year Plan period (2012-17). The Reserve Bank of India's approval has been sought by IDBI Bank for establishing a NBFC for the purpose with a capital base of `1, 000 crore, said the recent news report in The Economic Times. While the state-run bank will have 30 % stake in the NBFC, the rest will be held by LIC and some other

Sahara Prime City Establishes Partnership with Turner Construction Company

Sahara Prime City Limited, the real estate flagship company of Sahara India Pariwar, along with Turner Construction Company, America's largest building construction contractor and the Acropolis Capital Group, a Special Situation Investment and Development Firm has formed a joint venture to serve the construction and development market in India. The new company, Sahara Turner Construction Limited was launched by 'Saharasri' Subrata Roy Sahara -

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Igloo Tiles

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CORPORATE
US $ 1 trillion on infrastructure development over the next decade, Sahara Turner Construction Limited will also pursue third party building construction projects and shall aim to be a leading, multi-product, integrated construction services company which covers the life cycle of building infrastructure and real estate projects. The company plans to enter the development and ownership space of building infrastructure projects using the experience and qualifications of Turner, gained over 110 years of operations. Turner is committing its international resources into Sahara Turner Construction Ltd. and will place a team of leaders from its offices across the world in the company. Speaking on this occasion, Anand Sundaresan, Managing Director, SCHWING Stetter India said, Schwing Stetter is getting ready to tap the $1-trillion funds, the government has earmarked for infrastructure development under the 12th Five-Year plan starting 2012. Mr. V.G. Sakthikumar, Chief Operating Officer, SCHWING Stetter India said, Schwing Stetter has recently opened branches in Goa, Patna and Jamshedpur and now an upgraded branch in Raipur. He added, Today the construction equipment industry is expected to do much better than last year in terms of domestic sales and exports. Steady prices of raw materials, new launches, increase in competition and a healthy economy will also contribute towards the growth of the manufacturing industry in India.

Mission Plan for Electrical Equipment Industry to be finalized in Three Months


India has a thriving electrical equipment industry. The industry covers over 1,500 units of varying sizes, amounting for an annual turnover of about ` 1, 10,000 crores. It amounts for about ` 20,000 crores of annual exports and about ` 32,000 crores of annual imports; it has a negative trade balance which has been increasing in recent times. Because of its heterogeneous character, the domestic electrical equipment industry, despite its critical role in the economy, has not received focused attention of the policy makers. Similarly, the numerous stakeholders, including the manufacturers, have not evolved a strategic action plan for the industry's growth and development and have focused only on piecemeal short-term tactical measures, said a recent official statement from the Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises. For the rapid development of the industry, a holistic view and action plan is required. All stakeholders need to proactively collaborate and take concerted and coordinated action so that the industry can further accel-

Schwing Stetter Gearing up to Tap the Infra Boom

SCHWING Stetter India recently inaugurated its upgraded branch in Raipur. The new branch was inaugurated by Anand Sundaresan, Managing Director, SCHWING Stetter India, and Mr. V.G. Sakthikumar, Chief Operating Officer, SCHWING Stetter India. With the commencement of this upgraded branch, SCHWING Stetter aims to target the booming construction market and active customer base in Raipur. The Chhattisgarh government has collected revenue of ` 800 crore from stamp duty and registration fee on land transactions, due to which the size of the real estate industry has grown to over ` 11,000 crore in Chhattisgarh in the current fiscal year, thus leading to a construction boom. According to the latest Morgan Stanley research report, smaller cities are scoring over metros in terms of growing urbanisation, and cities such as Jalandhar, Aurangabad, Bhubaneswar, Agra and Raipur are believed to be the next 'Cities of Opportunities'.

erate its growth process and contribute significantly to reducing the power demand-supply gap in the country. With this objective in view, under the aegis of the Department of Heavy Industry (DHI), and with support from IEEMA, a Mission Plan 2012-2022 for the electrical equipment industry is being drawn up in consultation with all the key stakeholders. The Mission Plan would lay down a clear roadmap for enhancing the competitiveness of the domestic electrical equipment sector, added the statement.

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WORLD NEWS
New One World Trade Center becomes the World's Most Expensive Office Tower
The One World Trade Center is indeed the most expensive office tower in the world, following the increase in its construction cost to over $3.8 billion, which exceeds the latest public estimate by $700 million, according to a recent news report. It is being constructed by the Port Authority of New York & New Jersey, which has decided to include leasing costs in the public estimates. The Port Authority has borne the costs with funding from airports and toll fee from bridges and tunnels in the region. The increasing costs have compelled the agency to divert resources allotted to transportation projects. The need for extra revenue has led the Port Authority to approve a proposal to bring about a gradual increase bridge and tunnel tolls by 56 percent through 2015. The reconstruction process of the skyscraper in New York's Ground Zero, following the 2001-terrorist attack, has faced tough political challenges and indefinite delays. The unusually high price tag is mainly because of the security costs involved in building on a site where terrorists have attacked twice in 1993

Obama Plans to Upgrade Infrastructure using Money Saved in Wars

and 2001, according to a recent news report in The Wall Street Journal. The 1,776-foot skyscraper has been built on a rock-hard windowless podium and its elevator shafts are surrounded by thick concrete and steel. Other high-profile buildings in the world, including Dubai's Burj Khalifa, the world's tallest tower, have been less expensive. Having reached the 90th storey of the total 104 stories, the construction of the One World Center is expected to reach completion by the close of 2013.

In his annual State of the Union speech, US President Barak Obama put forward his plans to upgrade the rail and road infrastructure in America using a part of the money that will be saved by ending its Iraq and Afghan wars, according to a recent news report. The proposal is expected to draw criticism in the Congress as Republicans have often opined that rail projects caused budget constraints and were a waste of money. Estimations of the Congressional Budget Office show that approximately $440 billon can be saved through 20122021 from war-ending. The President intends to spend half the money for infrastructure and the other half to pay down debts, according to a recent Reuters news report. The US infrastructure which occupied the sixth best position in the World Economic Forum during 2007-2008 has moved down to the sixteenth position in 2011-2012. The report quoted President Obama saying that that his proposal will create jobs for construction workers affected by the recent recession. The US President said that the paperwork will be done in the coming weeks once he signs the executive order. The project will include high-speed rail infrastructure that started in 2009 with an $8billion-investment to overcome the recession. The report further added that only a year ago, the Florida Governor had declined federal funds worth $2.4 billion to construct a high-speed line as it would only ensnare the state, which actually lacked the funds. The fate of the project still hangs in balance.

Inexplicable temperature rise within Fukushima Nuclear Reactor in Japan

January 27 2012 rose to 73.30 Celsius (1640 F) on February 6 2012, according to a recent news report. It remained in the elevated state even after TEPCO (Tokyo Electric Power Company) officials pumped 10.6 tons of water, which is nearly 10% more than the usual quantity. Readings of two other thermometers were at 440Celcius (1110 F), indicating that the issue might have risen after plumbing work that possibly affected the reactor's cooling, said the news report on online source myfoxdc.com . The report further said that according to TEPCO, the Fukushima reactors had been in a cold shutdown state at 1000 Celsius last December. The reactor temperature is required to stay below 1760 F.

Japan's debilitated Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant underwent a strange temperature rise within its No. 2 reactor. The reactors in the plant had suffered damages from a devastating earthquake and a subsequent tsunami that hit Japan last March. The temperature, which was at 450 Celsius (1130 F) on

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Apollo Infratech Pvt. Ltd

Everlasting Roads

Lifetime Engineering for Roads:


The Path to a Sustainable Future
Chaitanya Goyal

n the current scenario, which witnesses a rapidly developing Indian economy, a term that has firmly clung to the Indian infrastructure despite of the tremendous growth in the construction industry is 'not enough'! The ever increasing need for infrastructure, owing to the population outburst in the country and its speedy economic growth has been at towering heights in the past few decades. As this process of transition continues, the challenge for the Indian construction industry lies in fulfilling these needs whilst leading this development in the direction of sustainability pertaining to our entire society, ecology, economy & social welfare. A Sustainable approach ensures efficiency over the previous technologies

and construction, minimizes any strain on resources and the environment, and contributes to a sustainable society as a whole. This pursuit of innovation, to raise a sustainable future combined with simultaneously growing transportation needs, led to the development of the concept of 'Lifetime Engineering for roads', so that the dilemma existing in between the infrastructure as long term product and the short term approach to its planning, design, management & maintenance can be eliminated. Due to the enormously increasing count of road vehicles, leading to consequent rise in the traffic volumes and axle loads, failure modes like rutting, fatigue and other wear & tear are being observed earlier than anticipated. Research organizations and institutions

across the globe, have thus been working to develop innovative designs and technologies aimed at generate futureorientated initiatives for accessibility problems and issues related to road infrastructure. Learning from failures and mistakes of the past and analyzing shortcomings of the present infrastructure, research has identified four vital concepts representing the dominant characteristics of the society's expectations for the roads of the future. Constructing Infrastructure that is reliable! Availability and reliability are the key issues of durable infrastructure, which means high quality and low maintenance of the infrastructure. As far as maintenance is concerned, its effects on the

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Everlasting Roads

traffic flow should be minimal. The rigorous efforts to eliminate the traffic jams will turn into fixation as it is a never ending process. It is thus important to have reliable infrastructure, i.e., to optimize the availability of infrastructure by upgrading the existing structures for the needs of future at a tolerable cost. 'Lifetime engineering' takes into account all transport-related costs by decision-making. The concept of lifetime engineering lays special focus on the maintenance costs along with the economic loss incurred due to traffic jams, caused as a result of the ongoing maintenance work, unlike the conventional method where initial cost is the deciding factor. Owing to the performance constraints of the existing construction materials in bearing the increasing traffic loads, new materials and products will have to be developed. By developing more durable materials, the need for maintenance can be minimized to a great extent. 'Quick and obstruction free maintenance' principle is based on the fact that maintenance cannot be avoided even in the presence of the most durable infrastructure. The development of new materials and various construction & maintenance techniques to minimize the impact of maintenance activities on traffic flows is critical. Some examples are Hindrance free winter maintenance techniques; Temporary by-passes; Self-cleaning and regenerating surface layers; Sprays to renew or revitalize surface characteristics to postpone

Production of test material

major maintenance work, etc. The foundation of these solutions has to be laid during the designing of the infrastructure by considering that maintenance will be essential one day. 'Balancing demand and capacity' deals with optimizing the use of the existing infrastructure by analyzing & attaining the right balance between demand and capacity. This task requires good traffic management. It is possible to achieve such balance by designing roads with options for increasing capacity temporarily using channels of dedicated lanes, flexible lane width, permission to use the hard shoulders during rush hours, etc. Such techniques create the required extra temporary capacity and thus help in meeting the

demand. Also, the mass transit systems like Trams, Bus rapid transit systems, etc. play a major role in the a t t a i n i n g the same. 'Superior Asset management tools' should be developed in order to support decision-making by road authorities, pertaining to the maintenance strategies and fund management for conservation of the road networks. As the traffic volume on roads increases, the road systems become more vulnerable to disruption in the traffic flows caused due to accidents and maintenance work. Monitoring systems capable of constantly keeping a check on the infrastructure condition, in-situ sensors and Specialist Survey Vehicles in order

Application of carbon fiber reinforced polymer with epoxy as polymer

www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - February 2012

45

Everlasting Roads

Casting ultra-high performance fiber reinforced concrete

Piston induced dynamic loading test

maintenance management systems, etc. should be developed to assist with decision making. Keeping it green The crux of this concept lies in diminishing the ecological impacts on communities and natural habitats, which result as an outcome of the unplanned, profit oriented & 'unecological' infrastructural development. Green infrastructure behaves as an integral part of the environment and by the means of its design and composition it helps in minimizing the impact of traffic (noise, air pollution and vibrations) and energy consumption to run the transportation system. It also optimizes the

use of non-traditional materials for road building and reduces the use of natural resources. The ultimate goal behind developing such infrastructure is to contribute towards the attainment of a sustainable society. 'Preserving natural resources' is a concept that comes into play due to the road and highway industry being a huge consumer of the conventional building materials. Nature has always been at the receiving end of our construction activities. Ranging from the procurement of the building materials to the landfills that are generated from dumping rubble produced due to the maintenance and refurbishing activities

Piston induced dynamic loading test

in practice on road and highway projects, we leave no stone unturned to distort the landscapes around us. The complete recycling and reuse of this building rubble will be the first challenge facing road engineers in the near future. To tackle this challenge successfully we need to develop low energy consuming construction and maintenance techniques like prefabrication. We need to quantify the effects of the road condition and road alignment on the fuel consumption in order to optimize the rolling resistance and design aesthetical infrastructure that fits into the environment whilst reducing the impact on flora and fauna and restores habitat fragmentation (Ecoviaducts). We also need to develop and introduce new environmentallyfriendly and sustainable building materials for pavement constructions like Bio-Bitumen and design systems to recover the renewable energy from road infrastructure like the energy produced from wind, sun and braking energy of vehicles. 'Emission control' deals with the challenges posed by increasing air and noise pollution. By fine-tuning the mix design and its application techniques, the concept of silent pavements can be turned into a reality. Prefabricated thin surface layers capable of absorbing noise and air polluting components, must be developed to bring the effects of emissions under

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Rockwell India

Everlasting Roads

unsafe performance of surface layers and research on Automatic Vehicle Guidance (AVG) and its integration into existing road infrastructure. Besides expanding the road network, creating temporary capacity inside and outside the network is the most obvious solution. 'Smart communication' ensures the communication of relevant information to the drivers. It plays a crucial role in system optimization. Latest research deduces that we'll be able to achieve automatic vehicle guidance by the year 2040. Meanwhile, communication will focus on integrated GPS systems and dashboard displays in vehicles and a range of traffic signs and information panels above and along the road. Research is required to develop 'Dynamic road information panels' with the ability to integrate common traffic signs, static and real-time information so that the right information can be displayed at the right moment. 'Smart monitoring' lays focus on promoting the 'Intelligent Traffic Systems (ITS)' to their maximum efficiency by analyzing and eradicating the defects and shortcomings in the current first generation systems which rely on the indicators that are used to manage traffic flows. Most investigations and research carried out exposes the weakness of such applications as the inadequate quantity and quality of real time data available for input. Quick and

Rubble dumping yard

permissible standards. Air-cleaning systems must be designed to eradicate the exhaust and non-exhaust particulate matter blown up by wind and passing traffic, from urban and suburban areas. Smart and Safe Formulation Smart and safe infrastructure concept lays focus on observing, analyzing, deciding and performing to deliver a relaxing and safe travel experience whilst helping the road owners keep the infrastructure property out of harm's way. The prime purpose is to optimize the traffic flow and road construction & maintenance work safely. 'The Safe design' principle works on the fact that 'safety inspires confidence'

and thus there should be absolutely no compromise on the quality (strength, toughness, durability) of the infrastructure. It is an engineer's prime duty to design and construct infrastructure that ensures safety under standard conditions, day and night. 'Smart design' deals with creating efficient road networks capable of handling the high traffic volumes and yielding solutions when they are required most, like at the time of massive traffic jams, occasional congestions and accidents. System optimization implies the availability of alternatives. We need to develop smart detecting and warning systems to inform drivers in case of

Testing high performance underlays consisting of recycled material

Driver assistance systems

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Wirtgen India

Everlasting Roads

Creating temporary capacity inside and outside the road network is necessary for smart design

Monitoring and managing traffic & infra systems

cost effective data acquisition will thus be the critical success factor for ITS. This concept directs us to research on designing multi-functional, in-vehicle monitoring and detecting systems generating real-time data to inform the drivers about safety and routing, the police about speeding, security and axle loads, the traffic manager about incidents, traffic flows and free capacity and the road operator about road and structure condition. Human Infrastructure 'Public security' implies special attention to the sphere of public welfare and support in respect to the available infrastructure facilities. Special attention and care must be paid to the most

vulnerable users of roads and public spaces like pedestrians, cyclists, the differently abled, senior citizens and children. 'Multi-functional use' approach strives to optimize the social needs of the people irritated with air and noise pollution on their streets and their expectations of facilities and services to meet their daily needs. Planning the available to public space allowing a multi-functional use of the available area at different times of the day could be an option. Modeling parking areas so that they can be used as a children's play area during the day or at weekends and moving the noisy and polluting traffic transport facilities and parking

areas underground will create new empty spaces at ground level for the enjoyment of the citizens. 'Human design' tactics provide the innovative and much needed human dimensions to the existing unplanned, disorderly and unmanageable infrastructural growth with a short term approach, resulting in endless concrete and asphalt jungles. We thus need to realize & develop systems and policies promoting harmonization of infrastructure with the human dimensions. Public investments have played a major role in developing the infrastructure supporting the Indian economy, and it is thus expected to provide services for very long periods of time. The lengthy time span means that future developments in the transport of goods and people must be well assessed and planned in advance in order to make the right choices, not only for today but also for tomorrow. To keep pace with the developed and other rapidly developing nations, India needs to take lessons from such efforts of the first world nations and actively indulge in research of its own immediately. With the completion of massive infrastructural projects like the 'Golden Quadrilateral' network and constantly evolving economy and technology of the country, the future bodes well for the Indian roads and highway sector.

Solar power in pavement LED lights and inbuilt sensors

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Ajax Fiori Engineering (I) Pvt. Ltd

Recycled Asphalt Pavement

Using recycled asphalt material for re-laying of roads can be economical and environment-friendly too!
Ramanathan. Krishnan
Special Correspondent

Making inroads into Sustainability

ell-maintained roads are the lifeline of any economy as they aid infrastructure and other allied developments. Though the national highways in India are been taken care of by the NHAI besides few prominent sections of the roads by private EPC contractors, state highways and city roads generally provide a bumpy ride to vehicle users. Though corporations keep relaying worn-out or eroded roads after every monsoon or elections, they by default, increase the height of the roads without

realizing the fact that houses on both sides would become 'dwarfs' in few years, which would put pressure on the civic amenities. Though in states like Maharashtra the practice of removing the existing roads and relaying them does exist, still in many states still continue to use conventional methods to lay roads. In the earlier case, the pavement's height won't be altered for many years, but the major problem here is to find landfills to dispose the used construction material. Though a meager portion

of it is utilised as 'fillers' by the construction industry, major chunk is still treated as wastes and dumped either along roadsides or in government-owned dumping grounds, straining the environment. As sustainable solutions and recycling of wastes are gaining momentum across various industries in India, recycling of worn-out road material (reclaimed or recycled asphalt) for laying fresh roads, which is popular in the US and European countries, is relatively new and yet to gain steam in India.

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Recycled Asphalt Pavement

Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai, who has developed and patented 'Plastic Tar Road Technology.' Recycled Asphalt pavement (RAP) Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) is the pavement or roads relayed using reclaimed or recycled road materials which contain a good mixture of bitumen and aggregates. These materials are collected when asphalt pavements are removed for construction or resurfacing. When properly crushed and screened, RAP would give high quality and wellgraded aggregates coated with binder. Asphalt mixture from the roads to be relayed is generally recovered by one of the two methods - milling or full depth reclamation. In milling, a machine removes up to two inches in a single pass. In full depth reclamation, the entire pavement is ripped apart by using a rhino horn attached to a crawler tractor, or with a pneumatic pavement breaker. The removed material can either be transported to a central mix facility for reprocessing or re-mixed and repaved immediately on the spot. Milling or planning machines are equipped to segregate old asphalt pavement, mix it with new aggregate and binder and then replace and compact it in a single

pass by heavy rollers. Although roads relayed with the help of recycled asphalt material may differ slightly from virgin asphalts, roads made of recycled asphalt can be fairly simple and saves money and time. Monetary Gain Many states in the US have achieved significant savings when RAP is used. With soaring material and construction costs, it was estimated that the reclaimed Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) pavement provides a saving ranging from 14 % to 34% with RAP content varying from 20% to 50%. According to a conservative estimate, RAP usage has the potential of saving from $30-$80/tonne of recycled material. The use of RAP also decreases the amount of waste produced and helps to resolve the disposal problems of highway construction materials, especially in large cities. In 1996, it was estimated that about 33% of all asphalt pavement in the United States was recycled into HMA. In 2001, the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) used 623,000 tonnes of RAP in highway construction. Reclaimed asphalt pavement is a

Recycling worn out road material, while popular in western countries has still to make an impact on the Indian scenario. The process, not only saves considerable amount of virgin asphalt mixture and time, it also saves money, avoids depletion of resources and reduces carbon emission.

The process, not only saves considerable amount of virgin asphalt mixture and time, it also saves money, avoids depletion of resources and reduces carbon emission. We can save up to 50 per cent of expense when we use recycled asphalt material. More than the money, we can save natural resources from getting eroded. Hills are getting reduced due to indiscriminate mining for gravels or chips and Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) method can prevent the ecological degradation, says Dr. R Vasudevan of

Reclaimed asphalt rich in bitumen and aggregates for recycling

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Recycled Asphalt Pavement

Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA)

treasure trove of pre-processed road building material, says Mike Acott, President of National Asphalt Pavement Association, who further adds, The aggregate has already undergone the processing, permitting, blasting and washing. The major cost benefit stems from the recovery of the asphalt binder. Other Benefits According to the Federal Highway Administration, over 70 million tonnes of asphalt is being recycled every year in the United States, nearly twice as much as paper, glass, aluminum and plastics combined. The use of RAP in the production of new asphalt products benefits the environment through the conservation of natural resources and reduction in the amount of materials slated for landfills. Asphalt Recycling reduces quarrying, mining and oil consumption. Recycling asphalt also dramatically reduces the consumption of resources such as fuel, machinery, transportation and labor when compared with producing virgin asphalt materials. Considering the advantages of RAP , the US Environmental Protection Agency has declared that hot mix asphalt

plants are not a major source of hazardous air pollutants. Technical Specifications The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) of US promotes the use of recycled highway materials in pavement construction in an effort to preserve the natural environment, reduce waste and provide a cost effective material for

constructing highways. In fact, the primary objective is to encourage the use of recycled materials in the construction of highways to the maximum economical and practical extent possible with equal or improved performance. To facilitate usage of RAP in Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA), many US states have started relaying on 'blending charts' developed by the Asphalt Institute. These states had also established limits on the maximum percentage of RAP that can be used, ranging from 10% to 50%. However, high percentages of RAP are not commonly used in practice. Despite recent advancements in the design of HMA containing RAP , many states including Illinois had imposed restrictions in their regulations to avoid durability problems related to the recycled materials. In 2000, the Illinois Department of Transportation allowed the use of RAP in Superpave HMA with a percentage varying up to 30%; a maximum RAP percentage of 50 is allowed in HMA shoulders and stabilised sub-bases. Based on expert opinions, future specifications are expected to allow the use of RAP in highest-class HMA. In 1999, Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) had developed a specification allowing the use of up to 25% RAP in asphalt

Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP)

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Chetra Machinery India Pvt. Ltd

Recycled Asphalt Pavement

mixes. Prior to this, CDOT asphalt mixes did not contain more than 15% of RAP . Colorado Asphalt Pavement Association (CAPA) and CDOT are currently working to evaluate innovation in RAP usage so as to maximise the amount of RAP used. Many state agencies are adopting a more aggressive approach by considering increasing the allowable percentages of RAP in HMA to take full advantage of this promising technology. For instance, up to 80% RAP has been used in some HMA with an acceptable level of performance. However, ensuring confidence in the design procedure

Old Roofs for New Roads!

Benefits for Contractors


Increase profitability by reducing the cost of hot mix asphalt material production Eliminated RAP disposal costs Reduced reliance on the hotmix plant Ability to produce hot mix material 24/7 Reduces the depletion of contractors aggregate reserves Agency possession or ownership of removed materials is discouraged so that private enterprise is not restricted for the most effective utilization of these materials.

Did you know that it's estimated that disposing of one roof produces an estimated three tons of waste (the equivalent to one year's worth of household waste)? Luckily, thanks to a new green initiative being carried out by a few select roofing companies across the US, homeowners now have the option of recycling their old asphalt roofs into road pavement. According to EcoNews, the recycling of shingles also cuts down on the cost and resources needed to pave roads. and the success of using RAP would require addressing many durability concerns related to the interaction between virgin and recycled materials. However, Dr. Vasudevan opined that, A mere 3% presence of virgin bitumen with aggregate in the reclaimed material is enough to lay roads in rural areas in India where the pressure on roads would be minimal. Higher percentage of RAP can be used for state highways and other city roads. Procedures to Lay RAP The area that needs to be paved should be clean. So, remove unwanted materials such as leaves, branches, rocks, stumps as well as any other debris from the spot. Holes or deep fissures should be filled using sand or gravel. The large clumps of earth should be broken down with the help of a shovel and then smoothened using a rake. Now spread the asphalt across the area while ensuring that it should have minimum one inch of thickness. Smoothen out the recycled asphalt with the help of a heavy duty rake so that the coverage looks even. Tamp down the surface of the asphalt. Care should be exercised to cover every single inch of the recycled asphalt and sufficient force should be applied to make it compact. Use a steam roller on the laid out RAP . This will compact and then sets to form a surface that looks similar to a virgin asphalt surface. This surface needs a minimum of 24 hours to cure. Apply a commercial-grade asphalt seal-coat product, using a brush. The sealant will help to protect the recycled asphalt and ensure that you do not have to lay a fresh layer for several years.

Advantages for Government Agencies


Asphalt is 100% recyclable Reduces cost and bid prices of hot mix asphalt materials. Eliminate RAP disposal costs Reduce consumption of natural resources. Performance of RAP is almost identical to virgin asphalt Less dependence on foreign oil because of energy savings in haul, mining, etc. and less new asphalt cement (binder) is required. Eliminates decisions of logistics of the salvage material, processing form and use of excess materials. Asphalt pavements can be tailored to the specific application during the design phase of the project. Asphalt concrete pavements can be designed for over 40-year life.

When using recycled asphalt, it is prudent to begin the laying process on a warm/sunny day. The heat from the sunlight will help the asphalt set properly.

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Nawa Engineers & Consultants Pvt Ltd

Pre-fabricated Pavement

Pre-Fabricated Pavement Systems


Sonjay Deb
B.Tech.Civil. N.I.T.Silchar, Research Scholar, Indian Institute of Technology

re-fabricated pavement technology more commonly known as precast pavement is a recently improved construction method that can be used to meet the need for rapid pavement repair and construction. Precast pavement systems are fabricated or assembled off-site, transported to the project site, and installed on a prepared foundation (existing pavement or re-graded

P
58

foundation). The system components require minimal field curing time to achieve strength before opening to traffic. These systems are primarily used for rapid repair, rehabilitation, and reconstruction of asphalt and portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements in high-volume-traffic roadways. The precast technology can be used for intermittent repairs or full-scale, continuous rehabilitation. In intermittent

repair of PCC pavement, isolated fulldepth repairs at joints and cracks or full-panel replacements are conducted using precast concrete panels. The repairs are typically full-lane width. The process is similar for full-depth repairs and full-panel replacement. In continuous applications, full-scale, project-level rehabilitation (resurfacing) or reconstruction of asphalt and PCC pavements is performed using precast concrete

The Masterbuilder - February 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in

Pre-fabricated Pavement

highway system, especially in urban areas, have seen tremendous increase over the last 20 years, leading in many instances to an earlier-thanexpected need to rehabilitate and reconstruct highway pavements. Pavement rehabilitation in urban areas is resulting in serious challenges for highway agencies because of construction-related traffic congestion and safety issues. Many agencies also continue to wrestle with the age-old problem: longer delays now and longer service life versus shorter delays now and shorter service life. In recent years, many agencies have started investigating alternative strategies for pavement rehabilitation and reconstruction that allow for faster and durable rehabilitation and reconstruction of pavements. A promising alternative strategy is the effective use of precast concrete pavement technologies that provide for accelerated repair and rehabilitation of pavements and also result in durable, longer lasting pavements. Accelerated construction techniques can significantly minimize the impact on the driving public, as lane closures and traffic congestion are kept to a minimum. The safety of both highway users and construction workers is improved by reducing the frequency and duration of work zones. Precast concrete pavement technologies have been looked into sporadically over the last 20 plus years. In the early years, the technology was

40 25 150 25 80

120

40

Fig. 1. Schematic representation of a typica Pre-fabricated pavement (measurements are in mm).

utilized as a matter of technical curiosity, that is, to investigate whether precast concrete pavement technology was technically feasible. No serious attempts were made then to fully develop the technology as a costeffective strategy and to implement the technology on a production basis. Now, as more mileage on the primary highway system and urban roadways are reaching maturity and the need for timely pavement repair and rehabilitation becomes acute and urgent, highway agencies are looking at innovative technologies, including precast concrete pavement technologies, that will result in shorter lane closures and long-life pavements that are economical over the life cycle and do not require major interventions for repair or rehabilitation during their service life. Over the last 10 years, significant developments have resulted in precast concrete pavement technologies, and the use of these technologies is becoming technically feasible and economically justifiable.

panels. A Typical Pre-fabricated pavement is shown in Figure 1. Small scale production of such pavement materials is shown in Figure 2. Pavement rehabilitation and reconstruction are major activities for all developing countries, and have significant impact on agency resources and traffic disruptions because of extensive and extended lane closures. The traffic volumes on the primary

Fig. 2. A small factory machine (a) and production of PCIB specimens (b).

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Pre-fabricated Pavement

Background Developments related to prefabricated pavement technology have focused primarily on the use of precast concrete panels. This section presents a brief overview of the historical development of precast concrete pavement technologies for intermittent repair of jointed concrete pavements. In intermittent repair of PCC pavement, isolated full-depth repairs at joints and cracks or full-panel replacements are accomplished using precast concrete panels. The repairs are typically fulllane width. Key features of this application are precast panel seating and load transfer at joints. Precast concrete repairs are an alternative to conventional cast-in-place, full depth concrete repairs, especially in situations where high traffic volumes and consideration of the delay costs to users due to lane closures favor rehabilitation solutions that may expedite opening to traffic. Precast panels also offer the advantage of being factory made in a more controlled environment than cast-in-place repairs, and thus may potentially be more durable and less susceptible to construction and material variability. One of the earliest reported uses of precast concrete pavement technology

Pavement rehabilitation in progress

in the United States was during 1960 in South Dakota where a precast pavement was constructed over a granular bedding layer. Since then, several minor efforts were made to investigate the use of precast pavements, primarily as rapid repair alternatives. During the 1960s in Michigan (Simonsen 1972) and Virginia (Tyson 1976), jointed reinforced concrete pavements were constructed with panel lengths of up to 30.48 m (100 ft) and 18.75 m (61.5 ft), respectively. A principal mode of failure for these

Pre-Fabricated concrete pavement technology is becoming technically feasible

pavements was transverse joint blowups due to large seasonal and daily joint movements, loss of joint sealing material, and intruded incompressible fines. In these cases, the pavement was immediately closed to traffic and required rapid emergency repair to restore it to service. Alternative fulldepth repair methods included asphalt patches, very-high-early strength concrete, and precast reinforced concrete panels. Some distinguishing characteristics of these earlier precast reinforced concrete panel applications are that they were prefabricated and stockpiled for use by State department of transportation (DOT) forces, designed without load transfer, and intended for temporary service of up to 5 years, which they provided. The successful use of precast reinforced concrete panels for temporary pavement repairs during the 1970s in Michigan and Virginia is a testament to an innovative practice that has found renewed interest during the last decade, primarily due to limited work windows resulting from increased traffic volumes. No further efforts were made in the United States before about 1995 to seriously investigate use of precast concrete panels for repair of concrete pavements or for rehabilitation of concrete as well as asphalt pavements.

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DCS Trading & Services Pvt Ltd

Pre-fabricated Pavement

technologies, and future needs related to modular pavement systems. Need of Precast Concrete Pavements The primary use of precast concrete pavement technologies is to achieve construction time savings in hightraffic-volume highway applications and for rapid repair/rehabilitation applications at airfield pavements. Without the benefit of time saving, use of precast concrete pavement technologies cannot be justified economically, at least at current pricing for these systems. Use of precast concrete pavement technologies must result in reduced lane closures or better managed lane closures that in turn result in less traffic disruptions and improved safety at construction zones. In addition, precast concrete pavement systems must be capable of providing low-maintenance service life of the desired duration. Repair Methods The following factors need to be considered when assessing the use of precast concrete pavement as a viable candidate for rapid repair of concrete pavements: 1. Fabricating the precast concrete panels at a nearby plant. Plant location is critical for economical production, repairs besides reduce traffic disruptions. 2. Transporting precast concrete panels to the site (traffic issues, especially for night-time operations). 3. Site access for heavy cranes. 4. Rapid removal of old pavement. 5. Rapid preparation of the base/ subbase. 6. Installing precast concrete panel on finished base/foundation 7. Matching adjacent pavement surface grade as closely as possible. 8. Interconnecting precast concrete panels and existing pavement using a mechanical load-transfer system, typically a version of the dowel bar retrofit technique. 9. Grouting the dowel/tie-bar slots, as applicable.

Pre-fabricated concrete overlays for roads that need repairs

Since about 1995, there has been significant interest in the United States to investigate the effective application of precast concrete pavements as a strategy for accelerated repair, rehabilitation, and reconstruction of pavements. AASHTO Technology Implementation Group Activities Recognizing the increasing interest in precast concrete pavement technologies by US highway agencies, and to provide an effective platform for technology transfer activities, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) established a Technology Implementation Group (TIG) during 2006, to support technology transfer activities related to precast concrete pavements. The mission of this AASHTO TIG is to promote the use of precast concrete panels for paving, pavement rehabilitation, and pavement repairs to transportation agencies and owners nationwide and to present an unbiased representation to the transportation community on the technical and economic aspects of the current precast paving systems utilized in the marketplace. In June 2008, the AASHTO TIG completed work on the following documents: 1. Generic Specification for Precast

Concrete Pavement System Approval. 2. Guidance and Considerations for the Design of Precast Concrete Pavement Systems. 3. Generic Specification for Fabricating and Constructing Precast Concrete Pavement Systems. 4. Strategic Highway Research Program 2 Project R05: Modular Pavement Technology The objective of Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) 2 activities is to achieve highway renewal that is performed rapidly, causes minimum traffic disruption, and produces long lived facilities. A related objective is to achieve such renewal not just on isolated, high-profile projects, but consistently throughout the Nation's highway system. The focus of Project R05 is to develop tools that public agencies can use for the design, construction, installation, maintenance, and evaluation of modular pavement systems. By necessity, the primary focus of this study will be precast concrete pavements. Project funding was established at $1 million. Phase I of the study includes a review of modular pavement systems, review of highway agency and industry experience, and identification of successful strategies, promising

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The Masterbuilder - February 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in

Unisteel Engineering Works

Pre-fabricated Pavement

2. Place slab panels. Subseal with grout to eliminate voids. 3. Provide slab-to-slab interlock at joints through dowel/slot system. 4. Provide surface with 6 mm (0.25 in.) diamond grinding if better tolerance desired. 5. Thickness as specified (similar to jointed concrete pavement). 6. High-performance concrete, 27.6 MPa (4,000 lbf/in2) (or as required). This particular precast concrete pavement technology lends itself to the construction and rehabilitation of freeway entry and exit ramps because the manufacturer can produce panels with varying cross-slopes (warped slabs). This system has the most production paving experience to date. The system has been field-tested by New York State DOT, the Minnesota DOT, the Ministry of Transportation in Ontario, Canada, and others. Caltrans conducted accelerated load testing of the system in 2006. Conclusion The primary need for use or promotion of precast concrete pavement technologies is rapid application and long-term durability. If the application is not rapid, it will not be relevant if it is not cost-competitive. If the application is rapid, but not durable, it will not have any future. As such, it is important that structural design features and precast concrete pavement material properties are optimized and integrated to assure rapid applications as well as long-life. For repair applications, the service life may be a few years to 20-plus years, depending on the projected rehabilitations needs of the pavement undergoing repair; but the other requirements are still applicable. Although several types of precast concrete pavement systems have been successfully demonstrated and are considered proven systems, further research is needed in several key areas to ensure good long-term pavement performance, to improve constructability, and to make the systems costcompetitive.

A road constructed with pre-fabricated pavement

10. Injecting bedding grout to firmly seat panels, as applicable. Intermittent repairs, such as fulldepth repairs and slab panel replacement, are typically performed at night with a work window from about 8:00 p.m. until about 5:00 a.m. the next morning. Typically, 10 to 15 panel placements are targeted during each work window. The tight work windows and the need to open the facility to traffic by about 6:00 a.m. in the morning make it necessary that the contractor have sufficient equipment and manpower to complete the planned work each night. Types of Precast Concrete Pavement Two types of intermittent repairs are possible using precast pavement systems: 1. Full-depth repairs to repair deteriorated joints, corner cracking or cracking adjacent to the joint. 2. Full-panel replacement to replace cracked or shattered slab panels. The repairs are typically full-lane width. The process is similar for fulldepth repairs and full panel replacement, except for the length of the repair area. Key features of this application are: 1. Slab panel seating. 2. Load transfer at joints.

Fort Miller Super-Slab Precast Concrete Pavement for Intermittent Concrete Repair The Super-Slab system is a proprietary precast concrete pavement technology suitable for both intermittent and continuous paving operations. This paving system is an assemblage of precast slabs placed on a precisiongraded fine bedding material (maximum aggregate size of 12 mm [0.5 in.]). The transverse joints in the assembly of precast panels are fitted with standard dowel bars to provide load transfer. The basic features of the Super-Slab system are as follows: 1. Produce base within 1.2 mm (0.06 in.), using laser controlled grading equipment.

Separate parking lanes with pre-fabricated pavement blocks

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The Masterbuilder - February 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in

Varshitha Concrete Technologies Pvt. Ltd

Research Paving Temperatures

A Laboratory Study on the use of Waxes to Reduce Paving Temperatures


H.Soenen1, T.Tanghe1, P.Redelius1, J. De Visscher2, F.Vervaecke 2, A.Vanelstraete 2
1 2

Nynas Bitumen AB, Noorderlaan, Belgium, Belgian Road Research Centre, Woluwedal, Belgium

There is considerable interest in the possibilities of producing and paving asphalt at reduced temperature. A reduction of the temperature generates a significant reduction in energy consumption, emissions and fumes. Also health and safety conditions for the road workers are improved. This paper presents the first results of a common research project of Nynas and BRRC, in which three techniques for reducing production temperatures are considered: the addition of waxes as viscosity reducers, the addition of zeolites as foaming agent and the use of foamed bitumen. The first phase of the project aims at developing laboratory procedures for assessing the potential of each technique to reduce the production temperature. If the mix undergoes curing after compaction, procedures to simulate and possibly accelerate the curing process also need to be developed. Small field trials are planned to validate the outcome of the laboratory work. In a second phase, the performance of the mixes produced at reduced temperature will be evaluated and compared to standard hot mix asphalt, since requirements on asphalt performance (including stiffness, durability, resistance to permanent deformation and cracking) have to be fulfilled. Test sections are planned in a third phase, to extrapolate and validate the laboratory results by field data and experience. This paper describes the first phase results of the technique using waxes as viscosity reducers.

Traditionally, asphalt mixtures are produced and laid respectively at temperatures between 180 and 150C. These high temperatures are needed to achieve a low viscosity of the bitumen which facilitates a complete and strong coating of the aggregates and which allows a good workability and compactability of the asphalt mixture. In the asphalt industry there is interest in exploring the possibilities of producing and paving asphalt mixtures at lower temperatures (80-120C), the advantages of producing at lower temperatures are obvious, including reduced energy consumption, reduced emissions and fumes, improved health and safety conditions for the road workers. Several processes are available to reduce the mixing and compaction temperature of hot mix asphalt, one of these processes uses waxes to reduce the viscosity of the bituminous binder in the high temperature range (1-4). In order to be efficient, this wax should be solid at the highest

service temperature, but at temperatures above the highest service temperature the wax should melt, become liquid, lower the viscosity of the mixture and in this way should allow production and compaction of asphalt mixes at reduced temperatures. Literature shows that waxes with a melting range between 100C and 145C have been used as viscosity reducers. According to the producers of these waxes, a temperature reduction of 30C can be achieved compared to standard hot mix applications.

Apart from their ability to reduce the production temperature, these waxes are also promoted as performance improvers for rutting (5, 6). In this paper a laboratory study is presented with the aim to evaluate the potential of various commercially available waxes to reduce the production temperature of asphalt mixtures. In addition, this study aims at providing quantitative information on the range of temperature reduction that can be expected as well as on the amount of wax that

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The Masterbuilder - February 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in

Research Paving Temperatures

needs to be added. The possible potential of waxes to improve the resistance to permanent deformation is also evaluated. The paper is subdivided into two parts: First, tests on the as-received waxes and on the bitumen-wax blends are discussed, afterwards, tests on asphalt mixes are described. This paper belongs to a larger project between Nynas and BRRC in which three techniques for reducing production temperatures are considered: the addition of waxes as viscosity reducers, the addition of zeolites as foaming agents and the use of foamed bitumen. The first phase results of the technique using zeolites are presented in reference 14. Tests on Waxes and Bitumen-Wax Blends Materials Ten commercial waxes were collected, denoted alphabetically from A to J. The bituminous reference binder is a paving grade bitumen 50/70. The temperature reduction potential, as well as the performance related properties of the wax modified bitumen (WMB), are compared to this reference binder. WMBs were prepared by adding the wax pellets to hot bitumen and by continued blending at 160C for 1 hour. Two experimental methods were used, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Dynamic Shear Rheology (DSR). The DSC equipment was a TA instruments 2920 Modulated DSC. The DSR equipment was a Paar Physica MCR500, with the 8 mm and 25 mm plates. For the high temperature measurements, a Paar Physica MCR101 equipment was used with a cup-cylinder geometry. Investigations on the as-received waxes Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the melting and crystallization behaviour of the pure waxes. The samples were first cooled from 180C
Samples
Ref. bitumen Wax-A Wax-B Wax-C Wax-D Wax-E Wax-F Wax-G Wax-I Wax-J Wax-H
A

to -70C at -10C/min and subsequently heated at the same heating rate. Cooling scans are presented in Figure 1. Crystallization, in most cases observed during cooling, can be followed as an exothermal signal; melting is observed in the heating scan as an endothermal signal; and a glass transition is observed as a shift in the baseline. The surface of the endo- and exothermal signals, calculated as an enthalpy, gives an indication of the amount of crystallizing material. Some important parameters are represented in table 1: the temperature where crystallization starts on cooling (Tc-onset), the temperature where melting starts on heating (Tmonset) and the enthalpy of the crystallization signal on cooling. If more than one signal is observed, the values for the smaller signal are placed between brackets. From the DSC behaviour the samples can be subdivided into five types: In figure 1, an example of each type is shown. Wax-A, Wax-B and Wax-C, show a large and sharp crystallization signal on cooling, starting at 140C, followed by various very small crystallization peaks at lower temperatures. These three samples behave very similar. Wax-D shows a large and sharp crystallization onset, starting at 112C, but the exothermal signal broadens somewhat at lower temperatures with an endcrystallization temperature at around 60C. Wax-E shows a large crystallization signal, starting at 102C and ending around 60C. For Wax F and Wax-G the shape of the crystallization signal is very similar to Wax-E, but for these samples the sharp crystallization signal, at high temperature (around 105C) is small and is combined with a large signal that covers a very broad temperature range, extending to temperatures below 20C. In these
Temp. of viscosity increase (C)
143.0 142.5 144.4 114.2 101.0 105.7 104.5 -

Tc-onset CoolingA (C)


140-(75) 140-(70) 140-(70) 110 100 100 100 47 36 (120)-80

Tm-onset HeatingA (C)


(65)-125 (67)-120 (60)-120 60 60 30 45 57 45 86-(100)

H CoolingB (J/g)
127 139 141 268 247 226 234 27 20 47

Viscosity at 150C (20s-1) (Pa.s)


2.14E-01 8.79E-03 7.90E-03 8.42E-03 5.43E-02 8.35E-03 4.05E-02 1.07E-02 2.54E-01 3.37E-01 7.26E-03

Remarks

Broad crystallization range Low degree of crystallinity

if more than one signal, the smallest signal is placed between brackets, B only the value for the largest signal is given Table 1: Calorimetric and viscosity properties of the as-received waxes and of the reference binder B50/70.

