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# Customer Training Material

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Overview

## Customer Training Material

Transient structural analysis provides users with the ability to determine the dynamic response of the system under any type of time-varying loads.
Unlike rigid dynamic analyses, bodies can be either rigid or flexible. For flexible bodies, nonlinear materials can be included, and stresses and strains can be output. Transient structural analysis is also known as time-history time history analysis or transient structural analysis. To perform Flexible Dynamic Analyses, an ANSYS Structural, ANSYS Mechanical, or ANSYS Multiphysics license is required

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## ANSYS Mechanical Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

Topics Covered
Background Information: A. Introduction to Transient Structural Analyses B. Preliminary Linear Dynamic Studies C Background C. B k dI Information f ti on Nonlinear N li Analyses A l Procedural Information: D Demo Impact Problem D. E. Part Specification and Meshing F. Nonlinear Materials G. Contact; ; Joints; ; and Springs p g H. Initial Conditions I. Loads; Supports; and Joint Conditions J. Damping K. Transient Structural Analysis Settings L. Reviewing Results

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A. Introduction

## Customer Training Material

Transient structural analyses are needed to evaluate the response of deformable bodies when inertial effects become significant.
If inertial and damping effects can be ignored, consider performing a linear or nonlinear static analysis instead If the loading is purely sinusoidal and the response is linear, a harmonic response analysis is more efficient If the th bodies b di can be b assumed d to t be b rigid i id and d the th kinematics ki ti of f the th system t is of interest, rigid dynamic analysis is more cost-effective In all other cases, transient structural analyses should be used, as it is the most general type of dynamic analysis

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Introduction

## Customer Training Material

In a transient structural analysis, Workbench Mechanical solves the general equation of motion:

## &}+ [C ]{x &}+ [K ( x )]{x} = {F (t )} [M ]{& x

Some points of interest:
Applied loads and joint conditions may be a function of time and space. As seen above, inertial and damping effects are now included. Hence, the user should include density and damping in the model. Nonlinear effects, such as geometric, material, and/or contact nonlinearities, are included by updating the stiffness matrix.

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Introduction

## Customer Training Material

Transient structural analysis encompasses static structural analysis and rigid dynamic analysis, and it allows for all types of Connections, Loads, and Supports. However, one of the important considerations of performing transient structural analysis is the time step size:
The time step should be small enough to correctly describe the timevarying loads The time step size controls the accuracy of capturing the dynamic response. Hence, running a preliminary modal analysis is suggested in Section B B. The time step size also controls the accuracy and convergence behavior of nonlinear systems. Background information on the Newton-Raphson method is p presented in Section C.

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## Customer Training Material

While transient structural analyses use automatic time-stepping, proper selection of the initial, minimum, and maximum time steps is important to represent the dynamic response accurately:
Unlike rigid dynamic analyses which use explicit time integration, transient structural analyses use implicit time integration. Hence, the time steps are usually larger for transient structural analyses The dynamic response can be thought of as various mode shapes of the structure being excited by a loading. The initial time step should be based on the modes (or frequency content) of the system. It is recommended to use automatic time-stepping time stepping (default):
The maximum time step can be chosen based on accuracy concerns. This value can be defined as the same or slightly larger than the initial time step The minimum time step can be input to prevent Workbench Mechanical from solving l i indefinitely. i d fi it l Thi This minimum i i ti time step t can b be i input t as 1/100 or 1/1000 of f the initial time step

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1

## Customer Training Material

A general suggestion for selection of the initial time step is to use the following equation:

tinitiall =

20 f response

where fresponse is the frequency of the highest mode of interest In order to determine the highest mode of interest, a preliminary modal analysis should be performed prior to the transient structural analysis
In this way, the user can determine what the mode shapes of the structure are (i.e., how the structure may respond dynamically) The user can also then determine the value of fresponse

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## Customer Training Material

