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C(t), 5Vp-p, 2kHz

Experiment 1: ASK Generation and Detection

Aim: Experiment to generate ASK waveform, and demodulate it to get back the message Signal.

Apparatus Required: Transistor SL 100, Diode OA79, µA741, resistors and capacitors of appropriate values, power supplies.

Theory: Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) is a form of modulation which represents digital data as variations in the amplitude of a carrier wave. The simplest and most common form of ASK operates as a switch, using the presence of a carrier wave to indicate a binary one and its absence to indicate a binary zero. This type of modulation is called on-off keying, and is used at radio frequencies.

Circuit Diagram:

+
T1 !NPN
R1 22k
m(t),10Vp-p,500Hz
+
CRO
-
+
R2 2.2k

(a) Modulation Circuit

D1 1N4001

-12

OP1 !OPAMP

-
6
+
+
+
-
7
4
+12

R1 150k

V1 5

Demodulated output

(b) Demodulation Circuit

Design:

The transistor in the given circuit is operated in saturation region by calculating the values of emitter and base resistor’s with the following assumptions:

V CE(sat) = 0.3V, Ic (max) = 1mA , β =30, V BE = 0.7V

To find the resistance R E

Applying KVL at the output side of the circuit

V C (peak) = V CE(sat) + I E R E ; Assuming I E = I c(max)

2.5 = 0.3+1m * R E

R E = 2.2k

To find the value of the base resistance R B

Applying KVL at input side of the circuit

V m (peak) = V BE + I E R E + I B R B ;

5- V BE + I E R E + I B R B = 0

R B =

= 22kΩ

 Demodulation: 1/fc < RC < 1/fm, 1ms < RC < 2ms Choose RC = 1.5ms, assume C= 0.01µF R = 1.5m/ 0.01µF = 150 kΩ Procedure:

1. Rig up the modulating circuit.

2. Apply a sinusoidal carrier signal c (t) whose amplitude is 3V (p-p) and frequency is 5 KHz.

3. Apply a square wave (message signal) m (t) whose amplitude is 5V (p-p) and frequency is 500 Hz.

4. Observe the waveforms on the CRO and plot them on graph paper.

5. Rig up the de-modulator circuit.

6. Apply ASK signal as the input to the de-modulator circuit.

7. Since the op-amp is working as a comparator, vary the reference voltage till demodulated square wave o/p appears at the o/p terminal

8. Observe the de-modulated o/p on the CRO and plot it.

9. Note down the frequency of the message signal m (t) and the de-modulated signal.

Output Waveforms:

Observations:

Frequency of the message signal m(t) =

Frequency of the demodulated waveform=

Result:

Hz

Hz

ASK waveform is generated and demodulated to get back the original message Signal.

Experiment 2: FSK Generation and Detection

Aim: Experiment to generate FSK waveform, and demodulate it to get back the message Signal.

Apparatus Required: Transistor SL 100, SK 100, Diode OA79, µA741, Function Generators, resistors and capacitors of appropriate values, power supplies.

Circuit Diagram:

C1(t), 1Vp-p, 10Khz
T1 !NPN
R1 10k
R6 10k
uA741
2
-
6
m(t), 2Vp-p, 500Hz
+
3
T2 !PNP
+
R2 10k
C2(t), 1Vp-p, 1kHz,
+
+
+
R5 4.7k
R4 4.7k
-12
7
4
+12
R7 1kR3
11k

(a) Modulation Circuit

D1 1N4001
C2 100n
OP1 !OPAMP
2
-
6
+
+
3
+
V1 5
-
R2 100k
R1 100k
C1 10n
-12
7
4
+12

Demodulated output

(b) Demodulation Circuit

Design:

The transistor in the given circuit is operated in saturation region by calculating the values of emitter and base resistor’s with the following assumptions:

V CE(sat) = 0.3V, I c(max) = 1mA , β =30, V BE = 0.7V

To find the resistance R E

Applying KVL at the output side of the circuit

V C (peak) = V CE(sat) + I E R E ; Assuming I E = I c(max)

0.5 = 0.3+1m * R E

R E = 2.2k

To find the value of the base resistance R B

Applying KVL at input side of the circuit

V m (peak) = V BE + I E R E + I B R B ;

5- V BE + I E R E + I B R B = 0

R B =

= 22kΩ

Demodulation:

