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STANDARD OPERATION PROCEDURES

FOOD & BEVERAGE

KITCHEN

Agenda

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com

1. Kitchen Basics
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 01 Company Introduction & Mission Statement 02 Benefits Of Training 03 Objectives Of Standards 04 Kitchen Ethics 05 Achievement Reviews 06 Personal Hygiene & Grooming 07 Prevention Of Accidents First Aid 08 First Aid Box 09 Germs In The Kitchen 10 Equipment Hygiene 11 Product Hygiene 12 Handle Routine Cleaning Tasks 13 Dos & Donts 14 Staff Behaviour 15 Staff Responsibilities 16 Management & Goals 17 Safety Regulations 18 Team Work

2. Kitchen Operation
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 01 Chefs Standards 02 Culinary History 03 Kitchen Design & Structure 04 Sections 05 Gardemanger 06 Butcher 07 Hot Kitchen 08 Bakery/Pastry 09 Artist 10 Culinary Equipment 11 Culinary Utensils 12 Cooling Systems 13 Mice en Place

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com

3. Food Knowledge
3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 01 Basic Preparation Techniques 02 Food Supply 03 Conservation 04 Nutrition In Food 05 Additives, Ingredients 06 Pickling 07 Curing Of Ham 08 Smoked Meats & Ham 09 Meat, Poultry, Game 10 Fish & Seafood 11 Lobster 12 Snails, Oysters, Clams 13 Caviar 14 Sushi 15 Spices 16 Chili & Spices 17 Herbs 18 Fats & Oils 19 Animal Fat 20 Dairy Products 21 Cream 22 Ice Cream 23 Butter Mixtures 24 Italian Cheese 25 French Cheese 26 Grain & Cereals 27 Rice 28 Pasta, Dumplings, Rice 29 Pasta 30 Pizza 31 Vegetable 32 Vegetable & Preparation 33 Salads 34 Potatoes & Mushrooms 35 Potato Preparations 36 Cold Sauces 37 Hot Sauces 38 Fruit 39 Cocoa Chocolate

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com

4. Beverage Knowledge
4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 01 Coffee 02 Tea 03 Beverage & Food, Alcohol 04 Beverage & Food, Non Alcohol 05 Method Champenoise 06 Alcohol Contend In Wine 07 The White Grapes 08 The Red Grapes 09 The Ten Basic Wine Styles White 10 The Ten Basic Wine Styles Red

5. Culinary Operation
5. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5. 01 Menu Planning & Types 02 Ala Carte & Room Service 03 Restaurant Buffets, Promotions 04 Banquet & Catering 05 Banquet Cocktails 06 Banquet Cocktails, Menus 07 Food Preparation In Public

6. Kitchen Administration
7. 7. 7. 7. 7. 7. 7. 7. 7. 01 Market List 02 Purchasing & Receiving 03 Handle Store Requisitions 04 Handle Repair Order 05 Inventory Control 06 F&B Chef Meeting 07 Log Book 08 Complaint Handling 09 Scheduling Staff

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com


Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK #: 1.01 TASK: Company Introduction & Mission Statement JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT WHY To understand about company History, policies and procedures. To guarantee the best service Possible for all guests at all Times.

To understand and know the mission statement by hard.

To build a sufficient and well Motivated team which is able to give the best.

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com

Page 1 of 2

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO Understanding the basics of Training, get overall picture Of the training process and Reasons. TASK #: 1.03 TASK: Objectives of training EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY Prevents disorganization To incorporate standards To inforce Holiday Inns Principles. To encourage teamwork

Employee: Improves self-confidence Increases motivation levels Prepares for promotion Reduces tension and stress Commitment of all staff Professional growth Participation of all staff Follow up on all subjects Learning by doing it Repeating the tasks Exercise the learnt tasks Guests: Follow up on the guests needs Show politeness The guest is always right Supervisor: Can take more responsibility Builds a strong team Decreases absenteeism Builds trust Promotes good relationship Hotel: Increases productivity Reduces cost Decreases safety hazard Creates a better image Builds repeat business Attracts potential employees Increases efficiency.

Provides high quality product Insures a proper service Raises their level of satisfaction They get their money worth

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of

Stefan Schmid Signature:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Date: Food & Beverage

Date: Page 2 of 2

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO To understand and learn the Basics of rules and hotel Business standards. To clarify standards in the Everyday operation. To understand action plans. TASK #: 1.03 TASK: Objectives of standards EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

. Definition: Standards Something set up and established as a rule or Model for the measure of quality or value. The guest comes first Consider guest expectations. Do things right the first time!!!! Recognize the needs of the guest.

To ensure: Consistency Quality control Management tool Training tool For every 100 guest who complain, 26 others are silent. We hear only from 1 out of 27. Those who complain, 91% will Never return if nothing is done. Every customer who has a Complaint will tell 8-16 others. 82% 95% of complaining customers will return, if something is done to resolve it. It costs 5 times more to attract A new customer than to keep An existing one.

To establish consistently Communicate our vision. The best service possible. Keep up communication between your Supervisor and subordinates. To control and manage our Follow rules and regulations of HI at all times. Capital and human resources Remember to be the best and not part of the rest! Train and exercise your tasks and ask for Help if necessary to improve at all times.

PREPARED BY:

APPROVED BY:

Stefan Schmid

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Position: Signature: Position: Director of Date: Food & Beverage

Signature: Date: Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO TASK #: 1.04 TASK: Kitchen Ethics EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

To understand basic rules And regulations of the kitchen department.

Ability to work together and adjust Tolerance To be objective and improve knowledge Flexibility and creativity Intuition Training effort and exercise Honesty and understanding Teamwork and positive experience at work No wastage of food ingredients. Respect of all living creatures Careful handling of all equipment, utensils And natural resources To use preferable local products and seasonal ingredients. Healthy and tasty food for everybody Sort all wastage and return for recycling where ever possible

Kitchen ethics are part of the Philosophy and are necessary To built teamwork, trust, Success and proper working Environment in the F&B Department.

PREPARED BY:

APPROVED BY:

Stefan Schmid

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Position: Signature: Position: Director of Date: Food & Beverage

Signature: Date: Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 1.05 DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Achievement Reviews JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT
Prepare Achievement Review form

WHY

Fill in Achievement Review report with the following details: a. Staff name b. Job title c. Department d. Starting date e. Date of last evaluation Fill in the job tasks

All achievement reviews must be completed by the target date. In all cases, all information from the interview must be kept in the utmost confidence.

Interview staff

Meet with the staff to ensure their performance is based on the job tasks Evaluate, explain and discuss the performance, strengths, and areas for improvement Tick the appropriate rating level

Friendly and approachable Fair and tactful Good judgment

Clear and complete details Set a target date for improvement, if necessary Ask for the employees comments and fill in the appropriate column. Request staff for signature As per training procedure

Send the form to the F&B Manager

Send the completed form to the F&B Manager for signature Send he original to the Personnel Office and copy to the Training Department. One copy is kept by the Outlet Manager for reference and one copy to be given to the staff member

Timely Complete Legible

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature:

APPROVED BY: Position:

Stefan Schmid Signature:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Director of Date: Food & Beverage

Date:
Page 1 of 2

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO
Learning the basics about Professional and personal Hygiene.

TASK #: 1.06 TASK: Personal Hygiene & Grooming EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT WHY
Health is the most important for all human beings. There is no substitute!! The professional hygiene is there to protect Health and well being of every individual.

Most important is washing your hands whenever Necessary. Make sure to know the basics: Wash your hands: Before starting work After each work interruption After cleaning your nose After each use of the toilet After cleaning and washing vegetables After touching & working with raw meat, fish After cleaning procedures After touching of money, wastage, dirty utensils.

Follow the rules: Cover all injuries & infections with bandage Wear sanitary cloves if necessary Never cough or sneeze on food People with diarrhea have to consult the doctor. No smoking in the kitchen!!! Have a short hair cut and wear a hat. Wash your hair on daily basis. Do not pick your nose. Take a daily shower. Wear clean uniform at all times. Wear clean and proper shoes.

Thumb rule No: 1 is : Absolute cleanliness with yourself, ingredients, Utensils, machinery, space and interior. Bad Hygiene can result into severe infections and Serious sickness.

PREPARED BY:

APPROVED BY:

Stefan Schmid

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Position: Signature: Date: Position: Director of Food & Beverage Signature: Date:
Page 2 of 2

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO
UNIFORMS Standard uniforms to be worn without stains or tears, fitting well, Buttons not missing, No over filled pockets, No rolled up sleeves, Well pressed, With name badge Change uniform daily or when necessary BODY POSTURE Bathe daily Brush teeth daily and after every meal Up right posture, Walk straight Stand straight when standing in one place Project a positive appearance Be attentive to guest requirements Only very light perfume is permitted FINGER NAILS Short and manicured, Clean fingernails No nail polish

TASK #: 4.1 TASK: Personal Hygiene & Grooming EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT WHY
Positive professional image is projected in front of the guest

Grooming and personal appearance

PREPARED BY:

Stefan Schmid

APPROVED BY:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Position: Signature: Position: Date:

Signature: Date:

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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO To learn about prevention of Accidents and first aid at work. How to keep a personal menu Book. TASK #: 1.07 TASK: Prevention of Accidents First Aid EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT WHY Rule number 1: Prevention is better than fixing!! Menu book: - The menu book is your personal collection Of recipes, working procedures, menus And kitchen basics. - The book has to be kept clean and in proper condition at all times. It is your investment for a good foundation and future career.

Accident Prevention: Burns, Cuts, Keep tools & machinery in perfect condition Make sure you know location of first aid box No smoking in the kitchen!!!!! Know the emergency procedures. Get to know fire distinguisher methods. Remove grease from ovens and air condition Clean air filters on regular basis. Know the emergency exits Mark hot cooking utensils & tell your mate. Do not carry heavy equipment on your own. Wear proper and closed shoes. Never touch electric appliances with wet hand. Never pour liquid into hot fat. Never keep knifes in sink Hand knife over the right way. Never use knifes for opening tins and cans. Turn off machinery before cleaning. Remove glass from sink after water drains Never catch a falling knife Clean slippery floors at once.

First Aid: First think than act Stay cool and talk to the injured person Use your common sense Clean small wounds with disinfection liquid Big wounds to be treated by doctor immediate Wounds without blood are dangerous Small burns can be treated with cold & ice water right away Big burns to be treated by doctor at once With big cuts, keep arm upright

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Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:


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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO
Inspect

TASK #: 1.08 TASK: First Aid Box EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY
All first aid items must be fully stocked, based on requirement list.

One assigned staff should check the first aid box once a week or when required to ensure it is well stocked

Issue requisition

Report to the hotel nurse of any replenishing required

Replenish first aid box

Keep the box in the office (accessible place) after replenishment Items to be refilled by nurse

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com PREPARED BY: APPROVED BY: Position: Signature: Date: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:


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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO TASK #: 1.09 TASK: Germs in the kitchen EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com

To understand the importance of cleanliness and Hygiene in the daily kitchen Operation.

The major reasons for infections are as follows: Dirty fingernails, hands, watches, rings and other jewelry. Coughing, sneezing, nose peeling and food Testing with dirty fingers. Dirty tools and utensils, dirty machinery & cleaning utensils. Cockroaches, flies, mice, rats and beetles. Which are transmitting infections. To long storage of ingredients in heat. Wrong defrosting of food Spoiled ingredients such as seafood, mushrooms, meat and Protein Open wounds and infected body parts

To prevent these infections Rules and regulations for Professional hygiene has to be Followed up at all times.

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position:

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:


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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 1.10 TASK: Equipment Hygiene EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT Check the following: Understand and follow the Regulations about product Hygiene and its execution -

WHY

Product hygiene in All tools, utensils and machinery have to be in the kitchen perfect and clean condition at all times. Is needed to Clean slicing machines and other food machinery on a daily keep a proper basis. Standard and full fill Use disinfecting chemicals on regular basis. the Rules and Flat top, grill and broiler to be cleaned after each service. regulations of the The kitchen has to be cleaned at least once a day. Hotel. Kitchen floors & tables to be cleaned after each service Keep fridges clean and deep-clean at least once a week with hot water. Put wastage in the assigned containers. Keep cutting boards & chopping block clean at all times. Clean after each service Dirty laundry such as aprons, uniform & towels to be returned to the laundry. All wastage, food and dry to be removed from the kitchen on daily basis. Keep your working area clean at all times!!! Weekly deep-cleaning to be followed up by all kitchen staff!!! Use hot water at all times, together with detergent and proper chemicals to clean your area, tools and machinery. APPROVED BY: Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:
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Position:

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 1.11

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Product Hygiene JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT
To understand and follow the Regulations regarding Product hygiene. The kitchen is the most sensitive section in the entire Hotel when it comes to hygiene. 100% cleanliness while working with food ingredients and storage of goods are essential at all times. The storage of food in refrigerators are as follows: Under 4 C: - Milk, cream, butter, cheese, eggs, cremes, Raw meat, cold kitchen products ( salads, Sandwiches, cold cuts, mayonnaise, sauces) Around 0 C : - Raw fish, seafood, crustacean, shellfish Under 18 C : - Frozen products are to be kept in the freezer packed, wrapped and stored properly. - Defrost only in the walk-in-fridge!! - Small items can be defrosted under running Cold water. - Do not drop the defrosting water on food. Follow the rules: - Daily control of freshness of ingredients. - Force meat & hamburger should not be Used longer than 24 hours. - Prepared dishes like mushrooms, pasta, sauces and eggs should not be longer than 30 min. stored un-chilled. - Dishes which are served cold have to be stored at 4 C. - Dishes which are served hot have to be kept at a minimum of 70C. - Separate storage of prepared and raw items. - Chill stocks & sauces down before putting Into the fridge. - Filter and clean deep fryer daily. - Move food from open tins to plastic containers. - Never put used up oil and fat into sewer. - Repeating usage of food has to be 100%.

WHY

Absolute cleanliness at work While handling utensils and Equipment, working with Food ingredients, storage And waste management Is very important for the Success and proper function Of a professional kitchen Operation.

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position:

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:


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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 1.12

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com DEPARTMENT : Restaurant TASK: Handle Routine Cleaning Tasks JOB TITLE: All Restaurant Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT WHY
Make a schedule Prepare all cleaning tasks on a schedule and post on notice board: a. Deep clean fridges on Sundays night shift b. Clean shelvs every day night shift c. Clean fridge and shelf trolleys every day night shift Executive Chef/Executive Sous Chef to assign the job tasks to staff Supervisor will check all the cleaning (as mentioned above) when finished All utensils items are to be cleaned on daily basis. All jobs must be done on schedule and all items must be cleaned and kept in perfect condition

Job assignment Follow up

Handle utensils cleaning

Handle trolley cleaning

Wipe the entire trolley with a damp cloth. Make sure that there are no stains on the surfaces. Check the cleanliness of the supporting stand and wheels Spray WD40 once a week, so the wheels move smoothly

Handle cleaning of kitchen store

Deep clean all shelfing once a week Deep clean floor once a week.

Handle cleaning of fridge

Remove all the items from the fridge Wipe the entire fridge with a hot, damp cloth Put back all the items after cleaning

Handle cleaning of shelf trolley

Remove all the items from the shelf trolley Wipe the entire fridge with a hot, damp cloth Return the items into the trolley

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:


Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 1.13 DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Dos and Donts JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT
To learn and understand 1. Say Hello Establish eye contact, smile and basic procedures, rules and Greet everybody you see and meet. Regulations in service with 2. Use Names Call guests and teammates by Guests and relationship their names at every opportunity. with Fellow team colleagues 3. Show Your Appreciation Thank guests for their patronage. 4. Guide The Way When a guest asks for direction, always show the way. 5. Do Not Complain Never tell a guest that you are tired, working long hours or want to go home. 6. Keep It Clean Always pick up any debris. 7. Give A Hand Offer to help the guest in Any situation you can, and when he asks for It. 8. Follow Up Follow up on anything you do for a guest by contacting them personally. 9. Listen Then Act Listen carefully to the guest and never contradict or interrupt. 10. Good Grooming Habits - At all times and proper appearance and manner. 11. Equal Treatment For All Never discriminate against any people, regardless of nationality, race, religion, color, sex or appearance. 12. At Your Service Most importantly, remember that no task is too difficult to follow up on and every guest is a VIP.

WHY To guarantee the best service Possible for all guests at all Times.

To build a sufficient and well Motivated team which is able to give the best.

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:


Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO TASK #: 1.14 TASK: Staff Behavior EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY What the guest expect:


Kitchen Personnel Are knowledgeable Of their duties And responsibilities.

How to satisfy - behaviorally


Adhere to training and company guidelines.

How to satisfy operationally


To maintain good personal hygiene practices. Attend food hygiene training. Follow company guidelines and best practice. Staff should wear the correct uniform at all times. Hotel should provide and launder uniforms suitable to the tasks being carried out. The hotel should provide ample hand washing facilities for all food handling staff. All staff should attend food hygiene training as outlined in the Food & Safety procedures Staff should be regularly tested on their work and hygiene knowledge.

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:


Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com

FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO

TASK #: 1.15 TASK: Kitchen Responsibilities EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY
What the gust expect: That the food coming From the kitchen is safe to eat. Kitchen staff should be flexible to cater for special needs.

How to satisfy behaviorally


Staff to adhere to guidelines complying with the local law and Company requirement. Staff to maintain good personal hygiene. Listen attentively to guests comments / suggestions and thank Them for doing so. Make sure that there is no unnecessary noise or loud discussions Which may disturb guests at the restaurant.

How to satisfy - operationally


Staff should be fully trained on company hygiene & safety standards and manuals which have to be available to everybody. Follow-up all action plans set up after hygiene inspections. Chef to tour the restaurants at least once during each sitting, asking guests whether they are satisfied. Ensure that all kitchen and waiting staff are fully aware of the contents Cooking times, procedures and garnishes including daily special. Ensure that waiting staff is informed if a dish is taking longer than Normal so they can inform the guest concerned. Replace any dishes sent back by guest either with the same order or The requested replacement. Ensure food tasting sessions & menu knowledge training is regularly Organized with outlet manager for all F&B staff. Food samples are taken when the dish is being served to more than 20 Persons and kept in the freezer for the period of time

Waiting staff to be able to explain all contents of menu. Waiting staff to be aware of dishes, which take longer To prepare.

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:


Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com

FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT: Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO To understand basic kitchen Management and basic rule And regulations for all kitchen staff to insure proper Operation and execution of all tasks given.

TASK #: 1. 16 TASK: Kitchen Management EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

- Strict attention to the management directions.

To ensure success and profit margins. - Teamwork, discipline & dedication at all times. To keep the customer happy and satisfied. - Kitchen Hygiene For all equipment, utensils, rooms and space To help built the Keep clean at all times. best team working at the hotel - Food Hygiene Temperature, storage, handling with care, food Hygiene regulations, receiving of ingredients - Personal Hygiene Clean haircut, clean clothes, daily showers, Wash your hands after each toilette visit Proper grooming and haircut at all times. - Portion control Follow up on standard portion control to Keep costs on line, to prevent wastage. - Presentation Insure proper food presentation at all sections Hot food hot and cold food cold. Strive for the best food decoration & display. - Help your colleague especially in emergency. - Punctual at all times. - Give support and cooperation. - Be honest to your fellow workers and management.

PREPARED BY: POSITION: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:


Page 1 of 2

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO TASK #: 1.17 TASK: Safety Regulations EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

The following rules and regulations are essential to the safety of the individual employee and to the safe operation of the property. They are of major importance; read them attentively and follow them in every detail.

1. Show caution in special work areas; observe restrictions on entry and use protective equipment. 2. Use handrails on stairs. 3. Never carry so much that you obscure your vision. 4. Limit stacks of dishes on carts to a height that will not topple if you make a sudden stop. 5. When carrying a tray, place the heavy load toward the body. 6. Use care in handling dishes. 7. Do not use glasses as ice scoops. 8. Keep all knives in proper storage when not in use. 9. Use kitchen rags when transporting hot food. 10. Dont spill oil or water on the floor. 11. Close gas faucet after using the range. 12. Dont throw water on electric outlet. 13. In case of fire, call the engineering department, the front of office and proceed to fight the fire with appropriate fire extinguisher and fire blanket.

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:

Page 2 of 2

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO TASK #: 1.17 TASK: Safety Regulations EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

14. Walk, do not run. The few minutes saved by rushing could result in an injury to yourself or another employee. 15. Do not engage in horseplay. 16. Report all accidents and injuries to your supervisor immediately. 17. Report faulty equipment immediately; don't leave it for someone else to report. 18. Inspect equipment before you use it; never use a machine that needs repair. 19. Do not operate equipment tagged " out of order " 20. Unplug electrical equipment before cleaning it. 21. Use all safety guards on equipment; don't bypass them. 22. Use the proper equipment for the job. 23. Be alert to the task you are performing. 24. Be sure you know how to do a job; if in doubt, ASK. 25. Look where you are going, not where you have been. 26. Turn on the lights before entering a dark room. 27. Open all doors with caution. 28. Keep all desks and file drawers closed. 29. Maintain good housekeeping in all areas.

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com


Page 1 of 2

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO TASK #: 1.18 TASK: Team Work EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

PROCEDURE 1. Know your own responsibilities, understand your job description and understand the standards your supervisors expect from you. 2. Always make an effort not only to do your own job well, but also be open and prepared to help and assist others 3. Never say, "This is not my job or this is not my section!" 4. Don't wait until you are asked to help, be attentive and assist when you see somebody needs help. 5. Don't argue with your fellow employees; always look for a friendly solution to problems.

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com


Page 2 of 2

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO TASK #: 1.18 TASK: Safety Regulations EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

30. Walk, do not run. The few minutes saved by rushing could result in an injury to yourself or another employee. 31. Do not engage in horseplay. 32. Report all accidents and injuries to your supervisor immediately. 33. Report faulty equipment immediately; don't leave it for someone else to report. 34. Inspect equipment before you use it; never use a machine that needs repair. 35. Do not operate equipment tagged " out of order " 36. Unplug electrical equipment before cleaning it. 37. Use all safety guards on equipment; don't bypass them. 38. Use the proper equipment for the job. 39. Be alert to the task you are performing. 40. Be sure you know how to do a job; if in doubt, ASK. 41. Look where you are going, not where you have been. 42. Turn on the lights before entering a dark room. 43. Open all doors with caution. 44. Keep all desks and file drawers closed. 45. Maintain good housekeeping in all areas.

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature:

APPROVED BY: Position:

Stefan Schmid Signature:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Director of Date: Food & Beverage

Date:
Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO TASK #: 2.01 TASK: Kitchen Management EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

To understand basic kitchen Management and basic rule And regulations for all kitchen staff to insure proper Operation and execution of all tasks given.

- Strict attention to the management directions. - Teamwork, discipline & dedication at all times. - Kitchen Hygiene For all equipment, utensils, rooms and space Keep clean at all times. - Food Hygiene Temperature, storage, handling with care, food Hygiene regulations, receiving of ingredients - Personal Hygiene Clean haircut, clean clothes, daily showers, Wash your hands after each toilette visit Proper grooming and haircut at all times. - Portion control Follow up on standard portion control to Keep costs on line, to prevent wastage. - Presentation Insure proper food presentation at all sections Hot food hot and cold food cold. Strive for the best food decoration & display. - Help your colleague especially in emergency. - Punctual at all times. - Give support and cooperation. - Be honest to your fellow workers and management

To ensure success and profit margins. To keep the customer happy and satisfied. To help built the best team working at the .

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of

Stefan Schmid Signature:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Date: Food & Beverage

Date:
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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO To understand and learn about cooking and kitchen History. TASK #: 2.02 TASK: Kitchen History EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY The chefs profession is a unique mixture of art, passion, Travel, and unlimited Possibilities for hard working Young people who want to Experience this special way Of taking care for daily needs.

The Greek doctor and teacher Hippocrates has been an early supporter of proper food and understood early about the basics & connection with health and well being. 460-377 A.D. The Romans started very early trade with spices and ingredients with he middle east 2700 years ago. After 1500 the big movement came from Italy And people from Florence influenced very much the French dining culture. Between 17101744 the cuisine reached its peak at the palace of Louis XV. Lots of dishes were named after celebrities & many famous cook books were written in the 17. & 18. Century. The first big restaurants were opened in Paris in 1765. The most famous Chefs were Marie-Antoine Careme and Auguste Escoffier, who set the basics about todays international cuisine with his book Le Guide Culinaire. In recent years the Novelle cuisine became famous around the world and was mainly promoted by Paul Bocuse. Today Fusion Cuisine has been quite popular, even many Chefs have gone back to ethnic cooking and classic cuisines. Today Chefs are able to travel and work in Restaurants, cruise ships and hotels around the world and have the unique opportunity to learn and exercise international cuisine on a new level. Everything and all ingredients from around the globe are available. The demand for any ethnic cuisine mainly in Europe, Asia and in the Americas are very high. With international Chefs organizations and exhibitions, know how is being exchanged and new techniques, recipes cook books, artistic set ups and revolutionary inventions are promoted on fairs in all major metropolitan cities on all continents. As European cuisine spread from the old world, Asian food becomes more and more popular with any international hotels.

PREPARED BY:

APPROVED BY:

Stefan Schmid

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Position: Signature: Position: Director of Date: Food & Beverage

Signature: Date:
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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO
To understand and learn about the history of cooking. To get familiar with the mechanics and operation of The banquet/catering section And the room service.

TASK #: 2.02 TASK: Kitchen History EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY
It is good to know the wheres and whys about our profession and as a good chef you never know enough about different cuisines, recipes, tools, and new dishes coming up every day all over the world.

As in most countries, the history of food and beverage was written in the abbeys and Monasteries. Beer brewing was cultivated by Monks, as well various liqueurs, medicine Vegetable cultivation. Many dishes, western and oriental were initiated In monasteries. Recipe books were written and Monks were testing and working with herbs And spices. French cuisine was very popular 15-20 years back, but has been replaced by Italian, Californian, Mexican, Pacific Rim and of course Most of the oriental kitchens like Japanese, Chinese, Thai, Indian, Vietnamese and Indonesian. A lot of merging and blending of oriental and Western ingredients with Asian and Western Cooking utensils have become very popular And are called Asian Fusion. The sharing of food like in Chinese and Thai, Find more and more friends around the globe. Chinese cooking history goes back more than 5000 years and it is not confirmed whether the pasta came from China to Italy or not. Records show that pasta in Italy before Marco Polo went to China.

PREPARED BY:

APPROVED BY:

Stefan Schmid

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Position: Signature: Position: Date:

Signature: Date:
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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO TASK #: 2 .03 TASK: Kitchen Design & Structure EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY What the guest expect:

How to satisfy operationally


Best practice: the kitchen must be clean and well maintained at All times as outlined in the safety manual. Adequate work and cold and dry storage facilities should be Provided in line with the number of staff and the volume of business. The design shall be such that it permits best operational tasks And easy for cleaning. Separation partitions should be provided to prevent crossContamination between different food preparation areas. The design should take into consideration the workflow of the kitchen in order to reduce the risk of waste coming into contact With food, both raw and cooked. Hand wash basins with hot and cold water, drying facilities and Soap should be provided. Floors should be waterproof, non-absorbent, washable and nonSlippery. Walls should be the same but in a light colour. Ceiling, windows should be finished with materials that do not Flake and are easily to clean. Adequate lightning, ventilation, drainage and water supply should be provided.

That the kitchen is lighted, airy and clean Place. That the kitchen is a safe place to work

PREPARED BY:

APPROVED BY:

Stefan Schmid

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Position: Signature: Date: Position: Director of Food & Beverage Signature: Date:
Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO
To understand and learn The kitchen sections and Organization chart

TASK #: 2.04 TASK: Kitchen Sections EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY
The proper planning and Organization of all kitchen sections are necessary for The right functioning of a Hotel kitchen.

The goals of a kitchen organization is: Proper production flow Easy and controllable working areas Right utensils and machinery Best possible assignment for each staff

Types of Kitchens: Conventional kitchen Combined production and end product kitchen Fast food kitchen Open or demonstration kitchen Industrial kitchen

Basic scale of production and organization: Planning the menu Purchasing and ordering the ingredients Receiving and storage of items Mice en place and preparation Production of food items Storage and stand by in refrigerator/counter Finish off the product and arrange Serve in section as needed

PREPARED BY:

APPROVED BY:

Stefan Schmid

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Position: Signature: Date: Position: Director of Food & Beverage Signature: Date:
Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK # : 2.05 DEPARTMENT: Kitchen TASK: Kitchen Organization JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT

WHY

To learn about the kitchen structure and responsibilities of each chef and member Of a international kitchen Brigade.

Executive Chef: - Leader of the kitchen, purchasing, menu planning, guest contact, food cost, roster, Executive Sous Chef: - Replace the Chef on leave and assists in scheduling, execution, training, scheduling Sous Chef: - Responsible for one restaurant Classic Kitchen Saucier: Brigade: - Prepares meat dishes and sauces, poultry game, seafood, hot appetizers - Executive Chef Fish Cook ( Poissonnier ): - Executive Sous Chef - Prepares fish & seafood dishes - Sous Chef Entremetier: - Chef de Partie Prepares soups, vegetables, potatoes, - Demi Chef de Partie vegetarian, egg & cheese dishes - 1. Cook Garde-manger: - 2. Cook Production of all cold dishes, as salads, - 3. Cook. appetizers, terrines, cold buffets, show pieces - Trainee Butcher: Production and storage of all meat and seafood products, portioning of food items Pastry Cook ( Patissier ): Preparation of all desserts, cakes, pastries chocolates, ice creams, show pieces, bread Night Chef: Prepares dishes for night menu, Prepares mice en place for breakfast Diet Chef: Production of diet and healthy foods Staff Chef: Prepares daily menu for staff cafeteria Artist: Prepares decoration, sculptures, ice carving, etc.

You have to be familiar of the Set-up of a classical kitchen brigade in order to execute The daily operation properly.

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com PREPARED BY: APPROVED BY: POSITION: Signature: Date: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:


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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO
To understand the responsibilities and production of the cold kitchen.