Points of Consideration: The automatic time-stepping algorithm will increase or decrease the size of the time step during the course of the analysis based on the calculated response frequency.
Automatic time-stepping algorithm still relies on reasonable values of initial, minimum, and maximum time steps If the minimum time step is being used, that may indicate that the initial time step size was too large. The user can plot the time step size by selecting Solution Output: Time Increment from the Details view of the Solution Information branch

When performing a modal analysis to determine an appropriate response frequency value, it is not sufficient to request a certain number of modes, modes then to use the maximum frequency frequency. It is a good idea to examine the various mode shapes to determine which frequency may be the highest mode of interest contributing to the p of the structure. response

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## ANSYS Mechanical Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

C. Including Nonlinearities

## Customer Training Material

There are several sources of nonlinear behavior, and a transient structural analysis may often include nonlinearities:
Geometric nonlinearities: If a structure experiences large deformations, its changing geometric configuration can cause nonlinear behavior. behavior Material nonlinearities: A nonlinear stress-strain relationship, p such as metal plasticity p y shown on the right, is another source of nonlinearities. Contact: Include effects of contact is a type of f changing h i status t t nonlinearity, li it where h an abrupt change in stiffness may occur when bodies come in or out of contact with each other.

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## ANSYS Mechanical Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

Including Nonlinearities
In a linear analysis, the applied force F and displacement x of the system are related such that doubling the force would double the displacement, stresses, and strains
This assumes that the change in the original and final deformed shapes is negligible since the same stiffness matrix [K] is used

## Customer Training Material

F K x

In a nonlinear analysis, the relationship between th applied the li d f force F and d di displacement l t x is i not t known beforehand
As the geometry undergoes deformation, so too, does the stiffness matrix [K] change The Newton-Raphson method needs to be implemented to solve nonlinear problems

x

L06-11

## ANSYS Mechanical Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

Including Nonlinearities
Nonlinear analyses require several solution iterations:

## Customer Training Material

The actual relationship between applied load and deformation (dotted green line below) is not known a priori The Newton-Raphson method, which can be thought of as a series of linear approximations with corrections, is performed (solid blue lines)
The load Fa is applied to the structure. Based on the new deformed shape, internal force F1 is calculated calculated. If Fa F1 then the system is not in equilibrium equilibrium. A new stiffness matrix [K] (slope of blue line) is calculated based on the current conditions. This process is repeated until Fa =Fi for iteration i, at which point the solution is said to be converged

Oftentimes, the applied load Fa must be split into smaller increments in order for convergence to occur occur. Hence Hence, for a ramped load, a smaller time step may be needed to ensure convergence

Fa 3 F1 1 2 4

x1

x
Release 13.0 March 2011

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## ANSYS Mechanical Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

Including Nonlinearities

## Customer Training Material

As shown from the previous slides, the time step size will also have an influence on nonlinear analyses:
The time step size should be small enough to allow the Newton-Raphson method to obtain force equilibrium (convergence) The user may also need to specify the initial, minimum, and maximum timesteps based on nonlinear considerations

Usually, the dynamic considerations for picking a time step size as discussed in Section B is sufficient.
Si Since Workbench W kb h Mechanical M h i l only l uses one set t of f time ti steps, t resolving l i the dynamic response often provides a small enough time step to resolve nonlinear effects as well. Determination of the time step size based on nonlinear considerations is often not as straightforward as choosing the dynamic time step size. Hence, the user may rely on automatic time-stepping algorithm to ensure convergence and accuracy.