1/fc < RC < 1/fm,

1ms < RC < 2ms

Choose RC = 1.5ms, assume C= 0.01µF

R = 1.5m/ 0.01µF = 150 kΩ

Procedure:

1. Rig up the modulating circuit.

2. Apply a sinusoidal carrier signal c (t) whose amplitude is 3V (p-p) and frequency is 5 KHz.

3. Apply a square wave (message signal) m (t) whose amplitude is 5V (p-p) and frequency is 500 Hz.

4. Observe the waveforms on the CRO and plot them on graph paper.

5. Rig up the de-modulator circuit.

6. Apply ASK signal as the input to the de-modulator circuit.

7. Since the op-amp is working as a comparator, vary the reference voltage till demodulated square wave o/p appears at the o/p terminal

8. Observe the de-modulated o/p on the CRO and plot it.

9. Note down the frequency of the message signal m (t) and the de-modulated signal.

Output Waveforms:

Observations:

Frequency of the message signal m(t) = Frequency of the demodulated waveform= Result:

Hz

Hz

FSK waveform is generated and demodulated to get back the original message Signal.

Experiment 2: PSK Generation and Detection

Aim: Experiment to generate PSK waveform, and demodulate it to get back the message Signal.

Apparatus Required: PSK mod kit, connecting cords, Oscilloscope

Block Diagram:

1

0

Procedure:

IN 1
SIN 1
C
M
A
O
Carrier
R
D
Generator
SIN 2
IN 2
R
U
I
L
SCLOCK
E
A
MOD
R
T
OUT
Clock & Data
Generator
O
NRZ-L
R
CODER
NRZ-L Data
C1
SDATA DATA IN
BPSK
Modulator
MOD IN
b (t) OUT

1. Rig up the modulating circuit.

2. Apply a sinusoidal carrier signal c (t) whose amplitude is 3V (p-p) and frequency is 5 KHz.

3. Apply a square wave (message signal) m (t) whose amplitude is 5V (p-p) and frequency is 500 Hz.

4. Observe the waveforms on the CRO and plot them on graph paper.

5. Rig up the de-modulator circuit.

6. Apply ASK signal as the input to the de-modulator circuit.

7. Since the op-amp is working as a comparator, vary the reference voltage till demodulated square wave o/p appears at the o/p terminal

8. Observe the de-modulated o/p on the CRO and plot it.

9. Note down the frequency of the message signal m (t) and the de-modulated signal.

Output Waveforms:

Observations:

Frequency of the message signal m(t) =

Frequency of the demodulated waveform=

Result:

Hz

Hz

PSK waveform is generated and demodulated to get back the original message signal.

Experiment 4: Analog and Digital Link

Aim: To establish an Analog link and Digital link using optical fiber cable.

Apparatus Required: OFC Kit, Optical Fibers, Function generator, CRO.

Block Diagram:

Procedure:

 1. To establish an analog link, connect a sinusoidal waveform of some lower frequency as Input to the analog buffer. 2. The output of the analog buffer is then connected as input to the optical transmitter section. 3. With the help of the select switch, select either of the two optical transmitters to transmit the signal through an Optical Fiber Cable. 4. The position of the jumper above the OFC transmitter is changed to +12 position for analog link. 5. With the help of the jumper below the OFC transmitter select the waveform that is chosen for transmission either square or sine wave. 6. Connect the OFC of any length to the transmitter and check whether you can find a red light emerging out of the cable. 7. The other end of the OFC is connected to the analog receiver section and the output is observed over the CRO. 8. The procedure is for a digital link is entirely similar as it was for analog link with only change that the input is a square wave of some frequency applied as input to the digital buffer. 9. The output of the digital buffer is fed to the transmitter section. 10. The position of the jumper above the OFC transmitter is changed to +5 position for digital link. 11. With the help of the jumper below the OFC transmitter select the waveform that is chosen for transmission either square or sine wave. 12. Connect the OFC to the transmitter; the other end is to be connected to the TTL detector in the receiver section.

13. The waveform is observed over the CRO.

Result: Analog and Digital link is established and the output is verified.

Experiment 5: Measurement of Losses in a given optical fiber and Numerical aperture

Aim: To conduct an experiment to calculate numerical aperture and also measure the losses in an optical fiber a) Propagation loss b) Bending loss

Apparatus Required: Optical Fiber Kit, OFC Cables (1m and 3m), CRO, Function Generator.