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Research Paving Temperatures

samples a lot of material still has to crystallize at temperatures below 60C, and this could cause problems at high service temperatures if these samples are to be used in asphalt mixes. Wax-H, Wax-I, Wax-J show only very small crystallization signals, seen as small peaks, and have at lower temperatures, below 0C, a shift in baseline related to a glass transition (this is not shown in Figure 1). The crystallinity of these three samples is very low, therefore these waxes will soften the binder at all temperatures, also at high service temperatures, and this can cause problems.

the level of viscosity at 150C are included. The level of the viscosity at 150C is for most waxes below the viscosity of the reference bituminous binder. In order to achieve a viscosity reduction of the reference binder by adding waxes this is of course a necessary condition. Tests on bitumen-wax blends at production temperatures Similar tests were done on the waxes blended with the B50/70 reference binder, in a concentration of 3% wax. As this concentration is recommended by wax producers it was used as a starting point. DSC cooling scans are shown in figure 3. Compared to the pure waxes the bitumen wax blends show a considerable decrease in crystallization temperatures, which indicates some interaction of the wax with the binder. For example, for Wax-A there is a temperature drop of about 40C between the crystallization onset in the pure and in the blended form. For Wax-D this drop is about 20C. The waxes (H, I, J) which showed small crystallization signals in the pure form did not show any exothermal signal anymore in the 3% blends. In table 2, some parameters for the blends are summarized. Viscosities of the 3% Wax Modified Bitumen (WMB), with the reference binder B55 as base binder, were investigated at temperatures between 160C and 60C, see figure 4. As for the pure waxes, the crystallization of the wax results in a sharp increase in viscosity, and again a sometimes large temperature depression between the pure and the WMB was observed. Although most of the pure waxes have a lower viscosity than the reference binder in this temperature range, the viscosity reduction in the 3% WMBs is rather limited, especially if this decrease in viscosity is expressed as a shift in temperature. Equiviscous temperatures are included in table 2. Compared to the reference binder the temperature shift is limited to a maximum of 6C. Since the viscosity reduction for 3%

Viscosities of the as-received waxes could be investigated, at least in the molten state, using a bobcylinder type rheometer in rotational mode. Dynamic viscosities were measured during cooling from 180C to 80C at a cooling rate of -2C/min. Some cooling scans are shown in figure 2, together with a scan of the reference binder. The sharp increase in viscosity of these samples is caused by the crystallization onset. At this point, the measurements had to be stopped because the samples became too stiff to be measured in a bob-cylinder geometry. In table 1 some viscosity parameters, such as the temperature where the viscosity increases as well as

Figure 1: DSC cooling scans (-10C/min) of pure waxes

Figure 2: Dynamic viscosities of reference binder B55 and pure waxes (shear rate 20/s, cooling rate -2C/min).

Figure 3: DSC cooling scans of 3% WMBs , compared to the reference binder (cooling rate -10C/min)

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Speedcrafts Ltd

Research Paving Temperatures

blends is limited, higher concentrations of wax in bitumen were investigated; but even for 5% WMBs the reduction in viscosity was still limited.
Samples DSC Tc Temp. Viscosity at Equivisc. onset viscosity 150C (20s -1) temp. cooling (C) increase (C) (Pa.s) for 1Pa.s (C)
101 102 102 93 77 76 81 94 96 96 93 79 78 80 0.214 0.160 0.163 0.169 0.175 0.166 0.168 0.160 0.210 0.218 0.162 120 114 116.5 116 115 114 114 112 119 120 114

a softer base grade bitumen is given in table 3. For example, the reduction in viscosity is largest after adding 5% of wax (E, in this case) to a base binder with a penetration of 180 mm/10 and corresponds to a temperature shift of about 25C. Tests on bitumen-wax blends at service temperatures In this section, performance-related binder tests were conducted on several 3% WMBs using the reference binder B55 as base binder. Conventional tests are shown in table 4. From table 4 it is clear that the three waxes that showed only small signals in the DSC tests (Wax-I, Wax-J and Wax-H) also show a very limited increase in R&B temperature. For the two waxes with a very broad DSC signal (Wax-F and G) only Wax-G shows a considerable increase in softening point while the other sample, Wax-F, shows an increase of only 10C. The other waxes all show large increases in softening point. The waxes with a considerable increase in softening point were considered in DSR testing. Frequency sweeps were made from -10C to +90C, in order to have an idea of the low temperature performance and also the high service temperature performance. For the low temperature performance the stiffness at 1Hz and 0C is included in table 4. One can observe that this stiffness level is never increased by more than 5% which at least indicates that the low temperature stiffness is almost not influenced by adding 3% of wax to the base binder. For Wax-E, F and G the low temperature stiffness is even slightly decreased. To assess the rutting susceptibility, two parameters are included in table 4: the SHRP high temperature Performance Grading (PG), measured on the original binder at a frequency of 1.59 Hz, and a low frequency parameter measured at 50C. It can be observed that the PG temperature can increase by 16C, just by adding 3% of, for example Wax-C, to the base binder. A low frequency parameter is also given in table 4, since in reference 7 it was observed that the relation between experimentally measured rut depths and binder stiffness levels improved if the frequency was reduced to 0.01Hz. The low frequency stiffness at 50C is increased for all the waxes added, in
Pen Base binder mm/10
80

Ref. binder Wax-A Wax-B Wax-C Wax-D Wax-E Wax-F Wax-G Wax-I Wax-J Wax-H

Table 2: Calorimetric and viscosity properties of 3% WMBs and of the reference binder.

Figure 4: Complex viscosity during cooling for various 3% WMBs and for the reference binder (cooling rate - 2C/min; 1Hz, 1% strain)

Another parameter that can be varied is the penetration level of the base binder. Using a softer binder results in a larger viscosity reduction, but this can of course only be used if the stiffness at high service temperatures is not negatively influenced. Performance-related tests at service temperatures will be discussed in detail in the next section. The effect on viscosity of using more wax or
Pen Base binder mm/10
55 (ref.binder) 55

Wax type and concentration


+ 2% Wax-B + 3% Wax B + 4% Wax B + 2% Wax-D + 3% Wax-D + 4% Wax-D

Temp. viscosity 1Pa.s, (C)


120 117.5 116.5 115.5 117 115 114

Wax type and concentration


+ 2% Wax E + 3% Wax E + 4% Wax E + 5% Wax E + 3% Wax E + 4% Wax E + 5% Wax E

Temp. viscosity 1Pa.s (C)


111 109 107 102 99 98 96

100 180

Table 3: Influence of wax concentration and base binder penetration on the viscosity properties of WMBs.

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Samples
Ref. bitumen Wax-A Wax-B Wax-C Wax-D Wax-E Wax-F Wax-G Wax-H Wax-I Wax-J

Pen 25C (mm/10)


55 45 42 43 40 35 53 40 49 53 56

R&B (C)
49.0 100.6 93.3 100.5 102.0 78.9 59.4 90.0 52.7 50.0 55.5

Temp.G*/sin() = 1kPa, 1.59 Hz, 1% strain (C)


68 79 82 84 79 76 70 72

G*/sin()- 0.01Hz & 50C 1% strain (Pa)


1.13E+02 8.49E+02 10.26E+02 15.04E+02 6.63E+02 5.85E+02 1.39E+02 2.46E+02

G* - 1Hz - 0C 0.05% strain (Pa)


9.85E+07 1.02E+08 1.03E+08 1.07E+08 1.12E+08 7.77E+07 7.58E+07 9.32E+07

Table 4: Conventional and rheological properties of the reference binder and various WMBs. All blends consist of 3% of the respective wax in the B50/70 ref . binder.

some cases the increase is more than a decade. A change of one decade can be compared to a change from a base binder pen 50/70 to a base binder pen 10/20. There are large differences in stiffening effect at 50C between the different wax types. Those waxes which show sufficient crystalline material in the DSC cooling scan, that crystallizes at high enough temperatures (above 60C) show the largest stiffening effects. So in practice those waxes with a large exotherm occurring over a small and high temperature range seem to be most suited to improve the resistance against rutting . Upon analyzing the DSR behaviour in detail it was observed that the stiffness of wax modified binders is very strain sensitive, the stiffness reduces very quickly if the applied torque level increases. The authors have also shown this in reference 8. In figure 5 stress sweeps, recorded at 50C and at 0.01Hz, on some selected samples are shown. Compared to unmodified and polymer modified binders, these WMBs can be considered as strain sensitive binders. The finding that WMBs are much more strain sensitive than unmodified or polymer modified binders at high service temperature is very important. In literature, there is a lot of discussion if performance indicators for rutting should be measured inside or outside the linear viscoselastic (LVE) range (9, 10). For unmodified and polymer modified binders the LVE range is rather large and the question is not so crucial, but for these WMBs the LVE range is limited to low strain levels, and maybe not representative of the strain and stress level(s) the binder feels when loaded in an asphalt layer in a road. For the time being it is not clear what stress or strain level should be used in binder tests and how this relates to a stress or strain level in asphalt mix tests. In reference 11 a value of 300% strain is suggested, but this depends on many factors, such as thickness of the binder film, void content and aggregate grading. In the section on asphalt mix tests some experimental rut measurements on waxy samples, loaded in an MLPC rut

tester at 50C will be discussed and related to the binder tests.

Figure 5: Strain dependency at 50C and 0.01Hz of some selected WMBs, some PMBs and some unmodified binders.

Proposed system to select base binder and concentration of wax In the previous sections, general properties of various waxes and WMBs were presented. In table 3, it was shown that the viscosity reduction for a specific wax and bitumen blend is dependent on the wax concentration and the penetration level of the base binder. In this section a method to estimate the reduction in temperature for one selected wax material (wax-E) is given. The viscosities of several WMBs with wax-E at three different concentrations and with base binders with different penetration levels, were tested and the temperature where the viscosity has a certain value, in this case 1Pa.s, is plotted versus the penetration level of the base binder (see figure 6). If we assume that compactability is related to the viscosity of the binder, an assumption that is often used in literature for unmodified (12) and for modified binders (13), this figure can be used to see how a temperature reduction of 20C, based on equi-viscosity levels, can be achieved. Several options exist: If 5% of wax is used it would be sufficient to use a

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71

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softer base binder with a pen. level of around 125, if 4% of wax is added a pen base binder of 155 should be used, and if this needs to be achieved with only 3% of wax a base binder of pen 170 needs to be used. Of course, before using a base binder with a penetration of 170, one should also consider performance related parameters, as is further discussed below.

Regarding performance, the rutting sensitivity is considered as the most critical parameter, certainly if the penetration level of the base binder would be increased in order to get sufficient temperature reduction. In this study, the stiffness at 50C and at a frequency of 0.01Hz is used as a binder performance indicator for rutting, since in a previous study it was found that this parameter is a good performance indicator for unmodified and also polymer modified binders (7). In figure 7 the level of stiffness (at 50C and 0.01Hz), measured inside the LVE range is plotted for the base binders and various binderwax blends. From this figure, it is clear that the stiffness of the reference binder (a value around 100Pa) is reached for all the WMBs, so this graphs would indicate that waxE is excellent to improve the rutting resistance and also

Figure 8: Stiffness at 50C and 0.01Hz at 300% strain level versus penetration of the base binder.

that a soft base binder (even a pen 180) could be used and would give sufficient rutting resistance. In figure 8 a similar graph is shown but now the stiffness level is measured at a much higher strain level, in this case 300% strain is used since this value is indicated in literature. Figure 8 illustrates that, in order to have the same range of stiffness as the reference binder, a base binder pen 180 could be used, provided 5% of wax is added. If only 3% of wax would be used, the penetration level of the base binder should not be higher than 140. Of course these conclusions are based on the assumption that the strain level of 300% (at 50C and at 0.01Hz) is representative for the strain the binder experiences when loaded in a mix, an assumption which is not yet validated. Conclusions In the previous section, a system was proposed to select the base binder and the wax concentration with the aim of achieving a given reduction in asphalt production temperatures. This system is based on, several assumptions:

Figure 6: Equi-viscosity temperatures as a function of penetration level of the base binder

The reduction in temperature of compaction and paving is entirely related to the viscosity of the binder. Therefore, equi-viscosity temperatures measured on the binder-wax combinations can be used to predict the achievable reduction in asphalt production temperatures. The wax is compatible with the bitumen, so that there is no separate phase of nearly pure wax which could then keep its low viscosity. This assumption is in fact already validated by the viscosity tests on the WMBs described in the previous sections. The viscosity of a WMB relates very well to values that are expected for a compatible blend based on the viscosities of the 2 pure components. Regarding rutting sensitivity, the assumption is made that binders with equal stiffness at 50C, at 0.01Hz

Figure 7: Stiffness at 50C and 0.01Hz within linear visco-elastic range versus penetration of the base binder.

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Revathi Equipments Ltd

Research Paving Temperatures

and at 300% strain will have similar rutting resistance. This assumption is based on a rough estimation found in literature, that the strain level of the binder in a mix, if loaded at high temperature, can achieve strain levels of 300%. Of course this strain level will depend on the mix type, in particular on the amount of binder, the thickness of the binder film, the void content, angularity of aggregates, amount of coarse material, etc. In the following section, these assumptions will be verified by asphalt mix tests. Asphalt Mix Tests Mix Design The study was made with a mix type AB-4C, which is specified in the standard specifications of the Flemish region (SB 250 v2.1). This is an asphalt concrete mix for top layers, AC 0/10 according to the European standards. Use was made of the PradoWin software of BRRC. With the characteristics of the different constituents as input data, this software predicts the volumetric composition and void content of the mix for a given mix composition. Table 5 shows the dry mix composition. The grading of the mix is shown in figure 9. The binder is added in 6.2 % by mass on the aggregate mass (5.84 % by mass in the mix). The same mix design was used for the reference
Type
Fillers Coarse Aggregates Coarse Aggregates Coarse Aggregates Sand Sand

binder and for the wax modified binders. All wax modifications in the asphalt mix tests are made with wax-E. Compaction tests The gyratory compactor was used according to the European standard (EN 12697-31). The mix preparation procedure followed EN 12697-35. According to this standard, the reference temperature (temperature at which compaction starts) of the hot mix asphalt type AC 0/10 should be 150 C (for a bitumen B 50/70). When the compaction temperature is decreased, the viscosity of the binder increases and it becomes more difficult to compact the mix. This is seen in figure 10, where the void content increases with deceasing compaction temperature, although the sensitivity of the void content to compaction temperature is not very high. Each result presented in figure 10 is the average of three compaction tests. The temperatures on the horizontal axis are compaction temperatures. The mixing temperature was systematically 20 C above the compaction temperature. Compaction was started when the temperature in the mix was at the compaction temperature 5 C. Figure 10 also shows the effect of using a wax-modified binder (a pen 80+3% wax-E) and a softer base binder (B180, without wax). The temperature reduction based on equi-viscosity levels would for these two samples be about 10C for the waxy sample, and 18C for the B180. Figure 10 shows that, at 150C and at 135 C, the waxmodified binder gives a somewhat lower void content compared to the reference mix. At 120C, 105C and at 90C the void content is almost the same. Although the effects are small compared to the standard deviations (error bars), the averages over the two highest temperatures indicate that the same void content as the hot mix can be obtained for mixes with wax and with a temperature reduction of about 10C. These tests also

Component
Duras II porphyry 4/6.3 porphyry 2/4 porphyry 6.3/10 porphyry 0/2 Round sand

Density (g/cm)
2.61 2.72 2.71 2.71 2.72 2.62

Volume (%) Mass (%)


7.7 19.9 22.4 16.6 25.1 8.4 7.4 20.0 22.5 16.7 25.3 8.1

Table 5: Composition of the reference mix AC 0/10 (dry aggregates)

Figure 9: Grading of the reference mix AC 0/10, compared to the specifications of SB250 (Flemish standard tender specifications)

Figure 10: Void content at 200 gyrations as function of compaction temperature (mixing temperature always 20C above compaction temperature).

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show that a temperature reduction of 30 C, as is advertised by wax producers will result in a larger void content of the wax modified mixes compared to the reference mix prepared at the reference temperature of 150C. For the very soft and unmodified binder, B180, the compaction was only tested at one temperature, 120C and at this temperature clearly a larger temperature reduction would be possible, but of course this result is only based on the three repeats at one temperature and this mix would perform worse for rutting compared to the reference mix. In addition, the MLPC plate compactor was used for the preparation of test plates (dimension 50x18x5 cm) to be used for the wheel tracking tests described in the following paragraph. The plates prepared with the wax-modified binder, when compacted at 135 C, had a smaller void content than the plates prepared with the reference binder, when compacted at 150 C. The improved compactability with the wax-modified binder is thus also seen in the plate compactor, but since the number of compacted plates is very limited, it is not possible to derive quantitative information regarding the amount of temperature reduction from the plate compaction tests. Wheeltracking tests A few rutting tests were performed in order to verify the assumptions made in section 2.5. The tests were performed with the MLPC rut tester at 50C. The selected binder and binder-wax blends were: Reference binder B180+5% wax, B120+5% wax, B80+3% wax With the reference binder, three sets of plates were prepared and tested: one set was compacted at 150 C, one at 120C, and the one at 90 C. From the limited number of rutting tests that were performed, graphically shown in figure 11, we can already

draw some preliminary conclusions: The experimentally determined rut depths of the samples modified with waxes, using the MLPC rut tester at 50C, cannot be predicted by the LVE stiffness level and also not by the stiffness level (50C, 0.01Hz) at 300% strain. The rut depths are much larger as would be predicted from these two stiffness levels. For these (few) rutting experiments, no relation between binder stiffness versus rut depth could be obtained, if the stiffness obtained at a fixed strain level was used, instead by using the stiffness obtained at fixed stress levels it was possible to have an agreement between the rut depths, obtained until now, and the binder stiffness. A stress level of 2000Pa (50C and 0.01Hz) is at this stage still in agreement with the test results obtained in this project and also in ref 7. This stress was obtained by comparing rut depths found for the wax-modified mixes to rut depths of unmodified mixes, in the same mix design. For example the sample B180+5% wax-E has similar rut depths as a mix prepared with an unmodified B70/100 mix, and the sample B80+3% wax-E has a rut resistance similar to the reference mix. The stress level found here will certainly depend on the particular mix design used (binder film thickness, void content, angularity of aggregate material,) and also on the particular type of rutting equipment used (load levels, rate, ), but this was not investigated in this study. For a number of other binders (unmodified and polymer modified) the stiffness level at a stress level of 2000Pa (and at 50C and 0.01Hz) is still inside or just on the starting point of non-linearity. This would still be in agreement with the findings from our previous study (ref. 7), where rut depths could be predicted using LVE stiffness levels, since this study was only using unmodified and polymer modified binders, for which the stress level is not a crucial parameter (see also figure 5).

In figure 12 the stiffness levels at 2000Pa of unmodified and several WMBs binders are shown. Figure 12 indicates that for 3% wax added, the softest base binder that can be used without deteriorating the rutting resistance would be a pen 80 binder. For 4% wax addition, this would be a pen 90 and for 5% wax a pen 110. Discussion and Conclusions In this paper, general properties of commercial waxes and of wax modified binders (WMBs) were shown. Most waxes (as received) show rather large peaks in the DSC signals, associated with crystallizing and melting material. The crystallization and melting temperatures can vary a lot as well as the degree of crystallinity. In some cases the crystallization and melting temperature ranges are very

Figure 11: Wheel tracking tests on reference and some selected wax modified binders, at 50C.

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Figure 12: Stiffness at 50C and 0.01Hz at a stress level of 2000Pa versus penetration of the base binder.

broad, covering a temperature range from 20C to above 100C. Waxes show some interaction with bitumen since upon adding wax to bitumen the melting point depression can be considerable, 20 to 40C. For those waxes with only a small degree of crystallinity in the pure form, no signals of crystallinity in the blended form were observed, most likely these waxes dissolve completely in the bitumen. These waxes soften the base binder at all temperatures and are not suited as an additive in asphalt. Most waxes have in the liquid form a viscosity that is below the viscosity of bitumen and therefore they can indeed be used as viscosity reducers. However upon addition of 3% of wax to a reference binder the reduction in viscosity, expressed as a shift in temperature, is limited to 6C in the best case. Larger effects on the viscosity reduction, in the range of 15 to 20C, can be achieved by increasing the amount of wax added (which is economically not always feasible) or by increasing the penetration level of the base binder. The viscosity reduction as a function of three wax contents (3%, 4% and 5%) and as a function of penetration level of the base binder has been evaluated in detail. But if the penetration level of the base binder is reduced the wax should stiffen this base binder sufficiently at high service temperatures where rutting can take place and should at these temperatures be in the crystalline form. Waxes with enough crystalline material, melting at high enough temperatures, have a large effect on the R&B temperature, on the SHRP PG temperature for rutting, and also on the complex modulus at 50C. These binder tests suggest that these waxes will improve the rutting resistance. However, it was also observed that WMBs are rather strain sensitive, so the stiffness quickly decreases if strain or stress is increased. Since, at this moment it is not clear what strain levels the binder feels when loaded in a mix, it is also not clear how waxes influence the rutting resistance. Asphalt mix tests were conducted to verify on one hand if

the viscosity changes are directly related to changes in compactibility and on the other hand to verify how the increased stiffness after adding wax to bitumen influences the rutting susceptibility. It has been shown that compactability levels measured using the gyratory compactor and the plate compactor are in agreement with the values derived from equi-viscosity levels of the bitumen-wax blend. A limited number of rut tests have been conducted; these tests show that the linear viscoelastic (LVE) stiffness levels of wax-modified binders overestimate the rutting performance. For the conditions used in this study (for the particular mix design and rutting equipment used) rut depths can be related to the stiffness at a given high stress level at the same temperature as the rutting test and at a low frequency of 0.01Hz. For the WMBs this stress level is clearly outside the LVE range, while for unmodified and polymer modified binders it is inside or almost inside the LVE range. The conclusions from this paper are listed below: Commercial waxes proposed for mixing into bitumen vary with respect to melting temperature and melting enthalpy. The most effective wax for temperature reduction of bitumen is a wax with a low viscosity at the temperature of interest, and in relation to performance with a distinct melting peak at high enough temperatures and a high melting enthalpy. The maximum temperature reduction with 3% of wax is about 6C (based on binder viscosity and compared to the same base binder). The increased stiffness of the wax modified bitumen at temperatures where the wax is solid can be used for selection of a softer bitumen to further decrease the viscosity at construction temperatures. Unmodified bitumen is much more strain and stress resistant than wax-modified bitumen. Thus the increased stiffness cannot fully compensate for the use of a softer binder. The range of temperature reduction obtained from compaction tests are in agreement with the predicted range of temperature based on equi-viscosity levels. The rutting resistance of wax-modified mixes (in laboratory tests) cannot be predicted by the LVE stiffness level. The LVE stiffness over-estimates the behavior of wax-modified mixes.

Acknowledgements The funding of IWT (Instituut voor de Aanmoediging van Innovatie door Wetenschap en Technologie in Vlaanderen) is gratefully acknowledged. The authors also

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MM Castings Pvt. Ltd.

Research Paving Temperatures

acknowledge the input of the Nynas Technology Department Antwerp, and of the laboratory of BRRC.as well as the Nynas laboratory in Nynshamn for DSC testing. References
1 2 3 G.C. Hurley, B. D. Prowell, "Evaluation of Sasobit for use in warm mix asphalt", NCAT report 05-06, June 2005 G.C. Hurley, B. D. Prowell, "Evaluation of Potential Processes for Warm Mix Asphalt", AAPT, 2006, P.41 K-W. Damm, "Die untersuchungsstrecken temperaturabgesenkte asphalte auf der BAB A 7 und B 106" Strasse + Autobahn, 2.2006, P .65 L. Keller, H. Ptzold, "Nachweis der W irksamkeit von temperaturerniedrigenden Zustzen in Walzaphalten", 2.2006, P .83 L. Drschner, "Low temperature asphalt - Experience in rolled asphalt" 3rd E&E Congress Vienna 2004, paper Nr.198, P . 1019 K. W. Damm, "Asphalt flow improvers - a new technology for reducing mixing temperature of asphalt concrete mixes with high restistance against permanent deformation", Sixth International RILEM Symposium on Performance Testing and Evaluation of Bituminous Materials 2003 P.520 H. Soenen, J. J. De Visscher, T. Tanghe, A. Vanelstraete, P . Redelius, " Selection of Binder Performance Indicators for Asphalt
rutting based on Triaxial and Wheel tracking tests" AAPT,

2006, P .165

H. Soenen, J. De Visscher, A. Vanelstraete, P. Redelius, "Influence of Thermal History on Binder Rutting Indicators", Int. J. Road Mat. Pavement Design, Vol. 6, p. 217, 2005. J. D'Angelo, R. Dongre, "Development of A High temperature Performance Based Binder Specification it the United States", 10th Intern. Conf. on Asphalt Pavements, Qubec 2006

10 F. Long, C. L. Monismith "Laboratory testing to develop a nonlinear viscoelastic model for rutting of asphalt concrete" Sixth International RILEM Symposium on Performance Testing and Evaluation of Bituminous Materials, 2003, P. 506. 11 S. Kose, M. Guler, H. Bahia, E. Masad, "Distribution of Strains within Hot Mix Asphalt Binders", applying imaging and finiteelement Techniques" TRR, 1728 p. 21-27 (2001) 12 D. Witheoak, The Shell Bitumen Handbook, Chapter 13, Shell Bitumen UK, ISBN-0-9516625-0-3, 1991 13 H. U. Bahia, D. I. Hanson, M. Zeng, H. Zhai, M. A. Khatri, R. M. Anderson, "Characterization of Modified Asphalt Binders in Superpave mix design", Transportation Research board, National Research Council, NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C., 2001 14 J. De Visscher , F. Vervaecke, A. Vanelstraete, H. Soenen, , T. Tanghe, P . Redelius, "Asphalt production at reduced temperatures and the impact on asphalt performance" submitted to the Intern. Conf. on Asphalt Pavements, Zrich 2008.

5 6

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Action Construction Equipment Ltd

Infrastructure Asset Management

Road Asset Valuation and Management:


The Comprehensive Approach to Infrastructure Handling
Chaitanya Goyal

he Indian road network, spanning a length of over 2.059 million miles is one of the three largest road networks in the world and thus constitutes one of the primary community assets of the country. In the past 16 years, the Indian road sector has witnessed tremendous growth owing to the supportive governmental initiatives and policies allowing the

T
80

allocation of resources to build and maintain the nation's road network. The prevailing conditions have enabled the road administrators in the country to maintain, operate, improve, replace and preserve this asset while, at the same time, carefully managing the scarce financial and human resources needed to achieve these objectives. The early 1990's focused majorly on

the construction of new assets and little or no importance was given to managing the existing ones. Gradually, as the capital ceased to be readily available, more attention was diverted to maintenance and life extension. Further budget tightening and demand increments required contractors to be more accountable and provide cost justification before allocating resources

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Infrastructure Asset Management

for maintenance. In the current times, focus has now shifted to information, asset registers, valuation, information collection and data systems. But realizing the insufficiency of information alone, companies felt the need to have syste-matic processes and procedures in place, which would enable business decisions based on the information available. This led to the development of GIS integrated Asset Management Systems (AMS) improving over the first generation Pavement Management systems (PMS) and the second generation Infrastructure Management systems (IMS). To overcome the challenges faced by transportation infrastructure like damage & deterioration, increasing demand, shrinking budgets and heavy public expectations, Governments are placing greater pressures on road administrations to improve the efficiency of, and accountability for, the management of this precious asset and the experts know that accounting and valuation of assets in monetary terms is the key to successful asset management. Road asset management: The business outlook

Status:

Dry

Moist, wet Above 1,5 C


O

Snow 0,5 to 1,5

Drifting snow - warning -0,5 to + 0,5

Drifting snow - alarm -1,5 to -2,5

Frost

Ice

Error Below -3,5 Error

Surf. temp.:

-0,5 to -1,5

-2,5 to -3,5

GIS Integrated road asset management system

sets out the approach to be used in acquiring, maintaining, operating, improving and disposing of an asset by combining engineering principles with sound business practice and economic rationale. Asset management in respect of road infrastructure may be defined as A structured, long term approach to planning optimal maintenance and eventual renewal of infrastructure.

Picture Courtesy: civildefence.govt.nz

Road asset management systems in operation

Road administrations today are moving from purely governmentcontrolled organizations with their own executive departments to agency status and, in the most far-reaching model, to a private enterprise. Such changes have been instrumental in reducing the Government input, increasing private risks and the infrastructure user is increasingly regarded as the customer. Road asset management has thus grown over the years and has turned out to be a business in itself. Road and highway network management activities are now regarded as a service being supplied to a client, i.e., the travelers. Toll collection for many years had been the monopoly of the NHAI and Indian state governments. But with the advent of private-public partnerships (PPP), today many road projects are awarded to private developers, who raise funds, construct the road and collect tolls for a decade or two to recover their investment and profit from it. The toll revenue is the only source to meet all the incurred costs, be it debt payment or any maintenance activity. It is thus of paramount importance to have an expertise at the skill of asset management to sustain this business.

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Infrastructure Asset Management

The framework of asset management has to be an organized and systematic procedure covering aspects like Definition and inventory of assets, that is, the road network, other infrastructure and other fixed assets & resources; Road management systems for use, maintenance and development of assets; Valuation of the assets and reporting the value in monetary terms, that is, capitalization and depreciation; Implementing accounting by integrating road management & accounting; and Systems and procedures for utilization of asset management information. Monetary valuation critical for successful asset management Asset valuation is an essential management tool. It assists in the determination and allocation of costs and provides performance/rate of return reporting, resource allocation, shareholder equity and accountability. Historically, assets have been valued at the actual spend on projects rather than what it would cost to replace the whole asset. One of the main purposes of valuation is to enable reporting in monetary terms to reflect the physical conditions of the road network, and to assist asset managers in informing asset owners of

Road assets and toll plaza

the effects of different financing strategies. Valuation of road assets is also based on the same elements as those indicated in the framework of asset management. The valuation process, with its emphasis on economics and finance, represents a shift in thinking from the traditional engineering approach to transport program development. The asset value and the change of the value

are used when defining the need for investments and maintenance of the assets. The asset value also states the amount of capital investments that have been made and shows the yearly expenses and yearly investments compared with the total value of assets. The road asset value can therefore be used when reasoning the annual need for road management financing with decision-makers and road users. Due to such importance it becomes crucial for determining the priorities for future investment. Asset Inventory Defining the road assets and their inventory forms the basis for their valuation. The road assets, usually divided into the road substructures, running surfaces, equipment and accessories, consist of the carriage ways, tunnels, footways, footpaths & cycle ways, bridges, culverts, streetlights, illuminated signs & bollards, car parks, traffic signals, road gullies and landscapes. These assets might also contain road structures under construction. Other fixed assets include real estate, buildings, machines and equipment. Assets should be divided into

Heavy loads on pavements

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Silicone Concepts Int'l.Pvt. Ltd

Infrastructure Asset Management

Deteriorating road infrastructure

several asset items or groups. The assets belonging in one item should have similar purpose of use and the same estimated length of service life. This can be done through video GPS and/or detailed walked surveys to provide a complete asset Inventory which acts as the foundations of a Roads Asset Management Plan. Inventories can either be done at certain fixed time intervals or on the basis of change in road condition. The roads and other assets should be listed or registered, and updated after each inventory. Maintaining an inventory of assets and their condition, defining optimal replacement strategies and meeting statutory reporting requirements are all objectives that the Asset Manager must achieve. Methods of Valuation Accurate asset valuation requires a robust and complete inventory. If gaps exist in the inventory, an estimate of the inventory information should be made to enable valuations to be completed, wherever practical. There are a number of approaches prescribed to value infrastructure assets, and no single approach is universally accepted by the international community.

The two most common methodologies for the valuation of road assets are the Fair value and the Book value. The Fair value is the amount for which an asset could be exchanged between knowable, willing partners in an arm's length transaction while the Book value is the value of an asset usually based on the original acquisition cost, which has been adjusted for depreciation, or by any other increase or decrease in value.

The acquisition cost also includes the expenses of the purchase or manufacture of the asset. Some other, not very popular methods include, calculating the Market value the current market price of an asset; Replacement value - the present market price of a similar asset to replace an old asset; Present value - the present value of payments made at a later date thus discounting the future payments into the present; Nominal value - the purchase value of an asset on the purchase date; Real value - converted from the nominal value by taking into account the inflation since the purchase date; Taxable value - the monetary value of an asset determined for taxation purposes and the Utility value representing the quantitative or qualitative benefit of an asset for the user and can vary depending on the user. If the investment expenditure of the existing road network cannot be determined to find the Book value, the road asset value can also be calculated as the replacement value or as the present value. Depreciating the road infrastructure assets Asset depreciation can be defined as the annual loss of the value and the annual wearing of the assets. It should be well planned and must confirm

Road maintenance

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Bharat Road Development Combines Pvt Ltd BRDC

Infrastructure Asset Management

10-20 years for running surfaces; 50100 years for bridges and 5-20 years for equipment and accessories. In addition, an asset can be considered to have a residual value. The residual value is the value of an asset at the end of its expected lifetime, i.e. at the moment when all the planned depreciation has been written off from the value of the asset. Financial Reporting The investments increasing the road value and the depreciation reducing the value usually need to be stated in both the balance sheet and profit and loss account of the year-end financial statements. Consumption of assets, or depreciation, is reported in the financial statements as an expense, and is a charge against present and future users of the assets. Most countries including India provide balance sheets where the value of assets is included. The value of a nation's road asset is a key indicator of its economic wellbeing and capacity to transport its people and goods. Recently, the National Highways Authority of India has taken four major loans from the World Bank and many from the Asian Development Bank to support its new construction program. While focusing on new construction, the NHAI is aware of the need for ongoing asset management in terms of maintenance and is tolling the roads to assure a regular source of funds for maintenance. With major efforts currently underway to expand the country's road infrastructure, India plans to spend approximately US$70 Billion by 2013 to modernize its highway network. With the increased involvement of private sector in building, maintaining, managing and operating road infrastructure, more emphasis is being laid on user orientation and the development of methods to communicate with roads users to take into account their needs and concerns in the provision of road infrastructure thus ensuring a smooth drive for the travelers and wealth showers for the NHAI and private developers thereby creating a win-win situation all the way.

Road maintenance near Kinnaur in Himachal

according to local accounting standards and requirements. Similar to the various approaches available for valuation, depreciation can also be calculated by different methods. The two most common methods being the Straight-line depreciation where the value of an asset depreciates at a constant rate over time and Condition-based depreciation where the value of an asset depreciates according to its condition. A combination of these two methods is generally preferred. The choice of method generally depends on the type of asset. For example, it may be

appropriate to apply straight line depreciation to assets that are not subject to vehicle loading, such as traffic signal systems and highway lighting, whereas condition-based depreciation may be more appropriate for assets such as pavements and bridges. When using the straight-line method, the depreciation is calculated as a fixed percentage either of the acquisition value or of the acquisition value reduced by the residual value. The percentage of the acquisition value is determined by the economical or expected lifetime like 20-50 years for road substructures;

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United Steel and Structurals Pvt Ltd

Road Restoration

Surface Dressing:
Bhavani Balakrishna

A Quick, Efficient and Cost-Effective Method of Restoring Roads

urface dressing is a quick, efficient and cost-effective method of restoring roads by waterproofing them, arresting disintegration and providing them a texture and skidresistant surface. It is very widely used across the world. Surface dressing seals the old road surface with a waterproof layer of bitumen. Bitumen is well known for its waterproofing properties and, by keeping the rain out of the road foundations, it significantly extends the life of the road. It also helps to prevent the formation of potholes and cracks. Earlier forms of surface dressing can be dated back to the 1870s wherein tar was used to settle the dust down on town roads. A layer of granulated stone was then added to give a better grip.

With increased motorised traffic, roads were then dressed with stone chippings to provide longevity to the highways. In the 1950s, tar was substituted with bitumen binders. Since then, the technology behind surface dressing has come a long way allowing the method to be used even for restoring roads that attract heavy traffic. What is Surface Dressing? The process of surface dressing involves the even spray application of bituminous binder through a purpose built spray tanker onto the existing road surface followed immediately by the even application of aggregate chippings to 'dress' the binder. The chippings are rolled into the road surface and the

excess removed by mechanical sweeper as soon as possible. Surface dressing is an economical and time saving solution compared to other alternatives of resurfacing roads. A surface dressed road can be reopened to traffic as soon as the material is laid indeed, early trafficking is beneficial as this helps bed the chippings. It is the combination of chippings of suitable quality and size, held in place by an effective binder, which results in satisfactory surface dressing. The functions of the binder in surface dressing are the following. - to provide adequate adhesion between the chippings and the road surface - to seal the surface of the road

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Road Restoration

against ingress of water - To arrest disintegration of the existing road surface It is the spraying viscosity that determines the ability of the binder to "wet'' the road surface and applied chippings and achieve the initial bond of chipping to road. The spraying viscosity will also alter the rate at which the spraying tanker will discharge binder on to the road. The viscosity of surface dressing binders varies with temperature. As the temperature rises, the viscosity decreases. Use is made of this property in order to select the appropriate temperature for spraying each binder. The spraying temperature is regulated to provide the correct viscosity, to achieve good transverse distribution across the spray bar and to secure wetting of the road surface and the chippings (i.e. to achieve a good bond). If the viscosity is too high, it is unlikely that an even transverse distribution will be achieved. Furthermore, good wetting will not occur and chippings will be lost. However, if the viscosity is too low the material could flow off the high points of the road and pool in the low spots, or run off the road altogether. Once again, the transverse distribution could be compromised. Typically, bitumen emulsion or cut back bitumen are used as binders for surface dressing, the latter being more

A spray tanker wetting the road surface

popular. When in their normal state the binders will be too viscous to spray and therefore have to be treated to allow application at lower temperatures. In order to achieve a workable viscosity for application, bituminous binders are treated using the process of emulsifi-cation - the process of emulsification allows the bitumen to be dispersed as very small micron sized droplets in an aqueous soap solution. The low viscosity of the water aids application, yet once applied, the water is lost leaving only the stiff bitumens. Bitumen emulsions have the benefit of enabling a binder of higher viscosity

Surface dressing helps to prevent the formation of potholes and cracks

be applied to the road at a lower temperature than cut-back binders. Also, they can be used on damp (but not wet) roads using damp chippings. The bond is achieved once the emulsion is broken. The process by which the bitumen emulsion reverts to its original water and bitumen components is known as breaking. The break of an emulsion is often indicated by a progressive change in colour from brown to black. This break is a complex process in which, initially, bitumen separates from the water in the emulsion onto the road and onto the applied chippings. The final stage of break involves the loss of water by evaporation so that a continuous adhesive film of binder is produced. The loss of water from an emulsion will be delayed if the road surface is very wet or if there is a high level of moisture in the air (i.e. if it is very humid). These conditions will unduly prolong the breaking period. Because emulsions contain water, they must be protected from frost whilst in storage. Cut back bitumen binder is a base bitumen suitably "cut-back'' by the addition of approx. 10% of kerosene, (or other suitable volatile oil), to produce the required spraying viscosity. The majority of bitumen binders sprayed today contain modification in many forms, chiefly of synthetic elastomers, plastomers or natural

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Road Restoration

The loss of water from an emulsion will be delayed if the road surface is very wet

elastomers. The modifications provide the binders with higher resistance to shear, increased tenacity of bond and reduced susceptibility to extremes of temperature. In other words, this increases the performance of the binder in service particularly in the following areas: - Increasing the temperature at which the binder begins to soften, reducing the occurrence of bleeding and fatting at stress areas. - Improves the low temperature adhesion and elasticity during the serviceable life of the binder (reduced embrittlement) - Improved elasticity to bridge hairline cracks - Improved early stability in the dressing - Improved long term adhesion of the dressing - Improved longer term durability of the dressings as thicker binder films can be applied - Extends the life of the dressing, particularly when high quality aggregate is used Modified Emulsion Binders also initially perform better in damp conditions, perform better in high humidity and perform better in areas of higher annual rainfall. Computer-controlled mixing and laying plants provide greater accuracy and control over mixing bitumen emulsion

with special chemical additives as one can control the quantity of material used and the rate at which they are laid with exact accuracy and precision, resulting in high performance surface dressings. Surface dressing grades and their uses Surface dressings binders can be unmodified or conventional, intermediate and premium based on the extent of modification of bitumen by addition of polymers. Unmodified binders are conventional grade while the most advanced in polymer modification are premium grade. Intermediate grade binders provide an average performance. The grade of binder to be used is also influenced by the amount and kind of vehicular traffic on road and the

stress that the vehicular traffic will apply on the road. Most often, conventional grade binders are used on roads which attract low volumes of traffic with less stress for example, rural roads with no tight corners. Roads that attract huge volumes of traffic and high stress may require a premium polymer modified binder. Parking areas for four wheelers and townships may have low volume of traffics but stresses may be high due to fairly extreme turning forces. Here, it would be appropriate to use a premium or intermediate grade binder. The rate at which the binder should be spread is influenced by traffic volumes, temperature, humidity, altitude and the amount of shading from sunlight. For instance, for a durable surface dressing that produces less road noise, one can give double dressings - double layer of binder and chippings or double the amount of binder can be used in one layer for the same effect. There is also the 'racked in' alternative. This uses bigger chippings spread first onto the binder before smaller chippings are laid on top, also for less traffic noise and to reduce the contact between tires and binder. Selection of Chipping Sizes Ideally, chippings used for surface dressing should be single sized, cubical in shape, clean and free from dust, strong, durable, and not susceptible to polishing under the action of traffic.