TASK #: 2.06 TASK: Gardemanger EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY
The gardemanger works closely with the hot kitchen ( saucier, entremetier ) and bakery to fine tune all dishes and menus for various occasions

The gardemanger is responsible for the walk-in-fridges and freezers. Regular cleaning and sanitation is of outmost importance. He prepares all cold foods as: Salads, for appetizer, side dishes, with condiments and garnishes Salad dressings for the various dishes with different recipes - Terrines, pates, galantines and mousses of fish, seafood, meat, poultry, game, vegetable. Preparation of cold buffets, cocktail parties coffee breaks, breakfast buffet Preparation of show pieces in butter, ice carvings in various shapes and events Buffet decoration with roast meats, poultry Roast and steamed fish/salmon, bread Display, Fruit and vegetable carvings from different ethnic background, Chinese, Japanese, Thai European Preparation of cold platters, sausages smoked meat and seafood, Arrangements of seafood buffets and displays with lobster, caviar, oysters etc Appetizers for buffets, set menus and a`la carte dishes. Sandwich production for cocktail, snacks a`la carte and lunch boxes

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com PREPARED BY: APPROVED BY: Position: Signature: Date: Position:

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:


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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO TASK #: 2.07 TASK: Butcher EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com To understand the responsibilities of the butcher And his production The kitchen butcher receives all meat, sausage Fish, seafood, poultry and game products. They have to be checked for quality, size and Freshness and stored accordingly. Products may arrive either fresh, dried or frozen All meat cuts of veal, beef, pork, poultry, game have to be portioned like: - Fillet whole - tenderloin mignon - medallions - steaks - escalopes, schnitzel - stroganoff - sate - goulash, ragout - roast beef, roast pork, roast veal, roast chicken, roast turkey - loin, supreme - hamburger meat - force meat All fish and seafood items, if not alive used In the kitchen, to be cut for: - fillets - medallions - force meat for pates, terrines and consommes - smoked items - skewers, sate - steaks, ragout All portioned items to be vacuum packed, frozen Or stored in the chiller for the various outlets. All frozen products carefully wrapped and packed and marked with date of production Before storing in the freezer PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date: APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:
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The freshness and quality control of the butcher puts Lot of responsibility and Guarantee for top finished products

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO TASK #: 2.08 TASK: Hot Kitchen EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com


To understand the various Sections of the hot kitchen, Their daily production and Responsibilities. Saucier: produces all hot sauces including hollandaise and special sauces as apple sauce, mint sauce barbecue sauce prepares all meat dishes of game, poultry veal, pork and beef, lamb prepares for buffet, cocktail, set menu, a`la carte checks the meat cuts and coordinates with other sections takes over the position of rotisseur in small and medium hotel kitchens The biggest responsibilities Are given to the saucier section and therefore the Chef saucier usually takes charge In absence of the Sous Chef Or Executive Chef in some Restaurants and small hotels

Entremetier: produces all soups and stocks prepares all vegetable dishes and garnishes prepares all side dishes as rice, potato, noodles and pasta produces al vegetarian dishes

Fish cook, poissonier: prepares all fish & seafood dishes sets up seafood counters prepares dishes for buffet, cocktail, set menu in small and medium operations this position is taken over by the saucier section

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:


Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 2.09 TASK: Bakery, Pastry EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT

WHY

To understand the responsibilities and production of the pastry and Bakery section

Important details have to be followed up: prepare all dough according to recipes check the measurements at all times proper mice en place sieve the flour at all times, fluffy dissolve salt in water and liquid clean and hygienic at all times work on production areas for pastry & bread separately cover dough with plastic film, to prevent it from drying let the dough rest according to recipe check temperatures and times for oven preparations according to recipe proper storage of all ingredients

The pastry chef and his staff Work 24 hours and the night Baker prepares Danish and bread for breakfast They work closely with hot kitchen and gardemanger and Supply them with cocktail items, pates, bouchees, Snacks for coffee breaks, buffets, breakfast and a`la carte desserts

PREPARED BY: Position:

Preparation and production of: - all bread products - rolls, soft rolls, buns, sweet pastries - Danish pastries, ginger bread - Snacks, savory and fruit flans - Petits fours, confectionary - Pralines and chocolates - Showpieces of sugar, chocolate, bread - Torten and gateaux - Fresh cream and cream desserts - Sponge mixtures - Butter mixture - Short paste - Puff paste - Ice cream products - Sugar products - Dough for pate preparation - Butter mixtures - Fermentation and bread making ,wedding cake APPROVED BY: Signature: Date: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:


Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 2.10 TASK: Kitchen Artist EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT


To understand the work and Production of the kitchen artist. The kitchen artist prepares most of his works In advance and stores his show pieces in a special Assigned storeroom. The show pieces can be made of - wood - glass - foam - metal - paper - plastic - fruit and vegetable carving - butter and chocolate sculptures - paintings and drawings

WHY

Decoration pieces vary according to the seasons Like: - Christmas - New year - Chinese new year - Valentines day - Mothers day - Fathers day - Easter - National day - Moon festival - Childrens day - Different food promotions - National days with reception - Wedding parties

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:


Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 2.11

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Kitchen Equipment JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT
Get to know the kitchen Equipment, its functions and Importance in the kitchen. Cooking stove: - For cooking with regulating heat, either gas or electric Tilting Pan: - For preparation of soups, stocks, sauces for frying , roasting, sauteing , broiling of vegetables, potatoes, meat, large quantity Grill: - For roasting meats, steaks, vegetable, fish either gas or charcoal Griddle: - For frying steaks, fish, seafood, eggs, vegetables, potatoes either gas or electric Combi Steamer: - Roast, steam, bake, gratinate food items with hot air, multifunctional for any food at different temperatures Steamer: - Steam any food items with or without pressure with different temperatures Steam Kettle: For preparation of soups, stocks, sauces boiling, steaming, broiling of any food items Deep-fryer: - For preparation of potatoes, vegetables, sea food, meat items, pastry dishes Micro Wave: For fast reheating and preparing food with electronic micro waves, different temp Oven: For preparation of bread, pastry products roasting big meat, poultry and seafood

WHY

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position:

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:


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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 2.12

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Kitchen Utensils JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT
Get familiar with all tools And utensils used in the kitchen Combi mixer: Operate for different production as puree, cut, slice, sliver, dice Puree machine: For production of soups and sauces Meat grinder: For grinding meat, seafood, vegetables Slicing machine: For cutting cold cuts, cheese, vegetables, bread Mixer: To blend fruits, vegetables, meat, seafood, spices Meat chopper: For preparing meat farces, sausages, Pasta machine: For preparing fresh pasta, noodles Vacuum machine: For vacuuming all food products Scale: For weighing all food products Bread slicing machine: For slicing all types of breads Ice cream machine: For making ice cream and sherbets Juice extractor: For preparation of fruit & vegetable juices Potato peeling machine: For peeling big amount of potatoes Kneading machine: For making pastry mixtures, doughs Smoking machine: For smoking meats, vegetable and seafood

WHY
In order to work efficiently, With speed and organization.

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:


Page 2 of 2

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 2.12 DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Kitchen Utensils JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT

WHY
To improve productivity and efficiency during the cooking progress.

To get familiar with kitchen Utensils in all sections, Its handling and use for Different production techniques.

Pots and pans: Sauce pan, stew pan, casserole, stock pot, sauteuse, frying pan, teflon pan, sautoir, sauce pan, buckets, paella pan, wok, iron pan, fish oval Pan, crepe pan, omelette pan, roast pan, fish kettle, GN pans ( chaffing dish inserts ) sheet pan Wire rack, bain marie, buckets, pate/terrine mould, Bowls: Kitchen bowl, mixing kettle, vegetable strainer, Egg white bowl, clothe sieve chinois, sauce sieve Chinois, bouillon sieve, kitchen measure, funnel, Scoop, fryer basket Ladles, spoons: Kitchen ladle, sauce ladle, all purpose spoon, Wooden spoon, skimmer, wire skimmer, lifter, Spatula, whisk, vegetable grater, mandoline, Tongs, egg slicer, potato press, food mill, Cutting tools: Boning knife, chefs knife, steel, paring knife, Filleting knife, carving knife, salmon knife, Fish knife, bread knife, slicing knife, fork, saw, Tenderizer, pastry knife, cutting board, Small tools: Shaping knife, paring knife, potato peeler, asparagus peeler, lemon grater, butter curler, Apple corer, lemon decorator, parisienne baller, Decorating knife, radish cutter, palette knife General: Vegetable cutter, ice carving chisel, terrine moulds, scissors, scales, juice press, juice extractor, cake rings, sheet pans, trolleys, Piping bags, rolling pin, ice cream scoop, slicing Machine, meat grinder, chopper, blender, Stephan

To understand which equipment to use and how to operate it.

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position:

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:


Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 2.13 DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Cooling Systems JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT
Refrigerators are an important part of the kitchen Organization.

WHY

Walk-in-fridge and freezers: Daily cleaning and 100% hygiene. Proper storage in shelving, not on the floor !!

The cold rooms prevent Wastage and the ingredients Remain fresh and in good Condition for more days. Proper planning of purchasing Ingredients More choice for the customer Reduces cost

Get to know different cooling Systems in the operation Walk-in-fridge Walk-in-freezer Shock freezer Ice cream machine Ice cube/shave machine Refrigerated counter Salad/dessert vitrine Table top refrigerator Cooling truck Chilling boxes

Ingredients placed in assigned storage containers Daily check on temperature Large food items to be wrapped and packed Properly in plastic bags and boxes to prevent Freezer burning. Utensils to be kept in absolute clean

Ice cube machine: Absolute cleanliness Stainless steel or plastic shovel Never glass or china plates to be used Very dangerous for cuts and accidents Regular deep-cleaning of machine

Ice cream machine: High rating cooling system Absolute cleanliness Daily deep cleaning !! Proper cleaning after each use Follow the operating instructions

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:


Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 2.14 DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Mice en place JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT Learn the basic set up of Food ingredients and Preparation of the daily service in a`la carte, buffet And catering kitchen.
Mice en place means stand by and Is the start and preparation of the production of Food items, menus and decoration. In connection with this is the daily check up and Double check of your ingredients. Basic mice en place Can be the set up of tools, machinery and laundry Daily & section mice en place Basic ingredients for a`la carte service The daily check of the provisions Spices, herbs, vegetables, pasta, rice, potatoes, fish, seafood, meat and poultry Diary products as milk, cheese, eggs, cream Chopped and diced vegetables for dishes sauces, stocks, Mice en place production kitchen Preparation for banquet and catering Can be semi finished food items In large quantities and sometime prepare a few days in advance

WHY A good and proper mice en place is half the work done!!

It guarantees a smooth service For 24 hours and has to be checked several times a day.

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:


Page 1 of 2

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO
To learn about basic food Preparation for different ingredients

TASK #: 3.01 TASK: Basic Food Preparation EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY
In the kitchen we have to use the right cooking method for Different ingredients

Blanch: Blanching is a cooking process for leaf vegetables And for other ingredients a first step Poaching: Poaching is a smooth cooking process with exact Watched temperatures between 65 80 C Simmer: Simmering is a process at the temperature of 100C or slightly under. Steaming: Steaming is a process with dry or wheat steam, With pressure or without. Deep-frying: Deep-frying is done in a pool of fat with rising or Stable temperature. Saute: We saute ingredients in hot fat under stirring Or turning around without addition of liquid Grill: We grill items on metal sticks which are heated Through electric energy, gas or charcoal Gratinate: Gratinating is a process with items done whereby Heat source from above is used only Glacing: With glacing we steam vegetables, which is covered and coated with a kind of syrup through mixing the ingredients Baking: Baking is a process with dry heat, without fat Or liquid

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:


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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com

FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO

TASK #: 3.01 TASK: Basic Food Preparation EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

Vapeur steaming: This is a process with as little Liquid as possible Roasting: Roasting is a process at medium heat, with Constant addition of fat, without liquid or cover Braising: Braising is a process with little liquid, with cover In the oven or a pressure braising pot

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:


Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com

FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO
To understand about the different food supply and the Various storage facilities.

TASK #: 3.02 TASK: Food Supply EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY
Proper ordering, checking and storage are necessary for the best food supply and quality Standards.

The daily food supply is divided into - fresh - frozen - dried - convenience - canned Fresh supplies as meat, fish, and game will be Portioned and stored for further use at the butcher fridge. They have to be checked at the receiving for quality. Fresh fruits, vegetables and herbs are either stored at the butcher vegetable walk-in fridge Or directly sent to the different outlets Frozen food products will be sent directly into The meat/vegetable freezer and stamped with a date. Proper storage and packaging is very important. Dried and canned food items as coffee, tea, spices and seasonings will be stored at the dry store and issued upon demand. Convenience food will be ordered for big Food productions as hospitals, airports and factories.

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position:

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:


Page 1 of 1

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO TASK #: 3.03 TASK: Food Conservation EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

To understand about the Various methods of food Conservation. Some apply to the big food Industry and some affect directly the daily kitchen Operation.

Cooling: From 1-5 C All kind of food Freezing: From18-30 C all kind of food Pasteurizing: Between 65-90 C Dairy products, fruit juices Drying: Meat, fish, mushrooms, vegetable, fruits Vacuuming: All fresh meat and seafood products, vegetable Salting: Fish, meat, vegetable Smoking: Bacon, ham, sausages, fish, poultry, Marinating in alcohol: Fruits, berries Concentrating: Extracts like meat sauces, stocks, tomato paste Pickling: Sauerkraut, cabbage, fruits, vegetable Sterilizing: Between 100-135 C all canned foods, meat, fish Mushrooms, vegetable

Food conservation is more and more done in the hotel kitchen

Different methods are used for different products

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com


Page 1 of 2

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO TASK #: 3.04 TASK: Nutrition in Food EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY
To serve the customer with the best food, in preparation, Nutrition content and as healthy as possible at all times

To learn about the use and Good food is: Proper handling of ingredients, to prevent - well balanced in combination wastage of nutrition. - proper handling and production - well balanced in taste To learn about healthy Cooking and the most Dos and Donts: common forms of diet - Use as little salt as possible - Be careful with use of fat and oil - Do not use to much alcohol - Arrange more small meals rather than a Few heavy ones - Arrange vegetarian dishes and menus on Regular basis - Be cautious in serving raw meat and Seafood products - Use lots of whole wheat products - Use lots of fish protein - Use less fat and protein and more starch - Use natural fat forms - Use lots of soy bean products - Keep good balance with your ingredients Forms of Diet: Reduction diet Diabetes diet Stomach diet Protein diet Vegetarian diet Light diet

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com


Page 2 of 2

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO
To understand the content And complexity of nutrition In food and its purpose and Guidelines for daily cooking To learn about nutrition and Dos and donts in the daily Operation.

TASK #: 3.04 TASK: Nutrition in Food EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY
Lots of sickness, infection And illness Are caused by wrong approach of cooking, storage, production, handling and menu planning. The proposed menu and various dishes have to be Scaled to the rules of menu Engineering, nutrition and Seasonal availability of Products. To guarantee the function of Nutrition: - Never leave food to long in water - Wash uncut and quickly - Blanch only if necessary - Use vegetable stocks - Do not over cook vegetab. - Raw fruits/veg, should be Included in every meal - Preparation with no or Little water - Do not store food to long - Peel fruit/veg. Carefully - Use tender preparation Methods, steaming, glacing - Use lots of fresh seafood - Use a lot of cereals - Not to much dark meat - Use lots of dairy products - Reduce fat in cooking

With food its not the ingredients what counts, But the individual nutrition of content. The basic and most important are: - Fat, protein, starch, vitamins, minerals, Nutrition is responsible for the set up and Well being of the human body. They provide the Daily needed energy. Starch: - Main food ingredients for most cultures - Minimum 50g per day - Fruits, vegetable, fresh dairy products - Use lots of whole wheat products Fat: - Contains lots of energy - Minimum 50g-70g per day - Protects from cold temperatures - Use lots of vegetable oil, diary products Protein: - The most important of nutrition - Without protein no life!! - Minimum 50g-70g per day - Use good combination of animal and Vegetarian protein

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature:

APPROVED BY: Position:

Stefan Schmid Signature:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Director of Date: Food & Beverage

Date: Page 1 of 2

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO
To get familiar with different Additives and ingredients Used for various food items Marinade: - Through marinating we soften and tenderize The meat structure - With different flavors we change the taste of food items, such as fish, meat, vegetable, fruit - Conserve products and prolong the process of the marinated items

TASK #: 3.05 TASK: Additives, Ingredients EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY
The preparation of mousses, Jellies and marinades are Basic preparation methods and Are the first steps for finishing Off a product

Jelly: In the cold kitchen jellies are a major Substance and important ingredient for Pates, mousses and coating of dishes Jellies are made of veal bones (feet) and back fat of pigs which are cooked with spices, vegetables and then clarified. These jellies have a golden brown color. Jellies are also used in the bakery for coating and are prepared on a vegetable basis.

Mousse/Farce: We prepare mousses & farces of either game veal, poultry, seafood, vegetable and fruits. For fillings, coating and stuffing of dishes. Mousses are prepared on ice, with cream, salt and spices and have a soft texture Mousses and farces are used for pates, terrines and galantines

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature:

APPROVED BY: Position:

Stefan Schmid Signature:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Director of Date: Food & Beverage

Date:
Page 2 of 2

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO TASK #: 3.05 TASK: Additives, Ingredients EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

W H Y

To get to know different Spice mixtures and sauces Used for the cold and hot kitchen Spice sauces, pastes and marmalades are prepared and used for special dishes which contain spices, vinegar, salt sugar, fruits, vegetable or oil.

Anchovy sauce: Mostly prepared from anchovies for meat dishes Barbecue Sauce: With lots of tomato paste, onions, garlic, salt Vinegar, Worcestershire sauce, honey and used for grill and meat dishes Chili sauce: It contains tomato paste, chili, sugar, vinegar, Salt and sugar, for meat, fish and vegetable dishes Ketchup: With tomato paste, salt, sugar, vinegar, ginger, cloves, pepper, paprika, nutmeg, cinnamon, cayenne pepper, garlic, lemon juice, for cold &hot dishes Lemon pickles: Lime, salt, ginger, mustard seeds, chili and coriander are mixed to a paste, used for Indian Dishes

Mango chutney: Made of mangos, sugar, vinegar, curry, pepper, tamarind, ginger and raisins, for curry and meat dishes Piccadilly sauce: Mayonnaise with cream and chopped fennel green Piccalilli sauce: English mustard pickles, creamy substance with curry, for cold meat Relishes: Mostly made of cucumbers, onions, herbs, mustard seeds & mustard, for cold meat dishes and fast food Sambal: Name for hot spice mixtures of the Indian and Indonesian kitchen, mostly prepared with chillies Soy sauce: Product made of the soy bean, the protein is mixed with special acid and gets the unique flavor, known in China for several thousand years Tabasco: Made of chili, vinegar, sugar and salt PREPARED BY: APPROVED BY: Stefan Schmid Position: Signature: Position: Signature:

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.06 TASK: Pickling EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT
INTRODUCTION In some regions of Rajasthan, a new bride is requested to show her cooking skills to her in-laws by presenting pickles. She might serve four kinds with the best flat breads: Salty, fiery hot, sour and hot, sweet, hot. Taking advantage of Indias intense heat cooks leave pickles in the summer sun to mature. Sunlight is not only antiseptic and helps to speed up the pickling reaction,, it also helps to keep fermentation in check. During the first three or four weeks, the jars are brought in every night and set out the next morning. Many pickles are ready to serve two or three weeks after they are made ; some take six months to mature but keep well for several years. The two most popular kinds of pickles are lemon and green mango. Also appreciated are varieties such as carrot, gooseberry, hot chilli, fresh ginger root, white radish and turnip- virtually any fruit or vegetable that is without a mushy texture. For pickling always use garden-fresh, high-quality produce, a shade under ripe and free from blemishes and soft or decayed spots. The lemons or limes should be small in size, with smooth, thin skins and plenty of juice. Pickles are preserved in sufficient oil, salt or lime juice to ensure that they keep well. Mustard oil is the first choice , not only for flavour, but because pickles made with it seem to keep miraculously. A second choice may be peanut or sesame oil. A Closer view : The preservative qualities of vinegar and salt are essential to pickles. In the past, all kinds of food were pickled to extend them beyond their seasons . Salt beef is one example of a non-vegetable pickle that is still popular though today, pickled foods are eaten more for pleasure than out of necessity. Pickles can be condiment, sauce or salad and they have been popular throughout the ages and in many countries around the world. The recipe for picalilli was introduced to England in 1664 under the title: To pickle lila, an Indian pickle. Peppers and artichokes pickled in vinegar are an integral part of the Italian anti -pasto platter, and tart cornichons are traditionally served with French pates. In Korea, pickled cabbage, or Kimchi, is served as a snack, appetizer and table condiment, and vinegared salads are a popular Japanese first course. The Continental Way : Almost any kind of food or vegetable can be pickled, but they must be as fresh as possible and in good condition. Never use over ripe fruits or tired vegetables. Though pickling is a good way to use up ill formed or less attractive fruit and vegetables. The most popular pickles are made with onions, beetroot, red cabbage, walnuts and cucumber, but carrots, button mushrooms, artichoke hearts, cauliflower and peppers and fruits such as melons, peaches and pears are also well suited to pickling. Of these beetroot is the only problematic vegetable as its colour bleeds. Malt vinegar is the most commonly used type of vinegar. But cider and wine vinegars are recommended for delicately flavoured pickles, with little or no added spice. White or colorless vinegar show off the pickles to better advantage than brown malt vinegar. Whatever the vinegar it should have an acetic acid level of at least 5% to ensure the preservative properties.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.06 TASK: Pickling EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

Spiced vinegars impart the best flavour to pickles. These are available commercially though they are easy to make at home. Alternatively, vinegar court bouillon is even easier. To a sauce pan of vinegar, add any or all of the following ingredients: ginger, cinnamon, cloves, allspice, black peppercorns, garlic, mace and bay leaf. Bring just to boil, then remove from the heat and infuse for 30 minutes. Use hot or cold; cold vinegar is good for keeping brined vegetable pickles crisp and crunchy. Sweet pickles are made with as spiced sugar and vinegar syrup: allow 500 g sugar to 600 ml vinegar. The fold the spices in this vinegar. Sometimes spirits such as brandy or rum are substituted for the vinegar. Most recipes call for salt and it is important to use coarse or kitchen salt rather than table salt. The latter is treated with anti-caking additives to keep it flowing freely, but these can affect the pickling vinegar adversely, reducing its preservative qualities. Before adding the pickle, sterilize jars with hot water. The jars must also have lids with plastic coated lining which prevent corrosion that can lead to rust and contamination. The fittings for clamp top jars should be sterilized in boiling water before filling. Be sure that the lids are air tight or the vinegar will evaporate and expose the ingredients to the air and all its harmful bacteria. Vegetable pickles are ready to eat in 2-3 months; fruit pickles require a bit more time. Pickles can be kept for as long as one year, but after that time, raw vegetable pickles lose their crispness. Pickled red cabbage is the exception; it should be eaten within one month. pickling spice: A customized formulation of several spices, the selection of which is determined by the final desired flavour of the pickles or pickled product. Spices and seasonings used commonly by pickle processors include: Allspice, caraway seeds, cassia buds, cayenne peppers, chilli powders, cinnamon, cloves, corriander seeds, cumin seeds, dill seeds, fennel seeds, garlic, ginger, mace, mint, onion , parsley, black and/or white pepper, and turmeric. DEFINITION A condiment consisting of vegetables ( or fruit or a mixture of both ) preserved in spiced vinegar. Of Indian origin, pickles are a milder version of the achars of Madras and Bombay. Pickles are sold in jars under various brand names but can also be made at home. They are served with cold meats, cheese, curries, etc, with aperitifs, and in mixed hors d'oeuvres. The vegetables used for pickling (cauliflower, cucumber, carrots, mushrooms, courgettes (zucchini) , small onions, unripe tomatoes, etc. ) are sliced if necessary and soaked in brine or in cold water . They are rinced , put in jars , and covered with spiced vinegar. They can also be cooked in vinegar with spices. Fruits ( apples, cherries, plums, pears, peaches, etc. ) are cut into small pieces and usually cooked for a short time so that they will soak up the vinegar. Eggs and walnuts can also be pickled. The best salt to use is coarse sea salt, as this gives the best flavour. Malt, wine , cider, spirit, vinegars may be used . Spices enhance the flavour and also act as preservatives . The classic formula is as follows : to 1 lt vinegar add a stick of cinnamon, 1 tsp cloves, 2 tsp fennel seeds, 1 tsp black pepper , 1 tsp mustard seeds, and two or three bay leaves. Bring the mixture to boil and then steep for a few days . The vinegar is strained and either used cold or hot.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.07 TASK: Curing EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

INTRODUCTION

In the 17th and 18th century meat was a luxury and the lower classes mainly depended on salted meats. Americans have enjoyed an abundance of meat, so while the staple food in Europe was bread, in America it was salt pork. In the decade of 1830-1840, the per capita meat consumption averaged 80kgs annually, a figure not matched till the 1960s and 1970s. Salt curing has been practiced for several thousand years as a means of preserving whatever meat or fish that could not be consumed in a day or two. The salt dehydrated the meat and inactivated the microbes, thus preserving the meat. It also happened that heavy salting changes the colour of the meat to bright pink instead of turning greyish brown. The colour change is not due to the salt, but due to the impurity in salt, nitrate, which the bacteria converts to nitrite, which affects the colour of the meat. In the middle ages, salt peter-potassium nitrate, was discovered as a versatile substance, used for making gun powder. Sometime in the 16th or 17th century, it was realized that salt peter is also useful in the curing process for it effects colour and flavour. It is guessed that the levels of nitrate and nitrite in traditionally cured meats were from 10 to 50 times the average of recent years. Two developments brought the nitrite and nitrate levels down drastically. One was refrigeration. Cold temperatures slow or stop the activity of microbes, and so do much of the work that the curing mixture once had to do alone. The other was the understanding that nitrite rather than nitrate is the active ingredient, so salt peter could be replaced by pure nitrite in small amounts. The first U.S. patent for the use of nitrite in curing was awarded in 1917, and the method was first permitted in commercial production in 1923. This trend was much appreciated because the traditional concentrations necessary for the job of preservation resulted in a meat so salty that in order to be palatable, it was usually soaked in water overnight and then boiled for an hour or more.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.07 TASK: Curing EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

Salt Curing
Salt has been used to inhibit microbial growth for thousands of years, and was especially important in the days before refrigeration. It works by creating such a concentration of dissolved ions outside of the bacteria and mould cells that water inside the relatively dilute cells is drawn out across their membranes. The microbes either dry up and either die or slow down drastically. Originally, meat was soaked in a strong brine solution or covered with whole grains of salt which were known in England as corn - hence the term corned beef. Today bacon is pre-sliced and passed through the curing solution, and is ready in less than a day. Salt tends to dry out the meats as well as the microbes by drawing fluids from the tissues, and freeing bound water by denaturing the proteins. Cured meats therefore contains less water than uncured meats and proportionately more fat. Salting today is done mainly for aesthetic purposes. We have come to like the taste of ham and bacon, and we salt pork for that reason, not to improve its storage life. As a result, meats are now treated with much milder cures than are necessary to prevent microbial growth, and so they are more susceptible to spoilage than they used to be. Curing also has an effect on colour. We all know from experience with hams, sandwich meats, and so on that cured meats retain a bright pink-red colour even after cooking. This is due to the presence of nitrite which reacts with myoglobin pigment to form pink nitrosomyoglobin. This compound is quite stable during changes in temperature, but is sensitive to oxygen and light. For this reason cured meats are often vacuum packed and exposed to as little light as possible. In addition to bringing about the colour change, nitrite is a very effective anti bacterial agent, it retards fat oxidation, and it contributes flavour. Originally, a trace mineral in the curing salt, nitrite was intentionally added to meat in the form of a nitrate salt, salt peter, beginning in the 16th or 17th century. Today pure nitrite is put into curing brine. In recent years, nitrite has come under suspicion as a carcinogen.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.07 TASK: Curing EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

SMOKE CURING Smoking is another venerable preservation technique which is actually a kind of slow, low temperature cooking. But it is also a chemical treatment. Smoke is a very complex material, with upward of 200 components that include alcohols, acids, phenolic compounds, and various toxic, sometimes carcinogenic substances. The toxic substances inhibit the growth of microbes, the phenolics retard fat oxidation, and the whole complex imparts the characteristic flavour of burning wood to meat. Salt curing and smoking are often combined to minimize the fat oxidation which salt encourages. A recipe for ham that has come down to us in the Latin cook book of Acipius uses the double treatment. It directs the cook to salt the meat for 17 days, dry it for 2 days in the open air, oil it and smoke for 2 days, and then store it in a mixture of oil and vinegar. SODIUM NITRITE Sodium nitrite is a simple salt, that is used in the manufacture of such popular meat products as bacon, ham and cold cuts. Nitrite has been the object of some concern, since 1956, when it was shown that it can combine with nitrogen containing groups, amines to form nitrosoamines which are known to be powerful carcinogens in animals. But only traces of nitrsoamines were found in cured meats, and while they can be formed by cooking from the two separate ingredients( nitrite and amines), cured meats account for only about 20% of the nitrite available in the body for this reaction. The other 80% is formed from nitrates found in plants raised on highnitrate fertilizers. The meat industry argued that nitrite is an important preservative, especially against the bacteria that cause botulism: the fact that cold cuts and some sausages are not cooked before eating makes the use of such an agent necessary. Thus nitrite which was on the verge of being banned was not.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO
To learn about smoked, cured And dried meats & sausages, And their use in the kitchen.