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## ANSYS Mechanical Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

Including Nonlinearities

## Customer Training Material

The automatic time-stepping algorithm takes into account the following nonlinear effects:
If force equilibrium (or some other convergence criterion) is not satisfied, bisection occurs If an element has excessive distortion, bisection occurs If the maximum plastic strain increment exceeds 15%, bisection occurs Optional: p if contact status changes g abruptly, p y, bisection occurs

Bisection is part of the automatic time-stepping algorithm, when the solver goes back to the previously converged solution at time ti and uses a smaller time increment ti.
Bisections provide an automated means to solve nonlinear problems more accurately or to overcome convergence difficulties. Note, Note however however, that bisections result in wasted solver time since the solution returns to the previously converged solution and tries again with a smaller time step. Hence, choosing the right initial and maximum time step can minimize the number of bisections that occur

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## ANSYS Mechanical Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

Including Nonlinearities

## By default, large deformation effects and automatic time-stepping will be active:

The user does not need to do anything special to account for nonlinearities.
However, as noted before, if nonlinear effects dominate, the time step size may be dictated by nonlinear considerations rather than dynamic concerns. Large Large Deflection Deflection can be toggled in the Details view of the Analysis Analysis Settings Settings branch

If the user wants to turn on time step size checks based on contact status, this can be done in with Time Step Controls in the Details view of a given contact region.
Using this option may decrease the time step to ensure correct momentum transfer between parts in impact-type of situations Note, Note however however, that the time step may become excessively small small, so this is not recommended in general, especially for preliminary analyses

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## Customer Training Material

T Transient i t Procedure

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## ANSYS Mechanical Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

E. Part Specification

## In a transient structural analysis, parts may be rigid or flexible:

Under the Geometry branch, the Stiffness Behavior can be toggled from Flexible to Rigid on a per-part basis Rigid and flexible parts can co-exist in the same model

## Consideration for flexible parts are the same as in static analyses:

Specify appropriate material properties, such as density, Youngs Modulus, and Poissons ratio Nonlinear materials, such as plasticity or hyperelasticity, can also be included

## For rigid parts, the following f apply:

Line bodies cannot be set to rigid Multibody parts must have all bodies set to rigid Density is the only material property needed to calculate mass properties. All other material specifications will be ignored. An Inertial Inertial Coordinate System System will automatically be defined at the centroid of the part

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## ANSYS Mechanical Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

Part Specification

## For flexible bodies, the mesh density is based on the following:

The mesh should be fine enough to capture the mode shapes of the structure (dynamic response) If stresses and strains are of interest, the mesh should be fine enough to capture these gradients accurately

## For rigid bodies, no mesh is produced

Rigid bodies are rigid, so no stresses, strains, or relative deformation is calculated. Hence no mesh is required Hence, Internally, rigid bodies are represented as point masses located at the center of its Inertial Coordinate System
On the figure on the right, one can see flexible bodies (meshed) and rigid bodies (not meshed) in the same model.

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## ANSYS Mechanical Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

F. Nonlinear Materials
For flexible bodies, nonlinear materials may be defined:
Metal plasticity:

## Customer Training Material

Define Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio Select either isotropic or kinematic hardening law and either bilinear or multilinear representation of stress-strain curve
For multilinear stress-strain curve, remember that values should be logarithmic plastic strain vs. true stress

Hyperelasticity:
Select a hyperelastic model based on strain invariants (neo-Hookean, Polynomial, Mooney-Rivlin, or Yeoh) or principal stretch (Ogden):
If material constants are not known, known enter test data, data then select hyperelastic model on which to perform curve-fit If material constants are known, select hyperelastic model and enter constants

To account for inertial effects, density should also be defined for both flexible and rigid bodies. Material damping, discussed in Section I, may also be input for flexible bodies.

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## Customer Training Material

Contact, joints, or springs can be defined under the Connections branch in transient structural analyses
Contact is defined between solid and surface bodies (rigid parts must be single body). Contact is used when parts can come in and out of contact or if frictional effects are important.
Nonlinear contact (rough, frictionless, frictional) may be defined for faces of solid or surface bodies (flexible or rigid) at v12.

Joints are defined for 3D rigid or flexible bodies only. Joints can be defined between two bodies or from one body to ground. Joints are meant to model mechanisms where the part(s) are connected but relative motion is possible.
Joints are defined faces, lines, or keypoints of 3D solid, surface, or line bodies, both flexible and rigid.