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Aquarius Technologies Pvt.Ltd

Road Restoration

Samples of the chippings should be tested for grading, flakiness index, aggregate crushing value and, when appropriate, the polished stone value and aggregate abrasion value. The nominal sizes of chippings normally used for surface dressing are 6, 10, 14 and 20 mm. Flaky chippings are those with a thickness (smallest dimension) less than 0.6 of their nominal size. The proportion of flaky chippings clearly affects the average thickness of a single layer of the chippings. Here comes the significance of the 'average least dimension' (ALD) of chippings. ALD is the average thickness of a single layer of chippings when they have bedded down into their final interlocked positions. The amount of binder required to retain a layer of chippings is thus related to the ALD of the chippings rather than to their nominal size. The most critical period for a surface dressing occurs immediately after the chippings have been spread on the binder film. At this stage the chippings have yet to become an

Ideally, chippings used for surface dressing should be free from dust, strong, durable, and not susceptible to polishing under the action of traffic

interlocking mosaic and are held in place solely by the adhesion of the binder film. Dusty chippings can seriously impede adhesion and can cause immediate failure of the dressing. The effect of dust can sometimes be mitigated by dampening them prior to spreading them on the road. The chippings dry out quickly in contact with the binder and when a cutback

bitumen or emulsion is used, good adhesion develops more rapidly than when the coating of dust is dry. Improved adhesion of chippings to the binder film can also be obtained by pre-treating the chippings before spreading. This is likely to be most beneficial if the available chippings are very dusty or poorly shaped, or if traffic conditions are severe. There are basically two ways of pretreating chippings: Spraying the chippings with a light application of creosote, diesel oil, or kerosene at ambient temperature Pre-coating the chippings with a thin coating of hard bitumen such that the chippings do not stick together and can flow freely

Chippings Single Existing road surface Smaller chippings Binder Chippings Binder Existing road surface Smaller chippings Chippings Binder Existing road surface Chippings Pad Coat Plus Single Existing road surface Smaller chippings Binder Chippings Existing road surface Binder Smaller chippings Binder Binder

Double

Racked-in

Sandwich

Chippings which are pre-coated with bitumen enable the use of a harder grade of binder for construction which can provide early strong adhesion and thus help to obtain high quality dressings. The binder used for pre-coating need not necessarily be the same kind as that used for the surface dressing; for example, tar-coated chippings adhere well to a sprayed bitumen film. Precoating is usually undertaken in a hotmix plant and the hardness of the coating, and thus the tendency for the chippings to adhere to each other, can be controlled by the mixing temperature and/or the duration of mixing.

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Venus Equipments And Tools Pvt Ltd

Focus Soil Stabilization

Pioneering Polymer Road Stabilization Technology in India


standards. The old fashioned methods in use lead to substantial damage after a short period of time. Quality roads hold the key to sustained growth of our economy. Faster transportation of goods will result in faster growth and less wastage. Polymer road stabilization products offer the perfect way to ensure speedier completion of road projects, without compromising on the quality front. Rockwell India is the first in the country to introduce a polymer road stabilization product Soilfix, in collaboration with a South African company. Rockwell India was established in the year 1983 as the exclusive and sole distributors of M/s Ingersoll-Rand (India) Limited, for marketing their range of construction and mining equipment in Karnataka. In 1990 Rockwell India stated a branch office in Chennai to offer after sales support services to various Departments of the Tamil Nadu Government. The Group ably led by the duo of Mr.D.S.Jhunjhunwala and Mr.Archit Jhunjunwala, expanded its horizons further with the launch of Rockwell Infrastructure Services in 2006. Its latest product - Soilfix, is revolutionizing the way roads are built in India. It is a major breakthrough in road stabilization and the world's leading road stabilizer and dust suppression product. Polymer Technology Soilfix from Rockwell India uses polymers for road stabilization. Polymer technology is used in a variety of applications, ranging from films, fibers, paints, adhesives, etc. Cutting edge catalysation, (metallocenes), allowing superior control over chain structures and hence polymer properties, have led to the formulation of Soilfix polymers for use in road stabilization and dust control. Soilfix comes with a host of advantages. Some of them include: - Forms stabilizing base and sub base layers for roads, mine haul roads, parking lots, hard stands, container depots and airstrips - Widely used in different and varied climatic and soil conditions - Much more cost effective than conventional road stabilization because of faster easier building and less maintenance - Maintenance drastically reduced - Increases in strength over 12 months instead of deteriorating - Product becomes stronger from mechanical compaction, making it perfect for heavy traffic applications - Because polymers are flexible, the road surface has a certain amount

Archit Jhunjunwala
CEO, Rockwell India

t is said that if you want to gauge the standard of physical infrastructure in a country, just take a look at its roads. Nowhere does this statement hold true than in the case of India. The road infrastructure, despite the ambitious plans to expand the network in recent times, is yet to reach international

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ACE Infrastructure Pvt Ltd

Focus Soil Stabilization

of flex and is not brittle or prone to breakage Guaranteed to exceed the AASHTO structural load bearing axle capacity

High Green Quotient Another key advantage with Soilfix is the fact that it is an extremely environment-friendly product. Soilfix products are water based and are totally non-toxic and non-flammable.

Unlike many other products in use, Soilfix is not hazardous to plants and nor does it result in the contamination of ground water. The technology is such that it uses very little aggregate. What's more, polymer stabilization produces just 2.6% of carbon pollutants in comparison to cement stabilization. Easy to Use For using the Soilfix technology, the

equipment required include, motor grader, tractor with cultivator, water tanker with minimum capacity of 4000 litres with attached sprinkler, vibratory soil compactor of 11 ton capacity and material handling equipment such as pick & carry crane or backhoe loaders with slings or a fork lift. After the soil test is verified and the road design finalized, the road to be stabilized is prepared by removing vegetation and ripping surface or spreading imported soil. Soilfix is then mixed with water in a tanker and sprayed. Soilfix is then spread using a motor grader and the layer compacted. After this process, profiling of the layer and final compaction is carried out. Traffic is allowed onto the stabilized surface immediately. The stabilized road is sealed 30 days after the road has been exposed to sunlight. The seal can be asphalt / inter-locking pavers / R.C.C.

For further details:


No. 31, 1st Main Road, 1st Block, Koramangala, Bangalore - 560 034 Ph: +91-80-41524511 E-mail: archit@rockwellindia.com Web: www.rockwellindia.com

Rockwell India

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Advanced Construction Technologies

Focus Asphalt Binder

New Technologies in Asphalt Binder


Sonjoy Deb
B.Tech.Civil. N.I.T.Silchar, Research Scholar, Indian Institute of technology

rocesses of asphalt modification involving natural and synthetic polymers were patented as early as 1843. Test projects were underway in Europe in the 1930s, and neoprene latex began to be used in North America in the 1950s. In the late 1970s, Europe was ahead of the United States in the use of modified asphalts because the European use of contractors, who provided warranties, motivated a greater interest in decreased life cycle costs, even at higher initial costs. The high preliminary expenses for polymer modified asphalt limited its use in the US. In the mid-1980s, newer polymers were developed and European technologies began to be used in the US. At the same time, the prevalence of a long-term economic outlook in the country increased. In Australia, the

current National Asphalt Specification includes guides and specifications regarding polymer modified binders. Asphalt concrete (AC), a mixture of bitumen and aggregates, is a sensitive material compared to other materials used in civil engineering. Moisture beneath pavement softens subgrade soil and weakens base materials to destroy the structural capacity of the pavement. On the other hand, traffic load induces daily damages such as fatigue cracks and pavement failures. Therefore, scientists and engineers are constantly trying to improve the performance of asphalt mixtures and pavements. Modification of the asphalt binder is one approach taken to improve pavement performance. Fundamentally, asphalt production in most refineries is a secondary process that cannot

Modification of the asphalt binder is one approach taken to improve pavement performance

compete with fuel and other products in revenue generation. Therefore, production of better-performing asphalts is not a common strategy in petroleum refining. When the produced asphalt does not meet the climatic, traffic, and pavement structure requirements, modification has been used as one of the attractive alternatives to improve asphalt properties. Generally, Fibers and Polymers are two important cases used in this way, but the most popular bitumen modification technique is polymer modification. However, it has been claimed that

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Focus Asphalt Binder

among various modifiers for asphalt, fibers have gotten much attention due to their improving effects. The recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) also helps road authorities to achieve their goal of a sustainable road transport system by reducing waste production and resources consumption. The environmental and economic benefits of using RAP in hot mix asphalt (HMA) applications could be pushed up to the limit, by producing totally recycled HMAs (100% RAP), but the performance of this alternative must be satisfactory. In

present problems of workability and durability, higher binder aging and low fatigue cracking resistance. Various technologies adopted to improve the performance of asphalt binder are discussed below. Modification with Fibers Different researchers reported the results of the addition of a large variety of fibers to asphalt concrete as fiberreinforced asphalt-concrete (FRAC). Basically, fiber reinforcement is considered as a coin with two sides. One side includes the randomly direct

inclusion of fibers into the matrix, i.e. asphalt concrete and/or Portland Cement Concrete slabs. Another side comprises oriented fibrous materials, e.g. Geo-synthetics family. It is emphasized that the former concept is not as well known as the second. Also, the effect of different fibers, mixing procedures and executive problems on asphalt concrete will be inspected. Different types of fibers used are (a) Polypropylene fiber, (b) Polyester fibers, (c) Asbestos (mineral) fiber, (d) Cellulose fiber, (e) Carbon fibers, (f) Glass fibers, (g) Nylon fibers. The

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Focus Asphalt Binder

intersections of busy streets, airports, vehicle weigh stations, and race tracks. Polymers that have been used to modify asphalt include styrene butadiene styrene (SBS), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), Elvaloy, rubber, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), polyethylene, and others. Desirable characteristics of polymer modified binders include greater elastic recovery, a higher softening point, greater viscosity, greater cohesive strength and greater ductility. Different polymers impact characteristics of asphalt to differing degrees. a) Natural rubber improves rutting resistance and ductility, but is sensitive to decomposition and often has problems of compatibility. b) The use of tyre rubber as an asphalt modifier is environmentally responsible and results in decreased rutting and reflective cracking, but special conditions, such as high mixing temperatures and long digestion times, need to be maintained to prevent separation from the asphalt binder. c) The addition of SBR to asphalt improves low-temperature ductility, increases viscosity, improves elastic recovery and improves the adhesive and cohesive properties

Fiber reinforced polymer nets are used for improved mechanical characteristics, useful life and greater load distribution capacity of road surfaces

use of fibers in AC mixtures has been involved with three dissimilar targets: mechanical improvement, preparation of electrically conductive mixtures and creating a new market to manage the waste textile fibers. Generally, fibers change the viscoelasticity of mixture; improve dynamic modulus, moisture susceptibility, creep compliance, rutting resistance and freezethaw resistance; while they reduce the reflective cracking of asphalt mixtures and pavements. Nano-reinforced materials also hold the potential to redefine the field of transportation materials both in terms of cost effectiveness and long term pavement performance. Various Studies carried out on the exploratory analysis of the mixing procedure of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with asphalt cement (AC). The visco-elastic and fatigue characteristics of neat and CNF-modified AC binders are established. The AC were modified with varying percentages of CNF. Two CNF-asphalt mixing procedures, dry process and wet process, were investigated. The study revealed that the CNF-modified AC exhibited improved visco-elastic response and resistance to rutting. Furthermore, substantial increases in fatigue life were observed with CNF modification.

Modification with Polymer The addition of polymers, chains of repeated small molecules, to asphalt has been shown to improve performance. Pavement with polymer modification exhibits greater resistance to rutting and thermal cracking, and decreased fatigue damage, stripping and temperature susceptibility. Polymer modified binders have been used with success at locations of high stress, such as

Pavement with polymer modification exhibits greater resistance to rutting and thermal cracking

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Liugong India Pvt. Ltd

Focus Asphalt Binder

of the pavement. Water-based SBR latex was used commonly to improve chip retention in emulsions. d) SBS has been replacing SBR due to the formers wider compatibility and greater tensile strength under strain. SBS is now the polymer most used to modify asphalt. SBS increases the elasticity of asphalt and SBS modified asphalt can be recycled. SBS modified binders have been found to perform better at low temperatures than neat binders or binders modified with chemically reactive polymers. e) Elvaloy is a modifier that forms a chemical bond with the asphalt, avoiding problems of separation during storage, transportation and application. It increases pavement moisture resistance and results in modified asphalt performing better in high temperature DSR tests. Elastic recovery of asphalt, a measurement widely used to test polymer modified binders, can be measured by elongating an asphalt sample, cutting it, allowing it to rest, and determining the degree to which the elongated specimen returns to its original length. The elastic recovery test has been shown to be a good measurement of polymer contribution

Oxidation of the pavement surface causes the asphalt to dry and become brittle

to binder performance, although no relationship appears to exist between rut resistance and elastic recovery. Elastic recovery and other conventional measurements are inconsistent in ranking polymer modified binder performance and may only measure whether or not a modifier is present in an asphalt specimen, not its contribution to the asphalts performance. Polymer modified binders have had proven success in the field and the laboratory, and a continuing effort is being made

to develop a correlation between results from laboratory tests and field performance. Portland cement-modified asphalt binder Portland cement and asphalt are adhesive binders usually used for Portland cement concrete and hot-mix asphalt mixtures. Portland cement may be used as a filler or additive to improve many properties of asphalt binders and hot-mix asphalt mixtures. Many additives such as polymer, lime, styrene, fibers, and rubber were used previously by many researchers to improve the properties of asphalt binder and hotmix asphalt. Cement may be used as additive with emulsified asphalt mixtures. Superplasticizer is usually used in the mixing procedure to facilitate mixing the cement and the emulsified asphalt. The cement hydrated with the water present in the emulsified asphalt. Using cement with emulsified asphalt enhanced many properties such as strength and durability of asphalt concrete mixtures. The result of Portland cement addition to asphalt showed increased rotational viscosity (RV) of asphalt binders at 135 0C and different rotational speeds. The Cement to Asphalt ratio (C/A) had insignificant effect on the Newtonian behaviour of

The use of tyre rubber as an asphalt modifier is environmentally responsible

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Allen Buildwell Pvt. Ltd

Focus Asphalt Binder

asphalt binders. The increase in C/A ratio increases the stiffness of asphalt binders represented by the complex shear modulus (G*) value. The effect of the C/A ratio on the phase angle (d) and the elastic behaviour of asphalt binders is insignificant. The cement-toasphalt (C/A) ratio of 0.15 was found to be the optimum ratio that achieved a balanced increase in the rotational viscosity of asphalt binders. Effect of antioxidants of ageing of asphalts Asphalt binders get stiffer and more brittle with age. This phenomenon is commonly called aging or agehardening. Several factors have been cited to explain the phenomenon of

age-hardening in asphalt. The major causes of age-hardening commonly cited include oxidation, volatilization, polymerization, thixotropy, syneresis, and separation. Among these factors, oxidation and volatilization are generally considered as the most important factors affecting aging in asphalt paving mixtures. The effects of the antioxidants on age-hardening are evaluated by measuring the rheological properties of asphalt binders before and after selected levels of aging. Short-term and long term aging are simulated using the rolling thin film oven at 163OC and the pressure aging vessel at 100OC respectively for the asphalt binders. The antioxidanttreated binders exhibited improved

performance at both high and low pavement temperatures Conclusion Asphalt being a very important material for infrastructure development it's important that due attentions is given to improve its performance, construction, efficiency, and environmental stewardship. . Studies have shown that the performance characteristics of various modified mixes perform much higher than conventional mixes. This is possible because of the often better workability and hence better compaction which can be achieved with their use. Lot of studies needs to be carried out though in further development of this important product.

ACT & Volvo Controlled Demolition Pros!


Volvo construction Equipment (Volvo CE) and Advanced Construction Technologies Ltd (ACT) forged an alliance to successfully protect Chennai's heritage. Controlled demolition is a highly specialized area which has helped in several redevelopment projects around the world. The congested nature of many Indian cities ushers a demolition process that has to be carried out carefully, which is something that requires extensive expertise. One of the recent and memorable projects done by ACT, while teaming up with Volvo, was in protecting two historically important heritage buildings, while undertaking the demolition of a building, which was located right in between them. Hotel Picnic was a 30 m high reinforced concrete structure sandwiched between the famous Rippon Building and the Victoria Hall. Hardly more than 10m clearance was available between these two popular IndoSaracenic buildings. The demolition wascalled forth to facilitate Chennai Metro Rail Limited (CMRL)'s underground multilevel station, the most ambitious metro rail projects in the country. ACT had to ensure that there should not be any damage to the adjacent two structures, while also ensuring that the work was carried out with minimal noise levels, since the Rippon Building housed the Chennai Corporation.

For demolitions we always use Volvo CE machines, because they have the best hydraulic system and I trust them to do the Job without upsetting The foundations around the objective.
-Mohan Ramanathan ACT decided to use a Volvo EC240BC excavator fitted with a Soosan hydraulic crusherand a Volvo EC460 BLC ultra high reach excavator, fitted with a 26 m Kocurek triple boom and a MBI hydraulic crusherfor the delicate deconstruction. ACT proposed the use of hydraulic concrete crushers, since they are specified world-wide for urban and industrial demolition because of their low noise level, minimal vibration and economical, as well as faster execution. The entire project was completed in just two weeks' time, taking just over 100 hours to finish.

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Esquire CMAC Pvt.Ltd

Compaction Laboratory Study

Roller Compactor Cum Rut Analyzer (RCRA) an Alternative Compactor for Bituminous Mix Design
1 3
1 2

Dr. B.V. Kiran Kumar, 2Dr. H.S. Jagadeesh, Dr. R. Sathyamurthy

Assistant Professor in Civil Engineering, Govt. SKSJTI, Bangalore Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, BMSCE, Bangalore 3 Visiting Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, BMSCE, Bangalore

Compaction plays a vital role in performance of a bituminous mixes. In India Marshall Method is adopted for designing bituminous mixes where specimens are prepared using Marshall Hammer. Compaction effort generated by Marshall Hammer doesn't simulate the field compaction effect which leads aggregate degradation during mix design. Other draw back of Marshall Procedure is the number of blows given to compact the specimen is fixed and during compaction the densification data of mixes cannot be recorded, this data plays a vital role in determining Theoretical Maximum Density (TMD). Recent advancement in bituminous mix compaction is Superpave Gyratory Compactor (SGC) a product of Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP), which simulates the field compaction effect during specimen preparation for mix design at laboratory. Further it also records the densification data during compaction of mix. With these methods available to compact the bituminous mix at laboratory during mix design, another compacting equipment known as Rolling Compactor cum Rut Analyzer (RCRA) (Patent Pending) machine which is indigenously developed by the authors was used in this project, where it compacts the specimen in laboratory by generating field compaction effect of a roller as well as records densification data of the mix during compaction. Later the same is used to evaluate the performance of mix in terms of rut potential. In this project an attempt was made to evaluate the performance of bituminous mixes designed using three types of compaction equipments, based on the results obtained suitability of the compaction equipments to be adopted during bituminous mix design at laboratory has been suggested.

It is well known fact that the quality of bituminous pavement to a greater extent depends upon the degree of compaction. Depending upon the degree of compaction, the strength, durability and stability of the bituminous pavement vary with variation in compaction. The objective and sufficiently accurate control on the degree of compaction appears to be the most important factors. In India procedure followed at laboratories during compaction of specimen for mix design does not represent the field conditions this leads to ambiguity in the results obtained by testing such sample. In laboratory the specimens prepared by Marshall Method of compaction do not match the field compaction condition. In Marshall method of mix design, the specimen is compacted by confining the mix in all direction using a metallic cylindrical mould, where the mix is compacted by using an hammer which has specific weight and height of fall. A total of 150 blows are given to compact the specimen. Further the compaction method leads to degradation of mineral aggregate, as the aggregates are confined in all direction and

has no scope to realign and reorient during the compaction of mix by dropping hammer. Whereas in field aggregates which come under the roller will be subjected to kneading action and will be compacted with less chance of aggregate degradation since they have the scope to realign and reorient them self. Hence aggregate degradation during laboratory mix design leads to increase in optimum binder content of the mix and optimum binder content thus obtained when transferred to the field leads to functional and structural failure of pavements. Bituminous Mix Design Practice in India In India, highway agencies still adopt Marshall method of bituminous mix design. The Marshall method entails a laboratory experiment aimed at developing a suitable bituminous mixture using stability / flow and density / voids analysis. The advantage of Marshall method is its attention to density and voids properties of bituminous mixes. This analysis ensures the volumetric proportions of mix materials for achieving a durable mix which is

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Compaction Laboratory Study

backed by field performance data (Kiran Kumar et. al, 2005). The Marshall specimen used to determine the volumetric properties of a bituminous mix is prepared using a Marshall Hammer which is used to compact the specimen under a confinement by giving 50 or 75 blows on both sides of specimen. The number of blows given to compact specimen depends on traffic. The weight of hammer used to compact is 44.52 N and height of fall being 457 mm. During this process the aggregate degradation takes place, aggregate structure which is carefully chosen to achieve maximum density is lost. Where in case of field compaction of bituminous mix under a roller, the material has certain scope for the movement or adjust itself under the roller with this, in field compaction the bituminous mixes are subjected to kneading action but in case of a Marshall hammer the blow given by hammer from a height of 457 mm damages the aggregate structure by producing dynamic loading effect rather then kneading action. Recent advancement in Marshall method of compaction is to use indented Marshall hammer, by doing so the compaction of specimen will be similar to the field compaction this is because the indent caused on face of Marshall hammer allows the aggregate to realign when it is compacted using Indented Marshall hammer. Introduction to Superpave Gyratory Compactor (SGC) Strategic Highway Research Programme (SHRP) developed a compactor known as Superpave Gyratory Compactor (SGC) which simulates field compaction effect at laboratory. The SGC is used to produce specimens for volumetric analysis during a bituminous mix design and it also records data to provide a measure of specimen density throughout the compaction. The unique features of SGC are a loading mechanism which presses against the reaction frame and applies a load to the loading ram to produce a 0.6 n/mm2 compaction pressure on the specimen. The SGC mould has a base plate at bottom and the mould which provides confinement during compaction. The SGC base rotates at a constant 30 revolutions per minute during compaction with the mould positioned at a compaction angle of 1.25o (SP-2, 2001). Specimen height measurement during compaction is an important function of SGC. Specimen density can be estimated during compaction by knowing the mass of material places in the mould, the inside diameter of the mould and the specimen height. Using these measurements the specimen's compaction charac-teristics can be developed. Here since the base is rotated at an angle of 1.250 this accommodates the movement of the material without getting confined in mould and this also helps in reducing aggregate degradation. The constant pressure applied from the top and rotation of base compact's the mix by kneading action which is similar to that of field compaction of bituminous mix under a roller. Introduction to Rolling Compactor and Rut Analyzer (RCRA) The RCRA is an indigenously developed compactor by the

authors. The unique features of this compactor are it can apply a constant pressure of 0.6 n/mm2 and if required the pressure can be applied up to 3 n/mm2. Similarly the rolling speed in the compactor can be varied. It has a temperature control unit which maintains the pre selected compaction and rut test temperature. The equipment can record densification data of the mix while compaction. Using the densification data the specimen's compaction characteristics can be developed. The compactor is an hydraulically operated with twin non return valve system and has a Programmable Logical Circuit (PLC) which is inturn connected to vertical and horizontal transducers capable of recording changes of + 5 mm. The following are the novel features of RCRA. RCRA produces field compaction effect (kneading effect) in laboratory during compaction of specimens in bituminous mix design. RCRA can record the densification data during compaction of specimen. RCRA can maintain a Pre selected temperature during compaction or rutting test. RCRA is a completely stable Machine and does not require foundation to install. RCRA is mounted on castor wheels and can be transported with easy and can be used as quality control machine at site or laboratory. RCRA can be operated with ease and it is maintenance free. RCRA has a capability of applying pressure up to 3 n/mm 2 so that tyre and compaction pressure can be varied and its effect on mix can be studied. RCRA is capable of change in speed during rolling or rutting operations. The entire operation of compaction of slab and rutting test is automated and there is less human intervention to temper the test results.

Formulation of Problem The issue addressed earlier regarding the compaction by Marshall Hammer doesn't simulate the field condition during compaction in laboratory and hence it is to be replaced by a compactor which can replicate or simulate field compaction during preparation of the sample in the laboratory. In order to cater for these requirements a design practice was developed by the United States Congress named has SHRP one of the main objectives of this programme was to develop a compactor which can simulate the field condition during preparation of specimen for mix design. But SGC developed under the SHRP was able to simulate the field compaction effect during laboratory specimen preparation to some extent. But the problems faced

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Compaction Laboratory Study

in this compactor were, it is an expensive compactor and very sophisticated equipment which needed a lot of maintenance. Another issue with SGC was that, it cannot prepare a specimen in the desired shape and size. For example SGC cannot prepare a Beam Specimen or a Slab Specimen which are required for various performance tests in order to evaluate the bituminous mix. These difficulties have led the researchers to find an alternative compactor which can simulate the field compaction and also be cost effective and versatile. In present study an ernest effort is made to over come the above difficulties by using RCRA. Where RCRA generates the field compaction effect (i.e., kneading action) with that it can produce different shapes and size of specimens for various performance tests on bituminous mix. In current study mix design was conducted on Bituminous Concrete (BC) Grade-2 using three different compaction equipments viz., Marshall Hammer, Superpave Gyratory Compactor and Rolling Compactor cum Rut Analyzer. Optimum Binder Content (OBC) of the mix for three compactors was found out. Further BC Grade-2 specimens were cast using different compactors at there respective OBC's, these specimens were subjected to performance tests such as Fatigue Test, Indirect Tensile Strength test, Rutting, Binder Recovery and Moisture Sensitivity test. Suitability of compactors for mix design at laboratory was evaluated using the above performance test results. Laboratory Studies Material Characterization Test on Bituminous Binder Bitumen of Viscosity Grade-30 (VG-30) grade was used for the present studies, tests on binder, results and codes of practice followed are indicated in Table 1.0. Tests on Aggregates The physical requirements and test values obtained for the coarse aggregates to be used in BC Grade-2 pavement layer as per Ministry of Road Transport and Highway (MoRT&H) fourth revision specifications are indicated in Table 2.0. Grading of Commercial Available Mineral Aggregate The mineral aggregate is graded by performing sieve analysis. Sieve analysis of each aggregate fraction was done separately as well as for the aggregate blend, once the proportioning was finalized. Gradation sample is indicated in Table 3.0. Table 4.0 shows MoRT&H specifications for BC Grade-2. Proportioning of the Mineral Aggregate Blend Aggregate must be blend in such proportion that, the final blend should be in the acceptable range as given in table 4.0. Table 5.0 and Figure 1.0 shows proportioning mineral aggregate used for present study.

Test Description & Code


Penetration at 25C, 100 g, 5 s, 0.1 mm. (BIS 1203-1978 reaffirmed 2008) Softening Point (R&B), C, Min (BIS 1205-1978 reaffirmed 2009) Viscosity at 135 0C in CPS (ASTM 4402-2006) Specific Gravity (BIS 1202-1978 reaffirmed 2008) Flash Point ( C) (BIS 1209-1978 reaffirmed 2009) Solubility in Trichloroethylene percent, Min. (BIS 1216-1978 reaffirmed 2009) Viscosity Ratio on residue of Thin Film Oven Test (TFOT) Sample 600C, Max (BIS 1206(Part-2)-1978 & 9382-1979 both reaffirmed 2009) Ductility at 250C, cm, Min, on residue of TFOT Sample (BIS 1208 1978 & 9382-1979 both reaffirmed 2009)
Table 1.0 Test Results for VG-30 Bitumen

Results
65

Requirment of VG-30 as Per BIS 73-2006


50-70

48.6 398 0.997 276 99.0

47 350 0.9 1.02 220 99.0

2.8

4.0

54

40

Design Binder Content After finalizing the aggregate structure, specimens for three different compactors were prepared at varying binder contents.
Sl.No
1 2 3 4 5 6

Test Description
Combined F&E Index (%) Specific Gravity Water Absorption (%) Impact Value (%) L.A. Abrasion Value (%) Soundness with MgSo4

Test Method
IS:2386 (Pt I-1963) IS: 2386 (Pt IV- 1963) IS: 2386 (Pt III- 1963) IS: 2386 (Pt IV- 1963) IS: 2386 (Pt IV- 1963) IS: 2386 (Pt V- 1963) 23.5 2.658 0.25 15.30 16.8 6.25

Result 20 mm 10 mm Stone Dust


21.5 2.647 0.40 2.538 -

Table 2.0 Test Results of Aggregates

A minimum of four binder contents were tried and at each binder content minimum of three specimens were prepared. Mix properties were evaluated for the selected blend at the different binder contents, by using the densification data. The volumetric properties were calculated at different binder content. From the above data, graphs such as air voids, VMA and VFA versus binder content were plotted. The design binder content was

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Thermatek

Compaction Laboratory Study

Sieve Size
19 mm 13.2 mm 9.5 mm 4.75 mm 2.36 mm 1.18 mm 600 300 150 75

% Passing Coarse (20mm) Fine (10mm) Stone dust


90 29 1 100 100 66 11 1 100 100 100 96 76 51 29 17 9 5

Lime
100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 85

Table 3.0 Grading of Commercially Available Aggregates

GRADING Nominal Aggregate Size Layer Thickness IS Sieve (mm)


26.5 19 13.2 9.5 4.75 2.36 1.18 600 300 150 75
Table 4.0 MoRT&H Specifications

2 13mm 30-45mm Cumulative % by Weight of Total Passing


100 79-100 70-88 53-71 42-58 34-48 26-38 18-28 12-20 04-10

Figure1.0 Shows Proportioning of Materials

Bituminous Mix Design Mix Design using Marshall Hammer and SGC OBC of selected aggregate blend and VG-30 binder for Marshall Hammer and SGC were obtained as per ASTM 6926, 6927-2006 and SP-2-2001 standards respectively. Mix Design using RCRA Slabs of 63.5 mm height 270 mm wide and 600 mm in length at varying binder content were prepared using RCRA. Cores of 100 mm diameter were drawn from the slabs, OBC and other volumetric properties were found out using cores drawn. Figure 2.0 explains step by step process involved in bituminous mix design using RCRA. Step-1 involves, mixing aggregate blend with varying binder content by weight of mix then heat the same and further place in RCRA for compacting into slab. Step-2 involves drawing cores from compacted slabs in order to determine the density voids characteristics of the mix. Step-3 determines the voids and density properties of the cores drawn. Based on the voids and density relation OBC for the mix is established. Step-4 involves determination of Marshall Stability of the mix. This was done in order to ensure that the mix compacted using RCRA satisfies the Marshall Stability and Flow value criteria. Results of BC Grade-2 Mix for three Compactors The compaction of the aggregate structure chosen for BC Grade2 confirming to MoRT&H limits was done using three compactors and table 6.0 and figure 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 indicate BC Grade-2 mix properties for the compactors. Evaluation of Moisture Sensitivity Specimens for BC Grade-2 were cast at their design binder contents obtained for compactors and tested as per AASTHO T283 moisture evaluation test, one subset of three specimens

established at 4% air voids and all other mixture properties such as VMA and VFB were checked at the design binder content to verify that they meet the criteria.
Sieve Proportioning of Mineral Aggregate Blend Size 20 10 Stone Lime Combined MoRT&H (mm) mm mm dust Gradation Specifications
35 19 13.2 9.5 4.75 2.36 1.18 600 300 150 0.75 32 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 20 20 13 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 40 40 40 40 38 30 20 12 7 4 2 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4.25 97 75 59 46 36 25 17 12 9 6

% Blending

Lower Limit
100 79 70 53 42 34 26 18 12 4

Upper Limit
100 100 88 71 58 48 38 28 20 10

Table 4.0 MoTable 5.0 Proportioning of the Mineral Aggregate BlendRT&H Specifications

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Compaction Laboratory Study

were compacted to approximately 7 percent air voids at design binder content and named as controlled specimens. One more subset of three specimens was cast with design binder content at 4 percent air void content. The evaluation for moisture sensitivity was done by thawing cycle only. The controlled subsets of three specimens are conditioned by subjecting the specimens to partial vacuum saturation that is, the specimens were kept at

Sl.No.

Properties

Marshall SGC RCRA Hammer Compaction Compaction Compaction


5.10 1710 1395 3.0 2.364 4.0 15.90 75.10 4.80 2391 2238 3.5 2.410 4.0 15.25 73.70 4.90 1950 1750 3.5 2.390 4.0 14.38 72.18

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

OBC in (%) by Weight of mix Stability in (Kg) Retained Stability in (Kg) Flow in (mm) Bulk Density in (gm/cc) Volume of Air Voids in (%) Volume in Mineral Aggregate in (%) Volume filled by Bitumen in (%)

Step: 1 Placing and Compaction of Mix

Table 6.0 Properties of BC Grade-2 Mix for three Compactors

Step: 2 Drawing Cores from Compacted Slabs

Step: 3 Measuring Height and Bulk Density of Core Specimen for Volumetric Analysis

Figure 3.0 Optimum Binder Content for Three Compactor

Step: 4 Measuring Marshall Stability and Flow Value Figure 2.0 Steps Involved in Mix Design by RCRA

60oC for 24 hours in water bath followed by 2 hours in temperature controlled chamber at 25oC. The other subset of three specimens was kept in a temperature controlled chamber at 25 0C for 2 hours and these specimens were called as unconditioned

Figure 4.0 Voids in Mineral Aggregate for Three Compactors

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Compaction Laboratory Study

where, TSR = Tensile Strength Ratio (percent) For example Average tensile strength of conditioned sample = 19.07 kg/cm2 and Average tensile strength of controlled samples = 19.63 kg/cm2 then

Compactors
SGC RCRA MH

IDT *
19.07 18.80 17.87

VG 30 Grade IDT **
19.63 19.00 18.32

TSR
97.14 98.94 97.54

Table 7.0 Indirect Tensile Strength Value of BC Grade-2 Mix for three Compactors Figure 5.0 Voids Filled with Binder for Three Compactors

The tensile strength ratio comes out to be 97.14 % where the value is higher than the criteria specified by MoRT&H for BC mixes. The criteria being 75% all the specimens compacted by various compactors at there OBC's qualified the test. Rutting Test Rutting test was conducted on the specimens cast at OBC's of different compactors and were conditioned at 60+10 C. A tyre

Figure 6.0 Densities for Three Compactors

specimens. All the specimens were tested for their indirect tensile strengths and the ratio of conditioned to that of unconditioned specimens indirect tensile strength was represented as Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR). Figure 7.0 indicate a typical comparison of TSR values obtained for BC specimens compacted at OBC's for three compactors viz., SGC, RCRA and Marshall Hammer using VG 30 grade binder. Table 7.0 indicates Indirect Tensile Strength values of BC Grade-2 mix for three compactors and VG 30 grade binder. IDT*- Indirect Tensile Strength of Conditioned Sample in kg/cm 2 IDT**- Indirect Tensile Strength of Unconditioned Sample in kg/ cm2 SGC - Super Gyratory Compactor RCRA - Rolling Compactor cum Rut Analyzer MH - Marshall Hammer

Figure 7.0 Comparison of Indirect Tensile Strength Value of BC Grade-2 for Three Compactors

pressure of 6.2 kg/cm2 was maintained constantly through out the test. It was observed that the specimen cast at OBC's of RCRA and SGC showed same deformation trend in the graph up to 1500 passes later RCRA sample showed some significant improvement in deformations up to 2000 passes then SGC and Marshall Hammer specimens, but later failure was rapid. Here specimen cast using OBC obtained from Marshall Hammer failed at 1100 passes. Figure 8.0 and 9.0 indicate comparison of rutting test results at 60 + 10 C for BC Grade-2 with VG 30 binder and Rutting test in progress respectively

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STP Ltd

Compaction Laboratory Study

Fatigue Test Specimens were prepared using different compactors viz., Marshall, SGC and RCRA at their respective OBC's and was subjected to repeated loading at rate of 60 cycles/min, at stress levels of 40% and 50% of Indirect Tensile Strength value obtained for each compactor earlier. It was observed that both SGC and RCRA specimens were able to carry load 1.5 times more that of Marshall Hammer specimen. Figure 10.0 shows the fatigue test results at 60 +10 C for BC. Binder Extraction Test Binder extraction test was conducted in order to evaluate the aggregate degradation that would take place due to variation in the type of compaction while preparing the specimen. The tables 8.0 indicate that the RCRA compacted specimens results in a maximum of 3% aggregate degradation whereas SGC compacted specimen shows a maximum variation of 5% and Marshall Hammer compacted specimen show a maximum variation of 10%. The test was a clear indicator that RCRA compacted specimens where subjected to less aggregate

Conclusion It was found that the OBC for BC mix at 4.0 % air voids design criteria where 5.1, 4.8 and 4.9 percent by weight of mix, when compacted using Marshall, Superpave and Rolling Compactor respectively. Here the lower binder content for the same

Figure 10.0 Comparison of Fatigue Test at 60 + 10 C

Figure 8.0 Comparison of Rutting Test results at 60 + 10 C

aggregate structure was obtained by using SGC and maximum stability of 2391kgs is shown by the specimen compacted using SGC wherein the aggregate and binder being the same for all the three compactors. In case of a Roller Compactor specimens exhibited stability value which was near to that of SGC this is because in case of RCRA and SGC the specimen is compacted to obtain the maximum theoretical density but in case of Marshall the number of blows are confined to 75 or 50 on each side of mould based on the traffic conditions. The density of SGC compacted specimens were higher when compared to specimen compacted using other compactors and this has been substantially supported by the test results of moisture sensitivity test wherein the specimens compacted by SGC has more resistance to moisture damage than that of specimens compacted by other compactors. There is an improvement in the compaction characteristics of specimens compacted using
Gradation After Binder Extraction Test MH SGC RCRA Desired Gradation
89 67 47 58 45 31 37 18 14 10 93 74 55 45 32 25 21 15 11 8 97 73 57 44 34 27 19 15 10 6 97 75 59 46 36 25 17 12 9 6

Sieve Size in mm
19 13.2 9.5 4.75 2.36 1.18 0.6 0.3 0.15 0.075

Figure 9.0 Rutting Test on Bituminous Slab using RCRA

degradation this can be attributed to the kneading effect of compactor and creation of enough space in the mould (270 X 650 mm) which provide enough scope for the aggregates to adjust and realign themselves when it is subjected to compaction.

Table 8.0 Gradation after Binder Extraction Test

SGC and RCRA compactors when compared to Marshall Hammer. In case of Rutting test specimens cast at OBC of RCRA

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Compaction Laboratory Study

performed much better than of specimens cast at OBC's of SGC and Marshall. RCRA specimens carried 2500 passes before causing a rut of 20mm, whereas SGC specimen sustained 2200 passes by causing 20mm rut. Whereas Marshall specimen sustained 1600 passes only. In case of fatigue test SGC and RCRA specimens carried 1.5 times more repetitions then that of Marshall hammer compacted specimen. Further binder extraction test has clearly exhibited that specimen compacted by using RCRA undergoes less aggregate degradation since the compaction provides enough scope for the aggregates to realign and adjust during compaction of specimen when compared to SGC or Marshall Hammer compacted specimen, where the aggregate structure and binder remain same for all the compactors. From the above study it can be concluded that RCRA is a compactor which produces compaction effect which is similar to field compaction and aggregate degradation does not happen. It can be used as quality control equipment and determine the rutting characteristics of various bituminous binders. Further it is required to take up a full fledge study by laying test tracks of BC layer with various OBC's obtained from these compactors and the test tracks needs to be evaluated at a constant interval. Acknowledgement The work reported herein was conducted as a research studies at Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bangalore and B.M Srinivas College of Engineering, Bangalore. The authors acknowledge the efforts of several research assistants and graduate students who were involved in the research program. The research programme was sponsored by All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE), New Delhi and M/s. Tinna Overseas Limited, New Delhi. Disclaimer The contents of this paper reflect the view of the authors who are responsible for the facts, findings and data presented herein.

by Superpave Gyratory Compactor", Transportation Research Record 1545, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., Nov. 1996, pp. 161-168. Rajib B. Mallick, "Use of Superpave Gyratory Compactor to Characterize HMA", Transportation Research Record 1681,TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1999, pp. 86 96. Mallick, R.B, Buchanan .S and Brown E.R., (1998), "An Evaluation of Superpave Gyratory Compaction of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA)", Transportation Research Record 1638, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC. pp 111-119. Hand A.J, Stiady J.L White T.D, Noureldin A.S and Galal. K (2001), "Gradation Effects on Hot-Mix Asphalt Performance", Transportation Research Record1767, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC. pp 152-157. "Paving Bitumen Specification" (IS: 73), Third Revision, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 2006. "Methods for Testing Tar and Bituminous Materials" (IS: 1201 to 1220), Indian Standard Institutions, New Delhi, 1978. Standard Practice for Preparation of Bituminous Specimens Using Marshall Apparatus (ASTM D6926- 2006), American Society for Testing and Materials International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428-2959 USA "Standard Test Method for Marshall Stability and Flow of Bituminous Mixtures" (ASTM D6927- 2006), American Society for Testing and Materials International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428-2959 USA Punith V.S, Reddy M.P .S and Veeraragavan A, "Characterization of Bituminous Mixes under Repeated Load Indirect Tensile Tests", Highway Research Bulletin No. 73, 2005, pp. 131 - 147. Sinha V.K, H.N. Singh and Saurav Shekar, "Rutting in flexible Pavements - A Case Study", Journal of Indian Roads Congress, Vol 68, No.3, 2007. Mc Gennis R.B, Buchanan S and Brown E.R (1998), "An Evaluation of Superpave Gyratory Compaction of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA)", Transportation Research Record1583, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC. Pp 98-105. Superpave Level 1 Mix Design, Superpave Series No.2 (SP-1 and SP-2), Asphalt Institute, Lexington, 2003 and 2001. B.V. Kiran Kumar, Sridhar Raju, Sunil Bose and K.N. Vishwanath (2005), "Effect of Air Voids and Compaction Temperature on Bituminous Mix Design", Advance in Road Transportation National Conference Proceedings, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Orissa. Anderson, R.M., (2002) "Using Superpave Gyratory Compaction Properties to Estimate the Rutting Potential of Asphalt Mixtures", Asphalt Paving Technology, Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists-Proceedings of the Technical Sessions, Vol - 71, pp 725-738.