TASK #: 3.08 TASK: Smoked Meats & Ham EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

Smoked and cured meats and sausages are mostly purchased from outside where they are Produced in big butcher factories. In larger hotel, a specialized butcher will Prepare them in the own butchery, where smoking oven, meat chopper and blitz (meat chopper) are available. The most famous cured meat and sausage products come from Europe, as Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, France, Hungary, Poland where century old recipes are still used and passed on from generation to generation. Germany: Speck, meatloaf, wiener sausage, smoked pork loin, pressack, black forest ham Switzerland: Buendner fleisch (air cured beef), speck, bacon, Italy: Parma ham, mortadella, pancetta, salami, coppa France: Goose liver pate and mousse, salamis, pate Hungary/Poland Hungarian salamis, smoked and dried sausages With paprika and chili

Smoked meat and sausages are Used for sandwiches, cold platters, canapes, buffets and snacks

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.08 TASK: Ham EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

Ham is the cured hind leg of Baconer pig, taken from the side of pork and processed seperately. It may be cured by smoking or salting and smoking to preserve it. Dry salted ham have the best flavour and are the most tender .Other hams are plunged straight into brine, or cured in a way that combines both processes. Curing can take as long as two months.Salt usually used for curing is mixed with sugar spices and a variety of other ingredients with nitrate preservatives to keep the pink color. For health reasons the traditional curing agent salt peter with sodium nitrate is not used any more.The exact method of curing and smoking and the ingredients going into the curing process are a closely guarded secret of the maker. The feed given to the pig affects the taste of the ham. The peanuts of Virginia, the peaches of Georgia and the acorns of Andalucia all affect the flavor and the texture of the ham. After the salting, ham may be smoked over fragrant woods and then left to age for 3 months up to 2 years, in cool dry places. A cured ham may often weigh from 6.5 Kg up to 9 Kg. When receiving ham check weather the ham is cooked or uncooked. Some ham like the Parma ham ,are meant to be eaten raw in thin slices with fruits like figs or melons or with delicate vegetables like asparagus.

While many other raw hams are meant to be simmered before being served. If dry cured and salty, whole hams should be soaked in water for a few hours before simmering. Once cut ,the slices may need to be blanched in water to remove the excess salt Some ham are sold precooked which may be eaten as they are or may be cooked further and eaten hot or cold. The extra salt of precooked ham is complemented with sweet accompaniments such as fruit chutney or sweet sauces l apple sauce. In southern United States ham steaks are often pan fried and served with red eye gravy made with coffee or even coca-cola. Ham is as good a flavoring agent as anything else, appearing in soups, sauces, omelettes and in hearty stews especially those of beans or cabbage.

CLASSIFICATION OF HAM Ham are classified in three ways:A) Catering use; i.e. Used raw or cooked B) Method of processing; i.e. Dry cured, smoked etc. C) Country of origin i.e. England, France, Italy etc. English ham: 1)York ham-Dry cured for a month and matured for 6 months. 2) Braden ham, originates from Wiltshire. 3) Suffolk ham, a country ham made by basting cure method.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.08 TASK: Ham EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

Italian ham: 1) Parma-Classical Italian ham made from pigs fattened on parsnips. Matured for about a year 2) Culatello di zibello-Similar to Parma ham but steeped in white wine for 2 to 3 days before being used.

French ham: 1) Jombon de bayonne-Dry cured smoked ham eaten raw. 2) Jambon de campagne-Sweet cured smoked ham eaten raw. 3)Jambon blanc-Similar to york ham except that it is very lightly smoked.

German ham: There are 6 German ham that are well known. The Mainzer, Westphalian and Schwargwaelder are eaten raw whilst the Hamburger, Stuttgarter and the Goacher are baked ,boiled or braised and may be eaten hot or cold.

American ham: 1) Virginia ham-Classical ham from America, dry cured and basting cured and matured for 6 months. 2) Smithfield ham-Ham processed from pigs fed on a diet of peanuts. Dry cured and smoked cold for 1 month. Picnick/Shoulder ham: These are not true ham in that they are fore hock (front leg) of baconer pig that has been cut round to resemble ham. They are sold cooked and boneless either wrapped in cryovac or canned. USEFUL INFORMATION How to choose Firm flesh, not too much fat. Moisture in commercial ham betrays injection of water. Problems If too salty, remove by soaking or blanching. Meat can be too dry if cut thickley. Trim excess fat after cooking. Storage Whole raw ham-Hang in cool dry space. Cooked whole ham-Refrigerate up to 10 days. Sliced ham-Refrigerate up to 3 days or freeze up to 1 month.

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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO
To get familiar with commonly used meat for the Daily use and various types Of cuts available.

TASK #: 3.09 TASK: Meat, Poultry, Game EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY
It is important to know the basic history of meat products Available and used in the daily Operation. The Chef today should know what to offer best for the customer and for the variety of Arranging a menu.

Meat products like beef, veal Lamb and goat are products of their environment. Advanced farm management, Animal husbandry, natural Surroundings and breeding techniques are result for prime quality raised and produced around the world, as in America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand and South America. Constant new technology Hygiene, feeding , slaughtering and packaging Techniques are introduced To get better quality. Grass fed Beef: Grass fed beef is lean and is generally favored by Most customers, because it is seen as healthy and low fat. Cattle grazed on pasture absorb a pigment form the grass, called carotene, which can result in a slight yellow discoloration of the Fat but flavor is enhanced. Grain fed beef: Grain fed beef id derived from cattle which are fed for a minimum number of days on a nutritionally balanced, high energy feed. Uniformity of feed results in a greater consistency In the characteristics of the product and varied Levels of fat content compared with grass fed beef. It has a marbling fat which is good in nutrition and has a more consistent meat colour and fat colour. Veal: Light veal carcasses weigh less than 70 kg and Are typically produced from dairy calves. Up to 150 kg they are produced from vealers or weaners that have had a diet of milk and grass. Milk fed veal is usually more tender and preferred in the kitchen.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO TASK #: 3.09 TASK: Meat, Poultry, Game EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

Lamb: Most lamb is produced in fertile regions with good rainfall or from irrigated areas with lush and rich grass land. Breeds are crossed of Merino with British breeds and milk-fed and grass fed animals are on the market now. Goat: Australia is the world leader in the supply of high quality Capretto and Chevon goat meat. Goats are not used only for special diet for Muslim specialties, but as well for most European and Asian ethnic cuisines. Goat cheese Is very popular in Mediterranean countries and Becomes famous around the world. Pork: Most pigs are slaughtered with 5 1/2 6 months, Much more less fat than in the past. The storage can not be prolonged through vacuum packaging. It is not suitable for it. The meat should not be kept frozen longer than 3 months. Suckling pigs are very young animals with 2 3 months and with around 12 kg weight. The skin is soft and Will be roasted and used as a whole. White poultry: Chicken : 0,4 0,7 kg Fattened chicken : 0,8 1,3 kg, 1,3 1,8 kg Cockerel : 2,0 3,0 kg Soup chicken : 1,2 1,8 kg Turkey : 2,0 3,0 kg, 3,0 6,0 kg, 5,0 12,0 kg (North America) Dark poultry: Duckling : 1,3 1,7 kg, 1,8 2,6 kg Goose : 4,0 6,0 kg Pigeon : 0,3 0,6 kg

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FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 3.09 DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Meat, Poultry, Game JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT Deer: To understand the Mainly from Europe, North America, New Zealand. different Up to a age of 3 years the meat is tender. Sorts of game used for Used for steaks, terrines, ragout, sausage, salami various dishes, occasions. Venison: Mainly from Europe, North America, New Zealand. To understand what items Up to 3 years it weighs 13-18 kg. It is very tender are Available locally and what And prepared fresh during the autumn season. Used for escalope, steaks, terrines, ragout, roasts, is import. Sausages and salami. Rabbit: Mainly from Europe, Argentina. The quality is best until 8 months and hunted in Late autumn. Used are the fillets, legs and shoulder for pepper ragout (with blood), roast Terrines and sauteed dishes. Bear: Nowadays used in Asia/China only, but should now be protected by WWF. Reindeer: Used mainly in Scandinavian countries such as Finland, Norway, Sweden and Russia. Animals reach a weight of up to 120-150 kg. It is mostly marinated and used for steaks, ragouts, dried meat, salamis and sausages. Wild Boar: Mainly from eastern Europe, Canada, Asia. Used as young animal with 4-6 months and up To 3-4 years for the older animal. Prepared for roasts, ragouts, smoked ham, steaks. Pheasant: Mainly from Europe, Scotland, UK. Nowadays bred in farms and released after Into the wild nature. Used fresh and frozen for supreme, soups, Roasts and terrines.

WHY To learn about the different Animals, its habitat and use For different dishes and Occasions.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO TASK #: 3.10 TASK: Fish & Sea food EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

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To use seasonal fish and seafood, preferred from local supply and for special Arrangements from overseas To reduce and cut costs. To use preferable fish and Seafood from farmed sources.

To learn about fresh and Saltwater fish and seafood. To understand its daily use, Pricing structure and value In the menu selection. To get to know the various Preparation/conserving methods of Fish and seafood: Freezing Smoking Salt/Seasoning Drying/sun drying Marinating Sterilizing

Saltwater fish: - Tuna fish, pomfret, mackerel, yellow tail, stingray, flounder, mullet, snapper, sea bream, shark, grouper, hammerhead shark, barracuda catfish, milk fish, sea eel, turtle, sharp nosed shark, lizard fish, milk fish, mahi mahi (dolpin) - herring , sword fish, sole, turbot, sardine,

Freshwater fish: - Trout, carp, perch, river catfish, snakehead, Spiny eel, sheatfish, striped catfish, salmon Rainbow trout, brochet, sturgeon, river sole River eel, Crustacean: - Lobster, spiny lobster (langouste) , prawns Shrimps, tiger prawns, crab, crayfish, Maroons, Shellfish: - Oyster, mussels, clams, sea urgin, octopus, squid, baby squid, scallops, snails, sea cucumber

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.11 TASK: Lobster EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

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If you want to enjoy completely fresh sea-food in general, or hommard, lobsters, in particular, then a journey to Brittany is a must. Saint-brieuc is the French Capital for lobsters, langoustes (spiny lobsters),crabs, scale[s and other shellfish. Even oysters, indispensable on any sea food platter, are available in Brittany. The principal lobster fisheries of the world are found along the western shores of the Atlantic Ocean from Labrador south to Florida, and off Brazil (cape de Sao Rogue) in the Caribbean; off the southern tip of Africa (Cape of Good Hope) ;in the western Pacific ocean off Japan ; on the south Tasmania; in the Indian ocean west of Australia ; with smaller lobster fisheries located in the English Channel, in the Bay of Biscay, along the west coast of Africa, southward from Cape bianco; and in the eastern Pacific in waters west of Colombia, and Mexico, including Baha California. VARIETIES The greatest lobster harvest is of three species of true lobsters : 1) the American lobster (Homarus americanus), representing about 50% of the total catch. 2)The European lobster (H. Gammarus) repressing about 30% of the catch and 3)The Norwegian lobster (H.novergicus) ,also sometimes referred to as the Dublin Bay prawn or scampi These three species are found in the temperate waters of the north Atlantic and supports large fisheries. The two species found in Europe are fished from Norway south to North Africa and in the parts of Mediterranean. The American species ranges from Labrador to North Carolina. Principal fisheries for the American lobster are between Cape Cod, Massachusetts and the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, Canada In recent years ,there has been a general decline in the lobster catch, even though numerous regulation has been established by Canada and the United states over harvesting time and practice. The catching of the lobsters is an arduous job. Lobster pots are laid in the sea at a depth of up to 220 feet (70 m) . These contains bait- salted fish for lobsters, fresh fish for crabs. Everyday the fisherman put out ton the sea to haul up the poits and check the catch. Being caught is a shock to the lobsters and they require several days un the aquarium to recover. If they are brought alive they can be kept for two days in the lowest compartment of the refrigerator, covered with a wet cloth .The wooden trap is the primary gear used for American and European lobsters

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.11 TASK: Lobster EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

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This boxlike or semi cylindrical gear has basically remained the same. Although some changes has occurred , trap fishing essentially involves setting of traps that are baited with dead fish. The lobsters are attracted to the bait enters the trap, and cannot escape. The traps are lifted lifted every few days ,the lobsters are removed ,and the cycle repeats In the American market, lobsters rare marketed on the basis of there sizes, the 1pound size being the commonest one. Lobsters over 2pounds decline in there market value as consumers do not like larger lobsters. Dark blue is the colour of the live lobsters and it is only when cooked that they assume there red colour due to the presence of there characteristics pigment oxozanthine.

Cooking will also bring the true taste ,but care must be taken not to simmer the lobsters for not more than quater of an hour as it will otherwise lose its colour and flavor and the flesh will bececome tough . It can also be baked ,grilled steamed ,broiled The female or henlobsters cancontain eggs in the form of red roe a nd corals..The summer is the main catching season and is ofcourse the time when lobsters are at their freshest and best value fir money..

Some famous lobster dishes ; Homard a la Americaine : Flambeed lobster pieces in fine tomato sauce. Homard a la creme : Pieces of lobsters fried quickly and then cooked in cream. Hommard a la nage : Whole small lobsters cooked in white wine stock. Homard au court bouillon : Cooked and served whole in a seasoned court bouillon

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.11 TASK: Lobster EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

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CRAWFISH. It is also popularly known as the false lobster, principally there are two varieties Cape spiny lobsters and the European spiny lobster. Found worldwide in most temperate coastal waters, these crustaceans have no CLAWS. Most of their flesh is contained in the tails and they can be used in any recipes calling for lobsters. Available fresh or, frozen they can be steamed or broiled. Unlike other crustaceans, such as lobsters, they do not turn bright red when cooked. Spiny Lobsters : The crawfish can be easily be distinguished from the shrimps by there dorsoventrally flattened bodies and the usually powerfully developed pincers on the first pair of walking legs. The abdominal legs are no longer adapted for swimming but are used by the females as the place to attach her eggs. It belongs to the FAMILY--- PALINURIDAE GENUS---- Jasus SPECIES--- lalandei This above varieties is also popularly known as the Cape spiny lobsters and is popular on the menu in South Africa and Australia. These species has seasonal migrations, during which the animals may walk for more than 100 kilometers along he bottom of the sea and are thus able to discover suitable areas having sufficient food. It is possible, that the sounds animals produces, discovered only recently, aid in regulating these migrations. One of the largest of the spiny lobsters is the New Zealand spices (Jasus verreauxi), which can attain a weight of 30 pounds and a length of 3feet. However, most specimens are smaller than this. The European spiny lobster: FAMILY--- Palinuridae. GENUS---- Palinurus SPECIES--- vulgaris It has a body of 18 inches and weigh up to 9 kilograms. This species lives on the rocky coast of the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. It is a valuable food animals. It feeds at night on snails, mollusks, and dead animals. It is caught with pots or baits . Divers in some regions(east coast of Africa, Galapagos, West-Indies) take spiny lobsters by hand .In the night spiny lobsters are caught by holding lanterns in one hand and picking up these crawfish from the reefs by gloves .

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.11 TASK: Lobster EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

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CRAYFISH. The crayfish are essentially restricted in the distribution to the northern hemisphere. In the southern hemisphere, the ecological niche they occupy is taken over by the paradises on the south America. The true crayfish is a crustacean and reaches up to a length of about 6 inches. FAMILY -- Astacidae GENUS -- Astacus SPECIES -- astacus This is the European crayfish which lives only on clean water. And hunts for its food at night feeding on both plant and animal materials. Male crayfish can live up to 20 years. In recent years , partly because of the pollution, crayfish population has diminished. This has also been partly because of the fungus called crab plague. The European crayfish population was seriously threatened in 1879 when it was nearly wiped out. The American crayfish (Orconectes limosus) introduced into Europe in 1890 is immune to the disease and can survive in dirty water. It is especially popular in Scandinavia and is the main ingredient in Nantua sauce. American and European lobsters. Hommard cardinal : Cooked with truffles and mushrooms in a sauce bechamel flavored with the shell of lobsters. Hommard grille : Halved, brushed with olive oil and broiled. Hommard Themidor : Lobster ragout in piquant mustard sauce gratinated with cheese. (Thermidor corresponds to the month of August and is the eleventh month in the calendar of the French revolution, which was applied from 1792-1806.)

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.12 TASK: Snails-Oysters-Clams EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

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Edible snails
Antoine Careme (1784-1833), was responsible for the elevation of the edible snail to gourmet status at the beginning of the 19th century -a la bourguignonne, Burgundy style, with butter, garlic and parsley. Little compartments with special compartments were developed together with pincers that could grip their hot shells and a two pronged fork to extract the flesh. The gourmet, however, realizes how meticulous the preparation of this grisly little animal is. Before consumption snails must undergo a starvation diet for at least ten days. This is strictly adhered to everywhere except in the South of France where the snails are allowed a diet of thyme. This is essential to rid the snail of any poisonous leaves it may have consumed. For reasons of cleanliness the snail is subjected to three washes with water. The first cleans the outside, whilst the second , with salt and vinegar added , concentrates on the insides. Finally the snail is bathed in clear water. The snails are then generally blanched, cooled, removed from their shells and usually cooked in a well seasoned bouillon. Once cold they are replaced in the shells which have in the mean time been sterilized. They are sealed with herb or snail butter and are then ready for consumption. Our distant human ancestors did not take long to discover the delights these gastropods. in the rest of France ,however , the upper class considered snails as food for the poor. The burgundy snail , whose shell is up to 2 inches (5cm) in diameter , fell victim to the gourmets (and modern agriculture) and has now become very rare. Chefs now often substitute them for petite gris, the smaller version of the edible snail with a gray body in a white or speckled yellow shell. They are a native of Gascony, Provence, Languedoc and Roussilon and are more suitable for domestic breeding, heliculture, than their larger cousins. Canned snails are often Eastern European imports, or Turkish snails, which are recognized by their dark flesh and black edge to the shell, or imported deep-frozen Chinese snails which are half pound giants from the family of the Achat snails. Although snails contain large amount of mineral salts . they are in fact quite indigestible and should therefore only be consumed in extreme moderation.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.12 TASK: Snails-Oysters-Clams EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

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MUSSELS
Dutch speak of mussels as their single natural resource. Exported to France , Belgium, and Germany. Mussels are grown on the sea floor. They have little to do with fishing as the mussel seeds arer sown and harvesting of mature shells is done by boat. The immature shells are sown in shallow waters, in parcels that are licensed to the fishermen by the government on lease. When they are about 1-11/2 inches (some 3-4 centimeters)long they are transferred into deeper water and dropped on nutrition rich subterranean banks. In earlier times mussels used to attach themselves to the piers, and hence called pier mussels. Harvested twice a year May and September. When the mussels have reached size of 2-4" (5-10 cm) they are raised from the sea floor with dragnets and brought to the shore with dragnets and stored in special sea water storage container tanks. The containers keeps sand out and other impurities until the mussels are ready and can be packed and shipped. These sophisticated and strictly controlled farming and marketing techniques make it possible to still eat mussels in the months whose names contain an "R": according to a old tale, while between June and August mussels should not be eaten because of possible poisoning. In summer months , the animals filtering the sea water currents may release the so called 'water blossoms' a poisons which develops due to a concentration of a certain red algae. Today as almost all the mussel are cultivated mussels, so the danger of encountering it is small.

CLAMS
A bivalve mollusc, 5-10cm (2-4in) across whose large smooth shell is marked with fine circular striations. Clam introduced to France by the Americans in 1917 are gathered from sandy and muddy estuaries, particularly on the east coast of US. But also in France region of Charente. They are eaten raw or cooked like oysters or a la commodre. The American hard clam measuring 3-6 cm 11/4-21/2" has a thick yellowish grey domed shell marked with deep concentric grooves and covered with warty lumps. It is rarely found in the Mediterranean, but it is abundant on the Atlantic and English channel coasts living in the sands on the sea shores. Also known in France as rigadelle or coque ragee, it can be eaten raw,(preferably without lemon juice, so as not to hide its subtle flavour or cooked stuffed like a mussel or in a soup ). Clam chowder is a soup made from vegetables onions , and clams garnished with strips of larding bacon .It originated in New England . A clam bake picnic originating along east coast of U.S.A. at which clams and other shellfish are cooked on heated stones under a layer of seaweed.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK #: 3.12 TASK: Snails-Oysters-Clams

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

Oysters
Varieties of French oysters Belons Flat oysters from Brittany with a very delicate, nutty taste. Bouzigues From the large inland lake of thau on the Mediterranean between sete and agde Gravettes dArcachon Mostly known as Archons; flat oysters from the southwestern Atlantic coast of France at Bordeaux. Marennes Rock oysters from the area between the Charente coast and the island of oleron; they are fattened and refined in natural basins the claires. Claires have been refined in the basins for a short time. Fines de claires are those which have spent four weeks in the breeding basin at 20 to the square yard(square meter) and contain at least six percent flesh Speciales de claires are entitled to their name when they have spent at least two months at 10 to the square yard (square meter). Then they should contain at least nine percent flesh. HOW TO OPEN AN OYSTER 1. Oysters are not washed since they are supplied already clean. 2. Lay out oyster on a cloth, which has been folded several times, so that the flat side is the upper most. 3. Grip firmly with the left hand and hold straight.Work over a flat bowl to catch any water spilling from the oyster. 4. With the short, strong oyster knife cut into the so-called hinge and separate the closing muscle. 5. Now draw the knife horizontally between the shells, and then use it as a lever to open up the two halves. Remove the upper shell. Oysters are located near the sand banks between estuaries. They are able to live on the right mixture of sea and fresh water and can flourish in water temperatures of more than 70oF (22oC).The native flat European oyster species was completely decimated by disease in 1922. Fortunately there was a substitute, for in 1868 a ship in distress was forced to ditch its load of Portuguese oysters overboard, which then flourished on the Marennes coast until they too succumbed to the epidemic. Help was on hand however in the form of the Pacific rock oyster, crassostrea gigas, which has dominated the French coastal area and its restaurants ever since. In the month of July the oysters breed on strictly protected natural banks.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK #: 3.13 TASK: Caviar

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

Caviar
Caviar is actually the salted roe of the Sturgeon fish which are allowed to mature. The word comes from the Italian caviale, itself derived from the Turkish kawyar. But the caviar we know today is Russian. It was introduced to France in the 1920s following the exile of Russian princes. Charles Ritz formally launched caviar by putting it permanently on the menu at his hotel. The sturgeon lives in the sea but returns in winter to estuaries throughout temperate regions of Asia to lay its eggs. Today the Caspian sea provides 98% of the worlds caviar. The sturgeons were still common in the century but it has become so rare that fishing for it is now prohibited. The soviet Union was for a long time the sole producer of caviar. But since 1953, factories on Irans Caspian coast have produced 180tonnes annually; Russia produces 1800 tons every year. No other Russian delicacy is so sought after in the entire world as caviar, the sturgeons roe. As a delicacy enjoyed by th e rich and powerful it takes place on the menu of European luxuries above champagne, truffles, oysters, and pate de foie gras. Its price is astronomical, the pleasure it affords many incomparable. To eat caviar is to participate in luxury.

COMPOSITION :
The eggs constitute about 10% of the females body weight. After they have been removed they are washed, sieved, put into brine, ( mostly the famous Astrachan Salt is used ) drained, and finally packed into tins.

CATEGORIES :
Fresh Caviar : This is practically left untreated and must therefore be consumed within a few days. Malossol : This Russian word means lightly salted and is therefore not an indication of a type of caviar, but rather a mark of quality. When stored correctly at 320F (00C) it keeps for a year. Pasteurized Caviar : This is heated and placed in airtight jars like a jam and can therefore be kept virtually for ever. Pressed Caviar : Roe which is damaged and of lesser value is more heavily salted and made into bricks. Pressed caviar is good value, but has an intensive caviar taste

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FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 3.13

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Caviar JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

About 5kg fresh caviar are needed to make 1kg pressed caviar. It has a strong and rather oily taste and is sometimes considered too, salty although it is appreciated by Russian connoisseurs. The process of salting only lasts for ten minutes and is carried out by hand. The caviar is spread out and is rubbed with an exactly measured film of salt. In this way the grains become firm, but must not be allowed to turn hard. After this caviar is put into large cans, which carry the number of the fish -- the roe of different sturgeons roe never mixed with each other. The cans are placed in the stores of the ship. Once on land caviar is then put into smaller cans and dispatched.

TYPES :
Beluga - The most expensive and produced by the largest species, which can weigh up to 800 kg. The eggs are more or less dark grey, firm, heavy, and well separated. These are the biggest but most fragile eggs, and if they burst the caviar becomes oily. Ossetra - Characterized by smaller more even grains, which are golden yellow to brown and quite oily; considered by many as the best. Sevruga - Produced by small sturgeons, which are the most prolific and give very small light to dark grey eggs. This is the cheapest variety. Salmon caviar - Relatively cheap, red caviar is the roe of salmon caught in the sea.

STORAGE :
Caviar is a semi-conserve and perishable; it should be kept between 0 C to + 4 C .

PORTIONS :
If served as an Hors d oeuvre allow 50gms per person. It should be served cold but not frozen, pref erably on crushed ice. Blinis (buck wheat flour pancake), sour cream or lightly buttered toast make an ideal accompaniment. Never use lemon, it affects the taste. CALORIFIC VALUE : Caviar has a calorific value of 140 Cal per 100gms.It is rich in phosphorus and contains per 100gms --20 g lipids and 30 g proteins.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 3.14

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Sushi JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

Introduction
Sushi vinegared rice dishes appear in many forms. All are based on vinegared rice, accompanied by slices of raw fish with or without omelet strips, sliced vegetables, nori seaweed, and a variety of colourful garnishes.

These Japanese sandwiches may be prepared simply, by topping an oblong of vinegar ed rice with a dab of horseradish and a slice of fish, or elaborately by topping the rice with a wide variety of delicately flavoured ingredients, rolling them all in nori, and cutting them into 1-inch thick slices. The sushi recipes on the following pages can make unusual hors doeuvres, first courses or satisfying lunches.

Variations

Sushi is simply vinegared rice plus, but the sushi devotee is faced with a difficult choice among the additions the multitude of toppings and fillings. Above are sushi that have been rolled in nori- dried layer and cut into rounds. The sushi are sometimes rolled with strips of omelette, watercress, mushrooms and gourd shavings. These are sushi filled with red tunny fish and sushi filled with pickled yellow radish.

Another variety of sushi is with mushrooms and cucumbers. All are accompanied by soy dipping sauce strips of pickled ginger. Another type of sushi is the nigiri sushi, in which an oblong of rice is topped with fish. Sometimes the topping is of cooked, butterflied prawns. The toppings may also be of stripped bass, partially surrounding a mound of sushi rice topped with red caviar and encircled by nori, oily tunny fish, lean dark meat tunny, omelet and squid decorated with a strip of nori. The cucumber maki zushi is a is a refreshing change of pace, and the pickled ginger adds a touch of sharpness.

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Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 3.14 DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Sushi JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

Sampling The Specialty Restaurants

The Japanese like to eat out - and they do with a fervour and a frequency that are unmatched in the West. As a consequence, not only do restaurants flourish by the thousands but they are also found in every size and description. They range from the elegant and the expensive preserves of the wealthy and the influential to the tiny cubby holes and mobile food bars. Of all the eating establishments, the public most often patronize those restaurants which specialize in one way or another - perhaps in a distinctive cooking technique or in serving a single kind of food or in making the dishes associated with a particular region of Japan. Food is uniformly good both in preparation and in presentation, the restaurants are immaculately clean, and the prices are fair and often quite low. HYGIENE ASPECTS Another advantage of this type of restaurant, particularly for the nervous foreigner who suspects cleanliness is non - existent outside his own kitchen, is that it lets one see just how clean Japan's restaurants really are. Even in very small places the floors are closed down several times an hour, the worker's wearing wooden clogs that keep their feet several inches above the wet floor. Wooden cutting blocks are washed after every use and grills scraped down immediately.

Chopsticks are used once and thrown away and counters scrubbed repeatedly until the wood gleams white. No employee who touches the food will handle money, and since every Japanese bathes at least once a day, staff hygiene is never a problem. The kitchens of restaurants with private dining rooms are not open to public view but even they maintain the highest standards of Japan compared to the world. Chopsticks should never be crossed, neither is it allowed to move food from chopsticks to chopsticks They should be laid on a resting set , usually out of porcelain

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FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 3.14

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Sushi JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT
Stepping from the grimy street into one of these spick and span restaurants, the customer himself may feel unclean, or at least bedraggled. The Japanese have an answer for this too : oshibori . These are small damp towels - nowadays sterilized and rolled up in cellophane - which every Japanese restaurant and bar sets before each customer as soon as he sits down. comes steaming hot for most of the year and provide a highly refreshing way to wipe the casual dust from your hands makes you ready to handle your food. A man or woman without make up can get even more refreshment out of oshibori by rubbing it over the face and neck, especially in the summer when oshibori is handed out ice cold. No other counter restaurants of this type have as much to offer the adventurous gourmet as Japan's sushi are he national dish of Japan; there is nothing remotely like it anywhere else in the world. you can find it In one form or the another in every corner of Japan and you would not be able to find a native who says he doesn't like it. Even Foreigners, once they have overcome their initial prejudice against raw fish, rave about sushi and argue with each other over the merits of their favourite sushi place.