Springs are defined for 3D rigid or flexible bodies bodies. Springs provide longitudinal stiffness and damping for the scoped region(s), meant to represent stiffness/damping effects of parts not explicitly modeled.
Springs can be defined on vertices, edges, or faces of 3D bodies Defined springs cannot have zero length

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## ANSYS Mechanical Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

Contact
Contact regions can be defined between flexible bodies:

## Customer Training Material

Contact is useful when the contacting area is not known beforehand or if the contacting area changes during the course of the analysis Any type of contact behavior (linear, nonlinear) can be specified, including frictional effects

In the animation, some surfaces of two parts are initially y not in contact, , but as the analysis progresses, the surfaces come into contact, as shown on the right, allowing for forces to be transmitted between the two bodies.

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Contact

## Customer Training Material

In contact, parts are prevented from penetrating into each other. The different type of contact describe behavior in the separation and sliding directions:

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Contact

## Customer Training Material

Different contact formulations allow for establishing the mathematical relationship between contacting solid bodies:
For bonded and no separation contact, the contacting areas are known beforehand based on the geometry and pinball region
The recommended contact formulation to use is either Pure Penalty (default) or MPC

For rough, frictionless, and frictional contact, contact the actual contacting areas are not known a priori, so an iterative approach is required
The recommended contact formulation to use is Augmented Lagrange

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Joints

## Joints can be defined between bodies or from a body to ground:

Joints define the allowed motion (kinematic constraint) on surface(s) Various types of joints can be defined for flexible or rigid bodies:
Fixed, Revolute, Cylindrical, Translational, Slot, Universal, Spherical, Planar, or General Joints

Definition and configuration g of joints j is covered in a separate p training g course named ANSYS Rigid and Flexible Dynamic Analysis. Unlike rigid dynamic analysis, the actual not relative degrees of freedom are specified.

The animation on the right shows an assembly using cylindrical and revolute joints
Assembly shown here is from an Autodesk Inventor sample model

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Joints

## Customer Training Material

In transient structural analyses, the user has an additional option of specifying the behavior of the joint:
Rigid (default) behavior means that the scoped surface(s) will not deform but be treated as rigid surface(s). This means that a scoped cylindrical surface will remain cylindrical throughout the analysis. Deformable behavior means that while the joint constraint is satisfied, satisfied the scoped surface(s) are free to deform. This means that a scoped cylindrical surface may not remain cylindrical throughout the analysis.

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## ANSYS Mechanical Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

Springs
Springs define the stiffness and/or damping of surface(s)
Refer to Section I for additional details on damping

## Springs can be defined between bodies or from body to ground:

Springs can be defined for rigid or flexible bodies These are longitudinal springs, so the stiffness or damping is related to the change in length of the spring
The spring must not have zero length Springs can be defined on vertices, edges, or surfaces Definition and configuration of springs is covered in a separate training course named ANSYS Rigid and Flexible Dynamic Analysis.

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## ANSYS Mechanical Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

H. Initial Conditions

## Customer Training Material

For a transient structural analysis, initial displacement and initial velocity is required:
User can define initial conditions via Initial Condition branch or by using multiple Steps

Defining initial displacement & velocity with the Initial Condition object:
Default condition is that all bodies are at rest
No additional action needs to be taken

If some bodies have zero initial displacement but non-zero constant initial velocity, this can be input
Only bodies can be specified Enter constant initial velocity (Cannot specify more than one constant velocity value with this method)

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## ANSYS Mechanical Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

Initial Conditions

## Defining initial displacement & velocity by using multiple Steps:

This technique is required for all other situations Leave Initial Conditions to At Rest. For Analysis Settings, use 2 Steps over a small time interval:
First Step should have very small Step End Time in Details view. Also, change Time Integration: Off and Auto Time Stepping: Off only for the first Step. Modify Define Define by: Substeps Substeps with Number Number of Substeps: 1. 1 .