Reference
Anderson R.M., Turner A. P ., Peterson L. R., and Mallick B. R., "Relationship of Superpave Gyratory Compaction Properties to HMA Rutting Behavior", Transportation Research Board, NCHRP Report 478, Washington D.C, 2002, pp 1-16. Joe W. Button, D.N. Little, V. Jagadam & O.J. Pendelton, "Correlation of Selected Laboratory Compaction Methods with Field Compaction", Transportation Research Record 1454, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., July 1994, pp 193 - 201 Ministry of Roads Transport and Highways (MoRT&H), "Specifications for Road and Bridge Works", Fourth Revision, Indian Roads Congress (IRC), 2001 Collins, R. H. Shami and J. S. Lai. "Use of Georgia Loaded Wheel Tester To Evaluate Rutting of Asphalt Samples Prepared

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MFRC Experimental Study

Behavior of Mixed Fiber Reinforced Concrete (MFRC) Exposed to Acids An Experimental Study
Urooj Masood1, Dr. B.L.P. Swami2, Dr. A.K.Asthana3
Asssociate Professor, Civil Engineering, Deccan College of Engineering and Technology, Darussalam, Hyderabad, India. Professor, Coordinator, Research and Consultancy, Vasavi College of Engineering, Ibrahimbagh, Hyderabad, India. Professor, Principal, Keshav Memorial College of Engineering and Technology, Narayanguda, Hyderabad, India.

The study presents the findings of the durability criteria of mixed fiber reinforced concrete to acids and salt resistance. The investigation was carried out with different proportions of mixed percentages of alkaline resistant glass fibers and steel fibers in total fiber content percentages. Comparison of texture, denseness of the exposed and unexposed specimens are done by studying the properties like pH, conductivity and weight loss at 30 days, 60 days, 90 days, 120 days and 180 days. The pH of the acids and salt is seen to increase and the conductivity values were found to be decreasing for acids and increasing for Na2SO4 when compared to fresh solutions. The specimens were tested for compressive strength after 180 days exposure. The specimens with 75 % glass fibers and 25% steel fibers in all the total percentages of fiber with 1.0 % as optimum showed lesser deterioration of surface texture. Strength was reduced for all the specimens in different solutions. Brittle failure is reduced with increasing total percentages of fibers compared to control specimens. Fiber reinforcement is holding together the crushed specimens. Thus MFRC contributes to better durability as a whole with glass fibers as a major binding reinforcement and steel fibers providing more strength but lesser when compared to unexposed specimens.
The previous studies on durability of plain and reinforced concrete structures indicated a satisfactory performance of the structures during its life period. But when faced with different environmental exposures the results were less encouraging with problems of permeability, alkaline and acidic exposure resulting in corrosion and deterioration of the structures. This and the last century has seen a vast progress in the development of new cementitous materials like silicafume, ground granulated blast furnace slag being blended with cement or in concrete that helps in reducing the problems of durability. Over the years (1, 2, 3) discussed the problems and the methods on mechanism of durability. Damage evaluation methods and effects on mortars and concrete exposed to different percentages of different acids were conducted (4, 5). The effect of pH and salt in 3 % solution of Na2SO4 was evaluated on time period and conductivity (6). Different fibers were researched and introduced leading to the development of fiber reinforced concrete (7, 8, 9). One such aim of this research which is a part of PhD work were to study the effect of acids and salts using mixed fibers in varying percentages in different total fiber mixes by volume in solutions of 5 % H2SO4, HCl and Na2SO4 on the immersed specimens of mixed fiber reinforced concrete. Weight, strength, pH and conductivity changes against period of exposure were observed. Experimental Investigation The details of the materials used in the present experimental investigation are as follows. Cement: OPC of 53 grade having specific gravity of 3.15 is used Coarse Aggregate and Fine Aggregate Machine crushed well graded angular granite aggregate of size 20 mm from local source are used. The specific gravity is 2.87. The fineness modulus is 6.92. River sand
Fibers Density Elastic Tensile Diameter Length No. of in t/m3 modulus strength in micron in mm fibers in GPa in MPa million kg
ARGlass 2.6 73 1700 14 12 212

Table 1.CemFIL ARC14 306 HD having the following properties is used

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locally available is used. The specific gravity is 2.5. The fineness modulus is 2.62. Glass Fiber Steel Fiber Monofilament Steel fibers of 1 mm diameter & aspect ratio 55 is used. Water Locally available potable water is used n. Concrete Mix
Grade Cement in kg
M25 400

days, 120 days, 150 days and 180 days. Testing Procedure At the curing age of 28 days the specimens were weighed and immersed in the made solutions of 5 percent acids and salt. The weight losses at various periods of exposures were recorded and at 180 days the specimens were tested to compression for strength. Results and Discussions Weight effect The control specimens without any fibers immersed in the solution of 5 percent sulphuric acid was found to have less weight loss than the specimens immersed in the same solution with 100 percent glass fiber in a total fiber percentage. The same trend was observed with different total fiber percentages of 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 shown in tables 3, 4 and figures 1, 2. The specimens with decreasing glass fiber percentage of 100 percent to zero percent in the mixed fiber in the total fiber percentage exposed to the solution of 5 percent sulphuric acid exhibited decreased weight loss. The weight loss was observed to be minimum in the specimens having 100 percent steel fiber. The same trend was observed in the specimens with different total fiber percentages of 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5. The maximum percentage loss was observed in the specimens with 1.5 percentage total fiber exposed to the sulphuric acid with increasing period of exposure from 30 days to 180 days. The same trend was observed in all the
specimens in the total fiber percentages of 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5.

Fine aggregate in kg
640

Coarse aggre- Water cement gate in kg ratio


1200 0.5

Table 1.CemFIL ARC14 306 HD having the following properties is used

Mixing and casting The dry aggregates were mixed first in the mixer. Then one third water is sprinkled on the concrete and fibers are sprinkled and then the remaining water is sprinkled. The mixed mix is taken out and the specimens were casted in moulds. Table vibration is given and the mould surfaces are smooth finished. The different total fiber percentages of 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 with five varying percentages of mix fiber proportions in each total fiber percentage were used to cast 160 numbers of specimens. Acid and Salt solution Sulphuric acid solution is made with 5 % acid in deionised water and abt. 98 % LR, having specific gravity 1.835 and molecular weight of 98.07. The molarity is 0.52 M. Hydrochloric acid solution is made with 5 % acid in deionised water and purity of 35-38 % LR, having specific gravity 1.18 and molecular weight 36.46. The molarity is 1.37 M. Sodium sulphate solution is made with 5 % crystals in deionised water having anhydrous purity 99 % LR and molecular weight 142.04. The molarity is 0.36 M (50 gm + 975 ml to make 1000 ml solution) Period of exposure The observations were recorded at exposed periods of the specimens in the solutions at 30 days, 60 days, 90
S.No.
1 2 3 4 5 6

The control specimens without any fiber immersed in the solution of 5 percent Hydrochloric acid was found to have more weight loss compared to specimens with fiber. With decreasing percentage of glass fiber in the mixed fiber proportion in a total fiber percentage, the weight loss was observed to increase and is maximum in the specimens with 100 percent steel fiber. The same trend was observed in the other specimens in all the other total fiber percentages as shown in tables 5, 6 and figures 3, 4. The percentage weight gain observed in the control specimens immersed in the 5 percent sodium sulphate
% weight loss at 180 days
9.19 10.88 7.14 6.25 5.49 4.89

Mixed fiber (%) G.F


0 100 75 50 25 0

S.F
0 0 25 50 75 100

% weight loss at 30 days


4.78 5.09 3.61 3.38 2.56 2.35

% weight loss at 60 days


5.88 6.52 4.15 3.75 3.43 2.72

% weight loss % weight loss at % weight loss at at 90 days 120 days 150 days
7.11 7.56 5.14 4.2 3.99 3.21 8.1 8.67 5.92 4.94 4.37 3.54 8.8 9.94 6.98 5.67 5.05 4.17

Table 3. Percentage weight loss in the specimens with 0.5 total fiber percentage exposed to 5 percent H 2SO4 solution.

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S.No.
1 2 3 4 5 6

Mixed fiber (%) G.F


0 100 75 50 25 0

S.F
0 0 25 50 75 100

% weight loss at 30 days


4.78 5.7 4.02 3.69 3.49 2.93

% weight loss at 60 days


5.88 6.7 4.91 4.41 4 3.56

% weight loss % weight loss at % weight loss at at 90 days 120 days 150 days
7.11 8.48 5.99 5.01 4.59 4.03 8.1 9.25 6.31 5.63 5.36 4.66 8.8 10.09 7.09 6 5.53 5.35

% weight loss at 180 days


9.19 11 7.52 6.69 6.49 5.97

Table 4. Percentage weight loss in the specimens with 0.75 total fiber percentage exposed to 5 percent H 2SO4 solution.

S.No.
1 2 3 4 5 6

Mixed fiber (%) G.F


0 100 75 50 25 0

S.F
0 0 25 50 75 100

% weight loss at 30 days


1.7 1.26 1.36 1.44 1.58 1.66

% weight loss at 60 days


3.04 2.32 2.38 2.58 2.8 2.98

% weight loss % weight loss at % weight loss at at 90 days 120 days 150 days
4.06 3.18 3.38 3.54 3.74 3.96 5.7 3.78 4.08 4.38 4.72 5.42 7.18 5.06 5.4 5.72 5.92 6.52

% weight loss at 180 days


7.72 5.94 6.28 6.58 6.84 7.18

Table 5. Percentage weight loss in the specimens with 0.5 total fiber percentage exposed to 5 percent HCl solution.

solution was observed to be minimum when compared with all the other mixed fiber proportion in a total fiber percentage. The maximum weight gain was observed to be in 100 percent glass fiber proportion. With decreasing glass fiber percentage the weight gain was observed to be decreasing. With increasing exposed periods the specimens exhibited increased weight gain. It was observed that wit increase total percentages of fiber the weight gain was decreasing. The same trend was observed for all total fiber percentages as shown in tables 7, 8 and figures 5, 6.

Surface effect Lesser texture deterioration in 75 % glass fiber and 25 % steel fiber were observed compared to other mix

Figure 3. Percentage weight losse with 1.0 percentage total fiber exposed in 5 percent HCI solution.

Figure1. Percentage weight losses with 1.0 percentage total fiber exposed in 5 percent H2SO4 solution.

Figure 4. Percentage weight losse with 1.5 percentage total fiber exposed in 5 percent HCI solution.

Figure2. Percentage weight losses with 1.5 percentage total fiber exposed in 5 percent H2SO4 solution.

Figure 5. Percentage weight losse with 1.0 percentage total fiber exposed in 5 percent Na2SO4 solution.

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S.No.
1 2 3 4 5 6

Mixed fiber (%) G.F


0 100 75 50 25 0

S.F
0 0 25 50 75 100

% weight loss at 30 days


1.7 1.14 1.22 1.28 1.48 1.56

% weight loss at 60 days


3.04 1.96 2.24 2.52 2.64 2.92

% weight loss % weight loss at % weight loss at at 90 days 120 days 150 days
4.06 2.86 3.14 3.24 3.52 3.68 5.7 3.44 3.64 3.96 4.48 4.88 7.18 4.82 5.14 5.44 5.68 6.34

% weight loss at 180 days


7.72 5.42 5.72 5.84 6.52 6.86

Table 6. Percentage weight loss in the specimens with 0.75 total fiber percentage exposed to 5 percent HCl solution

S.No.
1 2 3 4 5 6

Mixed fiber (%) G.F


0 100 75 50 25 0

S.F
0 0 25 50 75 100

% weight loss at 30 days


0.24 0.46 0.38 0.32 0.28 0.26

% weight loss at 60 days


0.27 0.52 0.48 0.4 0.34 0.29

% weight loss % weight loss at % weight loss at at 90 days 120 days 150 days
0.34 0.62 0.59 0.52 0.43 0.38 0.42 0.67 0.62 0.57 0.52 0.44 0.46 0.75 0.7 0.63 0.58 0.5

% weight loss at 180 days


0.53 0.82 0.75 0.7 0.66 0.57

Table 7. Percentage weight gain in the specimens with 0.5 total fiber percentage exposed to 5 percent Na 2SO4 solution

S.No.
1 2 3 4 5 6

Mixed fiber (%) G.F


0 100 75 50 25 0

S.F
0 0 25 50 75 100

% weight loss at 30 days


0.24 0.52 0.46 0.4 0.31 0.28

% weight loss at 60 days


0.27 0.6 0.54 0.49 0.47 0.39

% weight loss % weight loss at % weight loss at at 90 days 120 days 150 days
0.34 0.73 0.64 0.58 0.54 0.43 0.42 0.78 0.68 0.62 0.59 0.46 0.46 0.88 0.79 0.72 0.69 0.56

% weight loss at 180 days


0.53 0.9 0.84 0.77 0.74 0.62

Table 8. Percentage weight gain in the specimens with 0.75 total fiber percentage exposed to 5 percent Na2SO4 solution

Figure 5. Percentage weight losse with 1.5 percentage total fiber exposed in 5 percent Na2SO4 solution.

proportions in the same total fiber percentages shown in figure 7. The optimization in terms of surface deterioration with fibers is seen at 1.0 % total fiber percentage. The surface color of the specimens changed to whitish. The overall deterioration is more and denseness is less compared to the specimens exposed to hydrochloric acid and sodium sulphate solutions. The surface deterioration of the specimens immersed in 5 percent Hydrochloric acid solution is very much less compared to the specimens exposed in sulphuric acid. Brittleness of the surface is more compared to sodium sulphate solution exposed specimens. The increasing

Figure 7. Comparisons of surface deterioration of the specimens exposed to sulphuric acid solution

color change to red is observed with black patches with increasing exposed period and denseness is reduced but is better than sulphuric acid exposed specimens. Lesser texture deterioration in 75 % glass fiber and 25 % steel fiber were observed compared to other mix proportions in the same and other total fiber percentages. The glass fibers were less affected than steel fibers and the discoloration of the specimens to red is concluded

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due to dissolving of steel fibers or iron oxide as shown in figure 8. There was no deterioration of the surface of the specimens exposed to 5 percent sodium sulphate solution. The salt crystals deposits were observed on the surface as shown in figure 9.

are observed to have decreased strength when compared to unexposed specimens. Maximum strength was observed in specimens with 100 percent steel fiber. With decreasing glass fiber percentage in a total fiber percentage, the strength was found to be increasing. The control specimens are observed to have lesser strength when compared to specimens with fibers. The same trend was observed in all the total fiber percentages. The strength loss was observed to be increasing with maximum at 1.5 percent as shown in table 10. The strength of the specimens exposed to solution of 5 percent sodium sulphate was found to be higher when compared with unexposed specimens. The control specimens without any fibers and the specimens with fibers are observed to have more strength when compared with unexposed specimens. With decreasing glass fiber percentage the strength in the exposed specimens was found to be increasing as shown in table 11. The minimum strength was observed in the exposed specimens with 100 percent glass fiber. The maximum strength in the exposed specimens was observed with 100 percent steel fibers. Increase in strength was observed with increasing total fiber percentages in the specimens exposed to sodium sulphate solution. pH and conductivity effect With increasing period of exposure of the specimens, the pH value of the sulphuric acid solution was increasing compared to fresh solution without the exposed specimens. The conductivity of the solution decreases and was minimum at 180 days exposed age. With increase in period of exposure of the specimens, the pH value of the Hydrochloric acid solution was increasing compared to fresh solution without the exposed specimens. The conductivity of the solution decreases and was minimum at 180 days exposed age. The pH and conductivity of the solution of sodium sulphate with the exposed specimens was observed to be increasing at different exposed periods upto 180 days. The tables 12 and 13 show the results of pH and Conductivity. The solution of Na2So4 showed increase in alkalinity upto 180 days, with increase in both pH and conductivity indicating strength gain. The acidic nature of the acid solutions was observed to be decreasing with increasing period of exposure of the specimens. The higher pH values of the acids showed decrease in strength compared to unexposed specimens, indicating a lesser acidic solution. The conductivity suggests that the ions absorbed by the specimens relates to decreasing level of acidity of the solutions. High conductivity value gives less strength change. Hence concentration of acids and their molarity and normality are related with weight loss and strength change.

Figure 8. Deteriorated specimen exposed to 5 percent Hydrochloric acid solution

Strength effect Compared to unexposed strength, the specimens exposed to solution of sulphuric acid showed decreased strength at all the total fiber percentages in the mixed

Figure 9. Surface deterioration of the specimens in solution of sodium sulphate

proportion in a total fiber percentage. The control specimens showed lesser strength compared to all the specimens with fibers. The maximum strength was observed in specimens with 100 percent steel fiber. With increase in total fiber percentages the strength was observed to be increasing with maximum at 1.5 percent total fiber as shown in table 9. In a total fiber percentage the strength was found to be increasing as the glass fiber percentage was decreasing and the same trend is observed in all the total fiber percentages. The specimens exposed to Hydrochloric acid solution

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S.No.
1 2 3 4 5 6

Mixed fiber (%) G.F


0 100 75 50 25 0

Unexposed strength at 28 days N/mm2


0.5 46.3 55.16 57.18 58.99 60.79 61.12 0.75 46.3 57.27 59.45 61.28 62.56 63.7 1.0 46.3 59.01 61.08 62.56 64.12 65.24 1.5 46.3 59.77 60.53 63.52 65.75 67.77

Exposed strength at 180 days N/mm2


0.5 14.15 14.52 16.14 16.95 19.17 20.12 0.75 14.15 16.34 17.83 19.44 20.29 21.72 1.0 14.15 18.3 19.26 21 22.64 25.47 1.5 14.15 20.63 21.47 23.79 25.14 26.58

S.F
0 0 25 50 75 100

Table 9. Strength losses in the specimens exposed in 5 percent H 2SO4 solution with different total fiber percentages.

S.No.
1 2 3 4 5 6

Mixed fiber (%) G.F


0 100 75 50 25 0

Unexposed strength at 28 days N/mm2


0.5 46.3 55.16 57.18 58.99 60.79 61.12 0.75 46.3 57.27 59.45 61.28 62.56 63.7 1.0 46.3 59.01 61.08 62.56 64.12 65.24 1.5 46.3 59.77 60.53 63.52 65.75 67.77

Exposed strength at 180 days N/mm2


0.5 30.62 31.42 32.04 32.88 33.04 34.2 0.75 30.62 31.89 32.41 33.04 33.62 34.58 1.0 30.62 32.64 33.65 33.91 34.97 35.18 1.5 30.62 32.97 33.84 34.38 34.74 35.61

S.F
0 0 25 50 75 100

Table 10. Strength losses in the specimens exposed in 5 percent HCl solution with different total fiber percentages

S.No.
1 2 3 4 5 6

Mixed fiber (%) G.F


0 100 75 50 25 0

Unexposed strength at 28 days N/mm2


0.5 46.3 55.16 57.18 58.99 60.79 61.12 0.75 46.3 57.27 59.45 61.28 62.56 63.7 1.0 46.3 59.01 61.08 62.56 64.12 65.24 1.5 46.3 59.77 60.53 63.52 65.75 67.77

Exposed strength at 180 days N/mm2


0.5 52.74 57.53 60.74 62.57 64.27 67.76 0.75 52.74 59.06 62.03 65.44 66.14 68.84 1.0 52.74 61.45 63.26 66.14 67.03 70.55 1.5 52.74 61.73 64.3 67.08 69.64 71.91

S.F
0 0 25 50 75 100

Table 11. Strength losses in the specimens exposed in 5 percent Na 2SO4 solution with different total fiber percentages

Conclusions The following conclusions are drawn based on the experimental studies. The resistance of the control specimens without any fiber to sulphuric acid is higher when compared with 100 percent glass fiber reinforced specimens and the weight loss is more than two times to that of the specimens with 100 percent steel fiber. The resistance of the specimens to sulphuric acid with 100 percent steel fiber is maximum when compared to specimens without fiber and with other fiber proportions. In the mixed fiber specimens, the proportion of 25 percent glass fiber and 75 percent steel fiber exhibited higher resistance to sulphuric acid. The mixed fiber reinforced specimens and the specimens with 100 percent steel fiber when compared with control specimens exhibited more resistance to the sulphuric acid and this is true at all ages. The specimens in 75 % glass fiber and 25 percent -

steel fiber in 1 % total fiber percentage exhibited maximum resistance to sulphuric acid and this is the optimisation. Compared to the unexposed specimens to the sulphuric acid, the exposed specimens with fibers have lower strength at all ages. The exposed specimens with mixed fibers including specimens with 100 percent steel fiber have recorded better crushing strength compared to exposed control specimens. The resistance of the control specimens without any fibers to hydrochloric acid is lesser when compared with all the fiber reinforced exposed specimens. The weight loss is maximum in the control specimens at the age of 180 days exposure. The resistance of the specimens to HCl acid with 100 percent glass fiber is maximum when compared to specimens with other varying fiber proportions. In the mixed fiber specimens, the proportion of 75 percent glass fiber and 25 percent steel fiber exhibited higher resistance to HCl acid. The fiber reinforced specimens exposed to HCl acid exhibited more resistance when compared to control specimens without any fiber in

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S.No.

pH Values at Period of Exposure Type of Solutions Fresh 30 60 90 120 150 180 Days Days Days Days Days Days
5 % H2SO4 5 % HCL 5 % Na2SO4 0.78 0.52 7.40 0.83 2.73 8.17 0.85 2.98 8.28 0.87 3.24 8.38 0.90 3.55 8.67 0.93 3.78 8.93 0.98 3.94 9.42

1 2 3

lesser weight loss compared to other acids and higher strength due to the increasing values of pH and the decreasing value of the conductivity. The low acidic nature has given less weight loss and more strength to the exposed specimens to HCl acid. The increases in values of pH and conductivity of sodium sulphate solution have resulted in increased strength at all ages of exposure when compared to sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid exposed specimens. The higher alkalinity of the solutions gives higher strength to the fiber reinforced specimens. The crushed specimens showed better bonding due to the presence of fiber after exposure.

Table 12. Comparison of pH of solutions at different exposed periods of the specimens

S. Type of Conductivity Values at Period of Exposure(mscm) No. Solutions Fresh 30 60 90 120 150 180 Days Days Days Days Days Days
1 2 3 5 % H2SO4 5 % HCL 5 % Na2SO4 120.7 181.4 29.6 94 78.5 64.7 42.1 39.6 22 128.8 121.2 115.7 52.7 43.9 34.4 49.7 84.3 97.7 110.1 119.1 122.8

Table 13. Comparison of conductivity of solutions at different exposed periods of the specimens

Acknowledgement The authors wish to place on record the help provided by the managements and the academic teaching and non teaching faculties of Vasavi college of Engineering, Ibrahimbagh, and Deccan college of Engineering and Technology Darussalam, Hyderabad in the completion of this project. References
Adam Neville March 2001, Consideration of durability of concrete structures: Past, Present and Future, Materials and Structures/ Materiaux ET Constructions, Vol. 34, pp 114-118. O. Valenta 1970, From the 2nd RILEM Symposium Durability of concrete-In Prague, Materiaux et Constructions Vol. 3-17, pp 333-345 Miguel Angel Bermudez Odriozola, Pilar Alaejos Gutierrez, 2008, Comparative study of different test methods for reinforced concrete durability assessment in marine environment, Materials and Structures, 41: 527-541. Marcos Lanzon.P .A.Garcia-Ruiz 2010 Deterioration and damage evaluation of rendering mortars exposed to sulphuric acid, Materials and Structures 43:417-427 Pengfei Huang, Yiwang Bao, Yan Yao, 2005 Influence of HCl corrosion on the mechanical properties of concrete Cement and Concrete Research 35: 584-589 Jeewoong Kim, C. Vipulanandan, 2003 Effect of pH, Sulfate and Sodium on the EDTA titration of calcium, Cement and Concrete Research 33: 621-627 Fiber Concrete Materials, A report prepared by RILEM technical committee 19 FRC, Vol 10-N 56-MATERIAUX ET CONSTRUCTIONS, pp 103 - 120 ACI 544.5R-10, Report on the Physical Properties and Durability of Fiber Reinforced Concrete. ACI 544.2R-89, Measurement of Properties of Fiber Reinforced Concrete. IS: 516-1959, Methods of Tests for Strength of Concrete IS 5816, 1976. Method of Test for Splitting Tensile Strength of Concrete Cylinders. Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi, India.

terms of weight loss. With increasing total fiber percentage, the resistance of the exposed specimens to HCL acid is increasing upto 1.5 percent and this is true at all ages. The mixed fiber and the 100 percent steel fiber reinforced exposed specimens to HCl acid exhibited higher strength compared to exposed control specimens at all ages. The resistance of the control specimens without any fiber exposed to sodium sulphate solution is lesser when compared with fiber reinforced specimens. The weight gain is less when compared to specimens with fiber. The 100 percent steel fiber reinforced specimen exposed to sodium sulphate is more resistant when compared to 100 percent glass fiber reinforced specimens and the specimens with other mixed proportion. The weight gain of all the specimens is taking place and it is maximum in 1.5 percent at the age of 180 days. The unexposed specimens with and without fiber exhibited less strength compared to exposed specimens with and without fiber. The strength of 100 percent steel fiber specimen is maximum when exposed to sodium sulphate solution. With increasing period of exposure of the specimens with and without fibers in acids, the pH of the sulphuric acid is increasing and the conductivity values are decreasing compared to fresh acid indicating decreasing acidic nature of the acid with age. The higher acidic nature has given higher deterioration, more weight loss and less strength for the sulphuric acid exposed specimens. The specimens exposed to hydrochloric acid exhibited

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Treading the Green Line
M.K. Prabhakar, Associate Editor

t won't be a misnomer to say that the state of roads would offer, more or less a fair reflection of the state of economy of a country. Nowhere, else could this be more applicable than in the case of India, which has over the last decade embarked on its biggest

road building spree. Just as in the case with several other aspects of life, roads too offer a picture of contrast in India. While on one hand you have gleaming expressway projects with the latest

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Indolence in the construction of highways and deficiency in quality cannot be tolerated since the projects are associated with the progress of the country

Dr. Manmohan Singh


Prime Minister, India

models of cars and SUVs zipping around, you also have some remote locations in the country, where bullock carts still ride on mud roads. However, their numbers are gradually, but surely decreasing, with progressive governments realizing the importance of modern roads in speeding up the economic growth rate. The Ministry of Road Transport & Highways is expected to invite bids for developing almost 10,000 km of highways in 2011-12. Last fiscal the National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) had awarded bids for 5,083 km of highways. Out of the 10,000 km about 7,990 km would reportedly be taken up on a build-operate-transfer (BOT) model, with an estimated project cost of over 56,000 crore. The Prime Minister, Dr.Manmohan Singh has been urging speedy implementation of road projects without compromising on the quality front, in recent times. Dr.Singh had pointed out that, Indolence in the construction of highways and deficiency in quality cannot be tolerated since the projects are associated with the progress of the country. Speed is the buzzword these days, particularly after the Union Ministry of Road Transport & Highways had faced criticism over the slow progress of highway projects and with it being not able to keep up its word when it came to meeting the 20km of world-class

roads per day promise. The pace of awarding road projects has picked up recently and has been aided by initiatives such as the announcement of NHAI tax free bonds. The Union Minister of Road Transport & Highways, Dr.C.P .Joshi had recently remarked that, Mechanization is imperative to speed up India's infrastructure projects, echoing the sentiments of those at the top echelons of power who are keen to see road projects being completed on time. Coming to the aid of contractors for faster completion of road projects without compromising on the quality front have been the asphalt mix plants. The story of asphalt and concrete plants has been following a similar pattern in the Indian market over the past few years. For one, contractors these days want plants that can be set up easily or better still moved from one place to another with relative ease. Secondly, they want plants that would require the minimum of labour. Most importantly, they want plants which could process a variety of ingredients. This is particularly so in the case of asphalt mix plants, with Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) gradually becoming big business in India. The market for asphalt batch plants has

Mechanization is imperative to speed up India's infrastructure projects

Dr. C.P.Joshi
Union Minister for Road Transport & Highways

been growing steadily over the recent few years. The asphalt batching market in India is roughly in the range of ` 300-350 crore according to Mr.Blesson Varghese, Director, Marini India, a leading player in the fray, who also added in the same breath that the recent economic downturn has not affected the company's order book much. Mr.Varghese said, Being an international supplier for asphalt plants, we are used to the cyclical nature of markets. However in India the weaker dollar did affect the pricing of our products. The delay in projects and the economic slowdown did have an effect on our Indian orders; however we

Continued thrust to road construction comes as good news to asphalt plant suppliers

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As India expands its road network, road recycling is expected to pick up steam

orders from our existing customers, which indicates their trust and the impeccable performance of our products. According to industry analysts, the present economic slowdown notwithstanding, the market for asphalt batch plants is expected to keep a constant pace of growth pegged around 20%-25%, which is expected to grow throughout the 12th Five Year Plan period (2012-17), during which investments to the tune of US $ 1 trillion is envisaged in the infrastructure sector, a major chunk of which is expected to be pumped into the road construction sector. Rapid Growth There is perhaps no segment in the infrastructure development sector which has not been affected by the sustainability factor. Road construction projects and particularly road construction machinery are no different. The rising emphasis on going 'green' has meant that road recycling projects is becoming more commonplace these days. In fact, Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) is becoming big business in the country. Vast stretches of road are being dug up, asphalt re-processed and new roads are being built, leading to a

paradigm shift in the way roads are being constructed in the country. Asphalt mix plant suppliers have taken note of these changes in trends and are coming out with specific models of machinery to cater to this market segment. TIL, a leading name in the field of construction equipment, for example, has entered into a strategic agreement with Astec Inc, USA, to offer plants that are used in the process. Speaking about the USP of the company's asphalt batch plants, Mr.Nandagopal, the company's VicePresident, Equipment & Project Solutions, had explained during an interaction with The Masterbuilder that , The Astec Double Barrel dryer/mixer is a combination aggregate dryer and hot or warm mix asphalt mixer with high productivity and low operating cost. The ability of the Double Barrel drum mixer to run up to 50% RAP at lower fuel consumption makes it a very profitable in today's market of fluctuating fuel and liquid bitumen prices. Stricter environment norms along with an increasingly discerning customer who is keen on energy efficient machines, has meant that manufacturers are focusing on coming out with models that are not fuel guzzlers, while

at the same being environment-friendly. Gone are the days when asphalt batch plants were synonymous with particulate dust and emissions. Today's latest models come with a host of features including air filtration system, dust collection system, and waste reduction mechanism. Marini India's range of asphalt batch plants is a good example for machines that come with a host of 'green' features. Marini in fact offers over 50 different models of asphalt plants, one of the widest range in the world. In India, the company offers (a) mobile asphalt plants in the capacity range of 120/160/200 tph 3 models, (b) modular asphalt plants, in the capacity range of 160/200/240/320/ 360 tph-5 models, all of which are designed for recycled asphalt production (upto 45%) and futuristic mixes, according to Mr.Blesson Varghese, who also added that Marini India will also be launching a comprehensive range of latest technology continuous plants for its customers in India.

Being an international supplier for asphalt plants, we are used to the cyclical nature of markets. However in India the weaker dollar did affect the pricing of our products. The delay in projects and the economic slowdown did have an effect on our Indian orders; however we continue to get repeat orders from our existing customers, which indicates their trust and the impeccable performance of our products

Blesson Varghese
Director, Marini India

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Ironite Co. of India Ltd.

CE Asphalt Batch Plants

Suppliers are focusing their attention on this crucial area and coming out with different types of technology. Ammann Group , considered a world leader in asphalt batch plants for example is pioneering a technology which uses lesser heat to produce asphalt, than what was being done till now. Going into the details of the technology, during an exclusive one-on-one interaction with The Masterbuilder, Mr.Rolf Jenny, the Senior Vice President, Corporate Development of the Group said, We have been successful in introducing a technology with which asphalt can be produced at 115 degrees Celsius, instead of the usual 170 degrees Celsius,, which automatically means lesser fuel consumption, as well as emission. DMI Engineering, a South Korean company, represented by Vimtech Corporation in India, is another company that has been making rapid inroads with its range of technologically advanced asphalt batch plants. Along with portability, fuel efficiency and reduction in emissions has been the success mantra for suppliers in recent times. Portability One of the major factors that asphalt plant manufacturers have to keep in

mind is that more often than not asphalt batch plants are now also being used in far flung remote corners of the country. With initiatives like the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) and the various minor road projects that are executed by different state governments, mobility has become an important issue that suppliers have had to look into in recent times. The sheer geographical spread of the country and the fact that there is dearth of skilled labour has meant that manufacturers had to come out with product design features that would make asphalt plants easier to set up and run. While mobile and semi-mobile asphalt mix plants are the preferred choice in rural areas, stationary, large capacity models continue to be the choice at urban areas. The modular design of present day asphalt plants mean that the entire process to set up a plant has become a lot easier, when compared to what it was around a decade ago. Incorporation of latest technology has also meant that today it is lot easier for manufacturers to offer support services for their product offerings. In fact, the control panels in the latest models are connected to the internet and technical teams sitting in any corner of the world can now remotely

The Astec Double Barrel dryer/mixer is a combination aggregate dryer and hot or warm mix asphalt mixer with high productivity and low operating cost. The ability of the Double Barrel drum mixer to run up to 50% RAP at lower fuel consumption makes it a very profitable in today's market of fluctuating fuel and liquid bitumen prices

R. Nandagopal
Vice-President, Equipment & Project Solutions, TIL

access and set right an issue in an asphalt plant that is in a remote location. The Road Ahead With India now being ranked second in the world among developing countries in attracting private investment for infrastructure projects and with the country being in the midst of its most ambitious road building spree, the demand for asphalt batch plants is expected to exponentially increase during the 12th Five Year Plan period (2012-17). While on one hand, with project sizes increasing, industry analysts feel that there would be a corresponding rise in demand for higher capacity machines, on the other hand, there is also expected to be a increase in demand for mobile asphalt batch plants. The intense competition prevailing in the market means that manufacturers are always listening to feedback and coming out with newer technologies to cater to the needs. The coming few years is sure to witness intense competition leading to the announcement of breakthrough technologies.

TIL- Astec Double Barrel HMA plant

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CE Batching Plants

Clean and Green


Sustainable Hot Mix Plant

Marini Green

uch before sustainability became a buzzword in the industries world over, the asphalt industry especially in the west, had already initiated research and field trials that have constantly ensured the viability of asphalt as an environmentally sound construction material. The main reason for this runaway success is due to the asphalt mix's inherent recycle-ability. Asphalt pavement is unique not only in its recycle friendly nature but also its renewability. It is comprised of approximately 95 % aggregates (crushed rocks and sand) and about 5 % of bitumen. When asphalt pavement is reused in a new asphalt mix, just as the old aggregates become part of the aggregate content of the new mix, the

old bitumen is also rejuvenated and becomes an active part of the bonding glue that holds the new pavement together, resulting in preserving another valuable natural resource. These features and others make asphalt pavements a very unique material for recycling. No doubt today in the west it is the most recycled material. America alone, recycles around a whooping 100 million tons plus of old reclaimed asphalt road pavement with over 60 million tons reused in new asphalt mixes. The Road Ahead Unlike the west which enjoyed some breather to bring up their asphalt plants to meet the rising environmental needs, India definitely will not be able

Blesson Varghese
MD Marini India

New developments in asphalt production technology deliver phenomenal reduction in the amount of energy used and green house gases emitted during the mix production. As an industry leader in the manufacturing and development of technologies, MARINI is committed to providing sustainable asphalt production technologies and superior pavement performance for a better future.

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CE Batching Plants

to enjoy any such luxury of time. The rising global concern and pressure, due to the serious effect of climate change being experienced globally and the necessity to be environment friendly will force asphalt producers in India to jump the learning curve and deliver asphalt mixes which are sustainable. The legislation would be easy to bring in, however most asphalt mix producers, will not find it easy to produce such mixes, if the investment in to the equipment they make in today, is not geared to face such challenges. Ongoing concerns about the environment and sustainable development have led to significant changes in the design of hot-mix asphalt plants in Europe. Some of the most significant developments of recent years include: Improved control of emissions, including dust, with ever-diminishing tolerance levels and the control of volatile compounds such as PAH and Nox. Recognition of the contribution of certain gases, such as CO2 and Cox, to the greenhouse effect. The desire to develop designs that lead to significantly reduced energy consumption, both for heating purposes and for the drying of aggregates. The recognition of depleting natural resources, increasing a need for recycling, low carbon mixes etc.
Marini Asphalt plant

assist combustion technology is delivering Indian contractors a massive saving of up to 600,000 ltrs of fuel annually. The intuitively designed dryer internals coupled with this latest burner technology, adaptable to numerous greener fuels guarantees conformance to very strict emission levels. Recycling from 45 100 % These massive savings in fuel and carbon emissions are further extended to the next level by the ability to process high content recycled asphalt. The standard Marini MAC concept can process up to 45 % Recycled Asphalt. With an easy to add-on module, the MAC, can enable contractors to use up to 100 % recycled asphalt pavements, as shown in the below figure. The latest MARINI concept resulted in a plant with absolutely no duct between the filter and dryer unit other than a smartly designed pre-separator and a filler recovery system that is gravity-fed. These well thought designs coupled with a very efficient waste heat recovery system resulted in lower energy requirements for heating, such as a 4% saving for the burner due to a 10C reduction in the heating temperature, which translates to around 88 000 ltrs of fuel & subsequent reduction in carbon emissions annually under Indian production conditions. A strategically placed filler system which reduced the material transfer conveyors and moving components led to a 45% reduction in kW over this circuit. Another significant saving stems from the recovery of heat by induction, which is transferred to the top of the drum towards the filler storage unit. Heat losses were further curtailed by energy conserving designs on various units of the asphalt plant. Massive reduction in Fuel Consumption and Carbon Emission Marini MAC concept raised the industrys bar higher by using a special Flame Carving system on the burner unit. A dual air burner with Blue air

Marini Recycling 100%

Production of Low energy mixes The fantastic scalability of the MARINI MAC concept is very evident by the asphalt plants adaptability to Marinis new AQUA technology for production of Low energy mixes. A technology that reduces energy and fuel consumption up to 30 % and delivers significant reduction in carbon emissions. With just a simple add on to the standard MAC, the asphalt plant will be ready to produce Low energy mixes at a very low costs and without dependence on chemicals or patented technologies.

A very notable example of one of these technical solutions is the Marini Asphalt Compact Plant (MAC) concept, which specially features a dryer drum positioned alongside the bag filter and filler storage unit, as shown in the below figure.