The Sushi Restaurant

The typical sushi restaurant is small, cheerful and sparkling with scrubbed wood. The bar runs the length of the room, presided over by one or more white - clad chefs, hands red from constant washing, towels knotted around their foreheads. "Irasshai" they shout as you duck under the noren and slide open the door, and as soon as you have sat down at the bar a huge cup of tea, an oshibori and a little mound of sliced ginger are set before you the ginger is to clean your palate before startingand between courses. You wipe your hands with the oshibori, sip your tea and examine the offerings of the day spread out in a refrigerated glass case running along the back of the bar. There will be the dark red lean tunny fish, the marbled fatty toro, little slabs of snow white squid, chunks of fish shiny and speckled like herring, blood red akagai clams, mounds of caviar glistening like jewels, octopus tentacles, abalone still in the shell, pale fingers of prawn and in the midst of all this seafood, little yellow rectangles of omelet, in which certain sushi are wrapped and eaten. Take your time no one will rush you.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 3.14

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Sushi JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT
When you are ready you point to what you want, or order it by name. The chef's hands flash like magicians, quicker than his eye; he has been trained and has practiced for years before he is allowed to serve the customers. Out comes the delicacy you have indicated. If it needs cutting the long knife smoothly slices it into two even pieces. From a large tub beside him the chef grabs a handful of vinagered rice; deftly he kneads it , squeezing in a bit of wasabi. Two fingers of one hand press the rice in the palm of the other; one tiny loaf - shaped rice ball is ready. Then another. The flashing hands slow down. Gently the two slices of fish or whatever it may be are pressed on the two mounds of rice. Then with a proud flourish the chef picks them up in one hand and whisks them onto a slanted , shelf like part of the counter, where they await your pleasure. The whole process has taken perhaps 30 seconds. You pick up the rice mound and dip the rice part into the saucer of Soya sauce, turn it over to keep it from dripping and then place the whole thing on your tongue. Each piece of sushi is designed as a mouthful, but anybody who wants to prolong the delight by nibbling is forgiven - though the rice ball will crumble in his fingers before he finishes. The Sushi One portion of sushi consists always of two of these bite sized balls. Nothing that is sliced must ever be sliced or is served in threes, for one slice is "hito kire" which means "kill" and three slices which means "kill myself". Since the portions are so small you can sample the entire menu at one sitting, or you can eat as much as you like of your favourite dish. A serving of each variety is priced according to the value of the fish and you pay only for what you eat. Prawns are the most expensive, the cheapest, by volume, is maki zushi, in which a long sliver of tunny fish or sometimes cucumber , at the end of a sushi meal, is wrapped in rice with an outer sheet of nori; this roll is then sliced crosswise, and six or eight equal squat cylinders are placed before you. Conclusion Sushi cuisine has a colourful vocabulary of its own, and the customer who uses special words for ordering them instead of the standard Japanese vocabulary often gets special treatment as a true sushi gourmet. Surprisingly many Japanese do not know that at a sushi restaurant wasabi is called namida or "tears" because it is hot enough to make you cry, or that octopus is geso meaning legs. Sushi chefs refer to their egg items as gyoku, or jewel, to tea as agari, meaning up for obscure reasons and to of a cucumber fancying river goblin

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.14 TASK: Sushi EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

Of course you dont have to go to a sushi restaurant to eat sushi. The sushi shops as well as the noodle and the domburi restaurants, do a thriving business. The sushi is beautifully arranged in opulent round lacquer boxes, which some aesthetes say enhance the taste, and carried by bicycle and motorcycles to inns, offices, and private houses. Moreover the lunchbox bento which are sold in infinite local and regional variations at railway stations, and at theaters and other places of entertainment contain many sushi ingredients although they are not, strictly speaking, sushi. Like every everything else prepared by the skilled and conscientious restaurant chefs of Japan, they are distinguished by their fine materials, their skillful presentations by a broad and varied spectrum of flavours.

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Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 3.15 DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Spices JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT
To learn about spices their Origin and usage in the food Industry. Spices had a big value in the Middle Ages, where they were traded as the most expensive Goods from the Orient, Africa and the Americas.

WHY
Spices are used in all sections of the kitchen and should be used carefully and well measured.

Cardamom: A native of India, used dry for oriental cuisine. Allspice: A native of the West Indies, called as well Jamaica Pepper. Caraway: Used mainly in Europe for bread, German Recipes, salads and roasts. Turmeric: The rhizomes or root stems belong to the ginger Family and is used for coloring and basic curry spice. Star Anis: A native to china is used in most oriental cuisines. Ginger: Used as medicine, tea, fresh and dry used in Many oriental recipes, like China, Thailand, etc. Anise: A native to Greece, used for drinks, Christmas Spice and butcher products. Juniper Berries: Grown in the northern hemisphere and mainly Used for game seasoning, Dutch Genever And European dishes. Chili: Used dry, fresh and as powder in South America, All over the orient, the Middle East and Europe. Vanilla: A native to Central America, and a main ingredient in the bakery and pastry

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Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com

FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff

TASK #: 3.16 TASK: Chili & Pepper EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

TABLE OF CONTENT
1. CLASSIFICATION - CHILLI AND PEPPER

2.

CHILLIES

3.

INTRODUCTION a) TYPES OF CHILLIES b) HOW IT GROWS c) APPEARANCE AND TASTE d) BUYING AND STORING e) MEDICINAL USES f) CULINARY USES g) A NOTE ON PAPRIKA

4.

PEPPERS a) INTRODUCTION b) TYPES OF PEPPER c) HOW IT GROWS d) APPEARANCE AND TASTE e) BUYING AND STORING f) MEDICINAL USES g) CULINARY USES

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Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com

FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff
CHILLIES AND PEPPER

TASK #: 3.16 TASK: Chili & Pepper EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

CLASSIFICATION: There are two major categories of chilies and pepper of commerce. These are not related botanically or in any other way except that some forms in each category possess a tangy, pungent flavor. I. Members of the family Solanaceae (chili) A. Pepper with a sweet-fleshed fruit, commonly called sweet peppers. 1. The family bell pepper, often called bullnose pepper because of its shape. The term green pepper is not sufficiently definitive, however, because the color depends upon whether or not the pepper has been allowed to ripen before harvesting. 2. The familiar pimiento pepper or simply pimiento. This pepper is used only in the ripe, red stage of maturity, at which stage the pimiento retains its sweet flavor. 3. The paprika pepper, which is usually dehydrated and processed into paprika powder . This pepper has little or no pungency, but the flesh is of dark-red color. Paprika is a relatively mild, bland condiment. B. Peppers with a hot or pungent flavored fruit and sometimes called hot peppers. Even more commonly in recent
years, these peppers are called chili peppers. They are used mainly for flavoring because they are too strong to be eaten alone the condiment prepared from the dried and ground pepper is known as red pepper or cayenne pepper.

II.

Members of the family Piperaceae (Pepper Family) A. Black or white pepper : Prepared from the ever green shrub or vine (Piper nigrum) . The familiar condiment, Black pepper, is prepared from the ground, dried, unripe fruit of the shrub. White pepper is prepared from the nearly ripe berries. B. Long pepper: Often used in the preserves and curries, is made from the fruits of the climbing plant (p. Retrofractrum) C. Cubeb pepper: mainly used in the medicinals and some cigarettes, is obtained from the dried, unripe fruit of the climbing vine(P. Cubeba). D. Kava: A Samoan beverage , is prepared by steeping the roots of a pepper plant in water. E. Ashanti pepper: Obtained from the vine P. guineese 2 CHILLI 3 INTRODUCTION: Indian food without chilies is like summer without sunshine. That is not to say that all Indian food scorches the taste buds, rather that it is an amicable blend of heat fragrance and flavor. Given the importance of this spice today, it is surprising that until about 400 years ago, chilies were unknown in India. They were first introduced by the portugese at type end of the 15 Th. century. Chilies were first domesticated in Mexico in about 7000BC and it is generally believed that Columbus introduced the fruit to the Europeans. By 1650 they had spread all over the world and were adopted into the cuisines of most of the tropical countries. Beautiful to look at and endowed with the power of fire, this fruit belongs to the Solanaceae family, which includes such tranquil relatives as the tomato and the aubergine. It doesnt matter who you are, or what youve done, or think you can do. Theres a confrontation with destiny awaiting you. Somewhere,there is a chile you cannot eat.Daniel Pinkwater A Hot Time in Nairobi

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.16 TASK: Chili & Pepper EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

TYPES OF CHILLIES: 1. Sweet pepper (Poivrons): These are large fleshy capsicums with a mild flavour. Green, yellow, orange, red or black , they are now widely used in cooking with the increasing popularity of Mediterranean dishes. Sweet peppers have a low calorific value(22 cals per 100 g) and are rich in vitamin C. 2. Chilli peppers (Piment): Much smaller than sweet peppers, these , too, can be green, yellow, orange, red or black . the seeds and flesh are extremely hot and should be used sparingly. By removing the seeds, the seeds, the pepper is rendered less fiery. It is the volatile oil in the fruit called capsicum, that accounts for its hot taste. 3. There are many different varieties, the largest number being found in Mexico and West Indies, they are used liberally in the local dishes.

WEST INDIAN PEPPER (Or CHERRY PEPPER): 2-3 cm long, bright red, irregular in shape, and with a very strong hot flavour. It is sold fresh throughout the year. CAYENNE PEPPER: 8 cm (3in) long, thin, red and with a strong and rather sharp flavour. Grown in South America and also in south of France, it is sold fresh all the year around. BIRD PEPPER : no more than 2cm(1in) long, copper colored, with a very strong hot flavour. It is sold fresh, dried or ground (as cayenne) and is grown in Africa, Guyana and Mexico. Mild red chilli pepper: 8 cm (3 in) long , pointed, with a strong flavour (but not as strong as most other varieties). It is grown in north Africa (where it is known as fel fel) and in the south of France. It can be bought fresh or dried. Mild Green Chilli Pepper: quite strong , but milder than the mild red chilli, though similar in shape and size. Besides these varieties there are a number of more exotic ones, including ancho (spicy, mild and heart shaped),chipotle (conical, brick-red, and very piquant),piquin (scarlet, minute and very fiery; used dry), malagueta (very hot and stringy; most common in bahia in Brazil), and poblano (dark red , quite large and scented). Some west indian varieties have colorful names including the ZOZIO pepper (parrots tongur, the Chinese lantern pepper and seven court-boullion pepper; all these have a very strong flavour. The explorer Magellan introduced chilli peppers to Africa and Asia in France they were confused with other spices for a long time and even today they have only limited use in French cookery. In Mexico, on the other hand chilies are used in all ragouts and sauces (moles) to which they give a characteristic piquancy. Chilli pepper is also used to season black beans , avocados, fruit and even cheeses; it is also famous in the dish of beef and red beans, chilli con carne. In Britain and the United States , chilli peppers are used in pickles and mustard condiments

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.16 TASK: Chili & Pepper EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

In Middle Eastern cuisine they are often served pickled whole. The North harissa , which seasons couscous and other dishes, is made with red chilli peppers and garlic. Several kinds of chilli peppers are used in Indian curries , while the Chinese use it as a puree of red chilli pepper with salt and oil which is served with many dishes. Finally , chilli peppers are the principal ingredients of American Tabasco sauce. HOW IT GROWS: Chilies are cultivated mainly in tropical and sub-tropical countries with India undoubtedly the largest producer and major exporter. Commercially, chilies, which are fruit of the capsicum species, may be classified on the basis of their color, shape and pungency, but on the whole, two major varieties - Capsicum annum and Capsicum frutescens are grown and eaten all over the world. The C. Annum bush is an anual which grows up to a height of 1 m (3ft) and bears fruit that are large, mild and pendant, like sweet peppers. The C. fruitescens plant is a perennial which grows up to 2mt (6ft) and has smaller, pungent pods, which grows pointing away from the stem. Examples are birds eye and tabasco chilies. When the fruits mature, they are picked and dried in great mounds in the sun, or in huge mechanical driers. They are then sorted according to size , pungency and color.

APPEARANCE AND TASTE:

Fresh unripe chilies come in various shades of green from lime to olive. The ripe fruits are red and dried until they look like dark crumpled rubies. Mexican chilies like the serrano, jalapeno, cascabel and ancho are short and thick. Habanero chilies from the West Indies are lantern shaped and various Indian chilies are long and fat, round like cherries, or small and slender . Chilies have a strong samrting aroma and their taste ranges from mild to dynamite. The level of heat is dependent on the amount capsaicin present in the seeds. Veins and skin of the chilies and is not diminished by cooking, storing, or freezing. Chilies actually cool down the system in hot weather. The capsaicin dialates the blood vessels to increase circulation and encourage perspiration. However, if you suffer, dont reach for a jug of water capsaicin is insoluble in water (like oil). Dairy products have the power to neutralize capsaicin so try yoghurt, or milk to douse the fire.

BUYING AND STORING:


BUYING Chilies are available fresh, dried, powdered, flaked, in oil, in sauces, bottled and in pickled.

When buying fresh chilies, look for crisp, look for crisp, unwrinkled ones Make sure they are waxy and green. They should be bright and unbroken Pungency can vary from the mild Kashmir chilli to the dried south Indian varieties which have incredible firepower.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.16 TASK: Chili & Pepper EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

STORING:

As with all ground spices, chilli powder loses its strength sparkle over a few months. Whole dried chilli can keep for up to a year if stored in a dry, dark place. Exposure to light can spoil the color. You can buy several forms of chilli powder like paprika which is mild but does not store well and cayenne which is extremely hot. However Indian chilli powder is widely available and needs no alternative.

MEDICINAL USES:

Chilies are very high in vitamins A and C and have more vitamin C per gram than many oranges. Capsicum preparations are as counterirritants for lumbago and rheumatic disorders. They are also added to medicines which relieve sore throats However , an inordinate intake of chilies can burn the lining of the stomach, so beware of over-indulgence.

CULINARY USES:

Chilies or chili powder are used in virtually every savory dish in India. The word capsicum means box, and the hollow shape of these vegetables make them perfect for stuffing. They are also used in salads, marinated condiments, and certain typical Mediterranean dishes, such as GAZPACHO, RATATOUILLE, PIPERADE, and CAPONATA. They go well with chicken, ham, rabbit, tuna, mutton eggs and rice and they are a characteristic feature of many dishes, including those prepared a la basquaise, a la portugaise, a la tarque, a landalouse, and a la mexicaine.

A NOTE ON PAPRIKA:

A spicy seasoning ground from a variety of sweet red pepper (paprika in Hungarian) , used to season ragouts, stuffings, sauces, soups and to flavor fresh cheese and for garnishing. It is a distinctive feature of Hungarian cookery but it also seasons a number of French dishes The shrub which supplies this pepper originated in America Its pods , 7-13 cm long and 3 cm wide are harvested at the end of the summer,when they are red ;they are then dried and crushed. Szeged, in south of Hungary , is the main center for producing paprika; the best variety is the pink or sweet pepper, which has a piquant flavour but no bittet aftertaste. It develops the best flavour when when it is cooked with onion and lard. It should be added to the preparation away from the heat or in a moistening, otherwise the sugar which it contains may caramelize and impair the flavour and color of the dish.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.16 TASK: Chili & Pepper EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

HOW TO HANDLE CHILLIES : Hot peppers or chillies require special handling. Their volatile acids may burn the skin and make the eyes smart . Wear gloves and be careful not to touch the face or eyes while working with chilies. CLEANING A CHILLI: To prepare chillies , rinse them clean and pull out the stalks under cold running water. Break or cut the pod in half, and brush out the seeds with your fingers. In most cases the ribs inside the pods are thin and may be left intact, but if they seem fleshy , cut them with A small sharp knife. The chillies may be used at once or soaked in cold salted water for an hour or so to make them less hot. After handling hot chilies it is advisable to wash the thoroughly with soap and warm water. PEELING CHILLIES : Most of the chillies have thick skin which needs to be removed before cooking. Any one of the following methods can be used. 1. CHARRING: Quick and easy method, when only a few need to be prepared . Hold chillies over gas burner with tongs , turn frequently until all sides are blistered and blackened. The skin can then be peeled. 2. ROASTING: Preheat oven to 2000 C. Rub chillies with oil, then place on an oven rack. Roast, turning occasionally until all charred on all the sides 3. FRYING: heat oil in a pan. dip chillies for 5 sec. Remove and cool.

THE HEAT SCALE OF CHILLIES: Chillies contain capsaicin, which is the source of their fiery flavour. It is an oily substance , not water soluble, which can be painful when it comes in contact with eyes or other sensitive areas. The heat of chillies is measured in SCOVILLE units. The mildest chillies , such as sweet banana chillies , have a rating of zero as they contain no heat . the hottest chilli the habareno ranges from 100,000 to 130,000 scoville units.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.16 TASK: Chili & Pepper EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

PEPPERS
PIPER NIGRUM /PIPER LONGUM

INTRODUCTION : On the 20th may 1498, Vasco De Gama stepped on the Indian soil and cried, For Christ and for spices! His arrival marked the end of a long sea voyage in search of, primarily pepper. Until he showed the world the way to India, the spices used to be carried overland by Arab traders who kept the route a secret. In the 15 th century, the West valued pepper as much as gold and shiploads of the spice would journey through tropical oceans ensuring as hefty profit for the traders. Demand was huge, supply could never be enough. Happily, today, pepper is freely available around the world and is used in almost every cuisine. It is rightly known as the king of the spices and accounts for the lions share of the spice exports from India. The name pepper is from the sanskrit pippali for long pepper and it is believed that ancient Aryans used it as a medicine and aphrodisiac. A popular pepper story relates how a Tamil Chef once served an Englishman a dish made of lentils and spices. When asked the name of the soup , he replied that it was Molaga-tanni, pepper-water in Tamil. Splendid! remarked the Englishman. Lets have this mulligatwny more often. Shall we? And a legend was born. Since time immemorial, pepper has been most popular most widespread spice in the world, it had been in general use in India and China for centuries before Alexander The Great introduced it into Greece. The Romans used to adulterate pepper by adding juniper berries to it. Apicius even recommended its use in sweet desserts, but more importantly he suggested using it to disguise the insipid taste ofboiled dishes and to hide the over powerful taste of gamey meats. Although it occupied an important place in cooking as early as the middle ages, it was still rare and expensive, and several times it served as exchange currency, to pay taxes & ransoms. The voyages of great explorers were undertaken primarily to find a sure supply of spices. The struggle between the Venetians and the Dutch for the monopoly of pepper lasted until the end of 18th century. Over the course of the centuries, pepper became so popular that mixtures of pepper and other spices were developed. Today, the annual consumption of pepper in France is 100gm per person. The name pepper is also used loosely for several other seasoning and condiments, notably cayenne, paprika and chilli powder(all derived from varieties of capsicum).

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.16 TASK: Chili & Pepper EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

TYPES OF PEPPER: Pepper is a condiment derived from the pepper plant (Piper nigrum), a climbing vine native to India, Java, and the Sunda Islands. The plant produces berry-like fruits (peppercorns) which ripen from green to red , and finally to brown. Peppercorns are harvested at various stages of provide the following types of peppers : BLACK PEPPER : whole red peppercorns are sold dried; very strong and pungent. GREEN PEPPER : unripe peppercorns sold dried or pickled in vinegar or brine. WHITE PEPPER : ripe peppercorns with another outer husk removed by rubbing in salt water: less spicy and particularly suitable for seasoning white sauces. GREY PEPPER : a mixture of white and black pepper.

HOW IT GROWS 4 Pepper is the fruit of a perennial vine with large leaves and white flowers. The flowers give way to berries which are first a green then a red fruit and becomes a familiar black spice after it is sun-dried for many days. The vine continues to bear fruit for up to 20 years. The plants are trained to climb up trees in the hot rain forests of south India where more than 24 varieties of pepper are grown. In the spring, the spring the fruit are yellowish-red and read for harvest. The entire spike of berries is plucked and dried whole. 5 Alternatively, the berries are rubbed, threshed or trampled off the root like spike and dried until black. Long pepper, another distinct variety, is also grown and dried similarly. White peppercorns are simply ripe berries which are softened in water, divested of their outer skin and dried until biscuit-colored. The main producers of pepper are Malaysia, Indonesia, Brazil, and India. APPEARANCE AND TASTE:
The most commonly used pepper is round, black, shriveled and hard. White peppercorns are smooth and creamy, while fresh peppercorns look ljke garlands of plump green berries. The taste of pepper is just spicy hot. The aroma is woody, penetrating, pungent and aromatic and is good enough to rustle up a healthy appetite. White pepper is sharper and less pungent whereas green pepper is mild and has a flavor that is fresh and aromatic. Long pepper is 2-3cm(1-1/4in) long, grey and scaly.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.16 TASK: Chili & Pepper EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

BUYING AND STORING: BUYING: Green peppercorns are sold fresh, pickled in vinegar, bottled in brine or dried. Dried black peppercorns are used whole, powdered or crushed. White peppercorns are available whole or powdered. Schinus molle berries are called pink peppercorns but they come from a completely different plant. Chinese shops sell Szechwan peppercorns which resemble tiny flower buds. Fresh green peppercorns should be bought plump and juicy. In the black dried variety look for large berries, the bigger the better. STORING: Ground pepper loses its flavor quickly, so powder your own at home. Commercially crushed pepper is not as tasty or as strong. Store dried peppercorns in a clean, dry jar, and fresh ones in the refrigerator.

MEDICINAL AND OTHER USES: Black pepper is a stimulant, digestive and diuretic. It is believed to relieve flatulence, cold, amnesia and even impotency.

The external application of crushed pepper is often used to counteract muscular pains and toothache. The essential oil of pepper is used in flavoring and perfumery, where it imparts spicy, oriental notes.

CULINARY USES:

In India pepper is used in every type of regional cookery. In the north it flavors meat, in the south, lentils .in the east, fish and in the west, vegetables. It is thrown whole into hot oil, roasted and ground with coconut and spices, and made into paste and applied to meats. It is also used to make herbal tea. Green pepper is usually pickled. In view of the preservative qualities of the pepper, it is used extensively in canning and pickling. Several spice blends like garam masala feature pepper as a key ingredient. Around the world, peppercorns are used to flavor sauces, meats and marinades.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO To learn about herbs, their Origin, medical and nutrition Value. TASK #: 3.17 TASK: Herbs EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY Herbs are important ingredients used in daily cooking and should not be underestimated for their Medical garnish and seasoning Value.

Tarragon: Native of Europe, the leaves are used for seasoning. Coriander, Chinese Parsley: Used especially in Asia, major ingredient for curry, has a fresh taste and is a favorite garnish. Hop: Herbs have been used Used for the beer production by mankind since the Basil: beginning of time. Used mainly in southern Europe, India and South East Asia. For pesto, curries and garnish Their medical value is Mint: not to be underestimated Used mainly as tea, for chocolate and dessert. and are Bay Leaves: Favored by all ethnic A native to Asia Minor and now in Europe. groups For soups, sauces, roasts and terrines. For prevention and Sage: treatment of diseases. For stuffings and Mediterranean dishes. Woodruff: Herbs should be used Used freshly in Europe as infusion for champagne fresh to keep their Benedictine and punch. flavor, Thyme: And nutrition value. Specially in European dishes for salads, sausages Soups and sauces. Parsley: An all time favorite and used on daily basis. Chives: Mostly as garnish for soups, salads and ingredient for pasta, fish and meat dishes. Oregano: For Mediterranean dishes and pasta. Rosemary: Used all over Europe Curry Leaves: For Indian dishes, like curry and vegetables. Fennel: Used for medicine, drinks, spice and tea. Chamomile: Used for medicine, tea, dessert, PREPARED BY: APPROVED BY: Position: Signature: Position: Director of

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.18 TASK: Fats & Oils EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT
FATS AND OILS INTRODUCTION Lipid (a scientific term for a group of substances that include natural fats and oils) substances containing fatty acids and glycerol. Fats are solids at low temperatures; oils, however, are liquid at room temperature, due to their higher content of unsaturated fatty acids, and will solidify in the refrigerator. Fats and oils do not dissolve in water, but they may be emulsified with water. Fats, together with water, carbohydrates and proteins, make up the major components of food. Fats are extracted from animals as well as from certain fruits, nuts and plant seeds. Animals such as lard, suet and chicken fat are all derived from fatty tissue , while butter is made mostly form cows milk. Margarine is usually made of vegetable oil, and so is shortening , although it can also contain some animal fat. Oils can be divided conveniently into general-purpose oils, which are good for frying and for salads, and flavouring oils, which are extracted from ingredients such as nuts, and have a strong characteristic taste . Olive oil is so versatile that it is covered separately. There are also infused oils flavoured with herbs and spices, as well as exotic oils derived from plants such as avocado. The choice of fat or oil used for cooking often gives an instant clue to the origins of the dish. Olive oil, for example, is associated with the Mediterranean or the Middle East, and Sesame oil with Asia. One of the identifying characteristics of the various provincial cuisines of France is the presence of butter, goose fat, lard or olive oil. In India, cooks may use Ghee, coconut oil or sesame oil, depending on the region. Onions fried in lard typify the cooking of central Europe, and chicken fat features in the Jewish dishes of central Europe. Palm oil is used in dishes form Africa and African-settled regions of Latin America. Structure of Fats and Oils The term fats is used to refer to substances that are solid at room temperature, such as butter, margarine, shortening and lard. Oils refer to those that are liquid in normal conditions (exceptions are coconut and palm oil, which remain semi-solid). Food scientists, however, consider all oils to be fats and instead focus their attention on whether a fat is saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. In essence, these names describe different kinds of molecular structure, a saturated fat having the highest number of hydrogen molecules and a polyunsaturated fat the lowest, with mono-unsaturated in between the other two. Saturated fats are normally solid at room temperature: butter is typical. They keep well since they oxidize less quickly than many unsaturated fats, which can rapidly acquire a rancid smell and taste. However, saturated fats are known to be a contributory factor in heart disease, because they can lead to increased cholesterol levels. Polyunsaturated fats are considered relatively healthy, monounsaturated fats are considered harmless.

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In general, animal fats are composed of approximately half saturated fats and half unsaturated fats, while many vegetable oils are higher in polyunsaturated fats. However, refining of fats and oils to prolong their shelf-life or to change their viscosity tends to blur these distinctions. For example, in the making of margarine, oils are artificially saturated by a process called hydrogenation. Also, many proprietary fats and oils are blended to make them healthier and more useful to the cook. Cooking with fats and oils Fats and oils give variety, richness and smoothness to foods that might otherwise be too dry to eat. For the cook, the heating properties of fats and oils are important as their flavours, and crucial to successful sauting, deep and shallow-frying, stir frying, baking, and pastry and sauce making. Since fats and oils can be heated to high temperatures, food is often fried very fast, producing a more intense flavour and a crisper texture than by any other cooking method. Fats and oils are used in cake-making to moisten the batter and improve the keeping qualities of a cake. Flavoured oils are key ingredients in salad dressings. Peanut oil, for instance, is agreeably light in a dressing, while olive oil is unmistakably rich and distinctive. All purpose oils like corn and sunflower oil have no strong flavour to impart, but even small quantities of nut oils) notably walnut) or infused oils such as chill, add personality. Oils are often used for basting grilled foods, and the effect may be unobtrusive or forceful, depending on the choice of oil. In hot dishes, a sprinkling of oil may be used in place of a sauce - for example, olive oil with chopped herbs is excellent on poached fish. Even fats that are more or less tasteless have their own particular consistency and individual effect in a sauce or pastry. For many dishes, using the correct fat is critical, for others the cook has a choice. Animal fats Animal fat can be used for cooking in two ways: cut directly from the meat or rendered to remove nonfatty membrane. Unrendered pork fat has the most flavour and therefore features prominently in charcuterie, where it is often sliced for lining pate and terrine moulds or for barding roasts and poultry. Unrendered beef fat, called suet, is chopped for pies such as British steak and kidney pudding and some pastries. Lamb fat is also used in this way, but it can have a strong taste. In Britain, the drippings from roast meats are used for pan-fried potatoes, and in eastern Europe for sauting onions. Rendered pork fat or lard, is perhaps the most familiar animal fat, and can be easily rendered. Lard has a soft, greasy texture and a pronounced taste, so some cooks prefer processed lard, which is firm, mild and longer lasting. Relatively inexpensive, lard is used extensively in eastern Europe, northern and south western France, Spain and Mexico. Elsewhere it is used in sauting and frying and in pie doughs, especially for savoury meat pates and pies, to which it adds crispness. Yorkshire and other and lardy cakes take their names from bread dough mixed with lard, sugar and cinnamon.

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Chicken fat, also called schmaltz, has a softer consistency than other animal fats. It is used a great deal in eastern Europe and in Jewish cooking, in recipes such as chopped chicken liver. It can be heated to a fairly high temperatures without burning and is therefore good for frying. Duck and goose fats, which are popular in southern France and Hungary are regarded as superior alternatives to lard. When flavoured with herbs and garlic, all these animal fats may be served in place of butter, for example on breads or stews. Goose fat is also used in some leavened pastry dough. Butter Dairy butter consists of about 80 percent fat and 20 percent water and whey( milk solids left from the separating process). It is the milk protein in the whey that makes butter spoil quickly and, together with milk sugar (lactose), causes it to scorch when overheated. In the West most butter is made from cows milk, but elsewhere butter is made the milk of a water buffalo, yak, goats and sheep is also available. The quality of butter is affected by the cream used to make it, which in turn is influenced by the season and the feed of the animal. Colour varies from very pale to deep yellow, but producers may add coloring to butter, particularly salted butter, so that it looks uniform throughout the year. Sometimes the cream is allowed to ripen, or a lactic yeast is added to give the butter a pleasant acidity and nutty aroma. For health reasons, most butter is pasteurized, which means that the milk used to make it has been sterilized by heating it briefly to destroy any harmful bacteria. In some countries, raw butter is also available; it has a better taste, but does not keep well. Butter is also graded according to quality in many countries. Unsalted butter is made from fresh cream. It is especially appropriate for delicate pastries, cakes and icings, where even a pinch of salt would be detectable. In fact, many cooks like to use unsalted butter for all cooking, both for its flavour and because its whey content is usually lower, making it less likely to scorch. Salted butter is made from fresh or soured cream and has a salt content of between 1.5% and 3%. The salt acts as preservative and therefore permits a higher whey content. In most European countries, most of the butter sold is unsalted and made from ripened cream, while in Britain and the United States, the reverse is true. However, both salted and unsalted kinds are usually available. Occasionally, country or farmhouse butter can be found. Highly salted with a strong, almost cheesy taste, it is produced on farms.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.18 TASK: Fats & Oils EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

American markets also stock whipped butter, which is lightened by air. It spreads evenly and melts quickly on warm foods, but it is very bland and rarely used for cooking because the extra volume makes it difficult to measure accurately. Butter may be browned deliberately to make brown or Hazelnut butter( beurre noisette) so called because of its nutty aroma. Black Butter( beurre noir) is made like brown butter but is cooked until it is dark brown. The caramelization of the milk proteins and sugars in the whey gives brown and black butters a particular colour, aroma, and flavouring. Butter is the most valuable fat for baking as it adds substance and inimitable richness of flavour. Whether hard, soft or melted butter is required, it is important to the success of a recipe to use the consistency specified . Butter may be clarified to separate the fat from the water and milk solids, so that the remaining fat will not scorch or turn bitter. Clarified butter may be heated to a much higher temperature than regular butter and is good for sauting. Creamed butter can be mixed with various flavourings to form compound butters. Savoury butters are popular accompaniments to meats, fish and vegetables; sweet butters include sugar, and flavourings such as vanilla, grated citrus rind or liqueur. Ghee Ghee is the primary cooking fat in India, and in many Arab countries where it is called Samna. It is a type of clarified butter, which is simmered until the moisture evaporates and the butter caramelizes, producing a strong, sweet flavour. It is made from buffalos as well as cows milk and can be bought in jars or made at home. Flavourings are often added: in India these might include bay leaves, cumin seeds, cloves, fresh ginger, turmeric, peppercorns or chilli peppers; in Arab countries, herbs such as oregano or thyme are often used. Because butter is expensive, ghee is sometimes made with part butter and part margarine. In India a vegetable ghee is also available. Rendering Fat Fat should be rendered( melted) over low heat and may take as long as three hours. The crisp cracklings left behind after straining can be seasoned and eaten. To render about 250ml fat use 500g fat

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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.18 TASK: Fats & Oils EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

Butter and vegetable oils are the most common Items used in international kitchens. Here some other ingredients as well: Butter/margarine: For soups, sauces, pastry, cold dishes Pork fat: For butcher production, terrines & pates, Poultry fat: For rice dishes, terrines, sandwich spread Beef fat: Used for Yorkshire pudding, sculptures, soup dishes, terrines,

Vegetable oils:
Olive oil, Sunflower oil Peanut oil Soy oil Coconut fat, oil Corn oil Palm oil Sesame oil

Country:
Italy Europe, USA, India China, USA, Africa, India USA, China, Japan, Europe Asia, Mexico, India USA, Europe, Brazil, Japan Asia, Africa, South America China, Japan, India

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Hazelnut oil France, Italy APPROVED BY: Stefan Schmid

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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO
To get familiar with the different types of fat and oils Used in the kitchen.