Theory: Losses are introduced in fiber due to various reasons. As light propagates from one end of fiber to another end, part of it is absorbed in the material exhibiting absorption loss. Also part of the light is reflected back or in some other directions from the impurity particles present in the material contributing to the loss of the signal at the end of the fiber. In general terms it is known as propagation loss. Plastic fibers have higher loss of the order of 180 db/km. whenever the conduction for angle of incident light is violated the losses are introduced due to refraction of light. This occurs when fiber is subjected to bending. Lower the radius of curvature more is the loss.

Numerical aperture refers to the maximum angle at which the light incident on the fiber end is totally internally reflected and is transmitted properly along the fiber. The cone of acceptance of the fiber. The light ray should strike the fiber end within its cone of acceptance; else it is refracted out of the fiber core.

Block Diagram:

Propagation Loss:

The propagation loss of a given optical fiber is calculated using the formula.

L1: Length of fiber 1 (1m)

L2: Length of fiber 2 (3m)

α dB =

log

V1: Output voltage due to fiber 1

V2: Output voltage due to fiber 2

 L1(m) L2(m) V1 V2 αdB

Procedure:

1. Connect the set up as shown in the diagram above.

2. Set the switch sw8 to the analog position.

3. Take the 1m fibre and set up an analog link. Drive

Bending Loss

D

Diameter

Output Voltage

Procedure:

1. Choose an Optic fiber cable of any length either1m or3m.

2. Establish an analog link for the above experiment.

3. Bend the OFC in the above fashion and note down the diameter of the circle created and

also the output voltage in the CRO.

4. Keep on decreasing the diameter of the bend and so simultaneously note down the

voltage level of the output.

5. Repeat the process for 4-5 readings.

6. Plot a graph of diameter vs output volatage.

Numerical Aperture

M

P
R

N

Numerical Aperture Measurement Setup

( )

Distance ‘d’

r = (MN+ PR)/4

Sinθ max =

Procedure:

1. Choose an OFC of any length either 1m or 3m.

3. Connect the optical fibre as shown in the above numerical aperture setup.

4. Measure the vertical and horizontal diameter of the illuminated circular patch as well as

the distance ‘d’ between the tip of the optic fiber cable and the illuminated circular patch 5. Tabulate the readings and calculate Sinθ max the inverse of which will provide the angle at which the light is to be incident into the optical fiber cable.

Result:

1. The propagation Loss is =

2. The numerical aperture =

3. The plot of Diameter if the cable and the output voltage is mapped and verified.

dB

Experiment 6: Measurement of Directivity and gain of Antennas.

Aim: To conduct an experiment to measure the directivity and gain of a) Standard dipole b) Microstrip patch c) Yagi uda antennas and plot the radiation pattern.

Apparatus Required: Microwave source, Dipole, patch and yagi uda antennas, VSWR Meter, Antenna Stand, Attenuator pads, Coaxial Detector.

Theory: Antennas provided for the experiment are in planar form. The function of antenna is to transform guided electromagnetic energy in a transmission line into free space radiated energy and vice versa. Antenna forms an essential part of any system required to either transmit or receive electromagnetic energy. Antennas can be broadly classified into the following four categories-wire antennas such as the dipoles and loops; aperture antennas such as the open ended waveguides and horns; reflector antennas such as the parabolic dishes with feeds; and planar antennas. Planar antennas in the form of printed antennas offer several advantages over the conventional antennas. They are lightweight, low profile antennas and can be made conformal with the use of flexible substrates. These features make them well suited for aerospace applications such as for aircraft, missiles, and satellites and also for land mobile systems. Microstrip patch antennas in particular are thin and flat, and hence are ideal for mounting in the interior of a vehicle, a cellular mobile system and portable manpack radars.

Block Diagram:

a) Measurement of Directivity

Measured Data for E-plane Pattern

 Relative power level Relative power level VSWR VSWR Angle (degrees) Meter reading (dB) Corrected value (dB) Normalized value (dB) Angle (degrees) Meter reading (dB) Corrected value (dB) Normalized value (dB) 0 x(ref) Y 0 0 0 5 . -5 . . . 10 . -10 . . . . . . . . . . . Measured Data for H-plane Pattern Relative power level Relative power level VSWR VSWR Angle (degrees) Meter reading (dB) Corrected value (dB) Normalized value (dB) Angle (degrees) Meter reading (dB) Corrected value (dB) Normalized value (dB) 0 x(ref) Y 0 0 0 5 . -5 . . . 10 . -10 . . . . . . . . . . .