For further details:


Marini India
E-mail: Info@marini.co.in Web: www.marini.co.in

MARINI Asphalt Compact

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B&B Machines

Road Equipments Industry Analysis

Road Construction Equipments:


Global Majors Flock to Tap Indian Demand
M.K. Prabhakar, Associate Editor

he road construction sector has witnessed a bumpy ride in the last few years. There was an initial euphoria when the government announced its plan of constructing 20 km of world-class roads in 2009. Then came a period of sluggish growth with a change at the top in the Ministry of Road Transport & Highways and NHAI finding it difficult to find sufficient number of bidders for many of its projects. The recent economic uncertainties were adding to the pressure. This is when the Prime Minister, Dr.Manmohan Singh,

realizing the crucial importance of roads in fuelling economic growth did a thorough review of the road sector in June 2011 and said that it was time action was initiated to bridge the deficit in both quality and quantity. His clarion call that roads are a vital infrastructure and despite improvements, the sector still needs efforts to upgrade the quality, as well as length of India's National Highway network buoyed the sector to a large extent. The process of awarding projects picked up steam subsequently and the road sector was

well and truly on the fast track. This was when the global economic uncertainties began to impact the Indian economy and finding funds for road projects became a challenging task for the authorities concerned. With the National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) deciding to raise up to ` 10,000 crore through Public Issue of Tax Free Redeemable Non-Convertible Bonds, things have started looking up for the road sector. According to the Union Minister for Road Transport & Highways,

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Road Equipments Industry Analysis

construction equipment market. Several European manufacturers for example, reeling under the impact of continuing recession in the European market have started focusing more on the Indian market. While overseas manufacturers were already there, recent times have witnessed an increase in the influx. India, along with the BRIC countries is expected to be one of the key markets for road construction equipment for global majors. Influx of Overseas Equipment Suppliers The inherent demand for infrastructure development has meant that the economic slowdown notwithstanding, industry experts believe that the market for construction equipment in general and road construction equipment in particular will have a steady growth rate. When quizzed about the recent economic downturn impacting the sales of road construction equipment , Mr.A.M.Muralidharan, Managing Director, Volvo India Pvt Ltd, subsidiary of Volvo CE, The Indian Construction equipment market has potential to grow six-seven times from total revenues of US $3 billion in 2012 to US$22.7 billion by 2020 and from over 60,000 units in 2012 to 330,000 in 2020.To realize this growth opportunity, the industry needs to have an

The Indian Construction equipment market has potential to grow six-seven times from total revenues of US $3 billion in 2012 to US$22.7 billion by 2020"

A.M.Muralidharan
Managing Director, Volvo India Pvt Ltd,

key customer requirements and forging strong partnerships with dealers and suppliers and building a strong manpower pipeline. Some of the key enablers to drive the construction equipment industry will be the role of government in speeding up projects, financing of construction equipment and key role played by Public-PrivatePartnership in projects. Volvo CE offers a wide variety of road construction equipment in India including, wheel loaders ( Tier 3 engine) 3 ton to 45 ton range, hydraulic excavators ( Tier 2)- 11 ton to 70 ton, compactors- vibratory soil compactors of 11 ton , vibratory

Dr.C.P .Joshi, about 21000 km of road projects are to be awarded by NHAI in the next 3 financial years. The ministry has pegged the target for financial year 2012 as 7300 km. This apart, around 1000 km of expressways in various parts of the country have been planned. With project deadlines and quality parameters getting stricter, the latest road construction equipment has come to the rescue of road contractors. In a strange way, the economic uncertainties elsewhere in the globe have had a positive impact

Road projects have gained importance due to thier direct influence over economic growth

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Road Equipments Industry Analysis

2009 Units Rs.cr

2010 Units Rs.cr Units

2011 Rs.cr

2012 Units Rs.cr

2013 Units Rs.cr

2014 Units Rs.cr

Asphalt Finishers Compaction Equipment Crawler Dozers Motor Graders Total Road Construction Equipment

920 2787 562 342 4611

322 418.1 505.8 212 1100

1150 3400 700 600 5850

402.5 510 630 372 1915

1350 3800 800 700 6650

472.5 570 720 434 2197

1500 4200 900 800 7400

525 630 810 496 2461

1600 4500 1000 900 8000

560 675 900 558 2693

1650 4800 1050 950 8450

577.5 720 945 589 2832

Demand for Road Construction Equipment in India as per Off-Highway Research

asphalt compactors of 8 ton to 10 ton capacity, motor graders (Tier 3 engine) 15 ton to 22 ton, articulated haulers (Tier 3 engine) 25 ton to 40 ton operating weight, paver finishers- 5.5m to 10 m and pneumatic tire rollers of 22 ton capacity in the country. The company had introduced six new products to the Indian market a few months ago including the locally produced EC210 B Prime and EC 290BLC Prime excavators, the 70 tonne EC700C crawler excavator, the DD100 and SD110 compactors, the LG 220 wheel loader and the P6820 asphalt paver. Giving his take on the topic of the recent economic slowdown affecting the sale of road construction equipment, Mr.Ramesh Palagiri, Managing Director and CEO of Wirtgen India, subsidiary of globally renowned Wirtgen Group, considered a pioneer in road construction

equipment, quipped, Irrespective of the economic slowdown, the recent contracts awarded for new road projects have been on the rise. Wirtgen India has registered a 20% growth last year and expects a 15 -20% growth this year too. The growth registered in the first half of last year was good, but the pace slowed down a bit in the second half. According to Mr.Ramesh Palagiri, Wirtgen Group offers a complete line of solutions for road building as well as rehabilitation like Wirtgen Milling machines, Wirtgen Soil Stabilizers, Recyclers, Wirtgen Slipform Pavers for concrete paving, Vogele range of pavers for asphalt and a complete range of compaction equipment from Hamm. Giving an example of machines that have been widely accepted in India, Mr.Ramesh Palagiri gave the example of the new

Irrespective of the economic slowdown, the recent contracts awarded for new road projects have been on the rise. Wirtgen India has registered a 20% growth last year and expects a 15 -20% growth this year too. The growth registered in the first half of last year was good, but the pace slowed down a bit in the second half

Ramesh Palagiri
Managing Director and CEO of Wirtgen India

India is fast emerging as the preferred choice of overseas road construction machinery suppliers

311 Soil Compactor manufactured at the company's new production facility near Pune, which is a machine specially designed for the Indian market with German expertise and which has been well accepted in the Indian market, with the company receiving positive feedback about the product from customers. According to Mr.Ramesh Palagiri, the company plans to launch production of tandem roller in India by the end of this year, followed by asphalt pavers. Infrastructure development continues to be the talking point in industrial, as well as political circles of the country. It has become imperative for the government to focus on infrastructure

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Universal Construction Machinery

Road Equipments Industry Analysis

There is tremendous potential for the construction equipment industry, given the infrastructure deficit in the country

Vipin Sondhi
Managing Director & CEO, JCB India

development, as a means to achieving and sustaining rapid economic growth. This is one factor that has led to a strong positive undercurrent flowing in the construction equipment industry, despite the economic ups and downs. According to Mr.Vipin Sondhi, Managing Director & CEO, JCB India, a market leader in road construction equipment, the fact that infrastructure is the key for growth has now become a dominant theme across political parties. JCB India is among the earliest global names that had set shop in India with an Indian subsidiary. The company is now considered a market leader in construction equipment in India. An optimistic Mr.Sondhi while speaking about the immediate future for the construction equipment industry, of which road construction machinery contributes a significant chunk, had remarked recently that, There is tremendous potential for the construction equipment industry, given the infrastructure deficit in the country. He further added that the Indian construction equipment industry is expected to grow at a compounded rate of about 21 % to reach the size of US $23 billion by 2020 from the present levels of about US $ 3.3 billion. JCB India offers a wide range of equipment catering to the road construction equipment. It had recently announced launch of new variants of its popular range of backhoe loaders consisting of models, 2DX,

3DX, 3 DX super, 3 DX xtra and 4DX. It has also recently added the JS 120, a 12 T tracked excavator to its already wide range of excavators. The compaction equipment offered by the company includes its soil compactor model- VM 115 and tandem roller models, VMT 850 and VMT 1860. As expected backhoe loaders still lead the race when it comes to the most extensively used type of construction equipment in the country. No road project in the country is today imaginable without the omnipresent presence of these versatile machines. Several leading global players are eyeing this particular product segment. One of the recent entrants has been Leyland Deere, a joint venture between commercial automobile giant Ashok Leyland and John Deere a global industry leader in construction equip-

Cognizant of India's huge appetite for construction and infrastructure development, we are well-placed and wellequipped to tap the huge potential that exists

Dr.V. Sumatran
Chairman, Ashok Leyland John Deere Construction Equipment Company Ltd and Executive Vice-Chairman, Hinduja Automotive Ltd

We have the ability as a global company to review components. In the short term we can review the total product offering, see how we might be able to enhance what we have already and incorporate anything new that the market may require. I guess we have the advantage of being a global business. We have the buying power, if you may call that, of getting the right components for product development from overseas and bring them here to our plant and then improve the product

Steve Crowe
Director Network Development and Communications of CNH International S.A

ment. The Leyland Deere 435 Backhoe Loader (BHL) launched by the joint venture is a feature rich model that has been designed to offer superior value by addressing critical considerations such as lower operating cost, higher productivity, and greater uptime. It is rugged in structure, powered by an Ashok Leyland engine of proven pedigree from the 'H' Series platform and replete with USPs like power shift transmission, best in class cabin with larger space, greater visibility, higher breakout forces, and greater dig depths, among others, according to the company. Going into the details of the joint venture , Dr.V.Sumatran, Chairman, Ashok Leyland John Deere Construction Equipment Company Ltd and Executive Vice-Chairman, Hinduja Automotive Ltd, had stated during the launch that , Cognizant of India's huge appetite for construction and infrastructure development, we are wellplaced and well-equipped to tap the huge potential that exists. Dr.Sumatran also hinted that the company could be extending its product portfolio and launching wheel loaders by 2013. Case New Holland Construction Equipment (India) Pvt Ltd, the Indian arm of CNH, considered a world leader in construction and agricultural equipment business, is another

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Road Equipments Industry Analysis

product at a competitive price. But I don't think we will ever be the one to offer products at the cheapest price. There has been a significant spurt in demand for almost every type of road construction equipment in the country. Along with backhoe loaders and compactors, motor graders for example, are another type of road construction machinery whose demand has gone up. Giving an insight into the market potential of motor graders, Mr. Sunil Sapru, President, LiuGong India, a leading player in the field pointed out, In today's construction industry,
Economic uncertainities, particularly in Europe has made several players look towards India for growth opportunities

leading global player that has major plans lined up for the Indian market. The company with its range of products such as backhoe loaders770 and 851, only loader- 770, three models of compactors and 770 extendahoe, is expected to make major inroads into the Indian market. Speaking to The Masterbuilder, Mr. Steve Crowe, Director Network Development and Communications of CNH International S.A when queried about the competition among backhoe loader suppliers and whether the company had made any modifications in feature to suit Indian conditions had

said, We have the ability as a global company to review components. In the short term we can review the total product offering, see how we might be able to enhance what we have already and incorporate anything new that the market may require. I guess we have the advantage of being a global business. We have the buying power, if you may call that, of getting the right components for product development from overseas and bring them here to our plant and then improve the product. Ultimately we wish to provide the market place with the best value for money that we can offer. The right

In today's construction industry, grading plays a more important role than it never has before. In reality this phase of construction represents the very foundation of construction industry. It is absolutely necessary to have a smooth and uniform surface to achieve uniform compaction and density. The market of motor grader in India has increased from 342 units to 450 and it is expected that it will reached to 900 units by the end of 2014

Sunil Sapru
President, LiuGong India

LiuGong's CLG418 is amongst its top-selling machines

grading plays a more important role than it never has before. In reality this phase of construction represents the very foundation of construction industry. It is absolutely necessary to have a smooth and uniform surface to achieve uniform compaction and density. The market of motor grader in India has increased from 342 units to 450 and it is expected that it will reached to 900 units by the end of 2014. The emphasis on quality and the

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Road Equipments Industry Analysis

Dozers are some of the most sort after equipment

subsequent introduction of several new road construction technologies too is playing a key role in increasing demand for road construction machinery. Soil stabilization for example is a technology that is fast finding an increasing number of takers in the country. Road construction equipment like motor graders, vibratory compactors and backhoe loaders are used in the process. Rockwell India for example, is a company that specializes in the field. The company had successfully completed a soil stabilization project for the Prestige Group on the outskirts of Bangalore near Nandhi Hills. Going into details about the project, Mr.Hara Kumar, Vice President Projects, of Prestige Group said that initially a stretch of 200 metres was done as a sample by Rockwell India. The company first analyzed the soil sample and gave recommendations for the mix ideally suited for the project. Going into the details of the project, Mr.Hara Kumar explained, Road construction equipment such as motor graders and vibratory compactors were used as part of the soil stabilization project. Once completed a quality check was done and the road was ready for use

even without topping. After the excellent results obtained during the sample project, the entire stretch of 7.4 km was completed in 2008, with the topping being done only recently in 2011, which speaks volumes about the quality of the road. More Players Expected The renewed thrust on awarding

Road construction equipment such as motor graders and vibratory compactors were used as part of the soil stabilization project. Once completed a quality check was done and the road was ready for use even without topping

Hara Kumar
Vice President Projects, Prestige Group

highway projects is expected to help the growth rate of road construction equipment market hovering around the 25%-30% mark in the next couple of years. Industry experts have pegged the size of the road construction market at approximately a volume of 2500 machines per year in recent times. The growth rate is expected to pick up steam by the end of 2012 with gradual improvement expected in the economy, which could invigorate the bidding process for road projects. Stricter project deadlines, without compromise on the quality front are another key factor that is expected to drive forward the momentum for road construction machinery. While entry of several new types of machinery was the highlight of the earlier decade, the next decade is when market churn is expected to throw up winners, while those not focused on quality and innovation expected to be relegated to the bottom rungs. Adding to the demand is a rapidly evolving rental market. Given the strong demand signals, it won't be a surprise if more overseas players set up shop in the country, either through formation of subsidiaries or through joint ventures with domestic players.

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Roshan Lal Jain & Sons (Roljack Industries)

Face to Face

Ace Infrastructure: Providing a Host of Infrastructure Equipment Solutions


ce Infra Pvt Ltd is a leading name in the field of infrastructure equipment related solutions in the country. The company has specialized expertise in offering long reach excavators for a variety of projects. It is also an authorized partner/dealer for equipment and attachment from Indian, as well as international sources. Ably led by a team of promoters having wide ranging experience in the industry, it has now grown on to become a preferred choice of customers looking for specialized construction and infrastructure equipment and attachments. The Masterbuilder recently spoke to Mr.Rajiv Mehta, Managing Director of the company about its product range, equipment solutions, and future plans. Here are excerpts from the interview.

Tell us about the typical application areas of long reach excavators? They are used in marine, coastal projects and near shore applications. The products are used across India and we have till date more than 35 installations ranging from 7ton till 120 ton class machines and from 9 meter till 29 meter long. How are Long Reach Excavators different from Conventional Excavators? We first try to use as little as modification as required on the base machine by using high strength material, this helps the overall weight of the attachment to be as near to the original as possible. It is not only the effect on the structure that the modifications are to be considered the

hydraulics and the other components and the system as a whole are to be considered. We design the full modification on a holistic manner. We also incorporate safety devices in the system to prevent overloading beyond an acceptable limit. For demolition we need special protection for cabin and in turn for the operator safety due to falling debris and suggest a full ROPS and safety cabin. Give us an insight into the technology behind amphibious excavators that helps them work without tripping over? Give us a few examples of projects where such specialized excavators have been used in India? The amphibious excavators use a failsafe technology for flotation and are incorporated with air tight flotation

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The Masterbuilder - February 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in

Face to Face

chambers which have a 1.5 times safe flotation. The machines are further fitted with integrated 4 x4 drive system (an industry first and patented design) for working in sludge and slurry without getting bogged down. It can also climb a high degree gradient and are fitted with hydraulic spuds system to work while fully floating as well. The equipment is sold by us and 3 units are being operated in India by a rental company on projects across the country since last 2 years. Self elevating cabin for excavators is another area that your company specializes in. What are the advantages of an elevated cabin and typically what are the application areas? For high reach, long reach and deep excavation the operator vision is limited by physical constraints and he has to stretch his neck to see the machine movement, in order to assist him we have elevating cabin and to further assist him we have HD video camera to assist the operator. The application areas are long reach demolition, and deep teledipper usage. Since you deal with highly specialized

equipment, do you also provide training for operating these machines? Sure. The basic operator training and equipment service and maintenance training is provided to the machine operators and owners representatives. How do machine control systems help in improving productivity of excavators? Machine control systems are the future and are very important, for this we have tied with a multinational company to provide tried and tested, simple, 2D and 3D machine control systems ranging from very simple to very sophisticated systems which incorporate RTK GPS, lasers, compound sensors, optical and visual sensors, angle and multi axis inclinometers, all linked on canbus to the control system in the cabin and linked by GPRS to the control system at the head office / site office and to our principals in Europe as desired or required. Tell us about your recent R & D achievements? What is being sold and promoted is R&D done yesterday. We are continuously working with customers

We proudly call ourselves the Imagineering Infrastructure specialists who are in the field to offer custom solutions from concept to prototyping to implementation

Rajiv Mehta
MD, Ace Infrastructure Pvt Ltd

for their requirements and striving to offer cost effective solutions to them. We proudly call ourselves the' Imagineering Infrastructure' specialists who are in the field to offer custom solutions to customer requirements from concept to prototyping to implementaion. We also run a small fleet of our own machines on which we install the solutions to fine tune them and then offer the same to the customer for sale after successful field trials. Recently we have launched a product called the Viber: Vibro Ripper after more than 10000 hours of field testing from sub-zero temperature to extreme hot temperatures. We work closely with experts in the industry in more than 11 countries to offer the customers 'the right solution, and together with them carry out R&D in India and abroad.

For further details:


Ace Infrastructure Pvt. Ltd.
113 MAMA Parmanand Marg, 603 AMAN Chambers, Mumbai - 400004. Ph: +91-22-23637493
Fax: +91-22-23633932

A Vibro Ripper in Action

E-mail: info@aceinfra.com Web: www.aceinfra.com

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CE New Roll-Out

Solid Cat 770G & 772G Off-Highway Trucks Now in India


aterpillar, a global market leader in construction and mining equipment has always been known for its innovative and wide product range. Its latest offerings for the Indian market, the New Cat 770G and 772G offhighway trucks comes with the same promise of solid performance, superior reliability and durability. Speaking about the new products, Mr. Eric Hardin, Product Manager, Hauling Systems - Growth Markets Caterpillar Mining Products Division said, We see great prospects for continued growth in mining equipment sales in India as the demand for coal and metal is relatively high. For Caterpillar we are tapping this segment crucially to emerge as leaders. Sharing similar views, Mr.Sidharth Mande, Director, Corporate Affairs, Caterpillar India said, We see tremendous amount of growth opportunities in India for Caterpillar and its dealers, resulting from the government's aggressive plans for infrastructure development. Expressing his views on the offhighway truck models, Mr. Philip Pollock Global Construction & Infrastructure Marketing Manager, Caterpillar Asia Pacific, observed, The 770G and 772G off-highway trucks will be manufactured in India and marketed to customers

around the globe. They will be offered to Indian customers from April 1, 2012. The new Cat 770G Off-Highway Truck is a 40Ton class model designed and built for demanding construction, quarry and mining applications. The 770G features an efficient Cat C15 ACERT engine, and drive train configured to deliver high production and low cost per tonne of material hauled. The engine produces 365 kW (489 hp) and is available with two different emissions control strategies to suit the customers' needs. The 772G builds on the proven performance of the 772, which was introduced in 2006 and accumulated hundreds of thousands of hours moving materials. The C15 engine powers the truck efficiently even on steep grades. Electronically controlled power train components provide torque-controlled shifts that enable the truck to climb grades quickly and to keep the operator comfortable. The 770G offers retarding strategies that include Automatic Retarder Control and optional engine braking. Both systems increase the comfort level of the operator and the speed of the truck going downhill. For applications where roadway conditions are slippery, the optional Traction Control System automatically compensates for different

wheel speeds and effectively reduces wheel spin. The 770G has optional, wide stairway access, which makes getting to and from the cab and maintenance platforms a simple task. Lights for the stairs are available. Two different cab options are available to enable customers to stick to basics or to select from a wide range of options. The cab provides rollover protection and falling object protection for the operator. The Cat Work Area Vision System (WAVS) camera system is available to enhance the operator's view around the truck. The optional Cat Comfort Series III seat adjusts to all sizes of operators and allows the operator to select the suspension characteristics. A trainer's seat in the cab facilitates thorough training. A number of design features have been incorporated in order to keep truck costs down by the company. The 770G has extended service intervals, which reduce downtime and maintenance costs. The new Cat 772G is a 50 ton class model that has been designed and built for demanding construction, quarrying and mining applications. At the heart of the new truck is the Cat C18 ACERT engine, which produces 421 kW (565 hp) and is available with two different emissions control strategies to suit the customer's needs. A number of optional monitoring systems are designed to optimize application of the truck and to provide useful information about productivity and machine health. The Truck Production Management System helps the operating crew to effectively manage load for optimum productivity. Optional Product Link reports machine status and aspects of machine health to an internet site accessed by the Cat dealer and the customer. Similarly, the VIMS option monitors and reports machine health to designated managers. The optional system for monitoring tonne-kilometers per hour can extend tire life.

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Atul Fasteners Ltd

Site Management Waste Recycling

Recycling of Construction & Demolition Waste: An Overview

Mohan Ramanathan, B.Tech., M.S. (USA)


Managing Director, Advanced Construction Technologies

onstruction activities generate over million tones of construction and demolition (C&D) materials each year. These materials contain a lot of reusable materials. If not properly managed, they will become wastes, a burden to the society, which will be extremely expensive to handle and will occupy precious landfill space. This paper contains an overview of the concept on waste management and how proper waste management plan at the life cycle of construction can reduce its generation, maximize its direct reuse, increase the opportunity for recycling and reduce the need and hence the cost for its disposal as waste.

Recycling can turn the otherwise waste materials into usable products, which can help conserve our natural resources for our next generations and for the sustainable development of the society. However, success on recycling takes time and requires a proper waste management plan at global level and the general acceptance of the recycled products. This paper will cover some overseas experience and the experience in India. Construction activities generate huge amount of construction and demolition (C&D) materials each year. The activities include site formation, tunneling works, demolition of building and structures,

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Site Management Waste Recycling

decoration and reconstruction works, new construction and maintenance works. Most of these materials are inert materials such as earth, rocks and concrete, which can be reused or recycled. Even timbers and wooden materials can be reused or recycled if properly handled. In the old days, when the materials were scare and expensive in comparison to labour costs, lots of these C&D materials had been salvaged and reused through balance cut and fill, rehabilitation, reclamation, reuse of brick and masonry, reuse of timber and wood to its maximum potential. With the prosperity and rapid development of a society, the society has become more and more extravagant and less concern on conservation
of natural resources. Factors contribute to this situation are.

Strategy In order to minimize the adverse impact, both social and environmental, most developed countries have formulated their own strategies on management of waste at national level. Such measures include. Mandating adoption of waste management plan at national level, such as in Germany, Denmark and Hong Kong. Setting target on achievement on recycling by stages. Imposing heavy tax on waste disposal. Imposing aggregates tax to encourage use of recycled aggregates Increasing effort in education and information on waste reduction and recycling to identify and exploit the opportunities of recycling and overcome the barriers and obstacles due to conservatism.

Lower cost in quarrying of natural resources due to modern machines. Low import cost of aggregates from neighbouring developing regions. Demolition of buildings and structures long before the end of its designed or useful life. Base "use and throw way" habit. Tight development programme for quick financial return. Improper or lack of waste management.

Generally speaking, the following strategy in hierarchical orders are adopted by most countries. Minimizing the generation of waste in the first instance. Reusing the C&D materials in its original from as far as possible. Recycling with minimal input of energy. Disposing of the waste environmentally, with waste to landfills.

As a result, lots of natural resources were drained away as waste and required extra expense and resource to handle and accommodate. Worst still, it will not only create environmental and social problems, the society will consume the remaining natural resources at a much faster rate than is necessary. There is therefore a need for proper waste management for the sustainable development.

Waste Management Plan For successful implementation of the waste management strategy, it is required to formulate, implement, monitor and review of a Waste Management Plan during the whole life cycle of the projects. In advance countries, such as Germany and Denmark, Waste Management Plan has not only established at corporation level and project level, it has been extended to state level or even high to show the determination and commitment on waste management. In general, the waste management plan should cover activities at all stages, from conceptual and planning stages, through design and construction stages, and to maintenance and reconstruction stages. Waste minimization, reuse, recycling and disposal should be well planned and implemented, monitored and reviewed at all stages, with life cycle cost on waste disposal taken into consideration. In Hong Kong, the Government has issued technical circular requiring the implementation of waste management in public works projects. The Government is also encouraging the private sector to adopt the same. In addition, there is also drive to motivate financial incentive on management and reduction of waste by implementation of construction disposal charging scheme.

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Reuse In the old days, people had every endeavour to make the best use materials available and had every incentive to maximize the use of natural resources. In underdeveloped countries, people treat every piece of masonry, brick or tile, rock and crushed concrete as valuable. During the demolition, they will take down the bricks and good tiles carefully. striping out the mortar and properly stacked aside for reuse later. Even in advance countries, wooden doors can be carefully salvaged by adopting selection demolition, with the salvaged doors for reuse or resale in the 2nd hand market or 3rd or 4th world markets. Wooden planks or timbers can also be trimmed to size for appropriate reuse. Topsoil can be saved for gardening or landscaping use, while earth or rubble can be reused in site formation or reclamation if feasible. Recycling Apart from those valuable metals such as steel rebars and aluminum window frames, which have high scrape value, rubbles and demolished concrete can be processed into recycled rockfill or aggregates for use in construction. To avoid unnecessary waste of energy resources, only those materials with marketable value should be recycled. In most countries, 90% of the demolition construction materials consist of concrete and masonry, which are recyclable. Depending on the types of construction, some buildings were made of mostly masonry while some others were made mostly with concrete. To avoid mixing recyclable materials with nonrecyclable one, it is recommended to separate them at source by selective demolition and on-site sorting, as sorting highly mixed materials at the receiving ends is extremely expensive and not environmental friendly. Recycling Practice Although different countries adopt different practices to

Waste Minimization Minimization of waste should commence at the onset of the project. This includes better planning layout, balanced cut and fill, use of precast construction, reuse and recycling of C&D materials on site with the minimal import and export. For redevelopment, rehabilitation of old building and structures should be considered during town planning to increase its useful life without the need for demolition. Demolition can also be avoided by redesignating disused or no longer functioned buildings and structures for appropriate usage. Adopting recyclable materials at the onset of the projects will cut down overall waste in the life cycle of the project. Further avoidance of waste can be done by proper procurement, handling and storing of construction materials on site during construction. In addition, adopting selective demolition and on-site sorting will maximize the potential for reuse and recycling and hence reduction in waste. Systematic and proper maintenance can slow down deterioration and prolong the useful life of building and structures to delay the process needed for reconstruction.

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Nina Concrete Systems Pvt Ltd

Site Management Waste Recycling

suit their own situations, the recycling practices can be broadly classified in the following categories. Adopting on site recycling and reuse with minimal import and export of construction materials for large reconstruction projects.

using recycled aggregates in concrete production. Promotion Acceptance on using recycled materials takes time and promotion is required. Some overseas countries have taken 10 to 15 to develop the markets on recycling. In order to overcome the barriers and obstacles arising from conservatism and lack of confidence, education and information are the most important means to identify and exploit the opportunity on promoting recycling. It is necessary that the message and understanding of recycling be discussed at universities, technical institutes, amongst enterprises and public servants. Information centre should be set up for the transparent sharing of information and know-how on the development and use of recycled aggregates. In Hong Kong, the Government has taken the lead to liaise with the key players including concrete producers, contractors, academics and government department to collect information such as test data and research results for disseminating via the web connection

Examples: During the reconstruction of super highways (outbound) in Germany, old concrete pavements were broken up and processed at a pre-planned nearby recycling site, with recycled aggregates used in producing concrete Grade 45 in an adjacent batching plant for use in new pavement construction. The advantages of this arrangement are: Minimal export of waste and minimal import of raw materials Minimal addition of traffic loading on existing busy road networks. Energy saving due to reduction on fuel consumption by lorries. Reduced noise and air pollution due to least generation of traffics and fuel consumption. Maximization on the recycling potentials and values due to no mixing of high quality demolished materials. Adopting on site crushing with recycled products used in other projects or for re-sales. Collecting and stockpiling recyclable materials, then hiring mobile crushers for processing. Establishing centralized recycling facilities. Establishing recycling facilities within landfill site, with truck delivering C&D materials into the landfill site and collecting recycled products at exit (e.g. Denmark)

Applications Based on overseas experience and the experience in Hong Kong, recycled aggregates have lots of applications, running from high value applications such as use in concrete production and manufacture of concrete paving blocks and kerbs, to low end use as road sub-base materials, rockfill, filters, pipe bedding, in-fill to stone columns. However, the acceptance in high value application is slow in most parts of the world due to barriers and obstacles arising from conservatism and lack of confidence in using new construction materials. Fortunately, the American Concrete Institution (ACI) and the European Union in the frame of RILEM" have been farsighted enough to establish ground works on sustainable concrete with use of recycled aggregates. In Hong Kong at least 4 ready mixed concrete producers have experienced in producing recycled concrete up to Grade 40 for use in public works projects despite a slow start of

Conclusion Natural resources are not unlimited and will be depleted with time. Unnecessary wasting of natural resources should be restricted and regulated. Formulating and implementing proper waste management plan throughout the life cycle of the projects can minimize waste. With an integrated resource management, most of the construction and demolition material can be recycled and more natural resources can be conserved for our next generations. The success of recycling and using recycled materials in high value applications requires promotion by means of education and information, in addition to statutory rules from the concerned authorities.

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Diabu Diamond Tools (India) Pvt Ltd

Concrete Cutting Tools

On The Cutting Edge:


Bhavani Balakrishna

The Indian Concrete Core Cutting & Drilling Industry

rofessional methods of concrete sawing and drilling are prevalent in countries like USA, Japan, Australia and Europe. In India, it is still a young but growing industry. Due to an increased spending on infrastructure projects and residential & commercial construction, India holds tremendous potential in terms of diamond tools and concrete sawing and drilling. Another critical factor inducing the adoption of such sophisticated methods is the constantly rising labour costs. In the last decade, concrete and construction industry has experienced sharp increases in labor rates and overhead expenses. Given the high

labor and overhead costs involved in most sawing and drilling operations, the speed with which the job is done has become vital. Using outdated cutting &drilling techniques and drilling equipment that heavily relies on guessing and operator trial and error only lead to waste of money and time. Today, in order to remain competitive, the contractors are under pressure to embrace more sophisticated methods of concrete sawing & drilling. Themarket for floor saws, wall saws and high powered drilling machines are in a nascent stage today but growing at about 40% per annum as the cost of labor rises, the use of machines to

speed up work and increase productivity and quality of work will increase phenomenally. Presently about 600 machines Floor Saws, Wall Saws and High Powered Drilling Machines are in operation. Low Powered Hand Held Drilling and sawing are in many thousands and it is very difficult to give even an approximate number. M.Venkatesh, Executive Director, Diabu Diamond Tools Concrete Core Cutting Significance Professional diamond concrete cutting systems can provide significant advantages over conventional concrete removal methods. These include

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Concrete Cutting Tools

Diamond Cutting Systems Theme

Conventional Removal Systems

Fast and fewer Operators Pre-outage work possible Cuts rebar and other metals Dimensional Tolerance Precise Cuts Limited patchwork required Structural Integrity Vibration free

Slow and labor-intensive Pre-outage work not possible Metal cutting required Uncontrolled openings Extensive patchwork required High impact vibration causes microfractures of concrete

Ability to remove large amounts of concrete Potential damage to remaining structures of nearby equipment while maintaining structural integrity Noise, Dust and Debris Non-disruptive to surrounding operations and relatively quiet Pieces cut to size Dust free Large bulk removal capability Accessibility and Maneuverability Remote operations possible Cuts in close space Underwater operations possible Easily cuts around existing pipes, existing electrical fixtures and equipment Inflexible equipment Restricted movement Underwater operations difficult or impossible Difficult to work around piping and equipment Disruptive and loud Creates rubble Extremely dusty Time-consuming clean-up

reduced downtime, precision cutting, maintenance of structural integrity, reduced noise, dust and debris, limited-access cutting, and the ability to cut heavily-reinforced concrete. Market Trends

players in the core cutting arena. Most of them are extensions of worldwide manufacturers such as Hilti, TYROLIT, Husqvarna and Diabu. As in any other industry, the market is flooded with Chinese equipment and fly by night traders who sell low cost, low quality machines from China with

making quick money. These machines, however, have no after sales support nor are the machines suited and designed to work in the Indian environment. Mr. Akhil Jain, authorized and exclusive distributor of Husqvarna's power tools in India says, Users with low budget prefer to go for low quality Chinese makes but only end up spending more on repairs. With respect to manufacturing facilities in India, only about 25% are manufactured indigenously, the rest imported and the bulk coming from China. Hilti which acquired Bhukhanvala Diamond Systems in 2010 is using it as its manufacturing facility to further develop and expand the production facility for diamond tools and disks and to strengthen its position in the Indian diamond consumables market. HILTI was the pioneer in introducing diamond coring technology in India. Over the last five to ten years, the technology has matured to a stage where even on residential sites, coring is the preferred technology for fast, vibration-free penetrations. We currently see the market for coring at more than 50 crores. Shyam Raghunandan, Head Marketing, Hilti India

Picture Courtesy: civildefence.govt.nz

HILTI was the pioneer in introducing diamond coring technology in India. Over the last five to ten years, the technology has matured to a stage where even on residential sites, coring is the preferred technology for fast, vibrationfree penetrations. We currently see the market for coring at more than 50 crores.

Shyam Raghunandan
Head Marketing, Hilti India

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Concrete Cutting Tools

Business Head - Construction at TYROLIT India Superabrasives Tools Selecting the Right Tool Selecting the right blade (for the saw, the material and the job) is the most important factor in getting maximum performance. Many other variables also affect blade performance. Changing any variable will have an effect on cutting speed and blade life. Blades and drills are classified on the basis of power of the machines as Low Power, Medium Power and High Power. Different machines and different applications require different blade specifications. Blades and Drills are also differentiated on the basis of quality of diamonds and bonds used as Basic (*), Standard (**) and Premium (***) Quality Lines. Concrete cutting being an application oriented process, blades are supplied as per end application requirement and job site requirements. The main concrete cutting tools that are utilized include the wall (or track) saw, the flat

Manval Goel, Business Head Construction at TYROLIT India Superabrasives Tools believes the market size of controlled concrete dismantling in India is close to INR 120 crores. This includes branded and unbranded market as well. TYROLIT has a wide range of core cutting electric, hydraulic and petrol driven machines. TYROLIT's machines can do drilling up to 1000 mm diameters. Its Ultimate Drilling Machine (UDM) is a selfpropelled gasoline driven hydraulic machine highly suitable for drilling at runways. TYROLIT has 27 Global Production Units and its core cutting machines and drills are manufactured in Switzerland, Austria, U.S.A. and other parts of the world. These machines come with a manufacturing warranty of 12 months. Also these are quite sturdy machines and require very low maintenance. TYROLIT's Unique Service Concept provides some of the service requirement at site to take care of emergency Breakdowns. Diabu Machines has recently entered the Indian market. Designed

keeping in mind the Indian working conditions and the Indian operator, Diabu's floor saws, wall saws and drilling machines are built on the platform of robust, rigid and high productivity. Diabu uses top quality and right configuration steel, long life and maintenance free bearings, dust and water protected motors, bearings and all sliding and rotating parts. Most if not all fasteners are made from either stainless steel or rust proof and high tensile steel. Apart from being user friendly, maintenance is also very simple with easy to access grease and oil points. There is a significant need for education about controlled dismantling as a technology in the construction industry. Other challenges relate to acceptability and adaptability of the technology in some of the major projects, drilling and sawing vis--vis the conventional chisel and hammer, economics associated with the technology as this is expensive, application with illiterate labor and localized availability of the technology. Manav Goel,

There is a significant need for education about controlled dismantling as a technology in the construction industry. Other challenges relate to acceptability and adaptability of the technology in some of the major projects, drilling and sawing vis--vis the conventional chisel and hammer, economics associated with the technology as this is expensive, application with illiterate labor and localized availability of the technology.

Manav Goel
Business Head - Construction TYROLIT India Super abrasives Tools

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Hilti India Pvt Ltd

Concrete Cutting Tools

(or slab) saw, the core drill, and the wire saw. Wall sawing is typically specified to cut precise dimensional door, vent and window openings. Straight as well as bevel cuts are possible with the wall saw. The wall saw is also an excellent choice for creating precise openings in any concrete structure. Flat sawing is typically used to cut horizontal flat surfaces such as floors, bridge decks, and pavement. Flat saws are typically used to provide expansion joints, remove damaged pavement sections, clean and repair random cracks for repair, and remove concrete sections for demolition purposes. Core drilling techniques are used when precise, circular cuts are needed such as openings for plumbing, electrical and HVAC installations, creating holes for routing cables or placing anchoring bolts, installing load carrying devices or dowel bars, or for concrete sample analysis. Wire sawing can be used for removal of thick sections of concrete. It is ideal for removing large sections of heavily reinforced concrete, such as piers, towers and bridge sections, and cutting concrete in areas where work space is restricted. Often the decision of cutting wet or dry depends on ones preferences and job requirements. While most sawing or drilling is wet, conditions such as water scarcity in sites, requirement to keep the site clean of water/slurry due to proximity with existing office/ factory /commercial/residential space, proximity to electrical or other such dangerous areas may warrant dry cutting. However, cautions Mr.Venkatesh of Diabu, If the cutting is dry it is always advisable to use saws that are laser welded or atleast have special reinforced brazing. Using such blades ensure that the extremely high heat generated during dry cutting does not damage the blade which may also cause injury and cause accidents. Apart from the type of cutting and dry or wet cutting, types of concrete also influence the decision in choosing a blade. The length of curing time after concrete is poured greatly affects the way a diamond blade will interact with it

during cutting. Curing can be affected by weather (temperature, moisture and time of year) and the composition (admixtures, aggregate and sand). Cured concrete is typically set at least 48 hours. The sand is completely bonded with the mortar and the concrete reaches full hardness. Concrete is typically in its green state for 6 to 48 hours after it is

On the service front, Prime Technologies has a band of service engineers who are always roaming and actively engage themselves in providing solutions and technical advice to clients. They are also involved in training the dealers and customers' maintenance personnel. They perform an important role in the day-to-day operation of our company.

Akhil Jain
CEO, Prime Technologies

poured. In this early state, the sand is not completely bonded with the mortar and the concrete doesn't reach full hardness. When cutting green concrete, the sand loosens more readily, and flows more freely in the slurry, and produces much more abrasion on a diamond blade. Undercut protection is critical when cutting green concrete to prevent excessive wear on the steel core at the segment weld. Green concrete sawing is common when working on new construction projects such as; motorways, runways, driveways & industrial flooring Both the size and type of aggregate have a great impact on the overall hardness of concrete and the blade to choose. The aggregate can make up as much as 75% of the total volume. As a general rule, larger aggregate tends to make the concrete act harder, slowing drilling process. Smaller aggregates tend to make a blade cut faster. Sand is part of the aggregate mix, and determines the abrasiveness of concrete. "Small aggregate" is usually sand. Sand can either be sharp (abrasive) or round (non-abrasive). To determine the sharpness of sand, you need to know where the sand is from. Crushed sand and bank sand are usually sharp; river sand is usually round.

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Tyrolit India Superabrasive Tools Pvt Ltd

Concrete Cutting Tools

Selection for core drilling operation will also requires knowing the diameter of the final hole required, surface finish of the drilled hole, surface and accessibility of the drilling area. Tool horsepower, tool reliability and ease of use are also essential for selecting the right tool, adds Mr. Shyam Raghunandan of Hilti, India. Manav Goel, of TYROLIT summarizes, Overall, factors like diameter of the core, length of the core, power and speed of motor, percentage reinforcement, grade of concrete, horizontal or vertical drilling, weight of the machine, anchor or vacuum fixation help in deciding which concrete core cutter to use for the project. Conventional concrete cutting and drilling methods generated large amounts of dust. While wet cutting or drilling operation does not generate dust as it uses water, the instance of dust is almost totally avoided. However, the slurry generated has to be cleaned regularly. For dry cutting, most manufacturers have dust extraction systems as accessories.

Installation, Maintenance & Service Support Apart from saw speed, the ease of transport and installation comes into play in jobsites that have single doors or window openings to be cut out or where the saw has to be constantly moved from one floor to the next. Some machines work in a modular system thus bringing in certain advantages, as the single component can be easier transported and installed. With respect to costs, these machines are not very expensive machines and if regularly maintained, the cost of maintenance can be kept as low as any machine an annual spend of about 6% - 10% of the price of the machine. The trend is clearly lighter, lesser, faster and more profitable. But what comes with this development is a stronger demand that operators be trained effectively. Also, contractors should be made aware or there should be professionals who can recommend the best techniques and equipment for the most efficient and cost-effective cutting at any stage of the project.

Themarket for floor saws, wall saws and high powered drilling machines are in a nascent stage today but growing at about 40% per annum as the cost of labor rises, the use of machines to speed up work and increase productivity and quality of work will increase phenomenally. Presently about 600 machines Floor Saws, Wall Saws and High Powered Drilling Machines are in operation. Low Powered Hand Held Drilling and sawing are in many thousands and it is very difficult to give even an approximate number.

M.Venkatesh
Executive Director, Diabu Diamond Tools

On the service front, Prime Technologies has a band of service engineers who are always roaming and actively engage themselves in providing solutions and technical advice to clients. They are also involved in training the dealers and customers' maintenance personnel. They perform an important role in the day-to-day operation of our company. Akhil Jain, CEO, Prime Technologies. Outlook Modern concrete sawing and drilling cutting tools have many advantages. With the major emphasis on speedy of completion of jobs as labour becomes the single biggest cost, manufacturers are expected to provide equipment that is faster, more powerful, more efficient and automated wherever possible. The same trend is clear with concrete cutting tools, where speed no longer remains the only greatest asset.

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Saifi Group

Face to Face

Cutting Edge Solutions for the Demolition Industry


a-vis the global market? How is the competition? The Indian market is still developing as compared to the other Western World market. The drilling and cutting market is related to the construction industry and Indian construction industry is poised to grow at 12-15% annual growth. As for competition we have both branded players as well as unbranded players which consists of Chinese and Korean Players, who do not have defined set up in India and are operating through local distributors. Are these core cutting machines and drills manufactured indigenously or imported? We have 27 Global Production Units. Our Core Cutting Machines and drills are manufactured in Switzerland, Austria, U.S.A. and other parts of the world. Other business and technical challenges faced by the industry? Some of the Challenges which are faced by our industry are as follows: Education about controlled dismantling as a technology in the construction industry Acceptability and adaptability of the technology in some of the major projects Drilling and sawing vis--vis chisel and hammer Economics associated with the technology as this is expensive Consideration of drilling and sawing activity before the start of the project. Application with illiterate labor Localized availability of the technology

Manav Goel
Business Head, SBU Construction Division Tyrolit India Superbrasive Tools Pvt. Ltd.

yrolit is a leading manufacturer of diamond tools, concrete cutters, and dismantling equipment globally. The company's range of solutions in grinding, cutting, drilling, honing, dressing, and polishing, has seen it make rapid inroads into the Indian market in recent times. Speaking exclusively to The Masterbuilder, Mr.Manav Goel, Business head, SBU Construction Division, Tyrolit India Superabrasive Tools Pvt Ltd, gave detailed insights into the product range that the company is offering in India, the trends in the Indian market, and what makes the Tyrolit product range different from others. Here are excerpts from the interview. Could you provide an estimate on the market size of controlled concrete dismantling in India (across applications like wall sawing, wire sawing, concrete slab cutting and concrete core drilling)? We think the Total market size is close to INR 120 cr. This market is definitely made up of Branded and Unbranded Market as well. How mature is the Indian market vis-

When does it make sense to buy instead of renting these machines?