TASK #: 3.19 TASK: Animal Fat & Oils EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY
To understand the nutrition value and health aspect Of vegetable based fat and Oils. To ensure healthy cooking methods in the use for daily Menu preparation.

Butter and vegetable oils: Are the most common Items used in international kitchens. Here some other ingredients as well: Butter/margarine: For soups, sauces, pastry, cold dishes Pork fat: For butcher production, terrines & pates, Poultry fat: For rice dishes, terrines, sandwich spread Beef fat: Used for Yorkshire pudding, sculptures, soup Dishes, terrines, Vegetable oils: Olive oil, Sunflower oil Peanut oil Soy oil Coconut fat, oil Corn oil Palm oil Sesame oil Hazelnut oil Country: Italy Europe, USA, India China, USA, Africa, India USA, China, Japan, Europe Asia, Mexico, India USA, Europe, Brazil, Japan Asia, Africa, South America Chin, Japan, India France, Italy

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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 3.20 DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Dairy Products JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT Milk: To understand about - All over the world milk is the most important dairy Food ingredient and it becomes more and more Products in general, its important. Besides bread it is quite daily Affordable and contains the most important Delivery, storage and Nutrition. It prevents illness and serves as a use in Supply for power and vitality. It contains The various ethnic Protein, sugar, milk fat and vitamins. cuisines Fat content: 82% Yogurt: It is available in natural form, as well as drink and fruit yogurt. We use it for breakfast, for cakes, pastry, ice cream and chocolates and for sweet and savory sauces. Fat content: 8-15 % Cream: - Prepared from fresh milk with different fat Used for dressings, salads, soups, sauces Desserts, cheese production, cold kitchen Cream Cheese: - Cream cheese is usually fresh cheese but as Well pasteurized available. It is used mainly For breakfast, cold dishes, salads, dessert Sandwich spread and diet dishes Cheese: Germany: Tilsit, edam, bavarian emmenthal, berg kaese Sour milk cheese, butter cheese, France: Brie, camembert, muenster, roquefort Reblochon, bleu de bresse, saint paulin - Italy: Bel paese, parmesan, tallegio, gorgonzola, Scarmoza, mozarella England: - Cheddar, red windsor, blue stilton, cheshire Wenslydale, double cloucester, huntsman Sage derby, blue wensleydale APPROVED BY:

WHY Make sure the proper Quality used, hygienically Storage and daily mice en place control

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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.21 TASK: Cream EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT
CREAM The word cream comes from the Greek chriein , which means the anointed one. The link between ancient ritual and rich food is oil, the substance used to anoint the chosen and the defining element of cream. Cream is a form of milk in which the fat globules are more concentrated than usual, whether by rising in the bottle or by spinning of from a heavier water phase in a centrifuge. There are three grades of cream marketed today: light cream is between 18-30% butterfat, light whipping cream between 30 and 36% butterfat and whipping cream between 36 and 40%. Whole milk by contrast is closer to 4% fat. Half- and Half is, is as its name suggests, intermediate in composition between milk and cream; it must be at least 10.5% fat. Cream is chiefly valued for its thick smooth texture and rich taste, and in some ways it is a handier cooking ingredient than milk. Because its proteins have been greatly diluted by fat globules, it is less likely to form a skin when heated or even boiled down for a sauce, and it is fairly immune to curdling in the presence of acidic or salty foods. Perhaps most important, cream can be whipped into a stable foam. Whipped cream: On the other hand, cream is infamous from its seeming fickleness when whipped. Sometimes it doubles its original volume, rising in soft, light, long lived peaks, and sometimes it stays stubbornly liquid even changing to a state of buttermilk and butter. It has its reasons and these have to do with the nature o f foam reinforcement in the cream. Like whipped egg white, whipped cream is a foam of air and water that is stabilized by proteins contained in the liquid. When the beating action introduces air into the, some proteins are caught in the walls of the bubbles, and because of the imbalance of forces there, the molecules are distorted from their normal shape; they react with each other and form a thin film of coagulated molecules. This film gives the liquid foam a solid if very delicate reinforcement, depending on the materials. Milk foams are very unstable and collapse almost immediately after they form, because the milk proteins simply dont unfold and coagulate very much, and because the liquid is so thin that it easily runs down the sides of the bubble walls back into a large pool. Egg-white by contrast is viscous and slow moving, and some proteins readily denature and coagulate when foamed.

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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.21 TASK: Cream EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

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The fact that cream can succeed where milk fails is clearly due to the concentration of fat globules. For one thing that concentration has a noticeable effect on the viscosity of the liquid: cream flows less rapidly than milk. More important is the globules activity. They apparently cluster together in the bubble walls, where surface forces rupture some of their membranes. The exposed spheres of soft fat then stick to each other that form a rigid but delicate network that the milk proteins alone cannot provide. In milk, the globules are to few and far between to do the job, while in cream beginning at about 20% fat content, their number is adequate to support the foam. Milk also has the disadvantage of being homogenized. Whey proteins leave the solution to fill in the gaps of the globules suddenly larger surface area, and this leaves less to stabilize the interface between air and water. In addition the initial clustering of globules is probably disturbed by the change in their covering membrane. For precisely this reasons, whipping cream is not homogenized. Pasteurization which is generally required for creams as well as milk, has only a slightly detrimental effect on whipping. Cookbooks commonly advise the cook to store bowl and beaters in the freezer before trying to whip the cream, while egg-whites are said to whip best at room temperature or even at a slightly higher temperature or even slightly above it. There is nothing mysterious out of this divergence, and to high a temperature is frequently the cause of failure to whip cream into a good foam. We all know that the properties of milk fat change drastically within the range of ordinary kitchen temperatures. Butter is stiff, even brittle, right out of the refrigerator, but spreads easily at room temperature, and liquefies completely on hot summer aftenoons. Milk fat melts at around 90*F (32*C), but it gets soft long before that point. Now, if the fat globules lining the bubble walls are to soft, they will be deformed by the weight of the foam, and the whole structure will be weakened. And even if a small amount of fat escapes as liquid from a globule (the equivalent of a drop of egg yolk in the whites) , it will interfere in the order system of water, unfolded protein and air, and a stable foam will not form in the first place. It also appears that globules cluster more readily at low temperatures. And the fluid as a whole is much more viscous when cold than when warm, so that it is slower to drain from the foam. All in all, the colder the cream and the beating utensils, the better , especially considering the fact that both the activity of beating and the incorporation of room temperature air will heat the cream up.

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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.21 TASK: Cream EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

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Cooling the cream in the freezer before whipping can be a help especially in summer, but be careful not to freeze it. The water leaves the solution to form ice, and this segregation of phases make an even redispersion of fat, and so a good foam, difficult to achieve afterward. A temperature of around 45*F(7*C) or lower is recommended; above about70*F((21*C), even heavy cream is to thin and its globules to too soft to make a stable foam. Light (30%) whipping cream is considered ideal for making foams; heavy cream more readily turns lumpy and buttery. It also appears that larger globules produce stiffer foams than small ones; if you happen to have a choice of cows, be advised that Jerseys and Guernseys give milk with the largest average globule size (the other common dairy breed, the Holstein is the more copious producer) . Vegetable gums or resins are sometimes added to cream to improve its foaming properties (they make it more viscous and stabilize the bubble walls). Sugar will decrease the final volume and the stability of whipped cream when added at the beginning of the process, probably by interfering with the clumping of proteins on the globule membranes. These effects are diminished by sweetening the cream after most of the whipping is already done. If you want whipped cream that will last for a while, stop beating when it seems stiffest, before it begins to turn soft and glossy. Types of cream: Creme Fraiche: When unpasturized milk is left to stand, it develops a slightly sour taste, that mellows and intensifies over time. This is creme fraiche which is the standard cream of France. Creme fraiche is used in giving flavour to soups, sauces and savoury dishes, particularly fish. Single cream: It contains not less than 18% butterfat. It cannot be whipped due to their being too little butterfat. Double cream: Contains not less than 45% butterfat. It can be used to enrich sauces, but may curdle if boiled along with acidic ingredients. Whipping cream: Contains not less than 38% butterfat. It is perfect as its name indicates. After whipping you will find a difference in texture and a change in volume. Sweetened or unsweetened cream can be used in desserts or can be used as an accompaniment, and is used in mousses to lighten them. Clotted cream: Contains not less than 55% butterfat. It is already very thick and can be used as it is and not whipped. Half and Half: It is a mixture of milk and cream in equal quantities and contain about 10-12% butterfat. Acidulated cream: It is plain cream, usually single, with lime juice added to it.

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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.22 TASK: Ice Cream EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com HOW TO DO IT

ICE CREAM QUALITY: Quality implies a clearly produced ice cream of acceptable flavour, body and texture. The composition of the product and the ingredients used be within the parameters and the limits set by the food laws prevailing in the country. The desirable physical properties of the ice-cream should be defined mainly in terms of the texture as it is eaten. The consistency should be creamy and air content should finely distributed. There should be quick melting effect on the palate, without greasiness or gumminess, and with no gritty or icy sensation as the ice cream warms up, it should have a tendency to retain its shape, and as it melts, a creamy and not a watery serum should be formed. Flavour acceptability is governed by the quality of the ingredients used e.g. Fruit, chocolate and nuts as well as added flavours. The basic flavour must come from high quality milk and cream. Smoothness: It is in relation with the size of the ice crystals formed in the product and therefore ice cream must be quickly frozen and churned during the preparation. The eggs and stabilizers added to the mixture also helps in smoothness. OVERRUN: It is an increase in the volume due to the incorporation of air during churning and addition of air and cream. E.g.:- When 1 lit of ice cream mix increases in volume by 1 lit then the overrun is 100% .An ideal overrun should be of around 75-85% Less will make it heavy and more will make it frothy and lack in flavour .Some manufacturers produce only an overrun of 25-30%. VOLUME OF ICE CREAM - VOLUME OF MIX VOLUME OF MIX
X 100

= OVERRUN%

PREVENTION OF FOOD ADULTERATION ACT DEFINES ICE -CREAM AS FOLLOWS : PFA RULE A 11.02.08 The frozen food obtained from cow or buffalo milk or a combination thereof or from cream and/or milk product with or without the addition of canesugar(dextrose, liquid glucose and dried liquid glucose), eggs, fruits, fruit juices, preserved fruits, nuts, chocolate, edible flavours and permitted food colours. It may contain permitted stabilizers and emulsifiers not exceeding 0.5% weight. The mixture should be suitably heated before freezing. The product shall contain not less than 10% milk fat , not less than 36% total solids, except that when any of the aforesaid preparations contains fruits or nuts or both the contents of milk fat shall not be less than 8% by weight. Starch may be added to a maximum extent of 5% under the declaration on a label as specified in the sub rule (2) of rule 53. The standards of ice-cream shall apply to softee ice cream. Imitation ice cream known as Mellorine are made in various parts of the world. Mellorine is cheaper than ice cream because of substitution of milk fat with vegetable fats and oils. Other than this change, mellorine has approximately the same composition as ice cream.

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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.22 TASK: Ice Cream EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

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ICE-CREAM DEFECTS AND THEIR PROBABLE CAUSES CRUMBLY,BRITTLE,SHORT, FLAKY, SNOWY GUMMY,PASTY,STICKY SHRUNKEN SOGGY,HEAVY,DOUGHY WEAK, WATERY BUTTERY, GREASY FLAKY, SNOWY FLUFFY, FOAMY, SPONGY LUMPY, GELATIN LUMPS SANDY, GRITTY EXCESSIVE OVERRUN TOO MUCH STABILIZER,VERY LOW TEMPERATURE FREEZEER,TOO MUCH SUGAR TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATION IN STORAGE, LOW MILK SOLID CONTENT HIGH SOLIDS CONTENT, LOW OVERRUN LOW SOLIDS CONTENT EXCESSIVE FAT DESTABILIZATION LOW SOLIDS , LOW STABILIZER CONTENT LARGE AIR CELLS, POOR CONTROLLED FREEZER, EXCESSIVE OVERRUN INADEQUATELY DISPERSED INGREDIENTS LARGE LACTOSE CRYSTALS, HIGH CONTENTS OF MILK SOLIDS, ESPECIALLY WHEY, FLUCTUATING STORAGE TEMPERATURES TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATIONS IN STORAGE LEADING TO LARGE ICE CRYSTALS, INADEQUATE REFRIGERATION AT FREEZER.

COARSE, GRAINY,ICY, ICE,PELLETS, SPINY

STEPS INVOLVED IN THE PROCESSING OF HARD ICE CREAM Ice cream is a complex system in which the stable mixed emulsion of four phase system fat-water-ice-air, must be balanced and protected from breaking and separating. MIXING AND PASTEURIZATION: After weighing or metering by volume, the ingredients are heated together in a jacketed tank with strong agitation so as to form a core emulsion with large fat globules of up to 15 grams in size. Pasteurization treatment may be carried out in mixing tank or in a separate plate heat exchanger. During homogenization, the mix is converted into a true emulsion with a fat globule size of less than 2gms. For efficient homogenization the fat phase should be completely liquid and hence a temperature near pasteurization temperature is preferred. Homogenization of ice-cream mix is normally carried out at a pressure of 140 to 210kg/cm2. At the end of this treatment, it is often found that small fat globules cohere in clumps, resulting in a viscous mix with poor processing properties in subsequent stages. A second homogenization at the lower pressure such as 35kg/cm2 is used to break up the clumps.

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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.22 TASK: Ice Cream EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

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COOLING: The emulsion is immediately cooled to 4 degrees centigrade using a heat exchanger or to supper cool if fat is present. AGEING: The cooled emulsion is usually stored in a thermostatically controlled vessel for 2 to 8 hours because such ageing improves freezer performance and produces better ice-cream structure. During ageing the stabilizer hydrates fully and increases the viscosity of the emulsion. The importance of ageing will vary with different stabilizers. Absorption of protein to fat globule surface continues. Significant improvement in texture is noted. FREEZING: Ice cream is offered for sale in two forms: 1. As hard ice-cream which has been frozen in a continuous freezer and is then either extruded, shaped and packed in small individual portions and in bulk containers up to 3 gallons in size. The final processing step for all these is hardening in a low temperature cold store at -30 to -400C and use of refrigeration distribution system. 2. As soft ice cream which is frozen in small batch freezer situated at the retail outlet. Ice-cream mix for this type of operation is provided as a pasteurized mix which has been stored at 4 0C after manufacture, or from cans of UHT mix which may be stored at room temperature, or from a powdered mix which is dispensed in water or milk before being placed in the freezer. Freezing is carried out continuously in a scraped surface heat exchanger at a very low temperature of -220C to 250C for a short time and under high agitation. Ice cream mix and the air in the desired proportion are pumped successively through the freezer. For soft frozen ice cream , which is immediately consumed, 5-6 hr. freezing at comparatively higher temperature is used. HARDENING AND STORAGE: The temperature must be reduced after freezing until about 80% water is frozen. This freezing should take place quickly to avoid the formation of large crystals which cause coarseness. Normally this is achieved by storage at 400C for about 30 minutes.

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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.22 TASK: Ice Ceam EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

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FUNCTIONS OF SOME OF THE INGREDIENTS: SUGARS: Sugar content represents about half the total solids of the ice cream mix and includes lactose naturally present as a constituent of mix. Sugars acts as sweetening agents, depress the freezing point of the mix, influence the consistency of the continuous phase, and to some extent the ice crystals size and lactose crystallization of the frozen ice cream. STABILIZERS: Gelatin was the first stabilizer used in ice cream manufacture . Since then a number of polysaccharide stabilizers have become available. These include Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, micro crystalline cellulose, sodium alginate , carragenan, agar, pectin, xanthan gums, carrobean and guar gum. They are often used in mixtures. Stabilizers perform several functions in ice cream. They increase the viscosity of the continuous phase, there by contributing to eating characteristics such as body and creaminess. They regulate the development of ice crystals and thereby give a smooth textured ice-cream.. During the inevitable temperature fluctuations, encountered in the storage, transport and distribution they minimise the development of large crystals and the undesirable coarse structure. They thicken the aqueous phase and modify the crystallization of ice. ANTIOXIDANTS: The ice cream is commercially stored for a long period of time , therefore the manufacturers add antioxidants to the ice cream mix to prevent oxidation. Vitamins, tannin, oat flour is used mainly. EMULSIFIERS: For keeping the mixture a homogeneous mass the ice cream needs to emulsified, so it prevents crystal formation during freezing. Egg yolks, citrates, mono/diglycerides from fats and oils, stearates and oleates are used for emulsification of the ice cream. ICE CREAMS ARE DESIGNATED ACCORDING TO PHILADELPHIA ICE CREAM--> Uncooked mixture of thick cream sugar and flavorings. FRENCH ICE CREAM--> Cooked mixture of milk sugar and flavorings with whipped cream. AMERICAN OR PLAIN ICE CREAM--> Similar to French ice cream but may contain corn starch /flour or gelatin instead of eggs for thickening ITALIAN ICE CREAM--> Similar to American ice cream

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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK #: 3.22 TASK: Ice Cream

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS ICE CREAM
Ice Ingredients Water Calories Protein Fat Carbohydrates Ash Calcium(mg) Phosphorus(mg) Iron(mg) Sodium(mg) Potassium(mg) VitA(intl.. units) Thiamin(mg) Riboflavin(mg) Niacin(mg) VitC(ascorbic acid)(mg) 10% fat 63.2 193 4.5 10.6 20.8 0.9 146 115 0.1 63 181 440 0.04 0.21 0.1 1 cream and custard 12% fat 52.1 207 4 12.5 20.6 0.8 123 99 0.1 40 112 520 0.04 0.19 0.1 1 frozen 16% fat 62.8 222 2.6 16.1 18 0.5 78 61 trace 33 95 660 0.02 0.11 0.1 1 Ice Cream cone 8.9 377 10. 2.4 77.9 0.8 156 198 0.4 232 244 trace 0.05 0.21 0.5 trace Ice milk 66.7 152 4.8 5.1 22.4 1 156 124 0.1 68 195 210 0.05 0.22 0.1 1

CLASSIFICATION OF FROZEN DESSERTS AND ICE CREAM ICE CREAM: It is a smooth frozen mixture of milk, cream, sugar, flavouring, eggs, and colouring. Some ice creams such as Philadelphian style does not contain eggs. While the French style of ice creams contain egg yolks. The egg add richness and helps to make the product more smooth since it has emulsifying properties. ICE MILK: It is like ice cream but with a lower butter content , while frozen it contains yoghurt in addition to the milk and cream. SORBET: Sorbet and ices are made from puree of fruits and fruit juices and sugar. Some sorbets also are flavoured with wines, liqueurs. American sorbets however contain some amount of milk and cream and egg white to increase the volume and texture. While water ice contains only fruit juices and sugar with water. Granit coarse crystalline ice made from fruit puree, egg white, sugar. FROZEN DESSERTS: Frozen souffle and frozen mousses are made like bavaroise which has cream and egg whites and folded into to give them lightness which allows them to be still frozen in ordinary FREEZER.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 3.22

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Ice Cream JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT
ICE - CREAM INTRODUCTION Popularity of frozen food namely ice cream needs no introduction or explanation because it is one such food item which is liked and wanted by young and old alike and is popular like certain foods all over the world. In present times there have introduction of so many new flavours and combinations made from basic ice cream that it has become one of the major profit making items on any menu-card . It has also an advantage that it can be prepared in advance and can be stored for a longer period of time. Over the years, more and more frozen food parlors and establishments have mushroomed in a very short time and is attributed to the fact that it is getting increasingly popular. A wide range of dessert are created by simply freezing . Sorbets made of simple combinations of fruit juice or puree, wine, or liqueur, plus sugar and various flavourings; and rich mixtures based on eggs, milk, cream. Of the latter custard based ice creams made of milk and thickened with egg starch but even richer mixtures are used for parfaits, frozen souffls, bombes and other frozen creations. The key to good sorbet and ice-cream is the smoothness, the ice crystals that form naturally during freezing must be fore stalled. This is accomplished by stirring the mixture continuously usually by machines. The higher the proportion of water, the more ice crystals form and therefore the more thoroughly it must be stirred. This is why sorbets, particularly those based on wine or fruit juices rather than fruit purees are quite hard to make . On the other hand very rich mixtures such as parfaits and bombes with a high proportion of eggs and cream freeze smoothly without stirring at all. Good sorbets and ices should be lightened by further adding beaten eggs and/or meringue half way through freezing while parfaits and bombes are lightened with beaten egg whites and whipped cream. It increases bulk by adding air as can be seen by weighing equal volumes of home made and commercial ice-cream.

When making any mixture to be frozen , bear in mind that taste is blunted by cold , so flavours must be concentrated with a bit of lemon juice or alcohol as well as plenty of sugar. Especially fruits like passion fruit, citrus fruit and cherries. For ice cream the straight forward tastes of vanilla, chocolate, and coffee are still preferred , together with crushed nut mixtures such as praline or candied fruits macerated in liqueur. Ice cream may also be tinted with food coloring but with discretion mint and pistachio ice cream are appealing when tinted palest green, and sour fruits may need picking up with pale pink color.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 3.22

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Ice Cream JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

History
The history of ice cream is linked with that of gastronomy and refrigeration. The Chinese knew the art of making iced drinks and desserts long before the Christian era. They taught this art to the Arabs, who began making syrups chilled with snow , called sharbets (hence the words sherbetand sorbet). At the court of Alexander the great, and later under Nero, fruit salads and purees were served, with honey and snow . It was not until the 13th century however , that Marco Polo brought back from the East the secret of cooling without ice , by running a mixture of water and saltpetre containers filled with the substance to be cooled. Thus the great fashion for water ices began in Italy. When Catherine deMedici arrived in France to marry the future Henri II , she introduced iced desserts to the court, among other culinary novelties but the Parisian public only discovered them a century later, when Francesco Procopio opened a cafe. People went there to read news-sheets, discuss politics and literature and above all to sample drinks and delicacies, among which there were ices and sorbets(sherbets) that soon became all the rage. Procope(as he was now called)was soon imitated by his colleagues: in the 18th century, 250 limonadiers were selling ices in Paris, but only in summer. In about 1750 Procopes successor, Buisson, had the idea of selling ices all year round. The fashion at the time was to walk under the arcade of Palais-Royal where the fashionable cafes sold their iced specialties, but these were still of poor quality. Around 1775, ices became more delicate in flavour, richer, and with more body, so that they could be moulded into different shapes. Ices made with milk, cream , and eggs appeared. In fact they had been discovered in 1650 by a French cook of Charles I of England, who paid him to keep his method secret. The end of the 18th century saw the great fashion for fromages glaces .The manufacture of ices continued to develop .The ice bombe appeared and it became customary to serve it during any meal of any significance. Two Italians, Pratti and Tortoni were especially famous for their fine ices; in particular, Tortoni launched the iced sponge cake in 1798. Under the Second Empire the surprise omelet was invented, then the first coupes, mousses, and parfaits. Ices were served at the end of the meals, and also at became common during balls and reception. Very refined blends of flavours were invented (apricots and wild cherries, Mignonne peaches, Malmsey wine from Alicante, angelica liqueur, the yolks of finch eggs, sugary melon, hazelnuts and mint liqueur, green tea and citron juice, pistachios and peach juice, etc., according to the recipes in the Preceptoral des menus royaux of 1822). By the beginning of the 20th century , itinerant ice cream vendors were already selling in the streets .The United States have been particularly inventive as regards the ice cream industry. Ice cream soda was invented in Philadelphia the hub of ice cream manufacturing in US. Ice cream cones, portables and self contained originated in 1904 Worlds Fair in St. Louis in US. Ancient recipes were gradually modified and adapted to the needs of industrial manufacture. Nowadays stabilizers are included , such as edible gelatin , egg white, agar, agar and carob.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 3.22

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Ice Cream JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT
TYPES OF ICE-CREAM: BAKED ALASKA:- It is a piece of cake on which vanilla ice cream is served which is garnished and topped with egg white, and gratinated. BANANA SPLIT:- Vanilla ice cream in between length wise cut banana in a boat shaped dish served with nuts COUPE :- Fruit confection and ice cream served in individual containers of either glass or porcelain. E.g. Coupe Andalouse Orange segments macerated in Curacao in the coupe with lemon ice orange segments & whipped cream. BOMBES GLACEES :-Layered ice cream in a semispherical bullet shaped mould with liqueur & nuts in the centre CASSATA :- Multi flavoured ice cream lined the half sphere mould centre with mixture of nuts , candied fruits macerated in kirsch / maraschino. Italian meringue and whipped cream chopped nougatine or chopped chocolate. GRANITA :- This is a sherbet made of two-thirds sugar syrup and one -thirds raspberry, strawberry, and red currant puree or pure lemon juice and kirsch are added and the mixture is adjusted to register 17 to 18 O baume. This mixture is frozen as sorbets. MERINGUE GLACE:- A dipper of ice cream is placed between two meringue shells. the meringues are arranged on the dish and garnished with whipped cream. OMLETTE SUPRISE :-Like Baked Alaska served with poached fruits, cherries. PEACH MELBA :- Ripe soft peaches with white flash are blanched in boiling water for a few seconds refreshed. Peeled arranged on a dish on good layer of vanilla ice-cream & covered with sweetened raspberry, sliced almond PARFAIT :- Very rich mixture that can be frozen successfully containing large amounts of cream eggs and sugar. Requires to be kept frozen till service time. SUNDAE :- plain ice cream served in a silver or glass champagne glasses. Attractively combined with poached /fresh / syrups whipped cream etc. Eg. Denise sundae - mocha ice cream liqueur chocolate and whipped cream PROFITEROLE :- choux pastry filled with ice cream.

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Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 3.23 DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Butter Mixtures JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT
To understand the different Garlic butter Butter mixtures used in the Daily operation Anchovies butter Dill butter Basil butter Caf de Paris butter Colbert butter Mustard butter Horseradish butter Truffle butter Coriander butter Lobster butter Red wine butter Pesto butter Lime butter Pepper-Chili butter

WHY
Butter mixtures can be used cold or hot and have to be Tailored to the different flavors Of fish, seafood, meat, game Or vegetables

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Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 324 DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Italian Cheese JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT
Italy the is a country which is naturally blessed with an ideal atmospheric conditions, making it ideal for the growth of the maturing and ripening of cheeses. The various types of Italian cheeses are : Astago dallevo ---- A firm semi hard cheese, weighing 18 to 26 pounds (8-12kg). It originates from the Alpine plateaus and has small and mid sized holes. Straw yellow, in color, with a tangy taste after nine months; used mostly for grating when older. Assuage presto ---- Semi- cooked and pressed, young, milky cheese from Vicuna and Trento. Available medium-fat or full-fat. Bell Apes ---- Soft cheese made from pasteurized milk since 1929. Soft and yellow it is very mild. Caciocavallo ----Hard cheese made from cooked pasta fillata. Widely available in central and southern Italy. Smooth, often golden yellow and a mild cheeseboard cheese. When mature it can be grated, fried or broiled, mixed with rice, egg or vegetables. Caciotta ---- Small, full, semi-hard cheese from Central Italy; often made from cow or sheeps milk. Thin rind, mild. Crescenza ---- Fresh, uncooked, full-fat soft cheese without a rind. Soft, homogenous texture, with a fresh, mild taste. Flore sardo ---- A Sardian specialty: raw, hard cheese from sheeps milk, weighing 3 to 9 pounds (1.5 to 4 kg). Deep yellow or nut coloured rind. Mild if ripened for up to 6 months : if matured for a longer time, it has a stronger taste and is mostly grated. Fontina ---- Cheese from Aosta Valley made from full cream milk and has an orange rind and a soft, meaty texture and is very creamy. Grana pedono ---- Medium fat cooked hard cheese with slow maturation. Counyer part of Parma from the Venetian and Lombardy side of the plateau. It has a dark golden yellow rind, stamped with the manufacturer name. Used for grating, but also as a cheese board cheese with a strong aroma. Italico ---- Fat soft cheese from Lombardy in the style of the famous Bel-Paese. Matures for 20 to 40 days, with a very thin smooth rind. It has a soft and elastic texture, with a buttery mild taste.