Procedure:

1. Assemble the setup as shown in the block diagram and mount the antennas on the two stands.

2. Before switching ON the signal source, rotate the RF power level knob on the front panel anti-clockwise to minimum position. Connect a 3dB attenuator pad at the RF output port as shown in the diagram.

3. Switch on the signal source in the following sequence:

Power switch to ON position and then RF Power switch to ON position.

Set modulation switch to AM and modulation frequency to the 1KHz preset position.

Before making any changes in the setup ensure that there is atleast a 3dB attenuator pad at the RF output port of the source.

4. Keep the range switch of the VSWR meter in the 40dB position and the variable gain knob to maximum.

5. Keep the receiving antenna in the far zone of the transmitting antenna. That is the distance between the two antennas must satisfy the relation R>2D 2 / λ o , where D is the maximum size of the antenna and λ o is the free space wavelength.

6. For E-plane Pattern: Align the two Yagi antennas along their main beam peaks and for horizontal polarization. Set the pointer on the receiving antenna stand to read 0 o .

7. Set the frequency of the source near 2.4GHz and vary the frequency around this value to get maximum reading on the VSWR meter.

8. Rotate the antenna clockwise in steps of 5 0 at a time till 90 0 . Record the angles in column 1 and VSWR meter readings as minus dB in column 2 of the table.

9. For H-plane Pattern: Turn both the antennas by 90 o and mount them for vertical polirization . Align the antennas for maximum reading on the VSWR meter.

10. Follow the same procedure as given above in steps 6 to 8 and tabulate the readings.

11. Once the readings are tabulated refer to the caliberation graph and locate the VSWR meter readings of column 2 and 6 on the x axis of the graph. Read the corrected values on the y axis and record them in columns 3 and 7 respectively.

12. Normalize all the readings by taking the reference value as 0dB.

13. For both the E and H patterns locate the -3dB points on either side of the peak(0dB) and note the angle between them i.e δθ E o and δθ H o .

14. The pattern directivity D can be calculated using the formula

Measurement of Gain Procedure:

D= 32,400/ δθ E o δθ H

o

 1 Measure RF power input to the transmit antenna by switching ON the RF power with source in AM 1KHz modulation and frequency 2.4 GHz. Set the VSWR range switch to 40dB range and variable gain knob to maximum. 2 Record the VSWR readings which gives the transmitted power. 3 Switch OFF the RF power output without disturbing the power level setting of the source. Disconnect the detector and VSWR meter from the source. 4 Connect the equipment as in the experimental arrangement. Mount the antennas on the antenna stand with the distance between satisfying the far zone criterion. 5 Align the antennas for same polarization. Switch ON the RF power. Record the VSWR readings which gives the received power at a distance R. 6 Calculate the Gain using the formula

G = / ﴿ {4 | }

Result:

1. The Directivity and Gain of Yagi Uda antenna is:

2. The Directivity and Gain of Dipole antenna is:

3. The Directivity and Gain of Patch antenna is :

Experiment 7: Determination of coupling and isolation characteristics of a stripline Directional Coupler

Aim: To measure the coupling and isolation characteristics of a directional coupler

Apparatus Required: Microwave signal source, VSWR meter, Detector, Attenuator pads,matched loads, parallel coupled coupler.

Theory: A directional coupler is a 4 port reciprocal passive network. The basic function of a coupler is to sample power flowing in one direction in a transmission line and reject power flowing in the opposite direction. It also performs the function of power division but with the output signals having 90 o phase difference between them. The parallel coupled directional coupler is essentially a section of parallel coupled transmission length equal to one-quarter wavelength in the propagation medium. If one port is exited, then due to the electric and magnetic field interaction, the signal gets coupled to the auxiliary line and the coupled signal travels in the direction opposite to that of the input signal. Because the coupling takes place in the backward direction, the parallel coupled line coupler is also referred as backward wave coupler.