Core Bits - Wet | Dry

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Abhay Construction

Face to Face

What are the maintenance costs associated with these machines? First of all the renting of these machines doesn't happen in India. The work of controlled dismantling happens through two different types of involvement: - Direct buying of these machines by the major contractors. However this is limited to small range of machines like core cutting machines/ table saws/ joint cutting machines. - Getting the work done through Specialized Contractors known as drilling and sawing Contractors. These contractors possess these specialized machines and have been trained by companies like us to carry out the controlled dismantling works for major contractors. These machines comes with a manufacturing warranty of 12 months. Also these are quite sturdy machines and require very low maintenance. Also TYROLIT Unique Service Concept provide some of the service requirement at site to take care of emergency breakdowns. Why do the above-mentioned applications (wall sawing, floor sawing, drilling) warrant different saw blades ? How are they different ? Blades and drills are classified on

Core Cutting Machine

the basis of power of the machines as Low Power, Medium Power and High Power. Different machines and different applications require different blade specifications. Blades and Drills are also differentiated on the basis of quality of diamonds and bonds used as Basic (*), Standard (**) and Premium (***) Quality Lines. How does one decide which is suitable - wet or dry cutting? Does this decision necessitate the use of different saws? Wet cutting is more popular as compared to dry cutting worldwide. Some special applications require Dry

cutting for which blades are different from wet cutting. Machines can be suitable for only wet cutting, only dry cutting or both the applications. Does Tyrolit provide saws specifically for green concrete ? Yes we provide blades and machines for cutting green concrete. What are the important parameters in deciding which concrete core cutter to use for the project? The Important Parameters include: Diameter of the core Length of the core Power of Motor Speeds of the Motor Percentage Reinforcement Grade of Concrete Horizontal or Vertical Drilling Weight of the Machine Anchor or Vacuum Fixation

Details on the range of core cutting machines i.e. depth, features and applications and the differentiating features of Tyrolit's machines? We have widest range of core cutting machines in our kitty. These are electric, hydraulic and petrol driven machines. We can do the drilling up to 1000 mm diameters. Our Ultimate Drilling Machine (UDM) is a selfpropelled gasoline driven hydraulic machine highly suitable for drilling at runways.

Re-tipping

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Credence Engineers Pvt Ltd

Cutting Tools

Cutting Tools for All Kinds of Constructions


iabu India is a leading manufacturer and supplier of Diamond Tools & Related Machinery for the Construction Industry. The company has been producing Diamond Tools & Machines using up to date production methods. The company is considered a front runner when it comes to introduction of new technologies that help in coming out with an innovative products at regular intervals of time. The company offers a specialized range of products for the construction industry. Diamond Tools for asphalt, all types of concrete, reinforced concrete or other building materials. Its product range for the construction industry includes, Saw blades for both Floor Saws and Wall Saws, Drilling tools which include Complete Drills & Drilling

Segments, Grinding tools and Diamond Wires. The company's range of diamond tools meant for the construction industry has become a preferred choice among the construction fraternity in many countries. The Company recently started manufacturing Machines used for Core Drilling & Sawing like Drilling Machines & Drill Stands, Floor Saws, Wall Saws & Wire Saws. A strong R & D focus has been one of the primary reasons for the company's growth story over the years. The company's R & D team constantly gets feedback from its customers in order to come out with the right products. This customer oriented approach to product development is behind Diabu becoming a leading choice of construction contractors. The top management of this German

company are firm believers in investing in the latest technologies and regular up gradation of the same for coming out with products that are ideally suited for the needs of the market. World class products from the company are a result of a manufacturing set up which involves utilization of cutting-edge technology at every stage of production. The company attaches a lot of importance to the selection of raw materials, since it is a process that has a direct impact on the end product. The selection of diamond grits and metal powders is done based on strict quality characteristics by professionals, who have specialized knowledge about specific material qualities. The quality assurance mechanism at the company ensures that stringent checks are made on the quality of raw materials, which ensures durable and reliable products. The quality-focussed approach of the company has meant that it has carved a niche for itself in this highly specialized field and continues to add to its already impressive list of global clientele.

For further details:


Ph: +91 80 25731256 E-mail: info@diabu.in Web: www.diabue.com

DIABU Diamond Tools (India) Pvt. Ltd.

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Sika India Pvt.Ltd

Deconstruction New Generation Tools

Next - Gen Diamond Tools for Nuclear Decommissioning

Mohan Ramanathan B.Tech M.S (USA)


Managing Director, Advanced Construction Technologies

iamond tools are well proven cutting, drilling and grinding technologies in many applications but need to be specifically optimized and adapted for the complex and varied structures of nuclear power plant in view of decontamination and decommissioning. The proper development and use of diamond tools in these extreme and complex conditions can only be achieved thanks to the combined talent of experienced nuclear plant contractors, engineers, technicians, operators of diamond tools, and the use of specialized equipment. Key Diamond Tool Applications for Decommissioning and Decontamination of Nuclear Power Plant: Wet/dry concrete wall sawing (with remote control system) Wet/dry wire cutting of concrete Wet/dry wire sawing of metal Wet/dry core drilling Grinding and leveling for surface preparation including all edges Scraping for removing bituminous or neoprene glues and all kinds of coatings Shaving for horizontal and vertical surfaces and ceilings

100% dust collection Fast and easy change of tools Remote control systems High performances even in the strongest reinforced concretes Restricted presence of operators in contaminated areas Unquestionable reliability of the tools and equipment.

Diamond tools are well proven cutting, drilling and grinding technologies in many applications but need to be specifically optimized and adapted for the complex and varied structures of nuclear power plant in view of decontamination and decommissioning. The proper development and use of diamond tools in these extreme and complex conditions can only be achieved thanks to the combined talent of experienced nuclear plant contractors, engineers, technicians, operators of diamond tools, and the use of specialized equipment. Each case requires a detailed feasibility study and engineering report to develop the optimal solutions. Safety issues, reduction of vibrations and sound level, water waste limitation, 100% collection of the dust and debris have become the key requirement for many industries. With R&D, testing facilities and a flexible diamond tool production unit, all situated in Europe, they have the capability to customize tools to the specific needs of any demanding job. We have the expertise in all the different diamond tool technologies and can serve as consultants to identify the best technology for any given situation.

Each situation requires a detailed feasibility study and engineering report to select the optimal work method and answer concerns about safety, time to completion and waste volume. Examples of Nuclear Industry Requirements: "Camel Tools" (minimal water supply to limit water / mud collection and decontamination).

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Deconstruction New Generation Tools

Key Applications: Wet / Dry Concrete Diamond Wall Sawing

Very low sound level Very limited debris creation Low vibration: more comfort for the operator, less disturbance for the surrounding structures A very large variety of materials, as well as mixed and heterogeneous materials can be cut Very high flexibility in the positioning of the wire saw, Unusual configurations and difficult access areas are easily and safely cut without removing obstructing objects Underwater cuts for bridge and dam repairs, as well as for offshore rig decommissioning and anywhere where cutting underwater is needed Remote cutting can be performed in hazardous or radioactive areas where direct access to the cut is impractical or dangerous. Dry cutting with electroplated and vacuum-brazed diamond beads Fast cut: 0.5 to 2.5 m/h Long tool life: 1.0 to 3.0 m/lm Technical assistance for selecting and setting up of system

Wall sawing with HF saw head and EFT diamond blade

It is possible to combine wall sawing with a remote control system The very thin cutting width results in reduced waste production Extremely fast cut: up to 3.5 m/h Cutting blades made for cutting any concrete even heavily reinforced Silent blades are available (-8 to 10 dBA) Extremely high output (high segments for extended autonomy) resulting in less intervention for changing tools: from 25 to 80 m. Possible to customize a tool very quickly according to the needs of any specific jobsite

Wet / Dry Diamond Wire Sawing of Metal

Wet / Dry Diamond Wire Cutting of Concrete

Wire cutting of steel generator mock-up with vacuum brazed diamond wire

Able to cut 100% carbon steel, stainless steel, cast iron, any metal Underwater cuts can be made where necessary Remote cutting can be performed in hazardous or radioactive areas where direct access to the cut is impractical or dangerous Very high flexibility in the positioning of the wire saw, Dry or wet cutting Technical assistance for selecting and setting up of system

Wire sawing with vacuum brazed diamond cable

The wire cutting process allows for unlimited cutting depth and length

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Deconstruction New Generation Tools

Cutting speed 100 to 800 cm/h depending on cut configuration.

Exclusive system (machine and tools) Works right up to the wall, columns and edges thanks to the lateral shift mechanism and mobile cover Very low sound level Very limited vibration level The specific designed " Fan-Shaped " plate initiates the dust suction in order to optimize the action of the dust collector Possible to use a longer hose ( for a larger autonomy on the work site) Eliminates cleaning of the floor and improves the confinement of residue Compact and robust machine is easy to move and transport The machine ergonomics makes the utilization easy and comfortable for the operators Design of the machine improves the evacuation of residue and reduces the risk of clogging in the hose

Wet/Dry Core Drilling

Core drilling with Raidor self-centering segments in reinforced flint concrete

Micro percussion: New patented dry core drilling system for cutting highly reinforced concrete, allowing for extra heat evacuation Self-sharpening and self-centering segments to make drilling and especially remote controlled drilling easy Possibility to drill several meters deep Customized drill bits and tool mounting possible in very short lead times

Diamond Scraping for Removing Bituminousor Neoprene Glues and all Kinds of Coatings

Diamond Grinding and Leveling for Surface Preparation Including all Edges

Floor scraping of bituminous coating with single head grinder

Dual-Action tools: Scrape and Clean in one Operation Patented Design with Optimal Functionality The sloping sides of the diamond segments are cutting and self-sharpening making it possible to enter below the surface covering; shaving or "slicing" off the coating The flat base of the diamond segment rectifies the surface in the same operation Removing entire shavings reduces the dust pollution to a minimum, improving the work conditions for the operator as well as other people on or near the job site. With dangerous surface materials, this also minimizes the risk of creating toxic dust.

Floor grinding with fan-shaped diamond plate

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Cosmos Construction Machineries & Equipments Pvt.Ltd

Deconstruction New Generation Tools

Surfacing action emits less decibels, resulting in a more convivial work environment.

Dust-Collection Systems Different dust-collection systems are available and adapted to the technology and power required. Primary filters of PTFE Secondary cartridges absolute filtration for

HEPA filters available for most dust collection models Bagging systems Cyclonic and pre-separator units for capturing and immediately bagging of the heavier debris
Ceiling cleansing with D:250 grinding plate

Authors Bio
ACT is a company credited with introducing several new demolition techniques in the country. A brainchild of Mr.Mohan Ramanathan, popularly referred to as the 'Demolition Man' of India, the company has grown on to become the preferred choice of a wide range of clients. Mr. Mohan Ramanathan, who completed his Masters in Civil Engineering from the University of Illinois, U.S.A, following his Bachelor's Degree in Civil Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)- Madras, has taken ACT from strength to strength. The firm is a licensed subsidiary of Controlled Demolition International, USA (CDI).

Diamond Shaving for Horizontal and Vertical Surfaces and Ceilings Vacuum cleaner with HEPA filter

Shaving off up to 100 mm deep using a multitude of solutions

Special drums available on request in any depth and length No scabling, no scarifying, no vibration Smooth surface

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Reliance Industries Ltd

CE Demolition and Cutting

Demand for Productivity & Safety Ushers in New Technologies

s the Indian economy has grown, productivity has become a topic of discussion and a critical need on many jobsites. A rising energy need, driven by and increasing number of residential and commercial sites, especially in fast-growing metros, demand a fast completion of quality work in order to justify the return on funds invested. Skilled labor has increasingly become the key challenge on jobsites, with doubling daily wage-rates adding to the costs of construction. With increased globalization, investors and construction companies are constantly exposed to new technologies and productive methods of working (a classic case-in-point is Hilti's Li-Ion cordless technology for cable-free operation).

These drivers have increased the need for robust and reliable (lowdowntime) mechanization in the industry as investors and companies constantly try to do the same work in a shorter amount of time. Hilti has been at the forefront of several new technologies in the Indian market, including chemical anchoring, diamond coring, wallsawing, and wire-cutting. Over a decade ago, the 'Hathoda and Chaini' was the answer to several key problems on many jobsites. Applications such as passing HVAC pipes through walls, electrical conduiting from the generator room, or even creating openings to pass residential pipelines, were all done by 'breaking' the floor or the wall. This was a problem that was a classic case of the industry taking a

leap forward in the mechanization of a pervasive conventional method. Hilti pioneered core-cutting technology in India and introduced an efficient and safe way for this application. Hilti diamond coring systems simply take the effort out of demanding drilling applications. In addition they are tested rigorously in laboratory and field conditions and built to last, with features such as thermal monitoring system, overload protection and special carbon brushes for extra-long system life. Hilti's offering includes the best diamond coring tool for residential and commercial applications, the DD 160. Offering outstanding performance but easy to set up and operate, the DD 160 is a powerful and reliable stand-mounted system for drilling through-holes in

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CE Demolition and Cutting

diameters up to 200 mm in reinforced concrete floors, ceilings and walls using a wet coring technique. The DD 160 is one of the most simple coring system in its class. The integrated motor-carriage design cuts the set-up time to a minimum. The compact & light design makes a real one-man operation possible.The even more powerful but similarly user friendly DD 200 coring system is the benchmark for coring tools in the industry, and ideal for an extremely wide range of applications and has the ability to drill in diameters up to 400 mm. Hilti also offers a wide range of core bits for small- and medium-diameter through-holes for applications in plumbing, HVAC, firefighting and electrical installation. The high-quality diamond segments for universal use offer well-balanced performance high coring speed, long life and cut the cost of every meter drilled. Safety has several dimensions on the jobsite. Other than traditional methods of gloves, glasses, and safety shoes, aspects such as hand-arm vibration, dust, and noise are also critical to worker safety and apply to all categories of tools. Hand arm vibration can damage blood vessels, nerves in the fingers, bones and muscles. Long-term exposure to vibration can result in hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). To increase operator safety, working comfort and productivity, Hilti offers a

complete range of innovative safety solutions that offer significant benefits: - Up to 2/3 lower vibration compared to conventional tools - Longer operation times without fatigue - Significantly higher productivity, due to minimized worker absence - Protect against the effects of long periods of vibration exposure Dust is generated by many of the processes carried out in the construction industry, such as cutting, grinding, chasing or breaking. Depending on the materials and the exposure, this can result in issues ranging from an uncomfortable work environment to potentially serious health risks. While these issues are well known, controlling airborne dust has historically been a

challenge and a topic that is largely not addressed in the industry. Hilti construction-grade vacuum cleaners can be connected in series to many Hilti tools, with models available for various dust classes. For example, the new TE 1500-AVR breaker, along with other existing Hilti tools can be used in conjunction with Hilti vacuum cleaners. The latest Hilti Dust Removal System the TE DRS-B, which reducesfine dust exposure by up to 95%, makes it extremely effective for indoor work.

For further details:


Toll Free: 1-800-102-6400 Web: www.hilti.in

Hilti

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175

De-construction Case Study

Demolition of De Mineralization Plant: A Case Study


Fazrulla Basha, Managing Director, Abcon Tech & Build Aids Pvt. Ltd.

he De Mineralization (DM) Plant, built in the late1950s, is located in Torrent Power Plant, Sabarmati Ahmedabad, India. The plant provides treated water to the entire power plant. The primary objective of the client was Abcon Tech & Build Aids Pvt Ltd, Bangalore was awarded the contract by Advanced Construction Technologies (ACT) Chennai, who were appointed as main contractors for Demolition of various Dilapated Structures at Torrent power plant premises. ACT off loaded this portion of the contract to Abcon who have been associated with them for 15 years, for safe removal of DM Plant by Diamond cutting Technologies and other Selective Demolition Techniques. The job was to remove an entire DM plant of 50mtr x 26mtr x 8mt keeping intact the overhead water tank located in the centre of the building and water treatment pressure vessels. The job included removal of RCC Slab, beams, columns and brick wall of approximately 1000 cum. Alternative methods for the cutting of the concrete were reviewed, but ABCON TECH felt in order to maintain the structural integrity, large water treatment vessels below cutting area to be unaffected, and complete the work within the required time frame, Diamond Cutting Technologies would be the preferred process rather than the use of jack/electrical hammers or hydraulic equipment.

Floor sawing in progress showing the View of over head water tank to be retained After demolition of dm plant

Pictures of DE Mineralization Plant before start of the job showing the Pressure Vessels etc.,

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De-construction Case Study

Wire Sawing of Beams

Wall Sawing of RCC Slab

Wire Sawing of RCC Slab showing the complexity of cutting due to many pipes running in the cutting area

Lifitng and Lower of cut pieces after cutting

For primary demolition of RCC elements, Diamond cutting by floor/wire/wall saw was opted resulting in least disturbance to the structure and removal of large cut pieces with no harm of flying debris as in other demolition methods. The secondary demolition of cut pieces was done by hydraulic breaker in the dumping yard. The greatest challenge was the space constraint in the cutting area as the space was very limited with pipe racks running all across the building. The pipes were fully functional. Abcon had planned the placing of each cutting equipment much ahead of the job to ensure continuous progress of the work. In addition to this, there was space constraint all around the building to move the crane. Cranes could be positioned only in three positions, resulting in cutting more segments.

In consideration of the amount of concrete to be removed in shortest duration, Abcon deployed 4 nos of wire saws, 1 wall saw, 4 floor saws apart from other core drilling machines etc.. for the job. Two cranes of 60-ton crane were used to aid the cutting team with their range of maneuvers etc., for holding the piece while cutting and lowering the same to the ground. One hydra was used to remove the large cut pieces after lowering the cut pieces and to shift the same to the dumping yard. Before starting the job the pressure vessels were completely protected by temporary staging and diamond cutting was commenced later. Abcon succeeded in diamond sawing around 900 sqm of concrete to create 380 cut sections of different size, maximum size weighing around10 tons. Numerous holes

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De-construction Case Study

Two Cranes Working in Tandem

Pic showing part of Veseels and Pipe Line Arrangements below cutting area

Picture of Slabs After Diamond Cutiing

Final Picture of DM Plant After Demolition

were core drilled for slinging and pilot holes to complete the said project within time. During the course of the works, ABCON maintained a high level of safety ensuring all persons working at height used body harnesses and that everyone on site had the appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to carry out their work in a safe manner. Despite the limited time frame allocated to them, ABCON completed the works as scheduled to a high standard in 45 days. However, the project was a new challenge for ABCON and their team worked. Abcon Tech & Build Aids Pvt ltd, specialize in controlled dismantling of concrete structures. Abcon has pioneered the latest Diamond Cutting Technologies in CONCRETE SURGERY in India. Dismantling of RCC structures SAFELY, while preserving basic structural integrity is a job requiring in depth site experience and an excellent understanding of basic

structural concepts. Quick and safe solutions for modification of RCC structures are demanded by clients today. ABCON executes such jobs in a highly professional manner by using modern machinery and state of the art techniques with minimum downtime. Two decades of dedicated site work has earned us accolades and appreciation for our speed of execution and precise cutting while fulfilling all structural requirements safely. At Abcon we strive to make a difference. We are a team of experienced, safety conscious skilled professionals who take pride in what we do

For further details:


74, 2nd Floor, Nehru Road, Yadav Layout, ST Thomas Town Post, Bangalore 560084. Ph: +91-80-65726162, 42041113, Fax: +91-80-25478966 E-mail: info@abcontech.com, Web: www.abcontech.com

Abcon Tech & Build Aids Pvt. Ltd.

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Cosmos Sales Corporation

Waterproofing Crystalline Systems

Cement Based Crystalline Waterproofing System for New and Old Structures
aptain Bond's crystalline system is a new age and unique cement based crystalline waterproofing system that offers waterproofing solutions to both new and old structures. Basements, water bodies, water tanks, terraces, toilets, balconies are amongst some of the areas that can be effectively treated with this system. Water seepage in mineral substrates, leads to carbonation and this is a natural enemy to the durability of any structure. Captain Bond's crystalline system, which can be applied both from the positive and negative sides, uses its crystalline properties to effectively arrest this process. How does crystallization in waterproofing work? On application, the product penetrates into the pre dampened and water saturated substrate, using the water as a medium and then through the process of osmosis forms silicate crystals deep in the pores, capillaries and voids in the substrate. Once installed, this is not a surface coating but an impregnation

system that has become an integral part of the substrate. How is the Captain Bond's crystalline system unique? When compared with other cement based crystalline waterproofing systems the Captain Bond's crystalline system is a combination of three Captain Bond products CrystalFlex 2K SuperStrong powder, AcryFlex 2K ExtraStrong powder and liquid and the BondFlex SuperStrong. The most unique characteristic is that the system is not based on Sodium Silicate and therefore is not a rigid system. The Captain Bond's crystalline system uses a carboxylated SBR latex as one of its components. Due to this it has flexibility and elasticity and can bridge dynamic cracks up to 2 mm. Further, once applied it self cures and does not require to be water cured. Sodium Silicate based system requires to be water cured for 4 6 days. This is the duration for the crystalline process to be completed. Another unique feature is that it is alkaline and has a

pH value of 11.5 which makes it most compatible with concrete whose pH is around 12. It passes the water portability tests for drinking water and therefore can be installed without a cement screed protection in drinking water tanks. The application method is simple but the step wise procedure must be followed. Surface preparation is carried out by thoroughly cleaning the surface to be waterproofed with water either manually or by using high pressure water jets. All construction joints and cracks of 1 mm. width or more are opened up in a V groove, cleaned and filled with high strength polymer reinforced mortar. All horizontal to vertical joints and vertical to vertical joints (for water tanks and water bodies) in the structure are treated by building up with fillets / vatas using the same polymer reinforced mortar. The surface is then once again cleaned and then doused continuously and thoroughly with water prior to the application of the system. The CrystaFlex 2K SuperStrong

CrystalFlex 2K

Basements

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Waterproofing Crystalline Systems

Swimming Pools

powder 25 kg bag is mixed with 1.5 ltrs of BondFlex SuperStrong and 6.5 ltrs of water and mixed thoroughly until a smooth consistency is achieved. This is then vigorously applied to the pre dampened surface by special brushes. The CrystaFlex 2K SuperStrong is applied in 2 to 3 coats depending on the area of application. Once this application is complete all joints and areas filled with polymer reinforced mortar is then over treated with the

AcryFlex 2K ExtraStrong system. This is also a 2 component product 25 kgs. Powder is mixed with 8 ltrs of polymer. After air curing for 24 48 hours the installed system can be tested by water ponding. In India, the Chowgule Construction Technologies range of products has been introduced over the past decade. The company is respected for its professionalism in our primary markets of Maharashtra, Goa, Tamil Nadu, Andhra, Karnataka

and Kerala. It has achieved excellent results in complicated cases to the fullest satisfaction of our customers. Chowgule Construction Technologies Private Limited have specialized in waterproofing and concrete repair products for over a decade now. CCT is a part of the 97-year-old Chowgule Group of companies, which has its presence in shipping, logistics, and automotives in addition to construction chemicals. Chowgule Construction Technologies is in collaboration with KAU B I T A k t i e n g e s e l l s c h a f t f o r waterproofing and repair products, Schedetal AG for ECB and TPO membranes, OttoChemie for sealants and ABP for Epoxy and PU-based floor coatings. We are trusted by leading architects, consultants and developers in our areas of operations.

For further details:


4th Floor, Bakhtawar, Nariman Point, Mumbai - 21. Ph: +91-22-66202500, Fax: +91-22-66202770, E-mail: captainbond@chowgule.co.in Web: www.chowguletech.com

M/s. Chowgule Construction Technologies (P) Ltd.

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181

CE Communication Feature

Geared up for Commex 2012 with an Innovative Range of Products


afari Construction Equipments Pvt Ltd is a company that has made rapid inroads into the Indian construction equipment market with its range of trendsetting products. The company is known for its strong R & D focus and keeping a constant pulse on the market requirements, an ability that has enabled it to keep launching innovative products, at regular intervals of time. The company intends to showcase its world-class range of construction equipment during the forthcoming Commex 2012 trade show to be held at Ahmedabad. In an exclusive interview to The Masterbuilder, Mr.Jawahar Kapasi, the company's Managing Director, gave detailed insights into the company's product range, participation in Commex and expectations from the event. Here are excerpts from the interview. What are your expectations from Commex 2012? We foresee a huge potential from Commex this year. The foremost reason being that the event is taking place in the fastest growing city in India Ahmedabad. We already have a concrete presence in Ahmedabad, hence our main aim is to reconnect with our customers and showcase them our new and improved product line. Additionally, the event will also give us an opportunity to understand customer's future requirement, which will help us in upgrading our product range.

JK Tough Riders

Tell us about the products that you intend to display during Commex 2012 Of course, no exhibition for us is complete without displaying our JK Mini Crane our in- house designed and developed mini crane for material handling, which has changed construction for many contractors and reduced labour problems. Work which was earlier possible with 10-12 labourers is now accomplished with one JK mini crane and two labourers. Also, it uses 50% of energy than any other lifting machine as it uses the force of gravity to complete its downward journey. So, half of the cycle, consumes no energy. This makes it energy efficient and faster than any other lifting or winch machine. We are planning to launch a new model of JK mini crane at Commex. This new model will be operated by a cordless remote control, within a radius of 100 metres. We are also going to display our JK Tough Rider A Site Dumper which is a genius by design, unmatched by any in the market. It requires low maintenance and works with minimal fuel consumption. It is powered by Mahindra' s 25 HP DI Series Engine which meets US EPA tier 2 emission norms. Tough rider is an ideal solution as it is economical and very suitable to work on uneven and rough sites. JK Tough Riders are heavy duty, four wheel drive site dumpers. It's specially designed 4 X 4 wheel drive enables it to work on

tough terrains to carry concrete and other building materials like sand, bricks, etc. The front end tipping of Tough Rider enables the driver to exactly unload material where it is required. Tough Rider is used to carry cement bags from go down to mixing yard, concreting of industrial sheds, tunnel jobs, etc And, the third product we will be showcasing is our mini batching plant also known as reversible drum mixer. We also call it The Responsible Machine as it never disappoints a contractor's output expectations and stands by him efficiently in heaviest of workloads. These reversible drum mixers are used for mass concreting on construction sites. The batching plant has three hoppers wherein sand, cement & other aggregates are digitally weighed and loaded in its heavy duty mixer drum. In this drum, the concrete is mixed in forward rotation and discharged in reverse rotation. It has integrated load cells and automatic water meter, which automatically weigh the material in hopper and controls water input. All this is accessible via a user-friendly control panel.

Mobile Batching Plant

For further details: Safari Construction Equipments Pvt. Ltd.

JK mini crane

Plot 132, Phase II, GIDC, Gujarat, Bharuch - 392015 Ph: +91-2642-245224, Fax: +91-2642-246740, E-mail: contactus@safariequipments.co.in Web: www.safariequipments.co.in

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Communication Feature

Toshniwal Powder Transfer System

he Powder Transfer System is unique dry material transfer system for dust free and avoid to human touch.

The Principle of Vacuum Transfer has been proven to be better way to move many types of materials. The technology exists for moving virtually and material that can be pulled through a hose or tube. The System consists of Vacuum Pump, receiver with filter and Hose Pipe, etc.

The Vacuum Conveying System designed specifically for the direct charge loading of mixers, sifter, milling reactor vessels and packing machine etc. The Vacuum Transfer System is used in Building material such as fly ash, white cement dolomite, minerals, ceramics powders etc.

Further details from: M/s. Toshniwal Systems & Instruments Pvt. Ltd., 267, Kilpauk Garden Road, Chennai - 600 010, India Phone No: 91-44-26445626 / 26448983 Email: mixer@toshniwal.net / Web : www.toshniwal.net

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183

Indoor Air Quality

Radon Indoors: Risk Really Exists!


Sadagopan Seshadri
Chief - Content Development, CE - Infrastructure - Environment

adon gas (Radon-222) is produced during the radioactive decay of radium, which comes from uranium. Radon-222 is often described as the daughter of the radioactive decay of radium. It occurs naturally through the presence of uranium in most rocks, soils, bricks and concrete. NORM is natural Man is continuously exposed to ionizing radiation from Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials

(NORM). Originating from Earth's crust these materials find their way into building materials, air, water, food and the human body itself! We all breathe in radon to some extent and it accounts for half of the radiation dosage each of us receives. It is not possible to see, hear, smell or taste radon gas. Outdoors, radon disperses harmlessly into the air, but once it finds its way indoors, through gaps and cracks in floors and walls, it may build up to potentially harmful levels.

How radon gets into buildings: The Ground Realities Unusual soil composition has increased background radiation twenty-five fold or more in a few areas in the world. The amount of radon entering buildings from the ground is influenced by the following four factors. Radon concentrations in soil gas: This depends on the concentration of the immediate precursor of Rn222, Ra-226, in rocks and soils. Elevated levels of radium are found

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Indoor Air Quality

in some granites, limestones and sandstones and among other geologies. Permeability of the ground: This depends on the nature of the rock and soil under the building. Disturbed ground can have greatly increased permeability. Usuall,y the radon comes from the ground within a few metres of the building, but if the ground is particularly permeable or fissured it may come from a greater distance. Radon loves fractures: Fractures set Radon free. Entry routes into homes are through concrete floors that develop cracks around edges and gaps around services entries (like main water supply, electricity or sewage pipes). In homes with suspended timber floors the gaps between the floorboards serve as main entry route.

Risk of Living with the Radon daughters The great majority of the radiation dose is not from radon itself, but from the short-lived alpha particle-emitting radon daughters, most notably Po-218 (radioactive T1/2=3 minutes), and Po214(radioactive T1/2=0.164 milliseconds), along with beta particles from Bi-214 (T1/2=19.7 minutes). [T1/2 is physical half-life]. Not only does the radon nuclide decay quickly, with a half-life less than four days, but the next four nuclides in the cascade decay with a combined half-life less than an hour. In other words, radon packs a powerful dose of radioactivity, and because it is a gaseous element, it can drift out of the minerals to freely mix into the air. Radon is colorless and odorless. You can't see or smell it! So, nNo questions asked!!

Radon, when inhaled, undergoes radioactive decay releasing tiny bursts of energy called alpha particles, harming lung tissue by damaging the DNA which can lead to lung cancer. The potential hazard of radon from natural background is a worldwide problem. (see Table 1) Radiological hazards -Health risks Regulations Here two major regulations are dealt with: The U.S and U.K H PA U. K A c t i o n L e v e l s The Health Protection Agency (HPA), a government department that protects UK public health, has set the UK Action Level for radon at 200 Bq m3. Most homes in the UK have radon of around 20 Bq m3. Maps showing percentage of homes > Action Level of 200 Bq m3 are available.
220

Underpressure of homes: Atmospheric pressure is usually lower indoors than outdoors owing to the warm indoor air rising; this creates a gentle suction at ground level in the building through the socalled `stack effect'. Wind blowing across chimneys and windows can also create an underpressure (the `Bernoulli effect'). Therefore the building draws in outside air, (typically at one air change per hour. Most of this inflow is through doors and windows, with 1% from the ground. In an average house, this amounts to a couple of cubic metres of soil gas entering the house each hour. The radon concentration in a building depends on the rate of entry of the radon and the rate at which it is removed by ventilation. Increasing the ventilation rate will not always decrease the radon concentration, however, since ventilation rate and underpressure are related, therefore some ways of increasing ventilation, such as the use of extract fans or opening upstairs windows, can also increase the underpressure.

Country

Equilibrium Equivalent Concentration (Bq m-3) Outdoor Indoor

Rn/222Rn EEC ratio Indoor

Outdoor

North America United State of America China Hong Kong Japan Malaysia France United Kingdom Germany Republic of Moldova Russian Federation Italy Slovenia Range
Table 1: Outdoor and Indoor
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0.09 (0.03-0.3) 0.4 0.3 (0.1-0.5) 009 (0.03-0.12) 0.5 (0.3-1.8) 0.2 0.12 (0.05-0.37) (0.09-0.5)

0.5 (0.03-4.7) 0.2 (0.1-0.3) 0.8 0.8 (0.4-1.2) 0.7 (0.04-2.1) 1.1 (0.4-2.1) 0.8 (0.3-13.3) 0.3 (0.07-1.1) 0.2 (0.1-1.0) 1.0 (0.1-6.4) (1.1-7.1) 12 (0.5-76) (0.2-12)

0.04

0.05 0.04 0.08 0.05 0.013 0.01-0.08

0.07 0.06 0.2 0.08 0.03 0.02 0.04 0.09 (0.02-0.24) 0.11 (0.01-0.38)

0.01-0.5

Rn Levels around the World (UNSCEAR 2000)

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Indoor Air Quality

US EPA says: There is No Safe Radon Level As per the US EPA, there is no safe level of this radioactive gas which causes lung cancer, the No.1 killer among cancers. Radon causes more deaths than fires, drownings and airplane crashes combined! Do not mistake Radon Action Level as equivalent to the safety limits on other carcinogens because cancer risk from radon at 4 pCi/L is hundred times higher. Women and Children are particularly susceptible. See box 1. Majority of radon-induced lung cancers occur in homes with radon concentrations below the 4 pCi/L Action Level..
Box 1: Radon Guidelines for Homeowners

How radon enters a house


Shower

Windows

Bedrock

Soil Radon in soil

Fittings

Cracks

Sump Fractured bedrock Radon in well water Radon in groundwater Drain Water table

0.4 pCi/L The "Target Level" for homes (The U.S. Congress) 2 pCi/L 4 pCi/L EPA's "Consider Action Limit" consider fixing your home! EPA's "Action Level" fix your home!

No Media Hype! We receive more radiation exposure from radon than from all other sources combined. The average home is 10times more radioactive than the maximum allowed at the fence of a nuclear power station!! No wonder regulations world over have started off to spell out Action levels for buildings of all types. It is prudent to always reduce your radon level to a practical minimum! So get working on your basement or slab by sealing off radon from entering through foundation and cracks in floor; seal all openings or cracks. A Little Secret" Concrete is more porous than Swiss cheese! How can we be so forgetful of the

concrete microstructure; especially when dealing with a Gas? Most people do not realize that concrete is porous in fact, more porous than Swiss cheese! The pores constitute 12 to 18% of the concrete. After concrete is poured, almost a half of the water has to evaporate. As this surplus water pushes to the surface, it leaves behind a network of capillaries (pores) inside the concrete. As pores are larger than water molecules, water or gases flow easily right through, drawn by lower pressure inside buildings. Concrete blocks are more permeable to water vapor than
Material 40K 226Ra Bq kg-1

poured concrete. Therefore, even if your basement or concrete slab looks perfectly dry, it is prudent to deep-seal it against invisible water vapor and gases, and protect it against water migration, efflorescence, and deterioration. Building Materials Exhale Radon As individuals spend more than 80% of their time indoors, the internal and external radiation exposure from building materials creates prolonged exposure situations. The worldwide average indoor effective dose due to gamma rays from
232Th Radium Equivalent

Cement Brick Stone Sand Granite Clay Fly ash Lime Stone Gypsum

5 - 385 130 - 1390 48 - 1479 5 - 1074 76 - 1380 6 - 477 6 - 522 6 - 518 70 - 807

16 - 377 21 - 48 6 - 155 1 - 5047 4 - 98 7 - 1621 7 - 670 1 - 26 7 - 807

8 - 78 26 - 126 5 - 412 4 - 2971 103 - 240 4 - 311 30 - 159 1 - 33 1 - 152

40 - 440 88 - 311 24 - 311 22 - 7759 25 - 525 11 - 1865 56 - 773 5 - 148 59 - 881

Radon

Water

Vapor

Clab

Table 2: Natural Radioactivity Content in Indian Building Materials (Menon et al 1987)

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Dextra India Pvt. Ltd

Indoor Air Quality

No.

Location

No. of Houses

222

Rn (Bq m-3)

220

Rn (Bq m-3)
222

Inhalation dose (mSv y-1) Rn + Progeny Rn + Progeny


220

Total inhalation Dose (mSv y-1)

GM

GSD

GM

GSD

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Patiala Chandigarh Palanpur Amritsar Hamirpur Tehri Kumaun Hill Hyderabad Secunderabad Chennai Chennai Suburbs Kalpakkam Mysore Mysore Surburbs Kamptee Nagpur Guwahati Shillong Karimganj Kailash sahar Itanagar Mizoram Namrup Digboi

91 40 30 70 29 121 68 72 80 100 113 42 70 106 12 84 48 29 7 5 65 17 10 20 57

11.2 15.9 29.2 14.0 48.8 41.6 18.9 4.6 48.5 14.3 15.1 6.3 21.5 9.7 8.7 54.3 48.1 59.7 37.6 31.3 41.1 27.6 147.3 60.5 34.7

2.2 1.7 1.7 2.0 1.8 1.7 1.5 2.1 2.1 2.3 1.7 1.8 2.7 2.7 2.3 3.3 1.7 2.0 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.4 1.7 1.7

6.3 8.4 14.6 7.8 32.3 13.1 21.1 3.5 34.0 6.4 13.5 5.7 19.6 11.4 6.1 15.1 25.4 29.5 10.2 15.5 28.6 12.1 23.6 42.8 18.3

2.7 2.4 2.4 2.7 2.4 2.2 2.1 3.3 3.3 3.3 2.1 1.9 3.1 3.1 2.9 4.2 1.7 2.1 1.7 1.9 1.8 2.0 2.1 2.3 2.1

0.37 0.53 0.96 0.46 1.61 1.37 0.62 0.15 1.60 0.48 0.50 0.21 0.71 0.32 0.29 1.79 1.59 1.97 1.24 1.03 1.36 0.91 4.87 1.15 0.21

0.07 0.10 0.17 0.09 0.37 0.15 0.24 0.04 0.39 0.08 0.16 0.07 0.23 0.13 0.07 0.17 0.29 0.34 0.12 0.18 0.33 0.14 0.27 0.21 0.07

0.44 0.63 1.13 0.55 1.98 1.52 0.86 0.19 1.99 0.55 0.66 0.28 0.94 0.45 0.36 1.96 1.88 2.31 1.36 1.21 1.69 1.05 5.14 1.36 0.28 23.0 12.2

25 Agarthala Mean 222Rn concentration (Bq m-3) Mean 220Rn concentration (Bq m-3) Mean total inhalation dose rate (mSv y-1)

Table 3: India - Indoor 222Rn, 220 Rn levels and Inhalation Doses

building materials is estimated to be about 0.4 mSv per year. Most contain NORM.Worldwide surveys have characterized activity concentration of NORM and the radon emanation from building materials. (see Table 2). Elevated levels of NORMS cause annual doses of several mSv as identified around the world, e.g. in Brazil, France, India, Nigeria, Iran. The recycling of industrial waste or by-products containing Technologically Enhanced Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials 'TENORM', is extensively used in the construction industry. The

use of fly ash, coal slag, phosphogypsum, red mud and other industrial byproducts in building materials and the increment in radiation exposure from these materials has been of serious concern since long. National and international regulations and guidelines mark external doses exceeding 1 mSv/y as in the radiation protection purview. The Radon nemesis - Whither India? A nation-wide recording of indoor (222) Rn and (220) Rn for India (see Table 3) with more than 5000

measurements have been carried out in 1500 dwellings comprising urban and non-urban locations.The geometric means of estimated annual inhalation dose rate due to indoor (222)Rn, (220)Rn and their progeny in the dwellings was 0.94 mSvy(-1) (geometric standard deviation 2.5). BARC too conducted countrywide Radon-Thoron survey, involving 10 universities. Nearly 6000 measurements have been carried out in about 2000 dwellings belonging to various regions (North-Eastern, Northern, Western, and Southern) of India.

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Indoor Air Quality

Location

232

Th

226

Ra

226

Location

232

Th

226

Ra

226

Bq kg-1

Bq kg-1

Ahmedabad Aligarh Bgangalore Bhopal Bikanir Mumbai Kolkatta Cherrapunji Chingalput Coimbatore Cuttack Darjeeling Dehradun Delhi Dhanbad Gangtok Gulmarg Hyderabad Jaduguda Jaipur Jasilmar Jamnagar Jodhpur

56.0 82.0 16.9 15.7 11.7 13.5 24.1 17.4 120.5 10.1 61.7 24.8 22.6 19.9 37.1 23.9 20.1 45.9 41.0 14.9 37.1 3.8 13.1

24.8 54.4 15.2 11.8 8.8 9.4 20.4 21.5 22.9 10.2 15.3 2417 25.9 19.2 53.0 26.1 15.9 15.2 179.1 11.6 49.0 2.9 10.7

526.6 530.1 486.7 376.8 439.6 169.6 662.9 37.7 408.2 266.9 722.2 678.2 803.8 536.9 345.4 854.1 555.8 1073.4 455.3 505.5 565.2 56.5 458.9

Kanpur Kharagpur Kakrapar Chennai Mangalore Meerut Nagpur Nainatal Nasik Ooty Poona Ranchi Shillong Srinagar Tehri Thiruvalla Trivandrum Tiruchirapali Visakapatnam Udagamandalam Jhansi Kaiga Thumba

23.8 18.4 12.4 23.1 13.5 22.0 16.5 24.8 34.4 3.4 4.2 22.4 23.9 18.6 136.2 74.3 53.2 47.8 24.8 43.2 12.6 12.4 27.5

24.0 15.2 12.2 6.7 9.3 22.7 11.8 24.7 18.6 2.5 3.0 24.4 15.5 14.8 81.6 19.8 20.3 2070 163.2 114.6 20.4 12.2 8.9

850.9 72.2 94.4 766.2 151.2 112.3 307.7 979.7 290.6 87.8 87.9 1055.0 323.2 615.4 328.2 25.1 37.7 509.4 376.8 272.6 518.2 94.2 ------

Table 4: Natural Radioactivity Content in Indian soil (Mishra et al 1971; Sadasivan et al 2003)

The mean inhalation dose rate to the Indian population due to Radon, Thoron and their progenies is estimated to be 0.97 msv.y-1 (milli sievert per year). (Refer Table 4 for the background radiation of soil across the country). Indian NORM & TENORM have considerable radioactivity. (see Table 2) While the major contribution to the indoor Inhalation dose was due to indoor (222)Rn , that due to indoor (220)Rn was high too (20% total indoor inhalation dose rates). The indoor (222)Rn levels in dwellings was significantly different depending on the nature of walls and floorings. The geographical distribution pattern shows high inhalation dose rates (> 2.0 m Sv yr ) in the northeastern part of India (where high concentration

of uranium and thorium in soil and rocks exist) a serious reason to be concerned about. The study says that most dwellings in India do not demand any action levels with respect to indoor 222Rn, citing good ventilation prevailing in Indian dwellings (Table 5 addresses different type of Indian dwellings and the ventilation aspect). But the matter of long term exposure risks calls for mitigation! Another case in point is Radon levels measured in houses at ten different locations and rooms of various sizes ranging from 30 to 310 m3 for Bangalore city, India focusing on homes based on construction quality, age of building, nature of walls and floorings etc. Lower volume and granite flooring house inhabitants get

exposed to higher dose. The higher concentrations were observed in a room of lower volume than in larger volume. (See Table 6) The annual dose rate due to 222Rn, 220Rn and their progenies for the population in the studied location ranged from 0.1 to 0.5 mSv. With results showing significant radiological risk it needs to be ensured that lower volume houses should have good ventilation to reduce the effective dose rate. Protection from Radon Showcased here are few typical construction situations as will be encountered in India. Full Radon Protection in suspended concrete floors (Figure 2) Description: The radon-proof

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189

Indoor Air Quality

Type of dwelling Pseudo ventilation Rate (h-1)

Plate out rate (h-1)

Actual ventilation rate (h-1)

* Mean ventilation rate (h-1)

3.9 2.4 1.5 Chawl 3.7 3.7 2.1 Bungalow A/C room 5.0 4.5 4.7 4.9 3.0 2.5 3.6 6.7 Flat 3.3 2.8 5.5 3.7

1.43 1.07 1.10 0.90 1.43 1.02 1.38 2.61 2.73 2.59 1.02 1.98 1.45 2.24 1.69 1.76 2.08 1.65

2.43 1.33 0.42 2.82 2.27 1.08 3.62 1.89 1.97 2.31 1.98 0.52 2.15 4.46 1.61 1.04 3.42 2.05 2.15 2.14 2.76 1.73

should be installed where possible on all sides of the building, their placement being at intervals for a suspended timber floor (i.e. openings large enough to give an actual opening of at least equivalent to 1500 mm2 for each metre run of wall on two opposite sides). Typically vents should be positioned at 2 m maximum centres along the external walls and not more than 450 mm from corners. Ensure that all airbricks are kept clear. Landscaping works shouldn't compromise subfloor ventilation. For periscope subfloor ventilators, joints between upper and lower halves should be taped sealing off radon entering the cavity. Construction Procedure (Figures 3- 5) Step 1. Build eExternal walls up to DPC level incorporating plastic louvred air bricks to provide natural underfloor ventilation. Install beam and block suspended flooring and a wide cavity tray. Then build rest of the external walls. Step 2. Now as external walls and rest of the structure are watertight, the main barrier can be installed. The barrier, comprising a 300 micrometre (1200 gauge) polyethylene sheet can be seen laid over the beam and block floor and tucked under the edge of the

Table 5: Ventilation Rates in Indian Dwellings (Shaikh et al 1992)

barrier which also provides damp protection is positioned over the floor structure and linked to cavity trays at the edges. Supplementary protection is also provided by locating underfloor vents on two or more sides of the underfloor space. If necessary the rate of ventilation and radon dispersion can be increased by fitting an electric fan at a later date. Radon barrier: The radon barrier comprises a cavity tray through the wall linked to a membrane across the floor. Typically the cavity tray is formed using a high performance co-polymer thermoplastic damp proof course
222

material or prefabricated cavity tray units. This is then sealed to a 300 micrometre (1200 gauge) polyethylene membrane laid across the beam and block floor. To make it easier to seal the two materials the cavity tray is laid so that it laps about 300mm over the edge of the floor. The membrane over the floor can then be sealed to the cavity tray using a double sided butyl jointing strip or other appropriate adhesive tape just prior to installing the floor topping. The sealing work can be carried out in the dry and any barrier damage by following trades is avoided. Subfloor ventilation:Airbricks
222

Rn (Bqm3) Max. Aver. SD Min.