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Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.24 TASK: Italian Cheese EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

Marzoino ---- Sheeps cheese produced in Tuscany with a mild to tangy taste. Also available made from a mixture of sheeps and cows milk. Mascarpone ---- Cream cheese made from real cream and is often used instead of the real cream. Montasio ---- Full- fat, cooked, pressed cows cheese from the plateaus and the Alps of Friuli and Veneto. Used on the cheese board as a tangy cheese. If matured for five months or lessits real fruity or otherwise grated. Paglletta ---- Soft cheese from Piedmont. Percorino romano ---- Cooked fat cheese from full-fat sheeps milk hard, and is matured in tall cylinders, mostly about 37 pounds (17 kg) in weight. Matures for at least five months. It comes from Sardinia (Percorino sardo) and the area around Rome. Used for grating if matured and on the cheese board if younger. Large quantities are exported. Pecorino siciliano ---- Uncooked, yellowish white cheese made from sheeps milk, only produced in Sicily . It has a strong taste. Provolone ---- Semi-hard cheese from pasta-fillata, which takes on an elastic consistency when droped in boiling water. Bound with sting into the shape of a pear, melon or sausage and hung upto mature. Ragusano ---- Sicilian hard cheese from pasta - fillata. Served as a mild cheese board cheese when young ; has a full bodied taste when matured. Scamorza ---- Pear-shaped cheese from cows milk with a thin, smooth rind. Also made mixed with sheeps milk. Taleggio ---- Full- fat soft cheese in a classic brick shape. Produced in Lombardy, Piedmont and Veneto, with a reddish, soft and a mild taste.

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Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.24 TASK: Italian Cheese EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

Besides these cheese there are some of the major cheese that are promient world-wide. These cheese are the most common and as such deserves special mention. They include : Ricotta ---- An Italian fresh unripened cheese made from the whey of the cows mi lk. It is smooth and mild tasting and is used in a variety of sweet and savoury dishes, including pizzas. It is packed in various shapes and sizes. Mozzarella ---- An Italian unripened curd cheese originally made from buffaloes milk, but now obtained exclusively from cows milk. Made in various shapes, such as round and slabs, it is also packed shredded. It is a soft cheese with a rather moist texture. It has a mild, creamy taste and is widely used as a cooking cheese- in pizzas lasagne and toasted sandwich. Pecorino ---- These are cheeses called Pecorino all over Italy. Nobody actually stipulates how and from which kind of milk, farmers or dairies should make it, meaning that many different versions of Pecorino can be found ranging from fresh to ripe, and from mild to mature. In principle, however Pecorino is a hard cheese made from sheeps milk. It is therefore hardly surprising that its most well known representatives come from Central and Southern Italy, and from Sardinia and Sicily, where the largest flocks of sheeps graze. Rennin is added to the milk so that a soft gel is quickly formed. The cheese maker usually cuts the curd until it is the size of wheat germ. This is then heated to just under 122*F(50*C). The mixture is poured into basket work cylinders which are woven in Sardinia. Pecorino takes 8 months to mature during which time it is regularly washed with salt and water and turned. Once matured, the rind is oiled; this is mostly hard and dark. The cheese itself is light in colour, with a grey tinge, and tastes pleasantly tangy. The most famous types of Pecorino are Pecorino Romano, Pecorino Toscano, Pecorino siciliano and Pecorino Sardo. The young Pecorino is popular as cheese boards, whereas when matured it is grated. It Southern Italy Pecorino is used instead of Parmesan

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Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 3.24 DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Italian Cheese JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

Parmesan
The most famous of all Italian cheeses which as Parmesan has countless imitators has been produced using the same method for several centuries. One even suspects that known to the Etruscans to qualify for a guaranteed certificate of origin. This cheese can also be produced in a stipulated are which encompasses the provinces, Parma and Reggio Emilia, Modena Mantua on the right bank of the river Po and Bologna, on the left bank of the river Reno. There are also rules set up to secure the high quality of Parmigiano- Reggio, the main one being that the cows either be put out to graze on a meadow or be fed not on silo cattle fodder but on alfa-alfa. The milk from the evenings milking is left to stand overnight, and the next morning the cream is skimmed off. Then together with the mornings milk it is poured into the traditional bell-shaped copper vats. Whey is added to it from previous cheese making processes as a fermentation serum. Stirring occasionally the cheese maker heats up the milk to 91*F(33*C) in order to add rennin- calves stomach enzymes to it. The milk curdles after 12-15mts. The curd, the cagliata is broken with the spino(a spike), until the size is that of a wheat germ. The cheese maker now gradually reheats the vats to 113*F(45*C), and then more fiercely to 131*F(55*C). After the heat has been turned off the cheese mass settles to the bottom of the vat and is removed with linen cloth. Still in the cloth the cheese is deposited in wooden or metal moulds, fasceri. It is lightly squeezed to accelerate the discharge of the remaining whey. A few hours later the cloth is removed and the stencil is pressed onto the cheese, labelling with Parmigiano- Reggio, mark of origin and date of production. The cheese remains in this mold for a few days, after which it becomes a solid slightly bulbous cylinder. This is left in a salt solution for 20-25days after which the cheese is then sun dried for a short period of time and then finally moved to the store(cascina).Lying on stable wooden shelves the cheeses mature slowly, during which they are regularly turned and brushed. It is mostly at the end of the year that the cheese maker transfers his annual production to specifically built storerooms. These stores can hold between 50,000 to 100000 cheeses and usually belong to banks or cooperatives which also provide some financial support. Each year the region produces 90.000 tones of cheese, ie; 2.4 million cylinders of Parmagiano-Reggiano for which they use 40,00,000 gallons of milk; two gallons of milk are needed to make one pound of this excellent cheese. Parmesan belongs to the category of medium fat cooked hard cheese. It is made between April 1 to November 11 through a completely natural process and must last until at least till the end of summer following the year of production.

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Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.24 TASK: Italian Cheese EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

The typical characteristics of Parmesan are :


Weight: Between a minimum of 50 and a maximum of 100 pounds(24-44kg). Diameter: between 14-18 inches(35-45cms). Height: Between 7-9.5inches(18-24cms). Rind thickness: About 0.25inch(6mm). Fat content or dry matter: At least 32%. Colour: Light to straw yellow. Structure: Fine grained and scaly, with minute barely visible holes. Aroma: Mild and full bodied. Age: Fresco(Fresh)- less than 18 months Vecchio(mature)-18-24 months Stravecchio (Very mature)- 24-36 months. Gorgonzola: Originally only produced in the little town of the same name near Milan. Gorgonzola is today made in the provinces of Lombardy and Piedmont. Its basic ingredient is full cream and pasteurized milk. Milk is heated to a temperature between 82*F-92*F(28*-32*C), and curdled using cows rennin. Milk enzymes and spores of penicillium Glaucum, a special mold are added to the milk with the rennin. Once the curd and whey have been separated the cheese is poured into moulds of 10-12inch diameter, salted and left to settle for 2 weeks. To allow the blue veining to spread to it the cheese is punctured with long, high grade steel needles, first from one side and then from the other a week later. In special stores where the temperature and humidity corresponds to that of the natural caves of the Valsassina valley. The cheese matures for three months producing the following grades; Bianco: very young, before the blue veining starts. Dolce: slightly marbled and very mild. Piccante: with developed greenish blue veins and a characteristic strong taste. Gorgonzola should be stored in a cool place, but eaten at room temperature to allow its full aroma to be appreciated. CONCLUSION : Italian cheeses are one of the most famous cheeses of the world and it can be had as an accompaniment with starting from the main course to even the dessert. All the more that Italian cheeses can also be enjoyed as a separate course on their own.

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Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.25 TASK: French Cheese EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT
INTRODUCTION "Comment est-il possible de gouverner un pays qui produit plus de trois cent soixante - dix fromages differents ?" --- "How is it possible to govern a country which produces more than three hundred and seventy different cheeses?" With this heart felt groan General de Gaulle's intention was to point to the numerous regional differences in France. The variety of landscapes, climates, vegetation, animal breeds, traditions and character of the people are all reflected in the cheeses - from Coulommiers to Munster, from Roquefort to Saint Maure, from Saint Nectaire to Comte, to mention but a few of the terrific range of high and top quality cheeses available. Thirty two types of cheese have to this date received the seal of quality- Appellation d'Origine Controlee. Cheese may be soft, partially hard or hard in consistency; it may have rind or no rind; it may have blue mold inside or a reddish mold outside; it may be young or matured; it may be seasoned, washed or steeped. The variety is infinite. Cheese in France is classified according to the following methods of production: curd cheese, industrially processed curd cheese, soft cheese with white or red mold rind, blue veined cheese, goat cheese and hard cheese pressed either from cooked or uncooked curds. It goes without saying that any good French meal must have a cheese course. In France there are seasons for cheeses, just as there are for strawberries or lamb or green peas. But as in the case of vegetables, new storage and shipment techniques have extended the season. Today some of the rarer varieties of cheese are available for most of the year. Every region in the country which supports an adequate population of milk giving animals also produces some form of fresh or ripened cheese. It will come from cows, sheep or goats ; it will be mixed or plain ; creamy or dry. It will be firm , soft, tough, moist, marble hard. From Normandy comes the king of all cheeses in the world, many shall agree, The Camembert, as well as Pont- l'Eveque, and the gentle creamy one called Petit Suisse. From Rouergue comes one great cheese , Roquefort, made of ewe's milk and stored in the mysterious caves where wet and cold air is laden with a powerful mould akin to the one that makes penicillin. Other "blue" cheeses are made, mostly from cow's milk, in France and in such other nations as Denmark, Italy, England and the United States. But the true Roquefort must come from Rouergue. From the neighbouring Auvergne comes Cantal, a completely different type, a firmly pressed cheese, golden and mild, and good with bread and beer as well as with simple wines, whereas Camembert and Roquefort will demand, and be worthy of, the finest and fullest bodied of the red Bordeaux and Burgundies. Brie, delicately salty and pale yellow, from the Ile-de-France, has sometimes been called the cheese of diplomacy.

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Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.25 TASK: French Cheese EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

Twenty-one of the World's Most Savoury Cheeses


Cheese comes in a wider variety of tastes, shapes, and textures in France than anywhere in the world. But French leadership in cheese is more than numerical : the quality is of international repute. Twenty-one of France's finest cheeses, are identified. What follows is a description of the essential characteristics that have won each cheese its popularity. Camembert, one of the most popular, is , in its prime, a pretty cheese; its rind is a light yellow-orange with a white, powdery crust. On the inside it should be a light, pale yellow with a softness that is short of being runny. Brie is next to Camembert in popularity. It also has a soft texture and a delicate but definite taste; it should be like satin inside, with the same consistency as Camembert. Another good cheese of the Brie family is Coulommiers, which is sold younger and less mellow than Brie itself and tastes somewhat like Camembert . Roquefort is a salty ,tangy cheese with a greyish crust and an inside that is moist and mottled with greenblue flecks. Another blue-veined cheese is Bleu de Bresse. Cantal , france's one major cheddar type cheese, is semi hard and smooth with light lemon colour inside. Saint-Paulin ,a cheese similar to Port - Salut, which was originally produced by Trappist Monks, a semi-hard hard, with a mild , fresh flavour and a very smooth and butter like texture. Reblochon, with an orange yellow crust, is a soft, pale, creamy coloured buttery cheese whose consistency is reminescent of that of Camembert but without Camembert's tendency to run. Because of its mildness it makes a good starting point for the timid taster whose palate has been exposed mostly to bland processed cheeses. Beaumont and Le Dauphinois resemble Reblochon in taste. Tomme de Savoie is a mild flavoured semi soft cheese, gentle to the inexperienced palate. Pont - L'Eveque is a square cheese with a soft and pale yellow interior. Its flavour is rich, hearty and aromatic. Fromage au Marc de Raisin, also called "La Grappe", is a pale, sweet, pastry cheese that is rolled in a crust of grape pulp or "Marc". Comte is a French version of Swiss Gruyere cheese , complete with holes. Its rind is stippled a yellowish brown colour and is slightly roughened; the inside is ivory-yellow. Sainte-Maure, Valencay and Saint-Marcellin are all goat cheeses, generally creamy, eaten when relatively fresh, and not found in quantity outside France. Mimolette resembles the Dutch Edam but has a tangier flavour. Munster is semi-soft, strong-flavoured and pungent. Boursin triple-creme and Belle Etoile triple creme are rich, fresh cheeses and are frequently eaten by themselves with a fork or spoon, perhaps with a little powdered sugar sprinkled over them to sweeten their flavour. All cheeses are best served at room temperature, removed from the refrigerator one to two hours before serving. They complement fruit as a light dessert and are most frequently used in this manner, but they are equally well suited to hors d' oeuvres and midday snacks.

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Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.25 TASK: French Cheese EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

21 CHEESES 1. Roquefort 2. Brie de Meaux 3. Camembert 4. Pont l' Eveque 5. Saint - Paulin 6. Cantal and Small Cantal 7. Sainte - Maure 8. Belle Etoille triple -creme 9. Le Dauphinois 10. Coulommiers 11. Valencay 12. Saint _ Marcellin 13. Comte 14. Reblochon 15. Fromage Au Marc de Raisin 16. Boursin triple - creme 17. Beaumont 18. Mimolette 19. Munster 20. Tomme De Savoie 21. Bleu De Bresse French Cheeses At A Glance The types marked with* have been awarded the seal of quality Appellation de Origine Controlee and are produced exclusively from raw and pasteurized milk. Fromages a croute fleurie-white mould cheese Brie de Meaux* Brie de Melun Brillat-Savarin Camembert* Chource* Coulommiers Neufchatel* Saint - Marcellin

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Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 3.25 DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: French Cheese JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT
Fromages a croute lavee- soft cheese with red mould Epoisdses* Langres* Liverot* Maroilles* Mont d'Or, Vacherin de Haut-Daubs* Munster, Munster Gerome* Pont l'Eveque Chevre- goat's cheese Cabecou Chabichou du Poitou* Charolais, Charolles Crottin de Chavignol* Montrachet Pelardon Picodon de L'Ardeche, Picodon de la Drome* Poivre d'ane Pouligny Saint Pierre* Saint Maure* Selles- sur-Cher* Fromages a pate persilles- blue veined cheese Bleu d'Auvergne* Bleu des Causses* Bleu du Haut- Jura, Bleu de Geux, Blue de Septmoncel* Fourme d'Ambert, Fourme de Montbrison* Roquefort* Fromages a pate presse non cuite- firm and semi firm cheeses Ardi - gasna Bethmale Cantal* Laguiole* Mimolette Morbier Ossau-Iraty* Reblochon* Saint-Nectaire* Salers* Tomme de Savoie

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.25 TASK: French Cheese EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

Fromages a pate presse cuite-hard cheeses Abondance Beaufort Comte, Gruyere de Comte* Fromages a croute fleurie-white mould cheese CAMEMBERT: The famous cheese from Normandy best when made from lait cru ( raw unpasteurised milk) COULOMMIERS: Brie from the Ile -de- France; each cheese weighs about one lb (500 g) SAINT MARCELLIN : A small cow's milk cheese from the Isere. BRIE DE MELUN: Comes in flat rounds about 11 inches (28cm) in diameter. After the usual four- week affinage its outer appearance resembles Brie de Meaux and its centre is smooth with a nutty flavour. Both types of Brie are Produced in Seine -et-Marne and neighboring departments. Quality not as good in the spring. BRILLAT SAVARIN: A very mild and very fatty cheese from Normandy with a slighty sour flavour. NEUFCHATEL: Best known when it comes in its heart shape and white, downy coating, this cheese is matured only briefly. It originates from the Seine-Maritime and there are records of it dating back to the eleventh century. CHAOURCE: Known since the middle ages, this cheese comes from the Champagne region and northern Burgundy. The cylindrical cheeses with their paper wrappers weigh about one pound (450 g) or half a pound (200 g). They are very creamy, with 50% fat by dried mass and a mushroom flavour. Best in the summer. BRIE DE MEAUX : The most famous of Bries and already held in high esteem by Charles the great. Today it is mostly manufactured in factories and tends to be fairly salty. It comes in flat rounds of 1 inch (2.5 cm) high and 14 inches (35 cm) in diameter. Fromages a croute lavee- soft cheeses with red mould PONT L'EVEQUE : This cheese from Normandy has been produced since the middle ages and comes in it's characteristic square shape weighing either 12 oz(350 g) or 14 oz (400g) .It is smooth and yellowish inside, with a distinctive , slightly nutty flavour. LIVAROT : this cheese comes from the heart of the Calvados region . On the sides , the rind is marked by strips of rushes ;inside the cheese is yellow and elastic MUNSTER, MUNSTER GEROME : A very tasty cheese made by Monks from the milk of mountain meadows of the Vosges. It comes in large flat rounds .

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.25 TASK: French Cheese EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

LANGRES : The smooth, thin , yellow rind of the young cheese becomes increasingly dark as it matures. Flowing texture, with a slightly, spicy flavour; best in the fall. VACHERIN MONT D'OR : Produced exclusively from raw unpasteurised milk, these cheeses mature on planks of spruce wood. MAROILLES: A renowned veteran amongst cheeses that have been highly valued since the middle ages. It comes in squares 5 inches (13 cm) long and 2 1/2 inches ( 6 cm ) high, with a shiny, brick red rind. Its strong bouquet and distinctive individual flavour make it a good accompaniment to beer. CHEVRE - GOAT CHEESE Goats are modest animals. They do not need lush grass and are equally satisfied with herbs, stalks, and the leaves of bushes and trees. For this reason goats are kept nearly everywhere in France .They mostly belong to the small agricultural concerns , which have little or only barren land at there disposal . Over the centuries various regions such as Poitou , Berry , Quercy, Province and Corsica, have acquired a reputation for their goat's cheese . after the second world war when agriculture was mechanized , many farmers turned away from goat breeding which had been an important part of a traditional and varied , but uneconomic way of farming. It received a boost however after the students' revolt of may 1968. Many young people meted to the country to try a more natural way of life . Their emblem became the goat . Even if most of the '68 generation eventually returned to the towns , those alternative people who stayed gradually gained a deeper appreciation of their new meteor. Fromage de chevre, or chevre for short , became their staple product and no week end market was complete without at least one stall selling goat's cheese. On average a goat can supply a gallon (4 litres) of milk a day , or 200 gallons (800 liters) a year . Goat's milk is richer in fat than either cow's or sheep's milk .The milk is heated up in a vat to about 900 F(330C). rennet is then added at a rate of about 1 fluid ounce to 25 gallons (30 ml to 100 lt.) . After a good half hour the milk curdles and the casein is transformed into a pudding like mass . This is divided into pieces with a so-called cheese harp., so that the whey can drain away. The cheese mass is now poured into containers , with holes in the base. In the case of hand made cheeses , the small format, made of about 2 pints ( 1 lt.) of milk is the most popular . Tradition may on the other hand may demand pyramid, rod or cylinder moulds . When the goat's cheese comes out of the mould it is soft, white , very creamy and has little taste. After a week , during which it looses a considerable volume through drying, it begins to develop it's typical aroma . By the end of the second week it has become considerably firmer and a soft yellowish or a light bluish crust has begun to form. A clear but mild aroma has started to develop. After 20 to 30 days it has the drying process. The crust now shows cracks and often has patches of mould . The longer it remains exposed to the air , the harder , drier and stronger -tasting the cheese become.

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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.25 TASK: French Cheese EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

Charolais, Charolles : From Burgundy : in 5 oz (150 g) cylinders ; often equal parts of goat's milk and cow's milk are used . Cabecou : A soft goat's or sheep's cheese from the Query, Perigord or Rouergue regions. Pouligny-Saint-Pierre : From the Loire region in the centre of France pieces of about half pound (250 g) . Selles-sur-Cher : These slightly tapering cylindrical cheese come from the southern Loire region . They are Dusted with a mixture of salt & charcoal before maturing & have a delicate nutty flavour. Picodon de l'Ardeche , Picodon de la Drome : Small , flat rounds that become increasingly tasty the longer they are left to mature. Pelardon : From the Cevennes . It has many variations and a mild , distinctive flavour. Crottin de Chavignol : small, rounded cheeses named after the Loire village in the Wine growing region of the sancerre wine. Chabichou du Poitou : Comes in small cylinders of 5 0z (150 g) and is rumored to have been introduced by the Moors. Poivre d'ane : "Donkey's pepper"from Provence. The semidry cheese are rolled in herbs , usually savory. Montrachet : A very mild and creamy cheese are rolled from Burgundy which is eaten young Saint-Maure : The best-known Chevre. The handmade, slightly bluish(otherwise white) rolled cheeses keep their shape by means of a straw running through the centre. Fromage a pate pressee non cuite - firm and semi-firm cheeses: Reblochon : Coming from the mountains of the Savoy region, these flat, round cheeses are sold whole or in halves. The cheeses are pressed slightly and washed several times. The yellow-orange rind is coated with white mold. The elastic , evenly smooth, creamy dough has a pleasantly mild taste somewhat reminiscent of hazelnut. a cow's milk cheese from the Pyrenees with a slightly spicy flavor. comes in medium-sized wheels with naturally matured rinds. This cheese used to be only in the Savoy from skimmed milk. The greyish-brown rind has reddish marks; the flavour is intense. A firm sheep's cheese (purbrebis) from the Basque country which is often eaten with cherry jam. This cheese comes from Comte region and has a characteristic has stripe through the centre. A pure , firm sheep's cheese from the valleys and mountain pastures of the western Ossau is situated in the Bearn region . Italy in the French Basque country. The cheeses are pressed only lightly and have to mature for at least three months. Ossau-Iraty has a hard rind, a smooth texture with few holes , and delicious, distinctive , nutty flavours. It is best in November and December.

Bethmale : Tomme de savole : Ardi-gasna : Morbier : Ossau-Iraty : Pyrenees.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.25 TASK: French Cheese EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

Salers :

A Cantal cheese which is, however, produced only from the milk of Salers cows grazing on the pastures . Comes in high cylinders of weights between 70 and 90 lb. (35 & 45 kg.) Cantal : The best known hard cheese from the southern part of the Massif Central. Mimolette : Originally imported from Holland,this cheese is now produced in France. It is a firm cheese of a reddish colour and with few holes. Laguiole : Closely related to the Cantal . This cheese comes from the high Aubrac plateau; made by hand and ripened for between 4 and 10 months. Saint-Nectaire : This cheese has been produced over the last 1,000 years but did not become famous until sampled by Louis XIV. The semi-firm , double pressed cheese made from raw milk and matured in damp cellars.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO
To learn about the most Important and basic food Ingredients around the globe. Edible plants, parts of plants and products of plants are the Biggest source of our daily meal. Because of their rich content of minerals and vitamins. With barley which was Cultivated more than 7000 years ago it was the first type of grain and most important Basic food ingredient. Rice and wheat have been cultivated for over 5000 years In the tropics like south east Asia, middle and south America.

TASK #: 3.26 TASK: Grain & Cereals EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

Corn: For vegetable oil, starch, flour, corn flakes, salads, Vegetable and pasta. Rice: The most important basic food source for the majority of the world population in China, Japan India and South East Asia. The most important pulse are: Borlotti beans for soups and salads. Bretonne beans for soups, vegetable, puree, salads Cannellini beans for Italian dishes and salads Kidney beans for vegetable and salads Black beans for South American dishes White beans for vegetables and salads Peas for vegetables, soups and puree Lentils for vegetables, soups, salads and puree

To use the most important basic ingredients for various Dishes and production.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.27 TASK: Rice EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT
INTRODUCTION It would be hard to overestimate the importance of grain in life of human beings .They are seeds; compact packages that contain a plants embryo with enough food for them to develops. As they are concentrated sources of protein and carbohydrate and can be stored for a long time, the edible seeds have played a important role in human nutrition and cultural evolution. One such grain is rice, which is of great importance to us. It belongs to the family of grass called GRAMINEAE and is the principle food crop to half of the worlds population. It is staple food of many heavily populated countries of the world including China, India, Japan, Korea etc. Rice is a native of the Indian subcontinent,(a minor species is found in Africa).There are two main races of the Asian rice: 1) INDICA ,2) JAPONICA.Indica is the major race grown throughout monsoon Asia and this provides 90% of the worlds crop. It is well adapted to the Asian condition of low soil fertility, uncertain weather and poor water control. Japonica variety is found in the temperate zones of Japan and Korea and few other countries. These are high yielding variety of rice . Alexander the great brought rice to Europe in 300BC but large quantities were grown only in 8 th century A.D. Today Italy is Europes largest producer and the only major producer. There are about 2500 types of rice, some with red, blue or even purple coloration, but the one factor of distinction is that Indica rice is long grained and flaky and easily separated while Japonica is short grained, moist, and sticky due to high content of waxy starch

RICE STRUCTURE AND FARMING Rice is an annual grass, that grows from 2 to 6 feet in height. It is a shallow rooted plant with single or multiple stems, long smooth leaves and flowers in the shape of pinnacles. Most rice producing region of the world are tropical or sub-tropical. Rice can be grown in flooded fields or dry land. Rice grown on dry land is called upland rice and accounts for 10% of world rice acerage. It is not very popular. The growing season for rice is 4-6 months and therefore 2 or 3 crops can be taken in a single year. It requires a good amount of rainfall, good irrigation and well flooded areas. Rice is ready for harvesting when the grain in the lower part is hard and dry and the grain in the upper part is fully ripe. The water in the fields is fully dried before harvesting.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.27 TASK: Rice EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

MILLING OF RICE As rice is consumed as individual grains and not as flour, rice milling is a much more complex process. First the hull is removed leaving the brown rice with the layers of bran. Next an abrasive process removes the bran, resulting in milled unpolished rice. Polishing in a wire brush machine, next removes the aleurone layer or the fat layer which otherwise limits the storage life. Today this rice is fortified with vitamin solution applied outside the grain. The development of mechanical milling and polishing has cut production costs but at an unforeseen price. In late 19th century the disease BERI-BERI reached epidemic proportion in Asia due to depletion of thiamin from the fat layer of rice. The disease was uncommon before as polished rice was expensive and the rich consumers diet was supplemented by other foods. TYPES OF RICE There are two main factors that determine the type of rice available to the caterer. A) The size and shape of the grain; Short grain rice(Carolina rice):This is short, plump grain which sticks on cooking. Medium grain : Slightly longer than short grain and narrow. Similar to short grain on cooking. Long grain (Patna rice): The grain is 4 to 5 times as wide as the thickness of the grain. On cooking the grains tend to remain dry and separate and fluffy. B)The type of processing of the grain; - Regular milled: This is the rice that has been cleaned but has not been subjected to any cooking process. This can be divided as brown, milled unpolished and polished rice. - Converted or parboiled rice; Here the whole grain is steeped in water, steamed and dried before milling. This partial pre cooking makes milling easier and the rice more nutritive and rich in thiamin which prevents beri-beri. There are many sub varieties of rice depending upon the above mentioned processes; The important ones are i) Brown Italian rice ii) Basmati rice: The most famous and aromatic rice, grown in the foothills of the Himalayas, it is narrow, long grained rice iii) Glutinous rice: This is completely gluten free and widely used in Chinese cooking. In this a black and a while variety are available. iv) Italian rice: A fat short grained rice, very good for risottos. v) Pudding rice: A short grain strain of polished rice which turns mushy when cooked.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.27 TASK: Rice EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

This distant cousin of rice is a native of the great lakes region of North America, where it grows in shallow lakes and marshes. Originally gathered by hand from the wild it is no more truly wild as nowadays it is being cultivated in fields. Despite of this the rice is still very expensive. This rice is processed more elaborately than normal rice. It is first fermented for a week or two to develop flavour and ease hulling and then heated gently to partly gelatinize starch and cause some browning. Wild rice contains more proteins than ordinary rice and is a favourite of the gourmet chef. RICE -THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT Rice has been an integral part of Indian culture, tradition and culinary heritage since the dawn of time. It is a must in many prayer ceremonies and festivals and without it Indian food will be incomplete in any part of the country. As India has tropical and a sub tropical climate it is ideally suited for the cultivation of rice and in most of the rice growing areas we can find three crops being taken in an year. Rice is grown almost all over the country right from Jammu and Kashmir down to Tamil Nadu. It was staple food of the people in the states of J and K, Kerala, Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and the 7 eastern states and this was where the bulk of the rice was grown till the Green Revolution took place and, Punjab and Haryana came into the picture in a big way.

There are two types of rice being grown in India: A) The long grain rice. B)The short grain rice. Long grain rice: This is grown mainly in the northern and the south eastern part of the country and is used for the many renowned rice recipes of the country. This is available in the aromatic and the non aromatic types. The aromatic rice is grown extensively in the foothills of the Himalayas and in the state of Andhra where it is used for the famous Biryanis. The best of the aromatic rice comes from Dehradoon and this is famous the world over. Short grain rice: This is cultivated mainly in the 7 eastern states and the southern part of India. These parts of the country have a thin gravy as a part of their food and this sticky variety of rice goes well with it. The most famous of this is the Nellore rice which is used for a variety of South Indian Breakfast and Fast food items like Aapam, Dosas etc. There is another peculiar variety of this rice grown in Assam which is red in colour. This rice is used for preparing auspicious meals.