Measured Data and Calculation of Coupling

 Freq VSWR meter readings Coupling C(dB) = P’ 1i – P’ 3s P P P’ 1i P’ 3s f (GHz) 1i 3s (dB) (dB) (dB) (dB) 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 Measured Data and Calculation of Isolation Freq VSWR meter readings Isolation Iso(dB) = P’ 1i – P’ 4s P P P’ 1i P’ 4s f (GHz) 1i 4s (dB) (dB) (dB) (dB) 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9

Procedure:

1. Assemble the set up as shown in the above diagram.

2. To measure the coupling:

First measure reference power level by connecting the cable end at P to Q directly. Set the frequency of the source to 2.3 GHz. Increase the RF power output of the source till the VSWR meter shows a reading in the 50dB range. Record the frequency in column 1 and the VSWR meter readings as P 1i dB in column 2.

Increase the frequency of the source in steps of 0.1 GHz upto 2.8 GHz and note the corresponding readings of the VSWR meter. Column 2 gives the reference input power at different frequencies.

Next insert the coupler between P and Q with input port connected to P and the coupled port connected to Q. Terminate ports 2 and 4 of the coupler in 50Ώ

matched loads. Record the readings of the VSWR meter at different frequencies as P 3s dB.

3. To measure Isolation:

First measure reference power level by connecting the cable end at P to Q directly. Set the frequency of the source to 2.3 GHz. Increase the RF power output of the source till the VSWR meter shows a reading in the 40dB range. Record the frequency in column 1 and the VSWR meter readings as P 1i dB in column 2.

Increase the frequency of the source in steps of 0.1 GHz upto 2.8 GHz and note the corresponding readings of the VSWR meter. Column 2 gives the reference input power at different frequencies.

Connect the Isolated port (port 4) to Q. Terminate ports 2 and 3 in matched loads. Record the readings of the VSWR meter at the same frequencies as P 4s dB in column 3 of the same table.

4. Using calibration graph, get the corrected values of P 1i and record them as P’ 1i Similarly get the corrected values of P 3s , P 4s and record them as P’3s, P’ 4s .

5. Plot the graph for Coupling and Isolation in dB w.r.t to the frequency.

Result:

 Coupling in dB for the parallel coupled directional coupler is dB Isolation in dB for the parallel coupled directional coupler: dB

Experiment 8: Resonance characteristics of a microstrip ring resonator and determination of dielectric constant of the substrate.

Aim: a) To measure the resonance characteristics of a microstrip ring resonator. b) To calculate the dielectric constant ε r of the substrate.

Apparatus: Microwave signal source, VSWR meter, Detector, Attenuator, Microstrip ring resonator.

Theory: Microstrip ring resonators are commonly used in the design of MIC components such as filters, oscillators and mixers. Microstrip ring resonators is formed by bending the strip conductor of a microstrip in the form of a ring. Resonance is established when the mean circumference of the ring is equal to integral multiples of guide wavelength in microstrip.

Gap

Input

R
w
Output
ε
r

h

Block Diagram:

1
2

Procedure:

1. Assemble the set up as shown in the above diagram.

2. Set the frequency of the source to 2.2GHz.

3. Connect P to Q directly. Increase the power output till the VSWR meter shows a reading of about 45dB.

4. Next insert the ring resonator between P and Q. It is noticed that the power output suddenly drops. The VSWR may not even show any indication as the ring resonator offers large attenuation away from resonance.

5. Vary the frequency slowly from 2.3GHz to 2.8GHz and observe the frequency at which the VSWR meter readings shows a sharp peak.

6. Note the frequency at which VSWR shows a peak. This is the resonant frequency f r of the resonator.

7. For the ring resonator provided, the values of R, W and h are given on the device. Substitute the value of the measured resonant frequency f r and calculate the effective dielectric constant ε ef of the strip using the formula given below.

2 = =

√∈

8. Next substitute the value of ε ef in the equation given below to calculate the relative dielectric constant of the substrate.

Result:

= 2 + 1 + / 1

1 + / + 1

The Resonant Frequency of the ring resonator = The Effective dielectric constant of the substrate = Relative dielectric constant of the substrate =

GHz

Experiment 9: Measurement of power division and isolation characteristics of a microstrip 3dB power divider.

Aim: To measure the power division and isolation characteristics of the microstrip 3dB Power divider.

Apparatus required: Microwave signal source, VSWR meter, coaxial detector, Attenuator pads, Matched load, Microstrip 3dB power divider.

Theory: The function of a power division network is to divide the input power into two or more outputs.