Rn (Bqm3)
Figure 3: Step 1

Volume of room (m3)

Range Min.

Range Max.

Aver. SD

30 - 40 45 - 60 67 - 75 80 - 100 110 - 200 200 - 310

67.3 48.5 39.8 25.2 12.9 07.1

93.0 62.0 47.4 35.1 20.5 10.5

81.1 9.3 54.1 4.4 43.4 2.9 30.7 3.8 16.7 2.7 07.3 2.2

42.3 27.5 18.8 13.2 09.6 06.6

69.4 36.8 27.1 17.4 12.5 09.0

57.5 9.7 31.0 3.6 22.6 3.4 15.7 1.2 11.0 1.1 06.9 1.3
Figure 4: Step 2

Table 6: 222Rn & 220Rn levels in category of rooms (35 to 300 m3)

190

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Wendt (India) Ltd

Sanwa Diamond Tools Pvt Ltd

Indoor Air Quality

Figure 5: Step 3

cavity tray. The barrier can equally be laid to lap over the edge of the cavity tray. Step 3. The polyethylene sheet is sealed to the cavity tray using a self adhesive polyethylene sheet tape to form a complete barrier across the plan of the building. Laying the barrier immediately before installing the floor topping is useful since the barrier helps easier sealing reducing damage risk by following trades.

Full protection to an in-situ concrete ground floor (Figure 6) Description: The barrier which provides damp protection and radonproof is positioned over the floor structure and linked to cavity trays at the edges. Supplementary protection is also provided by locating a radon sump beneath the floor slab with a pipe taken to the outside of the building and capped off. If necessary, the sump can be activated by adding a fan at a later

Possible working detail of full radon protection in a suspended concrete floor

Floor topping Insulation Cavity tray Weophole Radon barrier sealed to cavity tray Suspended concrete floor Air vent

date. (Note: fan is not required to be installed during construction.) Radon barrier: This comprises a cavity tray through the wall linked to a membrane across the floor. Typically the cavity tray is formed using a high performance co-polymer thermoplastic damp proof course material or prefabricated cavity tray units. This is then sealed to a 300 micrometre (1200 gauge) polyethylene membrane laid across the in-situ concrete floor slab. To make it easier to seal the two materials the cavity tray is laid so that it laps about 300mm over the edge of the floor. The membrane over the floor can then be sealed to the cavity tray using a double sided butyl jointing strip or other appropriate adhesive tape just prior to installing the floor topping. Thus the sealing work can be carried out in the dry with less risk for the barrier to be damaged by subsequent trades. To avoid damage risk to the barrier due to settlement the edge of floor slab is supported off the inner leaf of the external wall. Subfloor depressurization: To further minimize radon infiltration into the building a sump should also be provided beneath the floor slab. A length of 110mm diameter pipe should be run from the sump to the outside of the building and capped off. Alternative solution with barrier laid beneath slab - Full radon protection in in-situ or ground-supported concrete floor (barrier under slab) Some key points on radon in buildings include: It is not possible to radon proof a home, but to reduce its level. Warm air inside a house draws Radon in through flooring and any gaps/cracks in the building structure. High radon concentrations can accumulate in confined spaces like basements of buildings. The radon concentrations vary greatly from one dwelling to another. The underpressure and ventilation rate vary with time in all buildings. Underpressure is highest in cold

Position for optional fan If needed later

Cavity filled to support cavity tray

Figure 2

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Indoor Air Quality

Working detail for full radon protection for an in-situ concrete floor Floor topping Insulation dpc Cavity tray Weephole In-situ concrete floor slab Radon barrier

50% of the public's exposure to naturally-occurring sources of radiation in many countries." The annual dose limit to radiation workers recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection is 50 mSv. Many people in New Jersey and Pennsylvania get more radiation from radon in a week than anybody ever got at Three Mile Island!!. (Gerald Nicholls in Newsweek, August 18, 1986). But they have regulations to fix buildings. India still has nothing of the sort. Radon risk prevalence in India is evident. There is a definite urgent need for India to institute -

Figure 6

weather and at night due to temperature differential between indoors and outdoors. At these times, ventilation routes such as windows and doors are generally closed, so higher proportion of the air drawn in by underpressure comes from the soil, causing higher radon concentrations. Table 1 gives a glimpse of outdoor/indoor Radon levels worldwide. Houses in direct contact with the ground will have higher radon levels than houses with an air space under the dwelling.

Radon levels in the upper floors of a multi-story building are lower than on the ground floor. Appropriate action should be taken if the level is greater than 200 Bq m-3.

detailed Radon Mapping thereby zoning the country, regulations for Target and Action levels of Radon in buildings/homes, and incorporation of radon mitigation in Building Regulations with simultaneously freezing building material standards on Radioactivity in NORMS and TENORMS.

The way forward "Radon poses an easily reducible health risk to populations all over the world, but has not up to now received widespread attention," said Dr. Michael Repacholi, coordinator of WHO's Radiation and Environmental Health Unit. He adds that "radon in our homes is the main source of exposure to ionizing radiation, and accounts for

Author's Bio The author leads our Delhi bureau. An Engineer and qualified ADR professional (NALSAR alumnus), Sadagopan Seshadri has been a senior Contract Management Professional in large national & International Companies. His domain experience is in Building Products, Cement plants and Mega Power project execution. He is expert visiting faculty for Contract Management at the SSAA, IP University, New Delhi. Being passionate about Environment he has now turned to Landscape Projects design teamed with likeminded architects & engineers for sustainable landscapes development He is vocal with his views on these areas through his writings. He can be reached design2xcel@gmail.com at

Alternative position for subfloor deppressurisation pipe. Pipe must be sealed where it penetrates the slab
Radon barrier

Subfloor depressurisation pipe

Floor topping

In-situ concrete floor slab dpc cavity tray

Figure 7

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193

Communication Feature

Hydraulic Dock Leveler from Gandhi Automation:


Balance of Power and Performence at its Best
n electro-hydraulic dock-leveler is not simply a bridge for connecting a vehicle. Frequently the important characteristic that this tool needs are undervalued, in order to guarantee an efficient working environment to comply with the safety in work regulations. Since the invention of the hydraulic dock-leveler, very poor design improvement has been implemented by manufacturers of the traditional types, and the result is old concept products with poor characteristics in respect of safety in work and installation. CAMPISA dock-levellers have been manufactured since 1975. In 1983 a completely different concept was applied to satisfy different customer needs, offering new advantages and often-cheaper costs. The most advanced concept of the CAMPISA dock-leveler is to have the whole drive unit contained in a wall box, which is installed on a wall inside the warehouse, at eye level, which allows for easy and economical maintenance, without the necessity to maneuver under the platform

or inside the pit, where traditional power packs and controls are usually installed: an undoubtedly dangerous, dirty and uncomfortable operation. A wide study of previously installed power units motivated us to design the MULTIPLE CONSOLLE. Depending on the type of installation it can hydraulically power several dock-levelers with only one CONSOLLE (drive unit), each dockleveler controlled separately by its own control pad. They can also work simultaneously. With these solutions we have dramatically economized by optimizing the function of the single parts so successfully that we have practically eliminated, for several years, any repair intervention. Further dramatic economies are obtained by reducing the electric mains supply points to one per CONSOLLE instead of one per dock-leveler. The reduction is about 65% in dock-leveler installations and about 75% in dock-leveler and powered sectional door installations. This reduction normally result in important economies when installing the

mains distribution box. Consequently by reducing the number of motors there is a dramatic saving on electricity costs, as the global mains power engagement is radically reduced. Radius lip dock-levelers allows the dock to connect with the truckbed, therefore making it possible to drive directly on and off with fork-lift trucks, roll containers etc. Loading and unloading operations become quick, safe and economical. CAMPISA dock-levelers can be easily positioned. They come with the most secure safety devices. They are built in conformity with the EN 1398. Telescopic lip dock-levelers are ideal for connecting vehicles unable to drive near to the dock (e.g. sea containers, side loading railway wagons etc.), or where it is imperative to reach a longer total length of the dock-leveler itself. These types can be supplied with A lip extending up to 1 m.

The CAMPISA dock-leveler is supplied complete with: - Platform and lip in almond anti-slip steel - Single effect lift cylinder, double effect lip cylinder - Safety stop in case of accidental departure of the vehicle - Maximum pressure valve - Side foot protection steel sheets - Rubber bumpers 300 mm x 55 mm x 60 mm - Wall CONSOLLE containing the whole drive unit and control, with low-level conduit protection, or motor underneath.

For further details:


2nd Floor, Chawda Commercial Centre Link Road, Malad(W) Mumbai 400064 Ph: +91-22-66720200 / 66720300 (200 lines) Fax: +91-22-66720201 E-mail: sales@geapl.co.in Web: www.geapl.co.in
Hydraulic Dock Leveler from Gandhi Automation

Gandhi Automations Pvt Ltd

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MRT Chemicals Pvt Ltd

Consolidated Machines

Relyon Facility Services Pvt. Ltd

Urban Engineering Mega Projects

Gujarat International Finance Tec-City (GIFT)

THE RISE OF A

MEGACITY
The scale of GIFT is singularly massive, unparalleled in the world except a handful of Dubai megaprojects, none of which can hold to GIFT's goals of economic sustainability, integration and scalability.
Sadagopan Seshadri
Chief - Content Development, CE - Infrastructure - Environment

inancial Services Sector transformed over the last decade with Sector contributing significantly to the Indian economy. It boasts of employment of over 3 million people and representing around 5% of the GDP. The estimated market capitalization is over US$ 200 billion. The IT/ITeS sector in India accounts for about 60% of the global offshore IT industry and about 50% of the global BPO market. Almost 40% of this IT/ITeS demand is driven by the banking and financial services sector. Going forward as the offshore and domestic markets continue to grow, India is very well positioned to capture a large portion of this opportunity. Given India's continued economic growth, the financial sector will grow increasingly larger, with a prospect of

"While it will take 10 years to execute the entire project, certain pockets within GIFT area will come alive in two years,"

RK Jha
Wholetime Director, GIFTCL

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Urban Engineering Mega Projects

10 to 11 million jobs by 2020. and a GDP contribution of about US$350400 billion with a US $ 1.6-1.8 trillion market capitalization.(Table 1) Financial services will continue to contribute significantly to the Indian economy An Opportunity Pro active entities do not lose time to capitalize on opportunities and this was one: Booming demand in Financial & IT Services Sky-rocketing cost of business operations in metros Unplanned International Finance Centre (IFC)

Traditional business community and High growth economy (>10 % over last five years) is fully complemented by a pool of trained manpower. Gujarat contributes 30% of stock market capitalization. A Proactive Government has successfully provided conducive business environment at all times. That's the way of life in the state. And it offers high potential for inward migration of skill. Gift is Born Gujarat government had only to think of the best way to materialize this opportunity. It wanted to base development on a PPP model; Government of Gujarat Through Gujarat Urban Development Company Limited (GUDC) & Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Services Ltd. (IL&FS) Incorporated Gujarat International Finance Tec-City Company Ltd. (GIFTCL) on 21st June, 2007. The choice of IL&FS a premiere institution with a proven track record would have rested to fully tap its potential as it is a Pioneer in launching
Table 1

Pillars of Strength A Successful Financial Services Centre draws strength, stability and sustainability from Six Key Building Blocks which GoG knew it had to ensure: Rational legal regulatory framework Attractive, sustainable local economy Stable political environment Highly developed infrastructure Strategic geographic location Good quality of life

Globally Benchmarking Hence GIFT is planned as a Globally benchmarked International Finance Centre, strategically located as a central business hub targeting Financial Services & IT/ITeS sectors. GIFT is expected to be a first of its kind development in terms of scale, scope and quality as well as state-of-the-art infrastructure. It is well placed between the political and commercial capitals of Gujarat (Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad respectively), It is India's first major super tall Central Business District

Gujarat. a down-to-business state, has many a plus embedded in it.

No. of Jobs (Thousands) Core Financial Services Capital Markets & Trading IT for Financial Services ITeS/ BPO for Financial Services Total
Table 2

Value add to GDP (USD Billion) 30-35 240-250 0-1 8-10 14-18 100-120 3-4 25-35 50-75 375-425

Market Capitalisation (USD Billion) 175-190 1,150-1,250 6-7 65-75 80-90 300-375 11-16 100-150 275-325 1,600-1,800

2,750-2,900 7,400-7,600 4-5 19-20 500-600 2,000-2,200 175-225 750-850 3,500-3,700 10,000-11,000

Paris (La Defense)

Tokyo (Shinjuku)

London (Dockyards)

Pudong (Lujiazui)

GIFT

Land Area (sq km) Construction Scale (in mn sq m) Greenbelt (in thousand sq m) Height (m)
Source: ECADI/Fairwood Consultants

1.6 2.5 40 200

1.6 1.6 120 250

1.05 1.1 50 250

1.7 4.5 363 490

3.58 8.5 1183 410

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197

Urban Engineering Mega Projects

Table 3

Target Business Segments Business Nature of Opportunity

GIFT Business Structure (Plates 1, 2 & 3) 1. Multi Service SEZ 2. Domestic Finance Centre/ Corporate Office/Trade Centre 3. Associated Infrastructure, Housing and Social Facilities Consultants Engaged in GIFT 1. Design and Architecture - East China Architectural Design & Research Institute (ECADI) and Fairwood Consultants India. 2. ICT Advisory Services - British Telecom 3. Market Demand Assessment McKinsey & Company 4. Talent Demand Assessment Hewitt Associates 5. Environmental Assessment - IL&FS Ecosmart Ltd 6. Process Management - IL&FS Infrastructure Development Corporation Ltd 7. ICT Management - Cisco Systems International 8. Power Management ABB Design Plan GIFT was developed during the Vibrant Gujarat Global Investor Summit 2007 and is being planned by East China Architectural Design & Research Institute (ECADI), which is responsible

Financial Services Financial Services Select Product Market Capital market and Trading IT services ITeS/BPO Services
Table 4

Back-office of banking, Insurance and Asset Manageement Companies Corporate roles in financial services companies. E.g. Accounting, HR, Admin, IT Private banking, Product development, Microfinance etc. Includes DCM, ECM, M&A, Commodity tradign, Private Equity, Hedge Funds, Institutional brokerage Software Application development and maintenance for BFSI and other verticals Capive BPOs of large global financial services companies, 3rd party BPO service providers, KPOs etc.
Employment Opportunities - GIFT

Sr. No.

Financial Services

Estimated No. of Jobs (Thousands) Year 2020

1 2 3 4 5 6

Core Financial Services

Financial Services Operations Financial Services Corporate Centre

125-150 100-125 10-15 2-4 200-225 75-100 500-600

Select Product Markets Capital Markets & Trading IT for Financial Services ITeS for Financial Services Total
- An additional 5,00,000 indirect jobs is expected to be created by 2020 - Source: McKinsey

project that is designed aiming to be the focal point of both the world's and India's booming financial services market by providing companies: comprehensive infrastructure, power, verticalized office space, and a well designed, planned and expandable urban form. Its physical proximity and infrastructure connectivity with Mumbai, India's current business capital, too can be mutually beneficial to trade and business. In terms of scale and sheer physical scope, GIFT is being designed to be at or above par with presently acknowledged globally benchmarked International Financial Centers (IFCs). It will house over a million people with millions more commuting daily. (Table 2) Target Business & Job Creation Potential Its Target Business Segments are Financial Services Operations (Backoffice of banking, Insurance and Asset

Management Companies), IT services (Software Application development and maintenance), Capital Markets & Trading, ITeS, BPO & KPO Services (Table 3 & 4)

Plate 1: Master Plan Area

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Rapid Cutting Technologies

Urban Engineering Mega Projects

Use
Commercial Residential Institutional Total

BUA (mn sq ft) 4.50 2.315 0.955 7.77

Use
Commercial Residential Institutional Total

BUA (mn sq ft) 3.30 0.5 1.45 5.25

the state own company for gas transmission pipelines. Piped natural gas is already in distribution in the nearby cities of Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar. Communications and Telecoms an Internet Gateway, world-class next generation IP-based network, International Fibre Landing System. Air Conditioning - a centralized AC system, called District Cooling which is cheaper to run and uses less electricity. Transportation Vision: High share of public transport Conflict free traffic movement Transit oriented development Combination of external and internal mass movement systems to achieve the transport hierarchy Intelligent Transport System Aiming for a zeroaccident city Multi Level car parking along arterial roads Pedestrianised Oriented Internal Movement This would be achieved by: 1. a multimodal mix of Transport systems (MRTS/LRTS/BRT, etc.) for both inter region (Ahmedabad, Airport, Gandhinagar and the City) and intra-city. 2. walk-to-work concept as part of urban planning with a nodal split of 10:90 between private and public transport. 3. Electric Personnel Rapid Transport systems within the City. In future, City will be linked with Ahmedabad BRTS, operated by Ahmedabad JanMarg Ltd. SEZ The GIFT, Gandhinagar, is a special economic zone (SEZ). On August 18, 2011, GIFT got SEZ status which was critical as the project is said to have the potential to take on not only the economic might of Mumbai but also Asian regional financial hubs like Dubai and Hong Kong. This makes GIFT the country's first multi-service SEZ with special focus on financial services. SEZ will have Fiscal incentives, regulatory freedom and supportive infrastructure so as to realize objectives

Legend GIFT Area Boundary water bodles GIFT SEZ Boundary

Plate 2: GIFT Master Plan

Legend
GIFT Area Boundary Commercial Residential Institution Utilities Transportation Water bodies Major Green area GIFT SEZ Boundary Metro Line MLP : Multi level Parking

Plate 3:First Phase Master Plan

for planning much of modern day Shanghai, and Fairwood Consultants India. Electricity The 1000MW electricity supply is planned to be 99.999% reliable (about 5.3 minutes of outage per year). GIFT's power grid will be designed by ABB Group of Switzerland. All the electricity cables will be underground. Hong Kong Electric Company is 99.998% reliable since 1998. GIFT Company Limited official said

it is wrongly believed that electricity will be costlier in GIFT SEZ. He said the company will actually offer power at a rate lower than what is prevalent in the rest of the state. "We have already commissioned work to a developer to set up power infrastructure at GIFT City," said vice-president, corporate services and business development, Dipesh Shah. Piped Gas Natural Gas Gas supply to the city will be made from the existing gas network of GSPL,

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of increased investment; both domestic and foreign, increased exports, large scale developments, low cost manufacturing hubs, employment generator for skilled and unskilled workforce. Project Phases Phase I BUA* Phase 2 BUA Phase 3A BUA Phase 3B BUA = = = = 0 mn. Sft 22 mn. Sft, 30 mn. Sft & 30 mn. Sft

(* BUA denotes Built up Area)

Total Land Area BUA (Above ground) BUA (Below ground) Total BUA

: : : :

886 Acres 62 mn sq ft; 14 mn sq ft 76 mn sqft

Additional 30 million is to be developed after removal of height restriction (Phase 3B)

First Phase: By Jan 2011, Gujarat's GIFT city project finally started taking shape in the Koba-Raisan stretch of Gandhinagar kicking off quietly at Shahpur village. Just besides GIFT City, the irrigation department is giving touches to a tender worth more than Rs 150 crore for construction of a barrage on Sabarmati near Indroda park to hold water for a ritzy riverfront for this hub. In the first phase of the project, which covers an area of 10 million square feet, there will be provisions for two schools, up to the senior secondary levels. One will be affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), and the

other to International Baccalaureate. IL&FS will dedicate 10 floors for special courses that will be required for professional skill development. This includes two-year vocational courses Physical Infrastructure will involve Arterial Roads (Transport Corridor), Information Communication Technology (ICT), Water Supply from Narmada Canal to GIFT, Samruddhi Sarovar (Water Storage Area), Power Receiving Station and Distribution, Water Treatment Plant, Sewerage Treatment Plant, Solid Waste System, Arboriculture and Landscaping. Second Phase: The second phase consists of construction of roads and bases of buildings - 2011-2013. Third Phase: The planned period for construction and commencement is 2013-2017. Implementation Framework As already foreseen, Public Private Partnership with significant private sector participation into specific viable components will be followed. Infrastructure is to be contracted out by GIFTCL for project to be implemented through a series of entities/agencies to provide a seamless framework. Utilities: - GIFTCL has set up dedicated SPV's to handle each of utility

components: GIFT District Cooling Systems Limited - GIFT Water Infrastructure Limited - GIFT Waste Management Services Limited - GIFT Power Company Limited - GIFT ICT Services Limited Each SPV would be self-sufficient on a stand-alone basis. As a strategy, the company would consider taking a stake in some of the SPV's. Real Estate: Unique opportunity has been given to developers to participate. Controls will prevail for design and aesthetics to be maintained.

Landmarks Gujarat International Finance TecCity will have 312 tall buildings the tallest being the signature Diamond Tower with 87 floors; another 40 buildings with more than 50 floors and many more with 24 plus floors of height. The entire project is not only fully approved but already completely sold out due to insane demand. Only after the office space of the original GIFT master plan was completely sold out in less than a week after its opening it dawned on GIFT Management that even this huge project severely underestimated the demand for highquality commercial development in

Plate 4: The new design of the Diamond Tower framed by the new Gateway Towers

Plate 5:The Diamond Tower and Fortune Island. Seen across the river are the Gateway Towers and Crystal Towers

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Urban Engineering Mega Projects

Plate 6: A closeup of the Diamond Tower's diamond-like crown

Plate 7:The Diamond Tower, Gateway Towers and Crystal Towers

Gujarat. Thus, all the buildings went through a major redesign, scaled upward in both mass and in height -- the signature Diamond Tower being no exception. GIFT Diamond Tower - is a skyscraper will consist of the 410 metres (1,345 ft) and the core CBD of GIFT, comprising a total of 25,800,000 sq ft (2,400,000 m2). Already, 15,000,000 sq ft (1,400,000 m2) of the floorspace of this first phase has already been secured by a host of national and international companies, with MOUs for the other 10 million in the works.(table 5: Specs) GIFT Gateway Towers - will be located in the main avenue of the city. It would have elaborated terrace gardens and rooftop restaurant. The towers draw inspiration from Buland Darwaza. It will have a total 7,300,000

square feet (680,000 m2) built up space. GIFT Crystal Towers - With a total 8,500,000 square feet (790,000 m2) built up area, four Cyrstal Towers will overlook the Sabarmati River. GIFT Convention Centre - Inspired by the structure of Salt crystals and Mahatma Gandhi's Dandi March, the convention centre would have an opera and have a seating capacity of 10,000. The centre would have total built up are of 6,500,000 square feet (600,000 m2).

Dwelling a little more on this mesmerizing Icon Designed by ECADI architects, the master planners of many of Shanghai's newest projects, Diamond Tower was designed as the centerpiece signature tower that will cap the new GIFT CBD skyline. The tower is named "The

Diamond Tower" to mark Gujarat state's eminence as the diamond capital of the world. It takes its design cues from the cut facets of a traditional Indian-cut diamond and is a tip of the hat to the state's diamond industry, which had initially fueled much of Gujarat's industrialization and still remains a huge economic stimulus to the state. After sifting through tens of proposals by ECADI, the private-public development consortium finally chose the new design of the Diamond Tower. The new tower is significantly taller, with 87 floors and a 400 meter height (possibly higher if one counts the crown as a spire.) The impression the tower gives is that of a rock-solid jewel rising over a much more aggressive and massive skyline, rather than the delicate crystal shard complementing an equally visually delicate skyline of the older design plan.(Plate 4)

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NICMAR

Madras Diamond Tools

ACD Machine Control Co Pvt Ltd


Indo Spark Construction & Consultancy Services

Urban Engineering Mega Projects

Table 5:Diamond Tower

General Information

Status Type Location Cost Antenna spire Floor Count Floor area

Proposed Business Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India USD$2 billion


Height

410 m (1,345 ft)


Technical Details

86 25,800,000 sq ft (2,400,000 m )
2

Design and Construction

Main Contractor GIFT Architect GIFT

The Diamond Tower is designed to convey both the brightness and shape of the diamond. The various cuts and facets in the tower's shape are designed to reflect and refract the light on the tower similar to a cut diamond, helping it achieve its goal of being one of the world's brightest and most eyecatching towers when it catches the light of the sun. (Plate 6) The tower has been completely approved by all governing and oversight bodies and will be constructed in the first phase of the project. Construction is expected to begin later this year, but may be put on hold if more redesigns/upscaling of the project is in the offing. The Complete GIFT (Plate 8) Right Man in Right Place at Right Time The man in command is the one who built Navi Mumbai, laid the Mumbai-Pune Expressway and built three international airports. Having taken over as Director in GIFT Company Ltd., RK Jha, said with the kind of support he is getting from state government, people will start moving into GIFT by 2011-end. Civil work began on January 15, 2010. Work

It is the only tower located on block (or in GIFT development parlance "Package", in reference to each site being a separate instance of publicprivate development partnerships) "Package D", the only tower package on Fortune Island, which also will have a huge waterfront public green space as well as a museum and convention center. The tower will be accessible by foot by a bridge spanning the river as well as the gamut of GIFT's public transport system. (Plate 5)

on basic infrastructure for road, water and sewage lives would be completed by the year-end and construction of buildings could commence in 2011. "While it will take 10 years to execute the entire project, certain pockets within GIFT area will come alive in two years," says Jha, who has over 44 years of professional experience, including a 25-year stint with City and Industrial Development Corporation of Maharashtra CIDCO's New Town Development Authority of Navi Mumbai. Moving out of Mumbai for first time, Ahmedabad, it is said left Jha impressed. He said in an interview "I have found the bureaucracy here very pro-active and the political leadership quite determined about the GIFT project". "There is a huge potential in GIFT, especially after the Dubai's changing fortunes. GIFT will rival International Financial Centres (IFCs) in Dubai, Hong Kong and Mauritius. Many Mumbai-based corporates, who have space constraints, would like to move here," said Jha. The plan, he said, is to provide state-of-the-art infrastructure in GIFT which will come under a special economic zone (SEZ). Eventually, by 2020, GIFT would accommodate about 40 lakhs people, who would be staying in the surroundings of the central business district. Transportation would be a major challenge and the revised metro rail plan has incorporated GIFT along the route. The exhaustive planning, state-ofthe-art sustainable design and dedicated implementation should leave no doubt in anyone's mind of GIFT's world class status showing the way for more of such much in demand global hubs coming up in the country. Last Words The scale of GIFT is singularly massive, unparalleled in the world except a handful of Dubai megaprojects, none of those which can hold to GIFT's goals of economic sustainability, integration and scalability.

A Bird Eye View Plate 8

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Roof India '2012

Equipment Accessories Communication Feature

Trendsetter Focussed on Consolidating Market Presence


contractors, not only in India, but overseas too. Speaking exclusively to The Masterbuilder, Mr.Neeraj Sharma gave detailed insights into the company's product range, its R & D focus areas, and future plans. Here are excerpts from the interview. Tell us about your manufacturing unitits location, size, and production capacity? Our manufacturing unit spread over 12000 square feet is located in Delhi. Our current production capacity is approx. 100 units per year. We have plans to increase our production up to 300 units per year keeping in mind our projections on the demand from our existing clients and prospective customers. What makes your bucket crushers different from competing products? In a typical scenario, generally there are 3 alternatives as far as crushing activity is concerned. The first alternative is to set up a crushing plant outside the city limits. This option requires a minimum area of 1 acre along with the primary crusher, generators, conveyers and at least 10 to 15 resources to carry out the entire operation. The entire effort involves a cost of approximately ` 75 lakh to ` 1 crore of monetary investment in the inventory apart from the cost of land, transportation cost from the actual site till the crushing plant and back to the site and necessary permissions and clearances from environment and pollution control depts. The second alternative is to deploy a mobile crusher which again has a limited mobility and has another limitation that it has to be fed with an excavator before it crushes the material. This option again involves 5 to 6 resources to carry out the entire operation. The minimum cost to deploy a mobile crusher in India starts from ` 2 Crores, which is 11 times costlier that a standard bucket crusher. The third option is to deploy a bucket crusher which is the most viable

Neeraj Sharma
MD, Aura Bucket Crusher

ura Bucket Crusher is a leading manufacturer of bucket crushers, which has carved a niche of its own, through its quality and customer focused approach. Considered a trendsetter in the industry, the company is a brain child of Mr.Neeraj Sharma, who introduced this revolutionary and innovative product in the Indian market in 2008. A science graduate by qualification, a seasoned entrepreneur by profession, and a well travelled man; Mr.Neeraj forayed in his family business dealing into heavy earth moving equipment in the early years of his student life. His technical bent of mind was evident right from his school days when his innovations won him laurels at several inter-school science fairs. The current design of the bucket crusher from the company has evolved after passing through many stages over a period of time, investing a considerable amount of time and money over R & D, experimentation and testing. After a initial period of 4 years of highs and lows, which is usually the case with many a new innovation, Aura Bucket Crusher has become a preferred choice of infrastructure companies and

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Equipment Accessories Communication Feature

and cost effective method to crush rocks. Its uniqueness lies in the high mobility and aptitude to crush rocks on the site itself, which eliminates the cost and efforts to procure land, transportation costs to and from crushing plants till site and dependency on the labour and machinery to feed the crusher. It can be mounted upon an excavator and can be operated only by one person, who can operate the excavator and crush the rocks at the same time. With the increase in project sizes do you foresee a significant rise in demand for higher capacity bucket crushers in India? Over the last few decades, India has witnessed a humungous growth in terms of infrastructure development. There is still a tremendous scope and opportunity for bucket crushers in India owing to the continued impetus given to the infrastructure sector in the past few years and the times to come. In the current scenario, 80% of Indian infrastructure corporates and retail contractors are using excavators

in the range of 20 tonnes capacity, which leaves a very limited market catering to excavators in 10 tonne and 30 tonne range. Therefore, our major thrust is to promote and produce bucket crushers in 20 tonne range. Tell us about your recent R & D achievements? Apart from the bucket crushers, our R & D team has been working on developing a rotary screen which again has a huge potential in the Indian infrastructure market and we plan to roll it out very soon after its testing is complete. Do you incorporate changes in your models based on different markets? No, all our models are standard, although we keep innovating and incorporating the use of latest technology and the best quality of raw material, components and trends while manufacturing our crushers. The proposed new mining bill is expected to give much needed push to the mining sector. The government has

also been keen on continuing its thrust towards infrastructure development. In this scenario, how big according to you, in terms of value, is the market for bucket crushers in India? Like I mentioned above, we all know that India has a tremendous potential as far as infrastructure is concerned. Apart from the mining activities, the ongoing and upcoming road projects, bulk and retail C & D activities, environmental remediation activities also provide us with a huge and vast platform to strategically showcase and position our bucket crushers. At this stage, it is difficult to quantify the market in terms of value or numbers but we are highly optimistic and confident that our turnover is all set to cross ` 100 crore mark in the next 2 years.

For further details:


29, Siri Fort Road, New Delhi-110 049, India Mob.: +91 9953327502 E-mail: info@auraexim.org Web: www.aurabucketcrusher.com

Aura Bucket Crusher

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207

Soil Stabilisation

Asphalt Zipper 500B

Asphalt Zipper: Long Lasting Foundations


Chetan Kanankia, Director, Bharat Road Development Combines Private Limited

oil Stabilization is the long-term physical and chemical alteration of soils to enhance their physical and engineering properties. Stabilization of in-place soils by incorporating the available additives can increase the shear strength of a soil and / or control the shrink swell properties of a soil, this improving the load bearing capacity of a subgrade to support pavements and foundations. Benefits of Soil Stabilization process certainly offers: Higher Strength values including CBR, modulus, compressive strength, and Resistance (R) Value

Increased load-spreading capabilities Reduction in plasticity Lower permeability Potential reduction of pavement thickness with proper design Elimination of excavation, material handling and hauling, and base importation Improved compaction Providing for all-weather access onto and within project sites.

and sprayed thru Nozzles for solvent types. Full-Depth Reclaimers (FDR) like Asphalt Zippers and others Portable Pneumatic Storage Containers (for additives) Water Trucks and Compaction Equipment with Motor Graders

Equipment for the modification and Stabilization process typically includes the following;Additive Spreaders / Distributors Dry Powder spreading and dozed

Through Stabilization, projects are built more cost effectively, perform better and ultimately last longer. With the equipment available today it is possible to perform ripping and stabilizing can be performed up to 300 mm in a single forward pass, such that the overall surface materials are

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Soil Stabilisation

reduced, improving the underlying materials. Overall benefit is to reduce the costs associated with the most expensive layer in a pavement structure. Some commonly used additives are: Portland Cement when used produces Soil-Cement or Cement Modified Soil ( CMS ) having benefits such as Improved Constructability of marginally on-site Soils,Reduced Plasticity & improved strength,Less susceptible to the damaging effects of water, An all weather work platform, Use of on-site rather than removal and replacement with expensive select fill material. Lime Adding lime to soil can have a number of beneficial effects both during construction and over the life of the pavement or soil structure as well as :- Soil Drying- reducing the amount of moisture in soil, Soil Modification reducing the soil plasticity, aiding compaction and increasing soil strength, primarily for construction purposes and expansion characteristics Kiln Dust CKD and LKD are fine particles captured in rotary kilns and because of their high calcium content, particle fineness and subsequent ability to harden upon exposure to moisture, Kiln Dusts

Asphalt Zipper 400B On Trailer

have been successfully used as binders in soil modification and stabilization. Class C Fly Ash The self cementing properties of sub-bituminous coal fly ashes ( Class C fly ash) can be used in both Soil Modification and Soil Stabilization applications.Most effectively used for paving operations and reduces the potential for sub grade damage to construction

traffic or adverse weather conditions. Summary: Applying the correct additive through modification or stabilization can improve the engineered properties of the less than perfect subgrade, sub base, or base material. Significant economic benefits are gained through lowered costs associated with hauling better materials to the site, reduced finer surface materials, and accelerated construction times.The degree of need for Soil Stabilization will vary greatly and should be evaluated on case-by-case basis. In India one of the most recent entry but most suitable for easy mobility, reduced Owning and Operating Costs and more importantly ease of maintenance and long term benefits are offered by Asphalt Zipper launched by BRDC Mumbai.

For further details:


14, Viral Apartments, Opp. Shoppers Stop, S.V. Road, Andheri (West), Mumbai-400 058 Ph: +91-22-65346038, Fax: +91-22-26288753 E-mail: info@brdc.co, Web: www.brdc.co

Bharat Road Development Combines Private Limited

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209

Communication Feature

Thermal Barriers with a Difference


ustainability is the buzzword among the construction industry these days. With the Green Building movement picking up momentum in India, scores of new products are hitting the market, almost every passing day. A good example would be thermal insulation, an area where several players are in the fray. However, while there could be scores of products available, there are only a select few which are able to stand out from the crowd and carve a niche of their own. Thermatek products belong to this category. The Emissivity Factor What makes Thermatek different from other insulation products, one may ask. The answer lies in one of the key capabilities of the product 'Emissivity' or 'Infra red Emittance'. This is a factor that makes the product different, innovative and stands out from the crowd. While the other overdeck heat reflective products available in the market harp on the 'reflectivity' factor, with Thermatek, you not only get reflectivity, additionally customers are also ensured of emissivity. What difference does the factor make would be the obvious question. Quite substantial is the answer. This is where the science behind the two

factors needs to be understood. With products that feature only reflectivity, what happens is that a certain amount of solar radiation is reflected back, while a major amount is absorbed by the roof and transmitted inside a building. This heat gets trapped inside the structure of the building. With high emissivity of Thermatek products the absorbed heat is diffused back into the atmosphere keeping the building cool. This phenomenon can be observed in cities with humid climate such as Chennai, which is so typical of many other cities and towns in the country too. Inside buildings as soon as the fans are switched on, even during evenings, inmates can feel a gust of hot air circulating through the room. This is because of the failure of the roof to get rid of the solar radiation that is has absorbed during the day. Whereas, this is not the case with Thermatek products which feature both reflectivity and emissivity. These products feature a Solar Reflective Index (SRI) of 90.7 and Solar Emittance or Emissivity of 0.93. What this ensures is that apart from the reflectivity factor, the emissivity ensures that the heat is not absorbed and therefore, does not enter the building. This high solar reflectance capability reduces heat island effect, saves energy, and reduces

indoor temperature in buildings without air-conditioning. It also ensures cooling load reduction in air-conditioned buildings, making it perfectly suited for application in both residential and commercial buildings. The Thermatek product range consists of Thermatek Heat Resistant Terrace Tile Thermatek Cool Mortar Thermatek Heat Reflective Paint

Trendsetter Thermatek products come to you from Ishaan Industries, an associate company of Parshuram Pottery Works Co Ltd, the pioneer in manufacture of ceramic -ware in India. The fact that Thermatek products are tested by TUV Singapore stands testimony to their quality standards. Thermatek products, having a rich legacy of over 70 years behind them, featuring the patented technology have today become a preferred choice in the country. Thermatek products are a result of extensive R & D and conform to ECBC/ LEED/IGBC cool roof requirements. The exceptional thermal insulation performance of Thermatek products can be attributed to the following 'green' credentials: Solar reflectance (albedo): 0.73 Solar Emittance: 0.93 Solar Reflectance Index (SRI): 90.7 Thermal Conductivity: 0.181 w/m K Wear Resistance (as per IS 12371980):2.21mm Wet Traverse Strength (as per IS 1237-1980): 6.05 N/mm2 Water absorption (as per IS 12371980): 4.23%

For further details:


Mob: +91-99620276654 E-mail: thermatek@gmail.com Web: www.thermatek.co.in

Thermatek

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IQPC (Cost Effective Sustainable Design Construction)

Urban Engineering JNNURM

JNNURM
M.K.Prabhakar

Mission NOT Impossible

he Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) counts among the most ambitious initiatives that will dictate the legacy of the UPA government in the years to come. Launched by the Ministry of Urban Development with much fan fare on 3rd December 2005 by Prime Minister, Dr.Manmohan Singh, the mission's first phase is in the last year of its implementation. India with its 1.25 billion people is second most populated country in the world after China. While around an estimated 70 % of the people live in

rural areas, the trend of urbanization has caught on in India. The population ratios are expected to get skewed in favor of cities in a few years time from now. However, haphazard growth of urban areas has taken a real toll on the country. Degradation of Indian cities due to lack of proper planning and inadequate infrastructure meant that something on the lines of JNNURM was long overdue. JNNURM was taken up by the government to redevelop urban towns and cities by developing physical infrastructure, municipal reforms and

by actively supporting the state governments and urban local bodies (ULBs). A total of 65 cities with elected bodies in position were chosen for the scheme, which was a truly revolutionary step. Under the norms of the mission, 13 specific reforms are mandatory for states and municipalities before funds could be accessed. At the municipality level, in order to be eligible for the funding, the civic authorities had to adopt modern accounting systems, improve property tax collection mechanism, and target investments for the poor. Going

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Urban Engineering JNNURM

upwards, at the state level, the eligibility norms include implementation of decentralization measures, as well as enactment of laws for community participation and public disclosure. Rapid Urbanization The massive explosion of urban population had meant that the mission could not have come a day sooner. The Prime Minister, Dr.Manmohan Singh, while assessing the situation during the inaugural ceremony in 2005 had rightly said, With urbanization comes the need to invest in infrastructure and improve the quality of life in our cities. Rapid urbanization has not only outpaced infrastructure development, but has also brought in its train a terrible downside - the downside of proliferating slums, the downside of increasing homelessness, the downside of growing urban poverty and crime, of relentless march of pollution and ecological damage. This gives you an idea of the massive challenge that lies ahead. Recognising this challenge of an acute urban crisis, the National Common Minimum Programme had stressed that the government initiate a process of urban renewal. I am happy that today we are commencing this new effort through the launch of the

Renewal Mission. The Prime Minister in his inaugural message reiterated the fact that the mission is the single largest initiative of the Government of India for a planned development of cities. The JNNURM has got different Sub-Missions as part of its initiatives. The first one is the Sub-Mission for Urban Infrastructure and Governance , which is being administered by the Ministry of Urban Development, with a focus on key areas such as water supply and sanitation, urban transport, road network, solid waste management and redevelopment of old city areas. The second Sub-Mission is for Basic Services to the Urban Poor (BSUP), which is administered by the Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (MHUPA), which concentrates on integrated development of slums. In addition to these two key submissions, there is the Sub-Mission for Urban Infrastructure Development of Small & Medium Towns (UIDSSMT), which is administered by the Union Ministry of Urban Development, with a focus on subsuming the schemes of Integrated Development of Small and Medium Towns (IDSMT) and Accelerated Urban Water Supply Programme (AUWSP), which are already in existence,

"With urbanization comes the need to invest in infrastructure and improve the quality of life in our cities. Rapid urbanization has not only outpaced infrastructure development, but has also brought in its train a terrible downside - the downside of proliferating slums, the downside of increasing homelessness, the downside of growing urban poverty and crime, of relentless march of pollution and ecological damage. This gives you an idea of the massive challenge that lies ahead"

Dr.Manmohan Singh
Prime Minister of India

infrastructural improvement in towns and cities that fall under its purview. Then comes the Sub-Mission for Integrated Housing and Slum Develop-ment Programme (IHSDP) administered by the MHUPA. Mixed Bag The rough and tumble of the Indian political scene meant that the mission has been successful up to varying degrees in different states. The JNNURM had completed six years in December 2011, when the last National Conference for the mission was held. An official statement from the Union Ministry of Urban Development mentioned that the mission is on a fast track with several states exhausting their seven year allocation commitments. Under the Sub-Mission for Urban Infrastructure and Governance (UIG), en

JNNURM provides a ray of hope for the teeming millions living in inhuman conditions in its urban agglomerations

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Urban Engineering JNNURM

Transport infrastructure has got a boost in several cities courtesy- the JNNURM

which focuses on the 65 mission cities, a total of about 532 projects have been sanctioned in 31 States and Union Territories (UTs) in the country till March 31, 2011, the statement said. The cost of the sanctioned projects till the last National Conference has been estimated to be ` 60, 528.99 crore. The Additional Central Assistance (ACA) that had been committed for these projects was ` 27, 960.30 crore. A total of ` 6, 592.89 crore has been utilized in 2010-11 under UIG.