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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.27 TASK: Rice EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT
CULINARY USES OF RICE Rice has been a very important food grain along with wheat, in helping man to change over from the nomadic stage to the agriculturist. It has a very varied use as a food commodity. Rice is consumed all over the middle east, the orient and in parts of Europe. It is used both in hot and cold foods. Hot Preparations: All over the world in whichever country we go to we can find rice being prepared as a accompaniment or a meal in itself. The most famous preparations of rice over the world are the Rissotto from Italy, the Paella form Spain, the pulaos and the biryanis from India and the various fried rice dishes from China. India: In India , as we have already discussed rice plays a major role in food. In the northern part the people prefer the long grain rice which stays separate and fluffy on cooking and use it to accompany the thicker gravies and prepare the Biryanis of which the Sofyani Biryani is a fine example while kheer is renowned dessert. While in the southern part the short grain rice which is the stickier variety, is preferred as the food accompaniment and to prepare various rice based dishes due to the high content of waxy starch molecules which give a better binding for the product required. Cold preparations: Rice is also used to prepare a wide variety of cold food of which the desserts are a major part. A variety of cold rice based sweets can be offered on menus. They are typically substantial because of their starch content which is often enriched with cream and egg yolk. However interesting combinations using fruits and glazes result in interesting combinations. Essentially the ability of short grain rice to absorb liquid, to act as a cohesive agent and to undergo the process of starch gelatinisation on cooking provides the setting quality associated with cold rice based desserts, additional things like egg, cream, sugar and essences act to enrichen and flavour and in case of sugar also to soften the texture of the starch gel. BYPRODUCTS OF RICE: 1)Rice flour: This is clean milled rice, usually broken rice that has been ground and sifted into flour. It is used as a thickening agent and for making special cakes. It is also used for a variety of south Indian fast food snacks. 2)Rice Cones: This is a coarse flour and is used in the bakery trade for dusting yeast products to prevent them from sticking. Another use is for making the famous Indian dessert called Firnee. 3)Rice Paper: An edible paper like base for macaroons and sweets. 4)Puffed Rice: A byproduct of rice similar to popcorn which is used for making fast food products in India. RICE AS CONVENIENCE FOOD Rice has now joined the ranks of convenience foods in the form instant rice, which is commercially cooked and dried and merely requires soaking in hot water. Another variety of this is the one which after being milled is cooked to three fourth of the required amount and then the grain is bored through to facilitate the cooking process and thereby reducing the cooking time considerably.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 3.28 DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Pasta, Dumplings, Rice JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT WHY Anellini, in broths To prepare the different Noodles: basic sauces and their Bucatini, with pesto and pancetta 400g flour extended recipes. 100g semolina, cream of Capellini, angel hair, in broth and tomato sauce wheat We differ between 5 EA eggs - pasta dishes Farfalle, butterflies, simple oil and tomato sauces 1 EA egg yolk - gnocchi dishes olive oil, water - corn dishes Fettuccelle, little ribbons, with cream sauces Bavarian dumplings: - whole wheat dishes 400g flour Gnocchi, in butter sauces 100g semolina, cream of wheat Cooking of pasta: - Cook pasta in lots Linguine, with pesto, oil and clam sauces 5 EA eggs boiling 100g milk Saltwater, 1:5 Lumache, use with ragu, tomato and buttersauces 100g water - 100g salt per 1 ltr 10g salt, nutmeg water Macceroni, with ragu, tomato sauce Ravioli dough: - Add vegetable oil to 600g flour Prevent foam of Penne, with chunky tomato sauce, meat sauce 5 EA eggs protein 50g sun flower oil - Pour into strainer Rigatoni, with meat,-sausage,-tomato,-vegetable 100g water and sauces Potato gnocchi: Onto tray, mix with 1200g potatoes, cooked oil Spaghetti, with oil based, meat and tomato sauce with skin As soon as al 200g flour dente Tagliatelle, with cream sauces 3 EA eggs - Cook pasta a`la salt, pepper, nutmeg minute Vermicelli, with butter, cheese & tomato sauces Risotto: As much as possible 50g olive oil Ziti, for soups, ragu, meat & vegetable sauces 150g onions, chopped Golden rule of pasta: Freshly made pasta dishes: 2 EA garlic, chopped - Never overcook Ravioli 600g vialone rice - Never overdrain - Canneloni 1,8 L beef stock - Never oversauce - Tortelini 150g white wine, butter - Never overuse - Lasagna bay leaf, grated Swiss spice/seasoning - Anolini cheese - Use best quality, - Pansotti Freshest ingredients - Agnolotti PREPARED BY: APPROVED BY: Stefan Schmid Position: Signature: Position: Director of Signature:

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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.29 TASK: Pasta EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

Introduction and History The history of pasta eating in Italy has been the subject of a great debate, but historical records show that the ancient Romans ate pasta as long ago as the 4th or 5th centuries BC, and therefore most people believe that the Etruscans introduced pasta into Italy. The exact nutritional value of commercial pasta varies, but most good quality brands contain as much as 13 % protein as well as vitamins, minerals and a small amount of fat. Although pasta is high in carbohydrate, it is usually the sauce served with it that is more fattening than the pasta itself. Pastas popularity has always been its adaptability. It can come in many different forms, with taste differences and visual variety; it is cheap, quickly and easily prepared; it can be a meal in itself or eaten with other foods such as meat and vegetables. Pasta has a high nutritional value and is an easily digested source of energy. The finest commercial pasta is made of durum wheat, mostly imported from Canada. When buying commercial pasta it is wise to read the label on the packet to ensure that this kind wheat has been used. Durum wheat is one of the hardest varieties of wheat, and when making pasta only the endosperm of the grain kernel is milled into semolina, which is then mixed with water to make the dough. Dried pasta, like spaghetti and other tubular varieties, is more common in southern Italy and abroad than it is in the north of Italy, where the pasta is more likely to be the flat kind, often made with fresh eggs. It is difficult to imagine many Italians surviving without it. In fact, when the first Italian immigrants began arriving in the united states at the end of the 19th century, ships from southern Italy laden with pasta soon followed them. By 1913 almost 700,000 tons were being exported to the states. Old historians have long debated the origin of pasta. Marco polo has been attributed with discovering it in china and bringing it back to Italy in 1295, but Italian historians claim pasta was known and used in Italy before Marco Polo was even born. Sicilians say they invented it, and provide references to macarruni in literature as proof. Italians have been making pasta for centuries. Although it has evolved into many different shapes, the basic ingredients are still the SAME. There are two main categories: flour- and- water pasta, and egg pasta. It is important to understand the characteristics of each. The former category includes packed pastas such as spaghetti, tubes and many special shapes. They are sturdy and work well with spicy, zesty sauces and with olive oil- based ones. This pasta is referred to as shop bought pasta and it is best when factory made. Industrial strength machines are necessary to knead the hard dough, and humidity and temperature controlled chambers are required to dry the final shapes so that they will not crack and break when cooked.

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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.29 TASK: Pasta EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

Making pasta Making pasta at home is not a difficult task. Once the dough is mixed it should be kneaded thoroughly until very, very smooth, elastic and free from lumps. To prevent the dough from drying out and cracking after kneading and before rolling, it should be wrapped in a cloth wrung out in warm water, then left to rest for about ten minutes. Rolling and stretching the dough requires the most time, as the dough has to be so paper thin that it is almost possible to see through it. It must be dusted frequently with flour throughout this process, as it tends to become very sticky with constant handling. Recipe for pasta all'uovo(plain egg pasta) Makes about 350g / 12oz pasta 2 cups all purpose flour 2 eggs 2 teaspoons oil 1/2 teaspoon salt A little water Sift the flour onto a work surface and make a well in the center. Put the eggs, oil and salt into the well and mix together with the fingertips. Gradually draw the flour into the egg mixture and knead together, adding a little water if the dough seems dry. Dust the work surface with flour and knead the dough firmly until smooth and elastic. Wrap in cling film and set aside for about 1 hour. Roll out the dough on a lightly floured surface ,first in one direction and then the other ,until it is paper-thin. Dust lightly with flour and leave to rest for 10 to 20 minutes to allow the pasta to dry is then ready to be cut into the required shapes. After cutting the dough leave it for about 10 minutes to dry out before cooking. Hints on cooking The success of a pasta dish depends on the correct cooking of the pasta one has chosen to use. First, the proportion of water to pasta is important. Too little, and the pasta will be crowded and unable to cook evenly. It will be gluey as the relatively small amount of water becomes starch laden. There can never be too much water. Use a minimum of 1 gallon(4 lit.) Water to every 1 lb(450 g) more if cooking dried it absorbs more water. Use a very large the water to a rolling boil. Just before putting in the pasta add a dash of oil(to help prevent sticking) and a large pinch of salt to help bring out the flavour .once the pasta is in, stir to move it off the bottom of the pot. When the water comes back to a boil start timing, maintaining a slow rolling boil. Do not stir too often, as this tends to release excess starch.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.29 TASK: Pasta EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

The pasta is done when it is al dente-tender, but with some resistance to the bite. If the pasta is overcooked it cannot physically support the rest of the ingredients and won't allow for an even distribution of the sauce. next, stir in a little oil or melted butter. this helps with the final saucing and keeps the pasta from sticking together. All purpose flour is usually used when making egg pasta. it gives a fine textured, light dough that is well suited to filled pastas such as ravioli, as it gives the pasta good elasticity.the addition of durum wheat semolina gives a better colour, more flavour and a resilient texture, as well as providing the benefits of hard wheat flours. A maximum of two thirds semolina and one third all purpose flour is the recommended proportion of semolina to all purpose flour. Eggs used should be the freshest available, as their freshness influences not only the proportion of eggs to flour is 1 flavour and color of the pasta ,but also the elastic quality of the dough. the standard medium ONE EGG TO EVERY 3/4 CUP(185 ml) FLOUR, AND A PINCH OF SALT IS GENERALLY ADDED. THE ONLY EQUIPMENT ONE NEEDS IS A BOARD AND A LONG ROLLING PIN. HOWEVER, A FOOD PROCESSOR TAKES THE LABOUR OUT OF MIXING,AND A HAND-CRANKED PASTA MACHINE SIMPLIFIES AND TAKES THE GUESSWORK OUT OF ROLLING AND CUTTING The latter category of pasta is made with flour and eggs and is usually referred to as homemade egg pasta or simply homemade pasta. It is made with a soft wheat flour known in Italy as "00" and roughly equivalent to plain or all purpose flour. The recipe for the dough varies slightly depending on the region. In Tuscany, some olive oil and salt are added, and in liguria a little water is used. But in Emilia-Romagna, which is known for producing the finest homemade pasta and is the birthplace of tagliatelle, tagliolini, lasagna, and several stuffed pastas, the dough is made using only flour and eggs and nothing else(except for spinach or tomato pasta). Egg pasta is able to absorb sauces more readily than flour and water ,shop bought pasta, and so is well suited to butter and cream based sauces, and to milder sauces that match its delicate texture. With sauces where olive oil is prominent, egg pasta would absorb too much oil and become slick & glummy. Egg pasta, unlike shop bought pasta, should be made at home. The finest homemade pasta is porous, delicately textured and very thin, a result that can be achieved only by kneading the dough by hand and thinning it out with a rolling pin. Cold is pasta's greatest enemy. One should avoid cold surface when making it, and the best way to store it is to let it dry completely and then keep it at room temperature. It is of no importance whether pasta is "FRESH "OR NOT.

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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.29 TASK: Pasta EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

PASTA MAKING EQUIPMENT THESE ARE ALL THE TOOLS ONE WILL NEED TO MAKE HOMEMADE EGG PASTA.ONE CAN GET BY WITHOUT A PASTA MACHINE IF ONE LEARNS TO ROLL AND CUT PASTA BY HAND. # 1 DOUGH SCRAPER: THIS IS MADE OF FLEXIBLE METAL OR PLASTIC AND IS USED FOR SCRAPING THE STICKY EGG AND FLOUR MIXTURE OFF THE WORK SURFACE BEFORE KNEADING. # 2 FORK : THIS IS USED TO BEAT THE EGGS IN THE FLOUR WELL AND TO DRAW IN THE FLOUR UNTIL THE MIXTURE IS THICK ENOUGH TO BE KNEADED. # 3 SMOOTH,WARM SURFACE: TRADITIONALLY PASTA DOUGH IS MADE ON A LARGE WOODEN BOARD. A LAMINATED PLASTIC SURFACE, SUCH AS FORMICA OR LAMINEX,ALSO WORKS WELL.COLD SURFACES SUCH AS MARBLE OR METAL ARE NOT SUITABLE. # 4 TEA TOWEL : ONE NEEDS SEVERAL CLEAN AND DRY TEA TOWELS TO ABSORB THE MOISTURE FROM FRESHLY MADE PASTA BEFORE IT IS CUT,COOKED OR STORED. # 5 CLING FILM : WHEN PASTA DOUGH IS NOT BEING WORKED ON, IT MUST BE WRAPPED TIGHTLY IN CLING FILM TO PREVENT IT FROM DRYING AND FORMING A CRUST ON THE SURFACE. # 6 PASTA MACHINE : THE MACHINE HAS ROLLERS TO THIN OUT THE PASTA AND CUTTERS TO PRODUCE RIBBONS OF VARIOUS WIDTHS.ONE CAN OPERATE IT WITH A HAND CRANK OR AN OPTIONAL ELECTRIC MOTOR.THE MOTOR IS LESS TIRING TO USE, FREES BOTH HANDS AND ENABLES ONE TO PRODUCE MORE EVENLY ROLLED SHEETS. # 7 PIPING BAG : ONE CAN PLACE FILLINGS ON A SHEET OF PASTA WITH A TEASPOON, BUT A PIPING BAG WILL MAKE THE JOB EASIER AND FASTER. # 8 ROLLING PIN : THE TRADITIONAL PASTA ROLLING PIN USED IN BOLOGNA IS 4cm (1.5 in) THICK AND 80cm (32 in) LONG,WITH ROUNDED SMOOTH ENDS.HOWEVER, A ROLLING PIN UPTO 5cm THICK AND ATLEAST 60cmLONG IS FINE FOR UPTO 3 EGGS' WORTH OF DOUGH.

PREPARED BY:

APPROVED BY:

Stefan Schmid

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Position: Signature: Position: Director of Date: Food & Beverage

Signature: Date:

Page 5 of 7

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.29 TASK: Pasta EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

# 9 PASTRY CUTTER : THIS ROLLING CUTTER IS USED FOR CUTTING AND SEALING STUFFED PASTA AND FOR CUTTING RIBBONS WITH FLUTED EDGES. # 10 BISCUIT CUTTERS : STRAIGHT OR FLUTED BISCUIT CUTTERS IN VARIOUS DIAMETERS ARE IDEAL FOR CUTTING CIRCLES OF PASTA FOR STUFFING. MAKING FILLED PASTA THE THINLY ROLLED SHEETS SHOULD BE KEPT UNDER A DAMP TEA TOWEL OR PIECES OF PLASTIC WRAP AND USED QUICKLY.HAVE THE FILLING READY BEFORE THE PASTA SO ONE IS READY TO GO AS SOON AS THE DOUGH IS MADE.THERE ARE THREE MAIN WAYS OF MAKING FILLEDE SHAPES: a} USING A MOULD : THESE ARE TRAYS PRESSED WITH THE GROOVES AND RIDGES OF DIFFERENT SHAPED AND SIZED RAVIOLI,WHICH USUALLY COME WITH THEIR OWN LITTLE ROLLING PIN TO SEAL AND CUT THE DOUGH AROUND THE FILLING.THEY ARE USEFUL WNEN A UNIFORMLY SIZED AND CUT PASTA IS DESIRED. b} SHEETED FILLING : THIS IS A SUCCESSFUL WAY OF MAKING MANY RAVIOLI QUICKLY.CUT TWO SHEETS OF DOUGH, ONE SLIGHTLY BIGGER THAN THE OTHER.ON THE SMALLER SHEET PLACE SPOONFULS OF FILLING AT EVEN INTERVALS, THEN BRUSH ALONG THE INTENDED CUTTING LINES WITH BEATEN EGG.POSITION THE LARGER SHEET OF PASTA OVER THE TOP NEATLY AND RUN OVER THE CUTTING LINES WITH YOUR FINGER TO MAKE SURE THAT BOTH SHEETS OF PASTA ARE TOUCHING TOGETHER.NOW CUT THE SHAPES OUT WITH A FLOURED PASTRY WHEEL.THE BEST ONE TO USE IS A CUTTER CRIMPER THAT CUTS AND SEALS AT THE SAME TIME.A ZIGZAG WHEEL IS ALSO EFFECTIVE. c} FOLDED BY HAND : THIS METHOD GIVES A WELL SEALED RAVIOLI AS EACH ONE IS PRESSED TOGETHER BY HAND. WORKING WITH ONE PASTA SHEET AT A TIME,CUT OUT THE SHAPES REQUIRED (ROUND FOR A HALF MOON RAVIOLI;SQUARES FOR TRIANGLES;RECTANGLES FOR SQUARES)AND BRUSH THE BORDERS WITH BEATEN EGG.PLACE A SPOONFUL OF FILLING TO ONE SIDE OF THE CENTRE LINE OF EACH.FOLD THE DOUGH OVER THE FILLING TO MATCH CORRESPONDING EDGES,PRESS BETWEEN THE FINGERS AND THEN SEAL THE CUT EDGE WITH A PASTRY CUTTER.PLACE FINISHED STUFFED PASTA IN A TRAY OR PLATE DUSTED WITH FLOUR AND STORE IN THE REFRIGERATOR BEFORE COOKING

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com PREPARED BY: APPROVED BY: Position: Signature: Date: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date: Page 6 of 7

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.29 TASK: Pasta EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

CHEESES USED IN PASTA COOKERY PARMIGIANO REGGIANO : PARMESAN OR PARMIGIANO, IS THE MOST FAMOUS OF ALL GRANA CHEESES WHICH ARE PRODUCED IN NORTHERN AND CENTRAL ITALY. GRANA IS SIMPLY THE COLLECTIVE TERM USED BY ITALIANS TO DESCRIBE MATURED HARD[GRAINY]CHEESE,OF WHICH THERE ARE MANY TYPES eg., GRANA PADANO ,GRANA LODIGIANO.ONLY GRANA THAT HAS BEEN MADE AROUND THE TOWN OF PARMA CAN ACTUALLY BEAR THE NAME OF PARMIGIANO REGGIANO. PECORINO ROMANO : A HARD COUNTRY CHEESE,OFTEN USED INSTEAD OF PARMESAN FOR GRATING COOKING.UNLIKE PARMESAN ,PECORINO IS A QUICK MATURING CHEESE READY TO EAT WITHIN EIGHT MONTHS.OF THE SEVERAL VARIETIES PRESENT, PECORINO ROMANO IS CONSIDERED TO BE THE BEST. PASTA SAUCES THE PASTA SAUCES HERE ARE SOME OF THE MORE POPULAR TRADITIONAL ONES. 1] AGLIO E OLIO : PUT OLIVE OIL AND FINELY CHOPPED GARLIC IN A LARGE SAUTE PAN OVER A MEDIUM HIGH HEAT. WHEN THE GARLIC BEGINS TI CHANGE COLOUR,ADD FINELY CHOPPED FINE LEAF PARSLEY,CRUSHED CHILLIES AND SOME SALT. STIR WELL AND REMOVE. PASTA CHOICE: SPAGHETTINI 2] ALL'ARRABIATA : SAUTE FINELY CHOPPED GARLIC IN EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL.ADD PANCETTA STRIPS, TOMATO CONCASSE AND SHREDDED FRESH BASIL. SEASON WITH SALT AND FINISH WITH FRESHLY GRATED PECORINO ROMANO CHEESE. {PANCETTA : THIS IS SALTED RAW BELLY OF PORK WHICH IS USED IN MANY ITALIAN DISHES.THIS IS USED AS A BASIS FOR RAGU & SOUPS TO GIVE EXTRA FLAVOUR AND BODY.} PASTA CHOICE : PENNE

PREPARED BY:

APPROVED BY:

Stefan Schmid

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Position: Signature: Date: Position: Director of Food & Beverage Signature: Date: Page 7 of 7

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.29 TASK: Pasta EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

3] PESTO DI BASILICO ALLA GENOVESE : BASIL PESTO MIXED WITH GRATED PARMESAN AND GRATED PECORINO. PASTA CHOICE : TRENETTE

4] BURRO E POMDORO : SAUTE CHOPPER ONIONS IN BUTTER.WHEN SLIGHTLY COLOURED PUT IN FRESH PLUM TOMATO CONCASSE.FINISH WITH GRATED PARMIGIANO. PASTA CHOICE : BUCATINI

5] PUTTANESCA : PUTTANA MEANS WHORE AND THIS IS THE PASTA DISH WHICH SHE WOULD USE TO SEDUCE HER CLIENTS. * SAUTE FINELY CHOPPED GARLIC IN EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL.PUT IN CHOPPED ANCHOVY FILLETS AS WELL AS TOMATO CONCASSE ALONGWITH FRESH OREGANO, CAPERS AND SLICED BLACK OLIVES. PASTA CHOICE : TAGLIATELLE

6] ALL'ALFREDO : MELT BUTTER.PUT IN CREAM,SALT, FRESH GROUND PEPPER AND FRESHLY GRATED NUTMEG. PASTA CHOICE : FETTUCCINE

7] CARBONARA : MIX RAW EGG YOLKS WITH GRATED PARMESAN AND PECORINO,CHOPPED PARSLEY, SALT AND PEPPER.IN A PAN, HEAT BUTTER AND OLIVE OIL . LIGHTLY FRY THIN PANCETTA STRIPS AND ADD DRY WHITE WINE.COMBINE THIS WITH THE RAW EGG YOLK MIXTURE. PASTA CHOICE : SPAGHETTI

PREPARED BY:

APPROVED BY:

Stefan Schmid

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Position: Signature: Position: Director of Date: Food & Beverage

Signature: Date:

Page 1 of 2

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.30 TASK: Pizza EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com


The pizza has become a universally popular food, in every form from the genuine article-thin, crisp and oven baked - to frozen and fast food pizzas slices. The delightful aroma of freshly baked pizza topped with tomatoes, fresh herbs and cheese rarely fails to have a mouth- watering effect. History Of The Pizza Although there is much speculation about where pizza in its simplest form was first invented, it is usually associated with the old Italian city of Naples . It was then a simple street food, richly flavoured and quickly made. It was not always round and flat as we know it today, but was originally folded up like a book, with the filling inside, and eaten by hand. Pizzas were usually sold on the streets by street criers who carried them around in copper cylindrical drums kept hot by coal from the pizza ovens. The word 'pizza' actually means any kind of pie. The classic Napolitana pizza is probably the best-known of the many varieties. This consists of a thin crust of dough topped simply with a fresh tomato sauce, mozzarella cheese, olives anchovies and a sprinkling of oregano. When baked, the flavours blend perfectly together to give the distinctive aromatic pizza. Another classic is the 'Margarita' pizza, named after the Italian Queen margherita . Bored with the usual cuisine when on a visit to Naples, she asked to sample a local speciality. The local 'piazziaolo ' created a pizza in the colours of the Italian flag- red tomatoes, green basil and white Mozzarella. The Queen Was delighted, and it became widely celebrated. Fortunately for the busy cook, pizzas are an easy food to chill or freeze, ready to be cooked on demand. There is a wide range of ready-made pizza bases as well as dry mixes which only need the addition of water before they are ready for kneading and baking THE PIZZA BASE Although making your own base can be a little time consuming, the method is very straight forward, and you end up with a delicious home baked dish, as well as a sense of achievement. The ingredients are very basic: YEAST There are three types of yeast available: fresh, dried and easy blend. fresh is usually found in health food shops and is not expensive. Buy in bulk and freeze in 15g quantities ready to use whenever needed. FLOUR: Traditional pizza bases are made from bread dough, which is usually made with strong plain bread flour. Whole meal flour may also be used, a handful of wheat germ or bran is added at times for flavour, fibre and appeal. OIL: For the best flavour always use a good quality olive oil, such as extra virgin.

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Stefan Schmid Signature: Date: Page 2 of 2

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.30 TASK: Pizza EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com HOW TO DO IT TOPPINGS There are a number of classic ingredients that can be used regularly in pizza toppings. These include tomato sauce, olives, anchovies, capers, mushrooms, ( bell ) peppers, artichokes and chilies as well as cheese and herbs. Be adventurous and experiment, but don't be afraid to stick to simple combinations of just two or three ingredients. The simplest pizzas are often the most delicious and memorable as the flavours don't fight each other. SUCCESSFUL BAKING The Secret of a crisp, chewy base is to bake at a very high temperature for a short time as possible. Traditionally, pizzas are cooked in special ovens on a stone hearth. A large peel or paddle is used to slide in and out. Baking on a pizza stone produces the best results at home. Alternatively, use a baking sheet or a perforated pizza pan- the holes allow the heat and air to reach the centre of the base, resulting in a crisp, evenly cooked crust. Always push up the edge of the dough to form a rim to prevent the topping from spilling over while it cooks. As pizza slices are easy to eat by hand, they make great party food. Crisp salads, coleslaw and garlic bread are ideal accompaniments and help to make up a balanced meal. Because of their rich flavour pizzas are best served with Italian table wine such as Valpolicella, Chianti or a well- chilled Frascati. Beer too goes well with pizza. Follow a pizza meal with a refresher dessert such as fresh fruit salad, sorbet or ice-cream. Four seasons: traditional pizza on which the toppings are divided into four sections to depict a season of the year. Calabrian pizza: Traditionally this pizza

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date: Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO TASK #: 3.31 TASK: Vegetable EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com To learn about basic daily Food ingredients Fresh, frozen, canned and dried vegetable are the most important source of nutrition For mankind. Vegetarian meals become more and more popular for Most cultures. Artichokes Eggplants Cauliflower Green Beans Broccoli Chicoree, Belgian Endive Chinese Cabbage Peas Fennel Cucumber, Garlic Celery, Leeks Peppers Red, green cabbage Tomatoes Asparagus Onions Zucchini Variations of salads, radish , Brussels sprouts To use fresh vegetables according to season and availability

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date: Page 1 of 2

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.32 TASK: Vegetable & Preparation EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT


To prepare the different basic Vegetable cuts, dishes and the assorted preparation techniques.

WHY
In order not to waste vitamins And nutrition, vegetable Need special care as: Short term washing, proper storage, preparation in small Quantities, keep raw as much as possible.

Vegetables preparations are:


Blanched Glazed Gratinated Braised Simmered Steamed Sauteed Deep-fried

Kind of vegetable: Artichokes Eggplants Cauliflower Broccoli Brussel sprouts Endive Green peas Fennel Green beans Cucumber Celery Carrots Kohlrabi Leeks Bell peppers Red cabbage Green cabbage Asparagus Spinach White radish Zucchini Onions Peppers PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date: APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage Stefan Schmid Signature: Date: Page 2 of 2

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK #: 3.32 TASK: Vegetable & Preparation

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT

WHY

Vegetable Cuts:
Brunoise, jardiniere, macedoine Chiffonnade, julienne, allumettes, batonnets Paysanne, vichy, demidov Matignon, (fish consomme) printaniere Mirepoix, Bouquet garni

Vegetable garnishes:
- with butter - bordelaise, with marrow - with crme sauce - with demi glace - with croutons - with pastry cup/half moon - with cheese sauce - with polonaise - with herbs - with veloute - with hollandaise

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position:

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date: Page 1 of 2

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK #: 3.33 TASK: Salads

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT
To prepare the different basic Salads, for side dishes, Appetizers, main course and Combination salads

WHY

Simple salads: - leaf salads - salads from sprouts - raw vegetables salads - cooked vegetable salads - salads of beans Mixed salads: - combination of fresh vegetable, cooked, nuts, fruits, sprouts, Salad variations: - mushroom salads - combinations with meat, sausage, fish, smoked fish or seafood, poultry, game, roast meats Fresh salad leafs: Chicoree Endive Chinese cabbage Batavia salad Ice berg salad Romaine lettuce Butter head Lollo rosso Mache salad, nuessli Spinach Radicchio

Raw vegetable salads: Avocado, English celery, celery Fennel, cucumber, carrots, pepperoni Bell pepper, radish, red cabbage, green cabbage, sauerkraut, tomatoes, zucchini

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date: Page 2 of 2

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK #: 3.33 TASK: Salad

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT

WHY

Cooked vegetables: artichokes, cauliflower broccoli, green beans potatoes, carrots, celery, leeks, kernel corn mushrooms, white and green asparagus

Salad dressings: - oil & vinegar - French dressing - Italian dressing - Crme dressing - Sour crme - Roquefort dressing - Yogurt - soy sauce & sesame oil - wasabi & vegetable oil - white wine - red wine - fruit vinaigrette To use the right dressing for Various salads and combination salads

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date: Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.34 TASK: Potatoes & Mushrooms EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT


To get familiar with the most Basic ingredient used in Europe, North and South America Potatoes have been used by the Incas in Peru Already 4000 years ago. Around 1573 Spanish sailors brought them to Spain where spread all over Europe. They contain 18% starch and are used in many Different recipes and preparations throughout The culinary world. Potatoes should be stored in dark rooms, with Proper air circulation. With to much daylight Potatoes start to germinate and produce the poison Solanin which is dangerous for Human being and animals. There are an estimated 20000 different kinds of Mushrooms growing and more and more are being discovered. They dont depend on Chlorophyll, the green substance of plants and Therefore can grow without sun light. Oyster mushroom Cloud ear mushroom Champignons Straw mushrooms White and black truffles Morels Shitake mushrooms Boletus Chanterelles

WHY
Mushrooms are well liked And used in many different Ways and recipes especially In Asia, Europe and America

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date: Page 1 of 2

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK #: 3.35 TASK: Potato Preparations

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT
Wastage for preparation: To prepare the different basic potatoes and recipes - Boiled potatoes with skin, 15% - Peeled pot. by hand, 25% - Peeled pot. Machine, 30% - Turned potatoes, 35% Different preparations: Blanching in oil or saltwater Simmer in saltwater or stock Steam in steamer or casserole Bake in the oven, stuffed or as timbale roasted, raw or cooked in pan, oven, tilting pan, rational oven sauteed, cooked and raw potatoes, mixtures deep-fried, raw and mixtures Gratinating, raw and mixtures

WHY

Potato cuts by hand: - P.parmentier, p. rissolees, p. maxime - P. paille, p. allumettes, p. mignottes, p. frites p. neuf - p. chateux, p. nature, p, fondantes - p. chips, souffles, p. savouyarde - p. oliviettes, p. noisettes, p. parisienne Potato cuts by machine: - Diced, 8 & 11 mm - Julienne, 2,3,4 mm - Allumettes, 4 mm - French fries, 6 & 10 mm - Potato chips, 1mm - Potato boulangere, 3mm - Waffle potatoes, Duchesse Potatoes: - Duchesse p., galette p., croquettes p., Williams p., berny p., florentine.,

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date: APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage Stefan Schmid Signature: Date: Page 2 of 2

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 3.35

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Potato Preparations JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT
Dauphin potatoes: - Dauphin p., lorette Gnocchi potatoes: - Gnocchi, piemontese Peeled & boiled potatoes: - Parsley potatoes - Boiled potatoes - Milk potatoes - Herb potatoes Cooked, peeled & smashed p.: - snow potatoes - mashed potatoes - gratinated creamed potato Peeled and cooked in stock/bouillon: - Bouillon potatoes - Mint potatoes - Bacon potatoes - Leek potatoes Peeled and baked in the oven: - Fondant potatoes - Savoyarde potatoes

WHY

1 kg potatoes 25g butter 3 egg yolk, salt, nutmeg 1kg potatoes 400g pate au choux

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:

Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 3.36

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Cold Sauces JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT
Clear oil sauces, vinaigrette: To prepare cold and special sauces and their use for the Different dishes and menu Variation We differ between clear and Thickened oil sauces Vegetable oil: 600g Herb vinegar: 250g Onions: 150g Herbs, chopp.100g Salt, pepper Vegetable vinaigrette, herb vinaigrette, tomato Vinaigrette, Olive oil, nut oil, sesame oil, sunflower oil, Pumpkin seed oil, Red wine vinegar, white wine vinegar, herb vinegar, fruit vinegar, sherry vinegar, aceto balsamico Tickened oil sauces, mayonnaise: Egg yolk: 4 EA Water: 20g Mustard: 20g Oil, vegetable: 800g Vinegar, white wine 30g Salt, pepper, lemon juice Remoulade sauce: Chopped cornichons, anchovies, capers, herbs, Onions Tatar sauce: Chopped eggs, chopped cornichons, spring onion Cocktail sauce: Horseradish, ketchup, cognac, Tabasco Green sauce: Puree of fresh herbs, spinach

WHY
Special sauces: Apple sauce Curry sauce Horseradish sauce Sweet & Sour sauce Mint sauce Cumberland sauce Horseradish sauce

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date: Page 1 of 2

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT: Kitchen TASK #: 3.37 TASK: Stocks, Soups

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT To prepare the various stocks And soups, which are basic Recipes and essential for the Day to day operation. The selection of the right ingredients and preparation Are necessary for a quality Product: - 100% raw material ( bones, vegetables, fish bones, skin) - Simmer all stocks slowly - Never cover while simmering - Remove fat constantly - Use little seasoning, stocks should be neutral In taste - Use right size for cooking material Bouillon, beef stock Vegetable stock White veal stock Poultry stock Fish / seafood stock Brown veal stock Veal jus Game stock

WHY

Stocks have to be prepared With outmost care and proper Production guarantees Top quality soups and sauces

PREPARED BY: POSITION: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:

Page 2 of 2

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 3.37

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com DEPARTMENT: Kitchen TASK: Stocks, Soups JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT To prepare the different soups used for various menus Clear soups: Bouillon and consomme Beef consomme, poultry consomme, fish consomme, game consomme Thick soups: Cream soups Meat, poultry, fish, grain Vegetable cream soup ( asparagus, broccoli, cucumber, artichoke) Puree soups: Vegetable (spinach) pea, bean, lentil, Vegetable soups: Eintopf, pichelsteiner, paysanne soup Grain/cereal soups: Corn, crme of wheat, National soups: Onion soup, French Buendner soup, Swiss Goulash soup, Austrian Liver dumpling soup, German Mille fanti, Italian Ox-tail, British Gazpacho, Spanish Borschtsch, Russian Special soups: Lobster bisque, boillabaisse Cold soups: Vichysoise, Avocado, Gazpacho APPROVED BY: Signature: Date: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

WHY

To use the best ingredients available only and the right Soup for the special menu And occasion.