Apply a Displacement support with appropriate values (discussed in next slide) in Step 1. Deactivate this Displacement support in Step 2. The idea behind such a technique q is that the first Step, p solved over a small time interval t1, will provide an initial displacement & velocity based on an imposed xinitial Displacement support.

initial

If the time interval t1 is small enough, the effect on the actual ending time should be negligible negligible.

x1initial = t1

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## ANSYS Mechanical Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

Initial Conditions
Initial displacement = 0, initial velocity 0

## Customer Training Material

Ramp a very small displacement value over a small time interval to produce the desired initial velocity. Deactivate it for Step 2.

## Initial displacement 0, initial velocity 0

Ramp the desired initial displacement over a time interval to produce the desired initial velocity. Deactivate it for Step 2.

## Initial displacement 0, initial velocity = 0

Step p apply pp y the desired initial displacement p over a time interval to ensure that initial velocity is zero. Deactivate it for Step 2, if necessary.

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## Customer Training Material

For rigid bodies, just as in a rigid dynamic analysis, only inertial loads, remote loads, and joint conditions are supported.
Rigid bodies do not deform, so structural & thermal loads do not apply

## For deformable bodies, any type of load can be used:

Inertial and structural loads Structural supports Joint (for defined joints) and thermal conditions

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## Customer Training Material

Structural loads and joint conditions can be input as time-dependent load histories
When adding a Load or Joint Condition, the magnitude can be defined as a constant, tabular value, or function. The values can be entered directly in the Workbench Mechanical GUI or entered in the Engineering Data page

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J. Damping

## Customer Training Material

As noted in Section A, the equations solved for in transient structural analyses also include a damping term Since the response frequency is not known in advance of running the simulation, are only two types of damping available:
Viscous damping p g
beta damping (optionally material-dependent) or by element damping

Numerical damping

See Chapter p 1 for more details. The effect of damping is cumulative. Hence, if 2% materialdependent beta damping and 3% global beta damping is defined, that part will have 5% damping.

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## ANSYS Mechanical Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

K. Analysis Settings
Besides damping, there are various other options the user can set under the Analysis Settings branch. It is important that the user specify the solution times in the Step Controls section
The Number of Steps controls how the load history is divided. As noted in Section G, one can impose initial conditions with multiple load steps use Time Integration to toggle whether inertial effects are active for that step The Step End Time is the actual simulation ending time for the Current Current Step Number Number The initial, minimum, and maximum timesteps should be defined as noted in Sections B & C

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## ANSYS Mechanical Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

Analysis Settings
The Solver Controls section allows the user to choose the equation solver, use of weak springs, and use of large deflection effects
Transient structural analyses may typically involve large deformations, so Large Deflection: On should be used (default behavior). behavior) Output Controls allows users to control how frequently data is saved to the ANSYS result file file. For multiple step analyses, one can save results only for the end of the step. Also, one can also save results at intervals that are as evenlyspaced as possible (depending on automatic time-stepping)

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## ANSYS Mechanical Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

L. Reviewing Results

## Customer Training Material

After completion of the solution, reviewing transient structural analysis results typically involves the following output:
Contour plots and animations Probe plots and charts

Generating g contour plots p and animations are similar to other structural analyses
Note that the displaced position of rigid bodies will be shown in the contour result, but the rigid bodies will not show any contour result for deformation, stress, or strain since they are rigid entities Typically, Typically animations are generated using the actual result sets, not distributed sets

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## ANSYS Mechanical Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

Reviewing Results
Probes are useful in generating time-history charts to understand the transient response of the system. Some useful probe results are as follows:
Deformation, stresses, strains, velocities, accelerations Force and moment reactions Joint, spring, and bolt pretension results

## Customer Training Material

Chart objects, based on probes, can also be added to include in reports or as independent figures

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## Customer Training Material

In this workshop, you will determine the dynamic response of a caster wheel exposed to a side impact such as hitting a curb.
WS6: Transient Analysis of a Caster Wheel

Striker Tool

Wh l Wheel