"Every state has given good ideas and one of the ideas is that the big metropolitan municipal corporations and the smaller municipal councils should not be dealt on a common platform and separate plans should be created for smaller cities"

Under the Urban Infrastructure Development for Small and Medium Towns Scheme (UIDSSMT), which is another important component of the mission, focusing on small and medium towns, a total of about 767 projects have been sanctioned covering 644 towns in the country till 31st March 2011, said the statement. The cost of the sanctioned projects has been estimated to be ` 12, 947.51 crore. The ACA committed for the projects is `10, 450.33 crore. A total amount of ` 2, 676 crore has been utilized in the year 2010-11 under UIDSSMT as part of the mission. Success Stories The fact that several key infra-

structure projects have been completed on schedule under the JNNURM proves that with the right kind of norms in place and with the required political will, there is no reason why the country's infrastructure could not match up with the developed world. A good example is the construction of the 12 km long stretch (stretch 1 of the Phase I) of the Ahmedabad Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS). The project is being successfully implemented in one of the fastest growing cities in the country since it rolled out in 2009. One of the reasons why the project still evokes admiration is the fact that a similar project, the Delhi BRTS had run into trouble soon after its launch. With detailed studies and engineering being carried out for the remaining stretches, the project, whose total cost is estimated to be `1000 crore is being seen as a perfect role model for developing sustainable transport infrastructure in Indian cities. The project had also bagged the best 'Best Mass Transit Project Award' during the JNNURM National Conference held in December 2009. It has been not the same case with all BRTS projects. Inordinate delays have plagued some of them with the Vijaya-wada BRTS being a good example for one such project. There are several other examples of projects under the purview of JNNURM

Mr.Kamal Nath
Union Minister for Urban Development

Will scenes like this become a blast from the past in Indian cities? JNNURM storm water management system projects hopes to make them so

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MB Subscription Form

Urban Engineering JNNURM

The Ahmedabad BRTS seen here has emerged as a role model for other cities

The road ahead- tougher monitoring of project implementation holds the key to success of JNNURM Phase II

which have caught the attention of the nation. The desalination plant at Minjur, Chennai, is another good example. The project consisting of two stage pumping mechanism and other important infrastructure consisting of underground storage tanks, pipeline, pumping stations, etc, is expected to serve the needs of the burgeoning metropolis' drinking water needs in the future. When it comes to solid waste management projects, then there is the successful example of 10 municipal towns in Kolkata. Similarly storm water drainage systems that have been developed under the purview of JNNURM, especially in the areas of Greater Mumbai, which receive some of the heaviest rainfalls in the country, are some other examples of projects that have made a tangible difference to the quality of life of citizens of the particular city. Several flyover projects, spanning across the country in places like Vadodara, Surat, Bangalore, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, New Delhi, and Vijayawada that have been constructed under the mission, are quite literally standing testimonials to the efficacy of the project implementation mechanism. JNNURM 2.0 While the jury is not yet out on the first phase of JNNURM, the focus has already shifted to the second phase of the scheme. Speaking to reporters recently, the Union Urban Development Minister, Mr.Kamal Nath had indicated that the second

phase could witness a three-fold increase in its budget. We are looking at 0.25% of the GDP . It will be almost two and a half times or rather three times the size of the first JNNURM, the Minister was heard saying. The next phase will all probability include some more cities indicated the Minister. "Every state has given good ideas and one of the ideas is that the big metropolitan municipal corporations and the smaller municipal councils should not be dealt on a common platform and separate plans should be created for smaller cities," Mr. Kamal Nath added. The lessons that have been learnt in the first phase of JNNURM are likely to be improved upon in order to evolve an even better JNNURM model is what policy makers are promising. The Union Urban Development Minister had during the sixth JNNURM National Conference pointed out that just funding through a scheme cannot bring about change. According to the minister, reforms are needed in its implementation to ensure that urban infrastructure and service delivery improves in not only the metros but also in the tier II and tier III towns. Prime Minister, Dr.Manmohan Singh has also expressed similar views in the past. According to the Prime Minister, the process of municipal reform under the mission needs to be deepened and include more cities. Dr.Singh pointed out during the National Conference that, Our urban local bodies have to develop the capacity to provide efficient, equit-

able and transparent governance. They have to have the ability to conceive, design, and implement large projects. They have to be sensitive to the needs and welfare of the urban poor. The Way Forward Along with addition of new cities, there are certain other changes that critics have pointed out are to be incorporated as part of Phase II of JNNURM. One among them is to ensure a robust monitoring and verification system is in place. There have been scores of instances when lax monitoring and a seeming disdain for accountability by the authorities implementing projects at the ground level has either affected the pace of progress of projects or delayed them inordinately. There is also a growing pressure on the authorities to increase the number of personnel who are directly involved with the mission, since the number of cities in the second phase is expected to go up significantly. Despite all the hurdles that the mission is facing there is no doubt that JNNURM offers the best chance for a comprehensive rejuvenation of India's urban areas for the betterment of the quality of life of its teeming millions. Having learnt from the mistakes done during the first phase, the political leadership should ensure that the new paradigm that has been ensured by JNNURM, by associating the development of infrastructure with appropriate governance and financial reforms, continues in the right vein, during the second phase of the mission.

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Contract Management Seminar (IITarb)

Event Achievement Award

15 years of Civil-Aid Technoclinic (P) Ltd.


Bhavani Balakrishna

ivil-Aid Technoclinic, a group company of Bureau Veritas, recently celebrated its 15 years by honoring some of the senior civil engineers in the industry. Formed in the year 1998 to specifically serve the civil engineering community, Civil-Aid provides services related to the following. Structural Designs & Consultancy Services Proof Checking & Advisory Services Structural Soundness & Evaluation of old and new structures

Investigation for Restoration & Rehabilitation of Structures Non-destructive Testing of R C & Steel Structures Geo-technical Investigation & Foundation Design Laboratory & Field Testing of Building Materials ,Components including special tests Quality Control I Quality Audit of Constructions Imparting Training in Structural Analysis, Design and Drafting Softwares & latest developments in Civil Engineering.

The services can be utilized in various stages of any construction. In Aug 2011, Civil-Aid became a group company of Bureau Veritas in India. This enables its clients to avail the QHSE services of Certification, Design Review, Third Party Inspection including related training under one roof. Started in 1828, Bureau Veritas has consistently built recognized expertise helping clients comply with standards and regulations relating to Quality, Health & Safety, Environment and Social Responsibility. It employs 50,000

Eminent Civil Engineers honored during the function are


Specialists in Water Resources Eminent Developers

Dr. Rama Prasad

Dr.K.G.Ranga Raju

S.A.Char

M.R.Jaishankar

Irfan Razack

P.N.C Menon

Eminent Consulting Engineers

T.S.Gururaj

A.N.Prakash

Dr.R.Jagdish

Umesh B.Rao

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Event Achievement Award

Eminent Engineers from Construction Sector

Eminent Engineers from Industry

H.N.Dwarakanath

V.Lanka

M.S.Nagaraja Rao

Dr.Veerappa Reddy

S.K.Ananda Kumar

Specialists from Service Undertakings

Former UN/WB Consultants

D.Sitaramaiah

B.S.Sudhir Chandra

Dr.N.Raghavendra

Dr.Ajitha Simha

Dr.G.N.Yoganarasimhan

Eminent Geo Technical Engineers

Specialists in Bridges

Dr.V.S.Chandrashekaran

Dr.Vedavyasa H.Joshi

Dr.K.S.Subba Rao

K.V.S. Seshagiri Rao

H.R.Bapusatyanarayana

A.Nagendra

employees in 930 worldwide locations. Speaking on the occasion, Dr.C.S.Vishwanatha, Chairman of CivilAid Technoclinic (P) Ltd said that CivilAid has been actively interacting with architects, academicians, builders and consultants on technical matters in the field of Civil Engineering. Hence, the programme today wherein they would introspect activities of past and appreciate the contributions of these eminent engineers and honor 35 of them. This is the third such event that has been organized by the company. Earlier, similar felicitations were done in

The guests of the honor for the event were Padmashree Dr.H.C.Visvesvaraya a planner, R&D expert, educationalist, engineer and organizer of high eminence and international repute and Dr.A.Ravindra, who has continuously worked towards the urbanization and infrastructure development in Karnataka. Addressing the audience, he said it was heartening to see the civil engineering fraternity being recognized and honored in this manner. He said that despite civil engineering being the largest part of national expenditure, the community has always worked in the background and the members who

always strived to work had for the benefit and welfare of the society at large have never been in the limelight. He likened the work of Dr.Vishwanatha to what Narayanmurthy did for Infosys and hoped that the team groomed by Dr.Vishwanatha would take Civil-Aid from its present strength of 250 to 2500. 15 years of Civil-Aid Civil-Aid has its roots in Torsteel Research Foundation which initiated its activities in Bangalore in 1967 with a focus on in house quality control of reinforcing bars in production activities. Civil Engineering Services activities

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Event Achievement Award

Eminent Engineers from Govt. Sector

Capt.S.Raja Rao

T.Jayadevappa

S.B.Polisgowdar

V.B.Jawoor

N.S.Chakaravarthy

Eminent Architects

Eminent Academicians

T.M.Thomas

Krishna Rao Jaisim

Dr.K.S.Jagdish

Dr.S.S.Bhavikatti

were introduced along with in-house quality controls in 1980. These civil engineering activities such as structural designs and peer review, geotechnical engineering, material testing, non-destructive testing and quality audit of constructions grew beyond Bangalore in the period 1980-95. Centers were opened at Chennai and Hyderabad to cover effectively larger geographical areas.

In 1997, Civil-Aid Technoclinic (P) Ltd was created to cover all civil engineering activities. Laborotaries were strengthened and the technical staff strength was enhanced. Civil-Aid now staffs about 250 and centers in Chennai, Hyderabad and Mangalore. The accreditation of all labs by National Accreditation Board for Testing Labs, GOI gave a further push. During 201011, when there were further plans for

expansion, the company found a partner with common objectives in Bureau Veritas. In Aug 2011, Civil-Aid became a group company of Bureau Veritas (International). Civil-Aid is now in the process of opening up new centers at New Delhi, Mumbai and Ernakulam. It has started working on several projects in Middle East, East Africa and Central Asia in addition to enhancing base in the country.

Muskoka Boathouse Splendid Architecture in Rustic Ambiance


esigned by architect Christopher Simmonds, the boathouse in Ontario's Muskoka Lakes region exudes the idyllic tone of the scenic lake. It was a renovation project meant to spruce up the existing boathouse and add a second storey suite plus a roof terrace. An exterior staircase connects the lower deck to the second level terrace, which is the most attractive part of the property and also serves as a perfect space for outdoor gathering. The self-contained sleeping cabin on the second storey has a bedroom, washroom, kitchenette and living space. The use of rustic materials coupled with modest detailing renders a cozy yet contemporaneous air to the cabin interiors. While three sides of the cabin are bordered, the fourth side opens to the roof terrace. Positioned at the tip of a slender bay, the boathouse provides stunning vistas of the distant lake as well as unmitigated views of the immediate shoreline forests. Despite providing such sheer views, the structure is well-shielded from the open breezes and water traffic. (Source: Arch Daily)

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India Facilities Management Summit 2012

Trade Show

IFAT ENSORGA 2012:


he 2012 edition of IFAT ENTSORGA, the world's leading trade show for innovations and services in water, sewage, waste and raw materials management is expected to be significantly bigger than the previous one. In fact, according to the organizers, Messe Mnchen, the trade show was fully booked, a good five months before the actual event. Being held in Munich, Germany from 7th to 11th May 2012, IFAT ENTSORGA 2012 will be covering a total of 215,000 square meters of exhibition space 180,000 square meters indoors and 35,000 square meters outdoors, which incidentally would be a new record for the show. The organizers are also sure that the number of

Series of New Technologies Expected to be Showcased during Premier Trade Show

exhibitors will exceed the 2,730 that took part in the last edition of the global event held in 2010. "We are particularly pleased in this context with the response from exhibitors from abroad. A total of 27 international joint stands are registered, from 17 countries. Canada, Japan, Norway, Russia and Spain are taking joint stands for the first time," is how Mr. Eugen Egetenmeir, Managing Director of Messe Mnchen, one of the leading trade fair companies in the world, described the enthusiastic response to the event, before adding, "These strong participation figures, resulting in fully booked halls, show clearly that the companies in Germany and around the

"We are particularly pleased in this context with the response from exhibitors from abroad. A total of 27 international joint stands are registered, from 17 countries. Canada, Japan, Norway, Russia and Spain are taking joint stands for the first time,"
Eugen Egetenmeir,
Managing Director, Messe Mnchen

world regard IFAT ENTSORGA as the leading trade fair for their sector." Over 1, 20,000 B2B visitors are expected to attend the fair from 120 countries around the world, out of which 91 percent would be decision makers, according to the organizers. The visitors profile for the event is expected to include professionals from various industrial sectors such as chemical industry, textile industry, food & beverage industry, environment & energy, water, irrigation & pump, petrochemical industry, automation industry, metalworking industry, agriculture, paper & packaging industry, among others. Some more new topics are being added to the event during this edition. These include expanded coverage on energy generation from waste water and waste materials, and a greater focus on desalination, urban mining, sanitation and coastal management solutions. The product categories during the event are as follows: 1. Water extraction and treatment 2. Water and sewage treatment 3. Irrigation technology

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Trade Show

4. Water distribution and sewers 5. Coastal protection/flood control 6. Generating energy from waste materials 7. Street cleaning, maintenance and winter road services, 8. Decontamination of old sites/soil treatment 9. Flue-gas scrubbing and air extraction 10. Air pollution abatement 11. Noise reduction/sound insulation 12. Measuring , control and laboratory technology services 13. Science, research, technology transfer 14. Geothermal energy Another key aspect of the trade fair is the extensive number of supporting events. These include company and product presentations, symposia, congresses, country specials and technical discussions with first-rate moderators and speakers. The 16th International Water, Waste Water and Solid Waste Symposium will be part of the event, which will feature a multifaceted, topical and extensive programme of technical events on the topic of sustainable water and waste management. One more highlight of the trade show is the special event on 'Mega Cities'. International cities will present environmental concepts for water supply as well as waste and water disposal in a global competition as part of the special event. 'Trucks in Action' is similarly, another special event wherein visitors can experience state-of-the-art vehicle solutions for specific tasks live at

the trade show. From waste removal and street cleaning to winter road services and other special-purpose vehicles, the special event will showcase a variety of latest technologies. The India Connection Country specials on Africa, Canada, CEE, France, Great Britain, India, Russia and Turkey would be another highlight of IFAT ENSORGA. India has emerged as a key market for products and technologies in the municipal engineering field. The country's growing demand can be gauged from the fact that the last edition of the event attracted 388 visitors from India. This time a significantly higher contingent is expected to represent India, apart from an increase in the number of business visitors from the country.

There's a continuous growing interest in India

As part of the country special on India, a panel of experts will deliberate on a variety of topics pertaining to Indian cities. These include, Waste to Energy and Wastewater to Clean WaterChallenges for India's Public and Private Sectors- Opportunities for International Technology Suppliers- in cooperation with Government of Bavaria, Government of Karnataka and GIZASEM (Indo-German Environment Programme, Bangalore Office). Challenges a mega city like Bangalore would be facing in the next two decades in terms of energy supply, Waste and Water management, Waste to Energy and Wastewater to Clean Water Overviews: Solutions for shaping a sustainable future for Bangalore and India, are the other topics that would be deliberated upon during the event, by a panel of experts, at the end of which visitors could interact with the panellists during a question and answer session. India will also be the focus of attention as one of the topics during the Mega Cities special event. The special event will feature a discussion on 'International Examples of Sustainable Development in Mega Cities: South, America, China and India. ' Some of the other important special events, technical discussions and product pavilions lined up during the trade show are GeoBioEnergy 2012, VDMA Practical Days, UN Water Center, Water is the Future, and 100 Years of Municipal Cleaning.

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Executive Workshop

CIDC's Executive Program on Managing Project Sites


CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL
Established by Planning commission
Government of India

he Construction Industry Development Council (CIDC) is organizing an Executive Development Program on Managing Project Sites-Lessons in Construction Excellence on 1st -3rd March, 2012 at Faridabad, India. Construction projects in India are experiencing widespread delays. As per a research conducted, some of the most critical factors of construction delay were identified as inefficient site management and poor site coordination apart from lack of commitment, improper planning, lack of clarity in project scope, lack of communication and substandard contract. With increasing volume of large-scale construction across infrastructure, residential and commercial space, it is highly crucial now that Indian construction industry professionals develop a clear understanding of the complexities involved in management of construction sites. The program on Managing Project Sites-Lessons in Construction Excellence

(with Site Visit) has been tailored by CIDC to cater specially to unique project requirements of the construction Industry. The program has been designed to provide new insights and latest information, and case studies of innovative measures that greatly influenced managing construction sites. The scope of the program will cover subjects like Site Mobilization & Layout of Temporary Facilities & Installation, Effective Contracts Management, Safety Challenge at Construction Sites, On Site Materials Management, Construction Quality Management, Efficient Construction through Planning & Control and Information System, Construction Site Management, Case Study on Overcoming Site Handicap, and an Actionable Plan for Achieving Excellence in Project Site Management. The course will also include visits to construction sites. The Course Director for this program will be Mr. S. B. Lal, a Civil Engineer who possesses over 50 years of experience in various aspects of construction

activities including handling of disputes both in India as well as abroad. At present, he is providing consultancy to various Govt. as well as Pvt. Sector organizations like DMRC, DSIIDC etc. He is also the Chairman of the jury for quality rating for the firms like Tata Sons, Godrej, Lokhandwala etc. CIDC has been established by the Planning Commission, Govt. of India and the Construction Industry with unrelenting support from its Member organizations, State Govt Dept, PSUs, and other concerned agencies. The Council provides the impetus and the organizational infrastructure to raise quality levels across the industry. This helps to secure wider appreciation of the interests of construction business by the government, industry and peer groups in society. As part of its endeavours to intensify training initiatives, the Council also organizes specialized training programs such as the above for the working professionals in the construction industry to update their knowledge in their respective fields.

The World's Largest Offshore Facility Ready for Business


alney wind farm, located off the Cumbrian coast in the United Kingdom, has gained renown for being the world's largest such facility. The offshore wind farm consists of 102 turbines spanning over 73 sq km with a maximum output of 367.2 MW. It is capable of meeting the power requirements of nearly 320,000 homes. Walney I, the first phase consisting of 51 turbines, started supplying power from January 2011. Each turbine is 137 meters high and has a rotor diameter of 107 meters. Walney II, the second phase involves 51 turbines, each 150 meters high with a total diameter of 120 meters. Though the dimensions vary, all of them are 3.6 MW turbines from Siemens. A noteworthy fact is that the Walney II installation reached completion in a short span of just six months. The turbine specifications comply with the sizeable wind assets of the United Kingdom. Working at wind speeds ranging from 4 to 25 m/s, the peak performance is at a wind speed of 14m/s. The wind farm is based on offshore substations where the voltage is increased to 132kV from 34kV, which is an eco-friendly concept considering the fact that high voltage transmissions minimize losses and reduce the dependence on onshore substations associated with low-voltage transmissions. The wind farm has been constructed by Walney (UK) Offshore Windfarms Ltd in

collaboration with SSE and DONG Energy. It is unclear as to when the 1000 MW wind farm will reach completion, though Phase I is expected to meet a maximum scope of 630 MW by the close of this year. (Source: Gizmag)

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Instruct

Equipment Soil Stabilizer

Stabilized Soil Mixtures: Key Ingredient for a Sound Construction


specially in the road projects specifications floated by the public authorities. The major mechanical means of soil stabilization in the country has been till today, the same ancient method of pulverization soil by using pick-axes, disc harrows with tractor to reduce the size and then soil clods passed over by wheel roller. Mixing of pulverized soil with cement and moorum or lime and moorum is carried out by using rotavator machine or a motor grader. The three essentials for obtaining aproperly stabilized soil mixture are : Proper gradation A satisfactory binding of soil Proper control of the mixture content.

Subash Niyogi
CEO, Rockster India Pvt. Ltd.

Partha Chakrabarti
GM-Technical Service Rockster India Pvt. Ltd.

Viveksheel Gautam
Final Year, M.Tech Mechinery Engg, ISM, Dhanbad

Expansive clay soil causes more damage to U.S. commercial and residential property each year than all hurricanes, tornados, earthquakes and floods combined a study states. Regardless of the purpose of stabilization of soil, either to increase strength and durability or to prevent erosion and dust generation, the aim is to achieve the desired results of the improved soil which have to be in place in required conditions for the design life of the project. Successful soil stabilization techniques necessarily assures adequate subgrade stability, special for weak and wetter soil in the construction of roads, air-fields, embankments, and foundations.

Key to success in Soil Stabilization is Soil Testing. The method of soil stabilization selected should be verified in the laboratory before construction and preferably before specifying or ordering materials and selection of a methodology. On the other hand, the most critical components in stabilization is compaction. But ,on the most important in a soil stabilization project is the selection of right stabilizer which governs the success of stabilization. There has been very limited applications of modern stabilizers in the country in a limited number of projects as there is not much insistence of strict specifications of stabilization,

To obtain uniform bearing capacity, uniformmixture and blending of all materials is essential. The mixture will normally be compacted at or near OMC to obtain satisfactory densities. Satisfactory materials for this use include- Crushed stone - Crushed and uncrushed gravel - Sand - Fly ash - Crushed slag, and - Other locally available materials including disintegrated granite, talus rock, mine tailings, caliche, coral, limerock, tuff, shell, slinkers, cinders, and iron ore. Construction of single-layer roads and also the base course of multi-layerroads, can be done by addition of crushed aggregates blended before compaction to form a uniform, wellgraded, dense soil-aggregate mixture after compaction. A stabilizing machine therefore, has to handle even big rocks or boulders either added or already existing in the

FAE Soil Stabilizer in-situ crushing and stabilizing

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Equipment Soil Stabilizer

soil or in asphalt of an existing roads which need to be recycled. Mechanism of Soil Stabilization Technique The two major processes involved in the mechanism of Soil Stabilization techniques,they are: - Mechanical stabilization process and - Chemical admixture stabilization process. In the process of mechanical stabilization, a physical processes takes place in the soil wherein alteration of physical composition of the soil occurs by blending. In the chemical stabilization process, the admixture alters the chemical properties of the soil. In a successful soil stabilization, the mechanical stabilization must produce an interlocking of soil-aggregate particles on compaction. Here we must note that propergranulometry of the soil is required to be achieved which helps uniform mixing of material and

produces a dense mass when compacted at OMC. Selection of Right Stabilizing Machine A good stabilizer is necessary to achieve for successful stabilization which does - homogeneous gradation - well uniform mixing and blending of material & additives if used In the process of chemical stabilization, following additives are most commonly used : Cement Lime Fly ash Emulsion cationic emulsion, foam bitumen Polymer based additives Bio-degradable additives, and also Approved non-hazardous chemical admixture

and then uniform blending of the additives with the soil. Stabilizers from Fae-Group S.p.a, Italy FAE Stabilizers are designed to take care of this requirement by the Variable Displacement Chamber (VDC) Technology. FAE GROUP , with 23 years of experience in manufacturing in the industry of heavy duty machinery, concentrating on applications for road refurbishing and stabilization among other products it manufactures. FAE Soil Stabilizer series is proving very successful in many applications. FAE have come up with a new family of Soil Stabilizers. Based on the Variable Displacement Crushing Chamber technology, traditional in-situ rock crushing, to in-depth soil stabilization; from solid reef crushing to asphalt and bitumen road refurbishing. The main features that make the FAE Stabilizer a multifunctional unit are: Variable displacement crushing chamber (VDC) that enables the correct particle sizing of the material. The volume of the crushing chamber increases along with the working depth. The rotor is independent from the main frame and the working depth is hydraulically adjusted. The rotor can be equipped with different tools according to the application (Pick or F Hammers). Transmission by means of parallel axle reduction gearbox of FAE exclusive compact design. Hydraulically adjusted front hood to determine the quantity of incoming material and to avoid stones going out towards the tractor. Hydraulically adjusted rear hood to determine the quantity of material going out. Interchangeable screening rake on the rear hood for selecting the particle size going out. Oscillating dosing blades on the rear hood to distribute the outgoing material evenly. Lower rotor speed for maximum torque at 190 rpm.

The design of the stabilizer should be such that it creates proper homogeneous granulation of the soil

Working of Variable Displacement Chambers, VDC

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Equipment Soil Stabilizer

FAE Stabilizers System is equipped with leveling of the surface behind the stabilizer, and therefore, compaction can be direct behind the machine without loosing time in grading or leveling

Rotor diameter 1000 mm. for crushing/mulching material up to 700 mm in diameter

By incorporating certain special features, FAE has also improved the user friendliness of their Stabilizers which are: Bolted anti-wear internal plates that are completely interchangeable. Main frame built with high elastic materials to guarantee maximum resistance and reduced overall weight. Rotor with interchangeable stub axles and FAE exclusive hammer connection system by means of protected bolts that do not suffer from friction wear due to the material circulation around the rotor. Multiple hammer replacements are possible using the same bolts.

crushing rocks on the road surface and mixing the crushed material during the soil stabilization phase. Patches of uneven road are also being refurbished and re-sheeted. In the hot summer season, dust control applications may also be achieved by spraying special chemical mixed with water during the road refurbishing operations. Among others, the on going project reference is the unit supplied with another 340 HP tractor to a goldcopper mining operation in Indonesia for refurbishing all their access roads by spraying chemical binders directly on the mixing rotor in order to obtain a polymeric compaction to make the road stable during the rainy season and at the same time to reduce the amount of dust during the dry season. Another recent project worth refereeing is in Papua New Guinea where they have stabilized hard stands, roads, container parks, etc. etc. Special mention to make here is the number of projects in Australia and New Zealand, where many successful multiapplications of FAE Stabilizers can be witnessed in various applications that range from rock crushing in agricultural environments, to soil stabilization, to

The application benefits are well experienced at different deployments of the FAE Stabilizers. To mention here, the MTH 225 put into operation recently, at the Loxton-Waikerie District Council for all their road refurbishing and maintenance operations. Coupled to a 340 HP tractor and equipped with a specially designed water spraying system, the MTH 225 is being used for

asphalt recycling, to rock crushing for gravel roads and soil stabilization with chemical binders. As regards to the production performance, it is one of the selection criteria for any user. With a cutting width of 2320 mm, a drum diameter of close to 1000 mm and a working depth between 340 and 500 mm (on ripped and softer soil), the MTH series of stabilizers of FAE can crush up to 1800 m 3 of material per day, while refurbishing an average of 1 km of 8metre wideroad. Average speed is between 0.7 and 2 km/h on stone crushing. When working at max depth it may be necessary to drop the speed to 0.5 km/h to achieve an efficient result. Tractors with creeper gears or variable infinite transmissions are of course strongly recommended in these applications. The rotor is equipped with type F hammers which are easily replaceable as they are locked in by 2 bolts which are protected behind the holder and do not get worn during the crushing/ mixing procedure, there by easy to replace hammers even in the field. The lateral hammers are of the specially reinforced SD type. The transmission is completely gear driven in order to apply the necessary torque to the surface. The central and lateral gearboxes are both in oil bath, while all Hardox wearing plates are bolted onto the frame for an easy replacement exercise. The adjustable breaker bar is also made of anti-wear Hardox steel and the rear bonnet is equipped with an adjustable screening device. FAE has a range of other applicatons for vegetation management and land clearing on agricultural tractors, skid steers, excavators, loaders and other purpose built machinery.

For further details:


Marque Innovations Pvt. Ltd. FAE Australia Pacific Pty Ltd
Mob: +91-9900521746 E-mail: sales@marqueinnovations.com

Ph: (03) 97064088 E-mail: info@fae-ap.com.au

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Baicon 2012

Ground Engineering Pile Breaking

Hydraulic Pile Breakers:


Bhavani Balakrishna

Pile Breaking in Just a Matter of Minutes


ile breaking involves demolition of old concrete piles in order to make way for driving of new piles and subsequent building of new structures. Demolition of concrete piles is quite a challenge due to the presence of steel reinforcement bars and using conventional methods of can be quite cumbersome and time-consuming. In construction project involving pile foundations, one of the most cumbersome and time consuming activity is the crushing of top portion of the Castin-Situ Piles /Precast Piles as required to remove the weak top concrete and expose the reinforcement to be used for further construction. Pile breakers solve the problem by crushing such overhangs in a speedy and precise way. The reinforcement bars are left intact facilitating the rebuilding work. The breaking down of concrete piles is an essential part of the construction process and a subject that is often not given sufficient early thought in the planning of the piling works. The adoption of a suitable pile breaking method can result in financial savings for the project and most importantly will address and reduce potential health and safety issues in relation to this phase of the works. Normally, by use of conventional methods of chipping either by electric/ pneumatic a maximum of 2 piles can be chipped per day by one set of breakers. In most cases pneumatic breakers are not allowed for fear of developing micro cracks in the balance pile. There are several viable alternatives to this procedure that remove or significantly reduce these risks. In many cases, these innovations have been fully developed and are readily available. Yet, the Indian building & construction industry continues to follow the old, traditional ways. In fact, not more than 10% of the Indian market

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Ground Engineering Pile Breaking

Conventional methods of pile chipping is considered a time consuming process

uses the modern equipment available for pile breaking. This is sadly due to the lack of awareness about the advantages of the modern pile breaking/crushing equipment. The most basic method of cutting pile heads is to use either hand held or plant mounted pneumatic breakers. This type of pile breaking can increase the risk of integrity test failures, especially if work is not done properly.

The breaker shouldn't penetrate vertically into pile as it can cause pile splitting and cracks bellow a cut off level. It should be started from the perimeter to the center of the pile. Whilst this method is perhaps the easiest to specify and takes no initial planning, it can produce unacceptable health and safety issues and cause unnecessary damage, particularly to small diameter piles, if not carefully controlled. This

method also carries a high risk of hand arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) caused by regular exposure to vibration. Hydraulic pile breaking utilizes special equipment provided by various manufacturers. Hydraulic pile breakers cater to a wide range of concrete pile shapes and sizes, both cast in place and precast, including contiguous wall piles and small secant wall piles. These pile breakers are very advanced, efficient and time saving systems for trimming concrete foundation piles. This process results in a good horizontal finish, undamaged reinforcement and no cracks below the cut off level. These 'Pile Breakers' are available in a range of sizes and capability in the marketplace. These systems are not appropriate for some of the larger pile diameters or for use on diaphragm walls Varshitha Concrete has revolutionised this system in India. The capacity available is up to 1600 mm diameter piles. In a hydraulic pile breaker, the pile breaker is made of extendable jack modules starting from 4 modules (for piles below 500 mm diameter) and upto 9 modules (for piles upto 1600 mm diameter). The pile crushing unit is attached to a regular excavator and connected to existing hydraulic system of the excavator. These pile crushers can also be mounted onto telescopic arms/cranes/Hydra etc., and powered by external hydraulic power source. The pile is crushed before we bat an eyelid.

Hydraulic Pile Breaker

Pile breaking using hydraulic pile breaker

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Ground Engineering Pile Breaking

Elliot System

one can crush 40 to 50 piles in a day as against 4-5 piles per day using conventional methods. There are several other different approaches to pile breaking. One of this is the Elliott method wherein PVC sleeves are used with debonding agent such as polyurethane foam on pile rebars above cut-off level. It is expected that the introduction of some de-bonding agent between concrete and reinforcement above the pile cutoff level can help in reducing the bond of reinforcement with concrete. After breaking the pile at cut-off level, it is expected that the pile head can be simply and easily removed. This pile breaking method is expected to work on all diameters of piles from 300mm to 3000mm and on all types of cast in situ concrete piles bored piles, CFA piles, diaphragm walls and barrettes. However, this approach may not be very economical.

Other pile breaking include the 'recepieux' system which relies on inducing a horizontal crack by introducing chemicals into the pile through carefully positioned delivery ducts to expansion chambers positioned at cut-off level. Another innovative method uses water pressure to crack the pile at cut-off level using a carefully designed system of crack inducing pipes, placed in the pile at cut-off level, integral with the reinforcement cage. Hydro-demolition methods for the breaking down of piles uses extremely high pressure water jets capable of removing concrete without damaging the reinforcing bars. Hand held lances are typically used, but specialist remote controlled plant has been developed utilizing a ring of water jets placed around the pile connected to a small tracked base unit. In theory, these methods can be adopted for all types of bearing and wall piles and diaphragm walls. However, it may

Recepieux Method

be difficult to implement them practically and may end up being quite economical. It does not make business sense for users to buy/own pile breaking equipment as it ranges anywhere from INR 25-50 lakhs per equipment based on its sophistication. In addition, there will be the cost of the excavator and maintenance cost of the entire equipment. Besides, it does not make any economic sense if there are only a few piles to break. Instead, it is better the use sub-contracts the work to a company that specializes in pile breaking. Hiring pile breakers many not only make economic sense, specialized companies like Varshitha Concrete can provide the pile breaking equipment as well as a full contracting crew to carry out the pile breaking on the user's behalf. Users will also be relieved of headaches like hiring/organizing skilled manpower/operators for managing the pile breaking process, availability of spare parts and maintenance. Pile breaking is still an unsophisticated process in our country. Most of them are not aware about the technical progress in this area and struggle with pile breaking using conventional methods that can end up breaking only 5-6 piles a day. Hydraulic pile breaking can allow one to break around 100 piles at one go and make pile breaking a matter of minutes and not days if one can properly plan and expose the piles.

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MB Corporate

Off-Beat

Fruitful Co-operation: India-Japanese Coast Guard


MJ Krishna t was in the year 1999 when the Indian Coast guard received intelligence that a hijacked Japanese ship, the MV Alondra Rainbow was masquerading as MV Mega Rama, in the Arabian Sea. The Coast Guard men stormed the ship and captured the pirates in it, and restored the vessel to the Japanese owners. This act was significant as it created maritime history of such a rescue by a national coast guard. This also brought the Japanese Coast Guard closer to their Indian counterparts, resulting in a series of joint-programs of strategy and information sharing, which included joint-sea exercises over the years. In 2012, it was the turn of the Japan AsphaltGuard Zipper 500B Coast to bring their ship, Settsu to conduct the joint sea exercise in the Indian waters, the eleventh, this time, between the two nations. The morning of January 29 saw the Japan Coast Guard's chief, Admiral Hisayasu Suzuki on board the Indian Coast Guard ship Vishwast, to watch the exercise in the

Japanese Coast Guard Chief, Admiral Suzuki (right) welcomed by Vice Admiral M P Muralidharan (centre) and Eastern Commander SP Sharma( left).

high seas off Chennai, where an armada of eleven Indian Coast Guard ships, three helicopters and three planes, participated along with the Settsu and a Japan Coast Guard helicopter. Hosting

JCG's Settsu with ICG's interceptor boat during the operations.

the Admiral was Indian Coast Guard chief, Vice Admiral MP Muralidharan and Chennai-based Eastern Region Commander, SP Sharma, in the presence of officials of the Singapore Information Sharing Centre of Regional Cooperation Agreement to combat piracy and armed robbery at sea in Asia. This combined operation demonstrated the rescue of a merchant vessel from pirates, fire-fighting operations, as also postal transfer of mail to ships at sea. The operations, dramatically performed, renewed the ties in regional co-operation and showcased the infrastructure of the Indian forces to protect the nation's territorial waters, while also helping distressed ships of other nations. With the world's ships being menaced by a new generation of Somali pirates, this joint-exercise sends out a stern warning to sea bandits who have ambitions of exercising their influence in Asian waters.

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Ground Engineering Communication Feature

Varshitha Introduces Fastest Way to Crush Concrete Piles


n construction project involving Pile foundations, one of the most cumbersome and time consuming activity is the crushing of top portion of the Cast-in-Situ Piles /Precast Piles as required to remove the weak top concrete and expose the reinforcement to be used for further construction. Normally, by use of conventional methods of chipping either by electric/ pneumatic a maximum of 2 piles can be chipped per day by one set of breakers. In most cases pneumatic breakers are not allowed for fear of developing micro cracks in the balance pile. Pile crushing is a revolutionary system which uses a ring of Hydraulic Jacks powered by the hydraulic power of the Excavator. By use of Pile crusherupto 40 to 50 piles can be crushed in one day as against 4-5 piles per day using conventional methods. Varshithahas revolutionalised this system in India. The capacity available

is upto 1600 mm dia piles. Pile Breaker is made of extendable Jack modules starting from 4 modules (for piles below 500 mm dia) and upto 9

modules (for piles upto 1600 mm dia). The pile crushing unit is attached to a regular excavator and connected to existing hydraulic system of the excavator. Pile crusher can also be mounted onto telescopic arms/cranes/ Hydra etc., and powered by external Hydraulic Power Source. THE PILE is crushed before we bat an eyelid. Pile Crusher can also be improvised for carrying out underwater applications such as dismantling 'redundant' piles of Jetty/Berths etc.

For further details: Varshitha Concrete Technologies Pvt. Ltd.

125A, Journalist Colony Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad-500 033. Ph: +91-40-23556641 Fax:+91-40-23556642 E-mail: info@varshitha.net Web: www.varshitha.net

www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - February 2012

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Modern Formwork Systems

Modern Formwork Systems

E.Scape

Chennai Tops Green Buildings List

Incredible but True


Elevator into Space Planned
hile there may be intense competition prevalent among various elevator companies for designing units that could take people to the top of super tall skyscrapers within minutes, this latest piece of news comes as a shock, albeit a pleasant one. An elevator that could carry up to 30 passengers at a time and built 96,000 km above the Earth, could be taking people to space in about 40 years time, according to a recent news report. The lift shaft, a brainchild of Japanese firm, Obayashi Corp, would be built using carbon nanotube technology, which would make it 20 times more stronger than steel. There are no estimates available about the actual cost of the project. Incidentally Oabayashi is the company which is building the 634 metres Tokyo Sky Tree.

hile there could be urban planners who may be complaining about the various defects with the city's infrastructure, there could be no arguments about this latest piece of good news about Chennai. The city has the largest number of green buildings in the country- 42 to be precise out of the total of 212 that have been certified by the Indian Green Building Council (IGBC), according to a recent news report. In fact, the state of Tamil Nadu tops the list as the state with the highest number of green buildings, 47 to be precise, with another 57 that have been registered for the green certification process in 2011. Chennai is followed by Mumbai which has 29 green buildings. The NCR follows next with 28, followed by Bangalore and Hyderabad which are tied at 24 green buildings each. Interestingly Kolkata which has witnessed a rapid spurt in its realty market in the recent past has only eight such buildings.

Coming Soon

1,000 MW Solar Park

he recently established Solar Energy Corporation has planned to develop a 1,000 MW solar park in India. The MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy) set up the Solar Energy Corporation for furthering the goals of the National Solar Mission's second phase. The first phase that ended recently was managed by NTPC Vidyut Vyapar Nigam Ltd, which also bought the power generated by Phase I solar plants, according to a recent news report. The MNRE is planning to mandate local content for various projects in the proposed park as facilitating local solar making is also among the goals of Solar Mission. Among the project winners of Batch II, 19 solar power developers have signed power purchase pacts with NTPC Vidyut Vyapar Nigam Ltd, the power buyer. With several parts of the country reeling under severe power generation shortage, there have been signs of state governments showing keen interest in development of renewable energy sources, apart from the push from the Centre.

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(Dr. Fixit) Pidilite Industries Ltd.

Chowgule Construction Technologies