2
3
1

input The power incident at port1 gets divided equally between the two output ports 2 and 3. The impedance of the input/output lines of the microstrip power divider is 50Ω and the isolation resistor connected between the two output lines has a value of 100Ω.

Block Diagram

2
1
3

Measured Data and Calculation of Power Division

Power

division

Port 1 to

2

S

21 (dB)

Power

division

Port 1 to

3

S

31 (dB)

Freq

f (GHz)

P1i (dB)

P2s(dB)

P3s(dB)

P’1i(dB)

P2s(dB

)

P’3s(dB)

2.3

.

.

.

.

.

2.8

Measured Data and Calculation of Isolation

 Freq f (GHz) VSWR meter readings Isolation P2i(dB) P3s(dB) P’2i(dB) P’3s(dB) Port 2 to 3 S 32 (dB) 2.3 . . . . 2.8

Determination of Power Division

1. Using the caliberated Graph, get the corrected values of P1i, P2s and P3s and record them as P’1i, P’2s, P’3s.

2. Power division from Port 1 to Port 2 = P’1i (dB) – P’2s (dB) = -20log 10 | 21| Power division from Port 1 to Port 3 = P’1i (dB) – P’3s (dB) = -20log 10 | 31|

3. Denote this loss as S 21 and S 31 and enter the tabular column.

Determination of Isolation

1. Using the caliberated Graph, get the corrected values of P1i, P2s and P3s and record them as P’1i, P’2s, P’3s.

2. Isolation (dB) = P’21 – P’3s (dB) = -20log 10 | 32|

3. Denote this as S 32 (dB) and enter the tabular column.

Procedure:

1. Assemble the set up as shown in the diagram.

2. Before switching ON the signal source, rotate the RF power level knob on the front panel anticlockwise to minimum position. Connect a 6dB attenuator pad at the RF output of the source.

3. Switch ON the signal source and the VSWR meter with necessary adjustments.

4. Measure the reference power level by connecting the cable end at P and Q directly and setting the frequency of the source to 2.3 GHz. Note down the corresponding VSWR meter reading.

5. Later varying the frequency in steps of 0.1GHz upto 2.8GHz note down the corresponding VSWR meter readings.

6. To measure the power division property insert the power divider between P and Q with input port connected to P and couple port 2 to Q. Terminate Port 3 with matched load.

7. Set the frequency of the source to 2.3GHz and record the reading of the VSWR meter as P 2s dB. Next interchange connections at Port 2 and Port 3. Terminate Port 2 with matched load. Record the VSWR readings as P 3s dB.

8. Later varying the frequency in steps of 0.1GHz upto 2.8GHz note down the corresponding VSWR meter readings.

9. To measure the isolation property Remove the power divider from the set up. Measure the reference power level as done in step 4 and record it as P 2i dB.

10. Insert the power divider between P and Q with Port 2 as input port connected to P and Port 3 to Q. Terminate Port 1 with matched load. Record the readings of the VSWR meter at different frequencies by varying the frequency in steps of 0.1GHz up to

2.8GHz.

11. Plot power division S 21 (dB) and S 31 (dB) as a function of frequency.

12. Plot isolation S 32 (dB) as a function of frequency.

Result:

The Power division and Isolation characteristics of a microstrip 3dB power divider is measured.

Experiment 10: DPSK Generation and Detection

Aim: Study of carrier modulation techniques by differential phase shift keying (DPSK) method

Equipments: ADCL-01 Kit, Connecting chords, Power supply, 20 MHz dual trace oscilloscope.

Block Diagram:

S
IN1
IN1
Carrier
Generator
S
IN2
IN2
Carrier
Modulator
S CLOCK
CLK IN
C1
Clock & Data
Generator
Differential
NRZ-L
Encoder
Coder
NRZ-L
S DATA
DATA OUT
DATA IN
DATA IN
MOD OUT
DATA
b(t) IN
DATA OUT
Decision
BPSK
Delay Tb
Device
Demodulator
MOD IN
b(t) OUT

Procedure:

b(t) IN

b(t-Tb) OUT

b(t-Tb) IN

DPSK Decoder

1. Refer to the block diagram and carry out the following connections and switch settings.

2. Connect power supply in proper polarity to the kit and switch it on.

3. Select data pattern of simulated data using switch SW1.

4. Connect SDATA generated to DATA IN of NRZ-L CODER.

5. Connect the NRZ-L DATA output to the DATA IN of the DIFFERENTIAL ENCODER.

6. Connect the clock generated SCLOCK to CLK IN of the DIFFERENTIAL ENCODER.

7. Connect differentially encoded data to control input C1 of CARRIER MODULATOR.

8. Connect carrier component SIN1 to IN1 and SIN2 to IN2 of the carrier modulator logic.

9. Connect DPSK modulated signal MOD OUT to MOD IN of the BPSK DEMODULATOR.

10. Connect output of BPSK DEMODULATOR b(t) OUT to input of DELAY Section b(t) IN and one input b(t) IN of decision device.

11. Connect the output of delay section b(t-Tb) OUT to the input b(t-Tb) IN of decision device.

12. Compare the DPSK decoded data at DATA OUT with respect to input SDATA.

13. Observe the waveforms.

Waveforms:

Conclusion:

The differential coding of data to be transmitted makes the bit “1” to be transformed into carrier phase variation. In this way the receiver recognizes one bit “1” at a time which detects a phase shift of the modulator carrier independently from its absolute phase.

Experiment 11: QPSK Generation and Detection

AIM: Study of Carrier modulation techniques by quadrature phase shift keying method.

Equipments: ADCL-02 & ADCL-03, Connecting chords, Power supply, 20MHz Dual Trace Oscilloscope.

Block Diagram:

SIN 1
IN 1
SIN 2
IN 2
Carrier
Generator
SIN 3
IN 3
Carrier
SIN 4
Modulator
IN 4
SCLOCK
C 1
CLK IN
I BIT
Clock & Data
Generator
DIBIT
CONVERSION
NRZ-L
Coder
SDATA
NRZ-L
C 2
DATA IN
DATA IN
Q BIT
DATA
MOD OUT
I BIT
I BIT IN
QPSK
DATA
Q BIT
Q BIT IN
DATA OUT
Demodulator
DECODER
MOD IN

Procedure

CLK OUT

CLK IN

1. Refer to the block diagram and carry out the following connections and switch settings.

2. Connect power supply in proper polarity to the kits.

3. Select data pattern of simulated data using SW1.

4. Connect SDATA generated to DATA IN of the NRZ-L CODER.

5. Connect NRZ-L DATA to DATA IN of the DIBIT CONVERSION.

6. Connect SCLOCK to CLK IN of the DIBIT CONVERSION.

7. Connect the dibit data I & Q bit to control input C1 and C2 of CARRIER MODULATOR respectively.

8. Connect carrier component to input of CARRIER MODULATOR as follows:

a. SIN1 to IN1

b. SIN2 to IN2

c. SIN3 to IN3

d. SIN4 to IN4

9. Connect QPSK Modulated signal MOD OUT on ADCL-02 to the MOD IN of the QPSK Demodulator on ADCL-03.

10. Connect I bit, Q bit & CLK OUT outputs of QPSK Demodulator to I Bit IN, Q BIT IN & CLK IN posts of Data Decoder respectively.

11. Observe the waveforms.

Waveforms:

CLK

Data

I Bit

Q Bit

QPSK

Modulated

Waveform

Demodulated

Data

Conclusion:

In BPSK we deal individually with each bit of duration Tb. In QPSK we lump two bits together to form a SYMBOL. The SYMBOL can have any one of four possible values corresponding to two-bit sequence 00, 01, 10 and 11. We therefore arrange to make available for transmission four distinct signals. At the receiver each signal represents one symbol and, correspondingly, two bits.

Experiment 12: TDM of two band limited signals

AIM: Study of TDM

Equipments: Experimentor kit, Connecting Chords, Power supply, 20 MHz dual trace oscilloscope.

Block Diagram:

P1
500 Hz
P2
Function
Generator
P3
1K Hz
P4
2KHz

CH2

250 Hz

CH0

Multiplexer
TX
Timing
Logic

CH1

CH3

TXD

De-
Multiplexer
RXD
RXCLK
Binary
Counter

RXSYNC

CH2

CH0

IN0

CH1

IN1

IN2

CH3

Filters

IN3

OUT1

OUT2

OUT3

OUT0

TXCLK

TXSYNC

Procedure:

1. Connect power supply in proper polarity to the kit and switch it ON.

2. Connect 250 Hz, 500Hz, 1kHz sine wave signal from the function generator to the MUX input channel CH0, CH1, CH2, CH3, by means of the connecting cords provided.

3. Connect the MUX output TXD of the transmitter section to the DEMUX input RXD of the receiver section.

4. Connect the output of the receiver section CH0, CH1, CH2, CH3 to the IN0, IN1, IN2, IN3 of the filter section.

5. Connect the sampling clock TXCLK and channel identification clock TXSYNC of the transmitter section the corresponding RXCLK and RXSYNC respectively.

6. Set the amplitude of the input sine wave as desired.

7. Now, observe the following waveforms on the oscilloscope

Input channel CH0, CH1, CH2, CH3

TXCLK and RXCLK

MUX output TXD

DEMUX/input RXD

DEMUX output CH0, CH1, CH2, CH3

Reconstructed signal OUT0,OUT1,OUT2,OUT3

In this experiment, the transmitter and receiver are synchronized and proper reconstruction

of the signal is achieved.

Waveform:

Result:

The TDM experiment using the kit is performed and input- output waveforms are observed.

Experiment 13: Measurement of frequency, guide wavelength, power, VSWR and attenuation in a microwave test bench

Aim: To determine frequency, guide wavelength, Power, VSWR & attenuation using microwave test bench.

Components: Microwave source, Isolator, Frequency meter, Variable attenuator, Slotted section, Tunable probe, Detector mount, Matched termination, VSWR meter, Wave guide stands, Short circuit tuner, oscilloscope, BNC-BNC cable.

Block Diagram:

Klystron
Power Supply
Klystron Tube
Variable
Frequency
& Mount
Isolator
Attenuator
meter
Detector
CRO

Initial Setup:

1. Set up the microwave bench as shown in block diagram.

2. Before switching on the klystron power supply set the following knobs as indicated below.

3. Beam voltage knob: - minimum.

4. Repeller voltage knob: - maximum.

5. Mode selector:- INT.

6. Modulating amplitude: - maximum.

7. Modulating frequency:-maximum.

8. Setting the knobs as shown, ON the KPS & cooling fan.

9. Change the meter switch of KPS to beam voltage position and rotate beam

voltage knob clockwise to about (200-250V) in the meter. 10. Change meter selection to current position. Wait 2-3 mins to get constant Current i.e., 10-20mA in the meter. 11. Change the meter selection knob to repeller voltage position.

Procedure:

1. Before setting up the slotted line probe carriage set the klystron to any one oscillating mode. Determine the frequency with the help of frequency meter.

2. Connect the carriage and adjust the detector tuning for maximum output voltage. Now

move the carriage from the load towards the generation until the output is maximum. Note down this measurement (dl) on the vernier scale.

3. Furthermore the carriage from the arrival point until the output is again maximum. Note

down this measurement (d2).

Measurement of Frequency

1. Tune the frequency meter knob to observe a dip in the output and measure the frequency of operation.

2. Detune the frequency meter after measuring the frequency.

Measurement of Guide Wavelength

1. Replace the matched termination with a tunable short and standing wave is produced inside the wave guide.

2. Move the tunable probe and observe the changes in the output. The amplitude will vary with respect to the movement of tunable probe along the slotted line section. It may be noted that there will be several maxima and minima positions.

3. Keep the tunable probe to any minima position and note down the scale provided at the slotted line section(d1).

4. Move the tunable probe (any direction) to get the next immediate minima and note down the scale(d2).

5. Calculate the guide wavelength using the formula λg = 2|d1-d2|

6. Calculate the frequency of operation using the formula given below.

1

0

= 1

+

1

Where λg is the guide wavelength, λc is the cutoff wavelength of the wave guide, λ0 is the free space wave length. λ0 = c/f

Measurement of VSWR

1. Replace the tunable short with a matched termination.

2. Move the tunable probe along slotted line section and measure the minimum and maximum amplitude of the signal.

3. Calculate VSWR = Vmax/Vmin.

Measurement of Power

1. Connect the RF power meter at the output to measure the absolute power.

Measurement of Attenuation

1. Change the attenuator knob from its maximum insertion position to minimum insertion position to observe the variation at the output power level in the VSWR meter in the dB scale. 2. Power reading are tabulated as shown below.

Micrometer Position

Result:

Frequency measured from Frequency meter:

Measured Frequency:

Guide Wavelength:

VSWR:

MHz

MHz