PREPARED BY: POSITION:

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:

Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 3.38

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Hot Sauces JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT
To prepare the different basic sauces and their extended recipes.

WHY
Sauces should be prepared fresh on the daily basis

Brown sauces: Demi glace, thick veal jus: Orange,- mushroom,- onion,- mustard,- crme,Madeira,- truffle,- garlic,Game demi glace: Pepper,- game crme,White sauces, veloutes: Veal veloute: mustard,- tarragon,- horseradish,Poultry veloute: white wine,- mushroom,Fish veloute: lobster sauce,- crab,- shrimp,Bechamel: mornay, herb,Tomato sauce: Provenciale,- napolitana,Butter sauce: Sauce hollandaise: dijion,- maltaise,- mousseline,Sauce bearnaise: choron,- foyot,Puree sauces: Lobster,- crab,- shrimp,-

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date: Page 1 of 4

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK #: 3.39 TASK: Fruit

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT

WHY

To learn about the most common Fruits used in the kitchen, Seasonal and available all year round from around the World.

Pineapple, Apple Apricots, Avocado Bananas, Walnuts Pears, Cherimoya Dates, Strawberries

With well connected flights Peanuts, Figs From and to any parts of the Grapefruit, Hazelnut Globe, fresh fruits are available from literally Blueberries, Raspberries anywhere anytime. Kaki, Cactus Figs Cherries, Kiwis Coconut, Kumquat Lime, Lemon Lychee, Mandarine Almonds, Mango Chestnuts, Olives Oranges, Papaya Passion fruit, Peaches Plums, Grapes

Fresh fruits are playing a major role in daily kitchen Production and service and are Essential for the necessary Nutrition and vitamin supply On a daily basis.

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

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Stefan Schmid Signature: Date: Page 2 of 4

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 3.39 DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Fruit JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

Citrus Fruit
Members of the large citrus group include the lemon, lime, orange, tangerine and grapefruit as well as more exotic fruits such as the ugli fruit, shaddock, citron and kumquat and hybrids such as the clementine, tangelo, ortanique and limequat. With their aromatic acidity, citrus fruits are used in soups, savoury stews and salads and often form the main flavour in desserts such as souffles and mousses. Invaluable as decoration, their vivid colours complement almost all foods. Citrus fruits are covered in a thick rind, mainly white pith (called the albedo), which has a thin colourful outer layer of zest or rind, where citrus oil and most of the vitamins are concentrated. Tropical yellow and orange citrus varieties usually remain green even when ripe, turning bright yellow or orange when treated with ethylene gas. The most versatile member of the citrus family must be the lemon, whose cultivation goes back atleast 2,000 years. It is grown extensively in the U.S. and Italy, and other large producers include Greece, Spain, Argentina and Chile. There are two main types of lemon. The common or acid lemon seen in most markets has relatively few pips and maybe small with a smooth thin skin, and valued for juice, or large with a thicker, rough skin preferred for its peel. The other type, the sweet lemon, is grown mostly as a novelty. A good lemon is heavy for its size and perceptible smell. Lemons have many uses in cooking: a squeeze of fresh lemon juice enlivens many savoury dishes and particularly sweet dishes, such as American lemon meringue or lemon chiffon pie, French lemon mousse , British lemon jelly, or Italian lemon tart. In Britain, bread or scones are often served with lemon curd, a thick paste of lemon, butter, sugar and egg yolks. It often takes place of vinegar in vinaigrette and marinades and can "cook" thinly sliced raw meat or fish, as in Latin American Seviche. Lemons may also be preserved in salt or pickled to serve as a condiment, while their sourness is a useful substitute for salt in special dishes. Lemon is also used in cooking to prevent the flesh of fruit or vegetables from discolouring. Lemon slices are an essential accompaniment for a seafood platter, most fried food and savoury fritters, and many dish coated in breadcrumbs. They are also necessary ingredient of lemon tea. Preserved lemons are widely used for flavouring fish and meat in North African cookery. Lemon is included in jams, compotes, lemon curd and chutneys. Lemon extract or flavouring is used in confectionery and in wines and spirits. It also flavours certain aromatic teas

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Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 3.39 DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Fruit JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT
Bright green limes are also full of sour juice and are prepared and treated in the same way as lemons. Tahitian varieties have a thick skin and juicy pulp, while sour Mexican varieties are smaller with a thin, smooth skin and yellowish colour. In the U.S., Florida's "key" lime is the most celebrated Mexican variety. Americans enliven their melon with lime, while in the tropics a squeeze of lime is mandatory with papaya and guava and in Asia fresh lime juice is often added to curries, pairing well with hot pepper. In Mexico, limes are often used in place of lemon with cold seafood and fruit salads, as well as in guacamole. Lime juice is used extensively in desserts, especially those with cream. Lime is smaller, more fragrant, and juicier than the lemon. The lime is cultivated in tropical countries, including the Ivory Coast, Brazil, and the West Indies, and is often used in Caribbean and Brazilian dishes, particularly fish or meat stews, marinated chicken, jams, sorbets, punches and cocktails. The zest is used like lemon zest and will keep for a long time steeped in castor (superfine) sugar or rum. Through the centuries, orange trees have been symbols of opulence, and their fruit has become one of the most important of all fruit crops. The bitter orange, also called the sour, Bigarade or Seville orange, is believed to be the common ancestor and was the standard orange until the early nineteenth century. Sweet oranges can be divided into three types. The common orange, used for juice, is a medium sized heavy fruit, with a fine grained skin. It is often known by varietal names such as Jaffa from Israel, and Valencia, which is grown in Florida, California, Latin America, South Africa, Europe, Australia but not, Spain. Navel oranges are characterized by a navel- like depression enclosing a small internal embryonic fruit. They are seedless and appear from the end of October. THOMSONS, with a very fine smooth shiny skin, have highly coloured fibrous pulp, not very sour and moderately juicy but with a good flavour. WASHINGTONS, with a firm rough skin, are juicy and slightly sour. Navel oranges are mainly grown in Italy and have a particularly rich flavour, reminiscent of berries. Another variety, the aromatic pineapple orange, is full of pips and is commercially used for juice Blondes are winter oranges, with pale flesh, coming mostly from Israel(Jaffas). Shamoutis, quite large and with a thick skin and seeds, have crisp well flavoured juicy pulp. Salustianas, seedless and with grainy peel, are very juicy. Blood Oranges have a dark red pulp and the skin may be veined with dark red. They are available from December to April. The Maltese orange, with seeds, is sour, very juicy, and has an exceptionally good flavour. Moro oranges, with a rough skin, are very juicy. Late oranges have pale flesh, few seeds, and come mainly from Spain and the southern hemisphere. Valencia oranges, with or without seeds, have smooth firm skins and are very sharp and juicy.

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Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 3.39 DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Fruit JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

Oranges are widely used in desserts, patisserie, and confectionery, for fruit salads, mousses, dessert creams, jams and marmalades, frosted fruit, ices and sorbets, fritters, souffls, filled sponges (orangine), and biscuits(cookies). The candied peel is also used in numerous desserts & cakes, either as an ingredient or as a decoration. Oranges form the basis of an equally large range of drinks: syrups,sodas, juice, orangeade, punches, liqueurs & fruit wines. Mandarins are small, slightly flat, loose skinned oranges with a sweet taste. Perhaps the best known mandarin is the tangerine. The Japanese satsuma is a clementine(a bitter orange and tangerine cross) is bright orange red with a pebbled skin and tangy sweet flavour. One of the largest citrus fruits is the grapefruit, with a diameter of upto 6 in./ 15 cm. Grapefruit are either whitefleshed with a yellow rind or pink fleshed with a pinkish blush to the rind. The two differ little in taste, which depends more on the presence of pips than on colour. Fruits with many pips have a pronounced flavour and are grown for canning, while the milder, pipless varieties are usually eaten fresh or in salads. Grapefruit juice can be added to fruit jellies and sorbets, and the flesh suits bitter greens, avocado and fresh cheese. The ugly fruit resembles a squashed grapefruit with a mottled greenish skin but its flesh is surprisingly sweet and juicy, despite its discouraging name. Usually eaten raw, in the Caribbean it is baked in its skin then eaten hot with sugar. The grapefruit tree probably originated in the West Indies but a large percentage of the world's crop is grown in the southern United States. It is usually served as an hors d'oeuvre, cut in two, each segment being detached from the skin with a special saw knife with a curved point. the fruit is also used to make marmalade and the juice is widely consumed as a fruit drink. The shaddock( also called pummelo or pomelo) is the largest citrus, resembling a large grapefruit with coarse, bittersweet dry flesh with a greenish, yellow or pinkish skin. It was brought from southeast Asia to the new world by a Captain shaddock in 1696. Grown mainly in Thailand Also rarely seen in the markets is the citron, cultivated for its thick aromatic rind. It is never eaten fresh, but is often used in marmalade and candied for use in cakes. It is a citrus fruit from China and similar to the lemon. The fruit is slightly larger than the lemon and pear shaped. The smallest citrus is the tiny, orange oval kumquat, which originated in the east but is now grown mainly in Brazil. The fruit has distinctive sweet sour flavour, the sweetness is especially evident in the rind and kumquats are usually eaten unpeeled. They are deliciously fresh, but may also be candied.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 3.40

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Cocoa - Chocolate JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

COCOA - Theobroma Cocoa


The food of the god
The cocoa tree originates from the river valleys of Northern South America and was carried north into Mexico by the Mayas in the 7th century A.D..The word cocoa is Aztec in origin and refers to the tree itself. The seed of the cocoa tree contains a good deal of fat and protein and would have been a imported food, if eaten in quantity. Mexican natives valued it enough to use it as a currency. The first Europeans to see the cocoa bean were probably the crew of Columbus's 4th voyage in 1502,but it was Cortez the conqueror who brought the first news of the cocoa tree to Europe in 1520.The Spanish leader was the first in Mexico to prepare a drink of roast cocoa beans ,ground maize ,vanilla and cinnamon. In a book written in 1565(The history of the world) it is said that Indian fowl(Turkey) and Cavacate (cocoa) have been unique contribution to the world from the Americas. In the beginning the drink made from cocoa was not very much liked. Rather it not until it was mixed with sugar later that it appealed to the European pallet. THE COCOA TREE The cocoa tree, named Theobroma Cacao (food of the gods) is an evergreen tree that grows up to 20 feet in height and produces pods 6 to 10 inches long and 3 to 4 inches in diameter, containing 20 to50 beans, each about an inch long. Today it is to be found over the whole of the tropical belt i.e. approx. 20* north and south of the equator. It flourishes in the most even temperature (approx. 25*C average) with high soil and air humidity. to about 600 meters above sea level. A handful of different varieties make up the bulk of the world crop, which stands at about 1.75 million tons today The most important planting areas(approx.3/4 of world production) are: The Ivory Coast, Brazil, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Ecuador, Mexico, Colombia, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka The origin of chocolate begins in the heart of a continent, which was not yet called South America. Legend has it, that the cultivation of Cacao was developed by the third Maya king Hanatipu 1000 BC. The Mayas used cacao beans as a form of currency. The cacao trees were first mentioned by Bernadino de Sahagun, a Spanish chronicler and author of the history of New Spain in 1590. The word cacao derives from the Aztec word caahuatl and the word chocolate from the universal transcription of the Maya tchocolatl or xocolatl, the world chocolate is an Indian name. The almond shaped fruit cacanate is concealed in a sort of gourd, almost as a large as a cucumber.They take one year to ripen. The Indians make a beverage out of it what they call today champurado . Average consumption per year/per person is: 10 lbs America, 12 lbs Europe, 22 lbs Switzerland, 18 lbs The Netherlands, 15.5 lbs Germany, England Chocolate is used either as a drink or like in Mexico, part of savory dishes and recipes. Of course today used in gourmet shops and Patisseries around the world for ice cream, cakes Pastries, pralines, cookies, confect and show pieces

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Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 3.40 TASK: Cocoa - Chocolate EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

THE HARVEST AND PROCESSING Kakao trees bear buds, blossoms and fruit all at the same time. The kakao fruit is long and oval and the beans are embedded in the fleshy interior of the fruit. Kakao pods are generally harvested all the year round though most heavily from May to December. In order not to damage the tree, the fruit is neatly cut from the tree and the stem and then the fruit is gently opened up lengthways

Production of Cocoa
Upon receipt the beans are cleaned off any clinging dirt or foreign bodies by special machines. The cleaned beans are roasted cracked and then roasted again. The shell breaks off as the bean is split and the kernel is removed from the hell. Roasting takes place at 120*c for a varying period to reduce water content and to strengthen and round off the flavour. The roasted kernels are then ground and milled finely to give us the cocoa mass, which is the basic stuff for the various cocoa and chocolate products. When this product is pressed,a large amount of fat called cocoa butter is separated and pressed cocoa cake is left behind. If the cocoa mass is conched then we get block cocoa. COCOA POWDER This is the pressed cocoa cake that has been ground finely with a minimum fat content of 20%. Sweet cocoa powder is a mixture of sugar and cocoa powder with maximum sugar content of 66-68%. COCOA BUTTER This is the fat removed by pressing cleaned cocoa mass. Very early in its career ,cocoa butter was prized for its resistance to rancidity due to being very regular in composition which also gives it a sharp melting point due to which the chocolate changes from solid to liquid very fast The first step in processing is a brief fermenting of the beans and the pulp together. The next step is to remove the beans from the flesh and then the beans are fermented in the sun in huge heaps. After this the beans are dried for 6 to 7 days. During the fermentation and the drying the bitter taste of the beans is removed, the possibility of germination is killed off and a brown coloring agent is created on its own. After this the beans are cleaned off, of any clinging flesh pieces. Then the beans are filled into sacks and are ready for dispatch. In the English parlance the tree etc.is usually accepted as KAKAO until fermentation and drying is completed and then the English spelling of COCOA is used.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO
To understand and learn about one of the most popular drinks for most Ethnic groups.

TASK #: 4.01 TASK: Coffee EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

The origin of coffee is the province Kaffa in Ethiopia. From there it spread to Arabia and the Middle East. In 1615, coffee reached Turkey and afterwards all over Europe. 1699 Dutch seaman planted coffee in Indonesia and from there. Production moved to India, Ceylon/Sri Lanka, America And Guyana. Fruit: There are 80 different coffee trees. Two of them are very important: Coffea Arabica and Coffea Robusta 2/3 of the world production is Arabica Coffee. The quality is very good. The color is blue/green after washed Coffee Robusta is more robust , the color is Light brown to green. It is of medium quality and of the world production. The most important production sites are: Central America: Mexico, Guatemala, Cuba, Haiti, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua South America: Brazil, Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru Bolivia, Africa: Guinea, Ivory coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabun, Angola, Zaire, Tansania, Uganda, Kenia, Ethiopia, Jemen, Madagascar The most famous coffee recipes are from Italy. Espresso, Cappuccino, Caf Latte, Caf Kirsch It is used instant, decaffeinated and is used In the pastry production.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO
To get familiar about tea, its Source and usage in the Food & Beverage operation

TASK #: 4.02 TASK: Tea EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY
Tea is besides coffee the most drunk beverage around the world. It is used for soups, Sauces, smoking of food, And in the pastry for cakes, Cremes and ice cream.

How exactly tea came to china, nobody knows Exactly, apparently an Indian gentleman brought It to China and cultivated it at his destination Point. It took 3500 years until tea got spread to Other continents. 800 A.D tea bushes came to Japan. The Dutch brought the drink to Europe At the beginning of the 17th century. Special soil is not necessary, but the climate. The best tea bushes are located 2000 meter above Sea level. On mountain sides which are covered in clouds. Lot of change between sunshine and Clouds are perfect, which is good for air moisture And prolongs the growing process. Fruit and herb teas becoming more and more Popular, like mint, chamomile, rose hip, ginseng, Apple, mixed herb etc.

Keemun: Black tea from China, good with food Scented Orange Pekoe: Finest grade of Indian tea, rarely used in blends. Lapsang Souchong: Black Chinese tea, rich smoky taste, needs slow Brewing, best without lemon or milk. Jasmine: Green tea from China, scented with dried jasmine Blossoms, never with milk. Hibiscus Made from hibiscus flowers, brew is red, tart And fruity, it has no tannin.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 4.02 TASK: Tea EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

Agronomy Tea is obtained from the leaves of the plant 'Camelia Sinesis' or 'Thea Sinesis' which flourishes on the countries with heavy rainfall. The plant is an evergreen tropical bush with stiff shiny and pointed green leaves. The plant is ready to yield leaves after about 3 years of growth. The plant may yield for 25 to 50 years depending on the growing conditions. First the tea plant is grown in nurseries either from the seeds the shoot or the leaf itself. It is then planted in rows in rich fertile soil. The shrubs are kept down to a convenient height for plucking by constant pruning; this is known as table top. Leaves are hand plucked from new shoots and about 6000 leaves make about a pound of tea. One bush is capable of providing several grades of tea at the same time although in most cases only the bud and the first two leaves of the plant are picked providing the finest tea. When more leaves are plucked it is known as coarse plucking. Constitution: The important constituents that affect the quality of the brew are; caffeine for it's stimulating effect, tannins and related compounds that affect the body and colour, and essential oils that provide flavour. Tea contains 1.5% to 3.0% of caffeine, and tannins in the form of poly phenolic compounds. Tea also contains minute quantities of vitamin B (Riboflavin).The high intake of water along with tea increases the nutritional intake of tea. Processing &Harvesting; During harvesting the leaves are piled over each other which causes dampness that causes bacterial reaction. This bacterial reaction destroys part of the tannic acid present and also reduces the starch and sugar content to a negligible amount. After this first step leaves are processed in different ways to produce various qualities of tea from the same leaf. The three major classes of tea would include; (a) Black tea: The processing would include the following steps, -Plucking of leaves, wherein only the bud and the first two leaves are plucked for the finest quality. Lower qualities might be made out of the other leaves. -Withering the leaves to soften them and to partially dry them . -Passing of the withered leaves under rollers to rupture the cell walls and release the enzymes and juices which encourages the absorption of oxygen. -Fermenting the rolled leaves by exposing them to the air at about 27o C for a period of 4 to 5 hrs. -Drying the fermented leaves in ovens at about 93o C which inactivates the enzymes and reduces leaf moisture to about 4%. This drying step is known as firing. The fermentation process in case of black tea produces a varnish that coats the leaf. -Caramelized sugars are then added to the leaf to give color aroma and other characteristic flavours. -The leaves are then sifted to give "small/broken leaf" or "leaf" grades.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO 6 TASK #: 4.02 TASK: Tea EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT The Kinds of Japanese Teas

WHY

Green Teas which are stopped fermentation by steaming.

SENCHA

The most popular type of Green Teas. About 85% of Japanese teas are SENCHA. In both quality and price SENCHA has a wide variety. High quality one is served only on special occasions. But average qualities are for everyday use.

GYOKURO

This is the vest Japanese Tea. It is a precious tea and it is served as a treat to visitors. GYOKURO means "the dew of jewels". GYOKURO has a stronger flavour and aroma with less bitterness than SENCHA. This is because when the buds are about to come out, the teas bushes are shaded.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO TASK #: 4.02 TASK: Tea EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

MACCHA This tea is known for using in the TEA CEREMONY. This is a type of tea ground to a fine powder. To make MACCHA tea is mixed in hot water with bamboo whisk.

BANCHA This is understood as a lowest grade of TEA. But some BANCHA is very nice as a different meaning. It has a very simple taste, so it is pleased to drink after meals or to drink when thirsty.

HOUJICHA This is a roasted BANCHA. It has a brown colour and unique toasted flavour, and light golden beer colour when steeped. It is also pleased to drink after meals or when thirsty. The way to serve HOUJICHA is same as BANCHA.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO TASK #: 4.02 TASK: Tea EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

HOUJICHA
This is a roasted BANCHA It has a brown colour and unique toasted flavour, and light golden beer colour when steeped. It is also pleased to drink after meals or when thirsty. The way to serve HOUJICHA is same as BANCHA.

MECHA
It is tea buds selected while refining SENCHA or GYOKURO. It has strong flavour and taste. It is better than coffee when standing sleepy.

KUKICHA
It is tea stems also selected while refining. It taste light and has fresh flavour. It is also for everyday use.

GENMAICHA
It is a mixture of BANCHA and popped GENMAI (hulled rice kernels). It makes a light brown tea with a savoury flavour. It is also everyday use APPROVED BY: Stefan Schmid Signature: Position: Director of Signature:

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 4.02 TASK: Tea EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

. Oolong tea: The procedure of preparation of oolong tea is similar to that of black tea till the fermentation stage. Oolong tea is partially fermented and produced generally in China. Fermentation is checked soon after it has begun to develop, after which the tea is alternately rolled and fired. It is then sent to a factory where it is once again fired before it is packed. Unlike other teas only one grade of Oolong tea is made which is considered to be of a very high quality. The colour is copper black with a mild flavour between black and green tea. Green tea: Here the leaves left to wither as soon as plucked until no moisture is left. The whole leaves are then steamed and rolled, resulting in green grey balls. By processing whole the leaves are able to retain their enzymes that prevent them from losing their flavour. The result is a pale yellow green tea with a distinct unusual flavour. The name gunpowder green was given by the British colonists in China who named it for it's likeness in color and form to that of lead ball shot. Classification and grading of tea: Green Oolong Black Mate(hollybush)

Gunpowder green Formosa oolong peach blossom Taiwan oolong(fruity flavour) Whole leaf Brokenleaf Instant broken leaf Fannings Dust Pekoe

Flowery orange pekoe

Orange pekoe

Size and appearance are the main criteria. The two main grades are; whole leaf and broken leaf which are generally used for black teas and are further sub divided. The terms Pekoe and flowery pekoe describe teas containing only the finest tea buds Orange Pekoe consists of the leaves directly under the bud. By Pekoe we understand the leaves that have come from the second or third leaves below the bud. Sauchong first comes from the third leaf below the leaf bud.It comes from the third leaf when it is long and coarse. Sauchong are other large leaves. So we see that Orange pekoe is not really a grade, but rather a type of leaf. GRADES OF BLACK TEA There are more than 3,000 varieties of tea. They take their names from the districts in which they grow. Leaf Grades After the broken grades have been sifted out, what remains are the large leaves. In brewing, flavor and color come out of leaf grades more slowly than out of broken grades. Leaf grades are popular in continental Europe and in South America. There are three kinds: Orange pekoe has long, thin, wiry leaves that sometimes contain bud leaf. They make a light- or pale-colored liquid. Orange pekoe is simply a size; the term does not indicate flavor or quality.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 4.02 TASK: Tea EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

Pekoe has shorter leaves than orange pekoe, and they are not as wiry. The liquid generally has more color. Souchong has round leaves that make a pale liquid. Broken Grades The smaller, broken leaves of the broken grades make up about 80 percent of the total crop. They make a darker, stronger tea than leaf grades and are the only kind used in tea bags. Broken orange pekoe is much smaller than the leaf grades. It usually contains bud leaf, the mainstay of a blend. Broken pekoe is slightly larger than broken orange pekoe with somewhat less color. It is useful as filler in a blend. Fannings : Is much smaller than broken pekoe Souchong. Its main virtues are quick brewing and good color. Dust is the smallest grade, useful for a quick-brewing, strong cup of tea. It is only used in blends of similar-size leaf, generally for catering purposes. GREEN TEA AND OOLONG These teas are not graded into leaf sizes. Oolong, a Chinese word meaning "black dragon," is a partly fermented, greenish-brown tea. Hyson is a green tea with leaves rolled or twisted lengthwise. The early crop is young hyson. Gunpowder is a green tea with leaves rolled into small round pellets. Some common terms used while grading teas. Tippy: Tip of tea leaves intact. Golden: indicates golden brown tips. Flowery: A particularly flowery aroma. Orange Pekoe: Particularly tender leaves. Leaf tea: Special fine tippy golden flowery orange pekoe. Fine tippy golden flowery orange pekoe. Tippy golden flowery orange pekoe. Golden flowery orange pekoe. Flowery orange pekoe. Orange pekoe. Broken tea: Broken pekoe sauchong. Tippy golden flowery broken orange pekoe. Golden flowery broken orange pekoe. Flowery broken orange pekoe. Broken orange pekoe. Fannings broken orange pekoe.(not a fanning)

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 4.02 TASK: Tea EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

Fanning: Broken orange pekoe fanning. Tippy golden flowery orange fanning. Golden flowery orange fanning. Flowery orange fanning. Orange fanning. Pekoe fanning. Teas can also be classified region wise. Chinese teas: Chinese green tea: Most familiar as the tea served in Chinese restaurants. These are all mild and have a pleasant fruity flavour.Eg: Gunpowder green. Chinese oolong tea: In general they are stronger than green teas but milder than black teas. Eg: Keemun: a delicate and aromatic tea from north China low in tannins with a deep rich flavour. Lapsang Sauchang: A large leaf tea that is rich and full bodied. This has a very distinctive but tarry smoky flavour. Yunnan western: A tea containing high proportion of the youngest leaves, this has a sweet taste & a light golden color. Indian teas: All teas produced in India are usually black teas. Assam: One of the classic Indian teas is grown in the Brahmaputra valley in North-East India.The taste is strong and malty. The best of Assam tea contain the tips(buds) and is known as "Tippy Assam". Darjeeling tea: Noted for it's distinctive delicate flavour. The small broken leaf produces a light golden drink with a subtle flavour. Bushes from the foot of the Himalayas produce tea with a muscatel flavour of grapes. The most important variety is Darjeeling broken orange pekoe, which is sometimes called the "champagne of tea". Ceylon teas: Tea produced in SriLanka are all black teas. Dimbula: Grown at altitudes of 2km above sea level. Like most Ceylon tea it has rich color and flavour. Orange pekoe and broken orange pekoe are the usual tea grades. Kandy: It has a full bodied quality and strength appealing to those who especially like a robust brew.

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FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 4.02 TASK: Tea EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

Japanese tea: These are quite different from Chinese teas: Sencha: These Long green leaves make a bright, light easy to drink tea, that is good for drinking. Sencha Brancha: Combination of tea and rice that results in a nutty flavour. Flavoured teas; In addition to various types of teas, there is also a wide range of flavoured teas, flavoured with essences, oils, fruits, etc. The Chinese pioneered the flavouring of tea. The flowers are dried with the tea so that the delicate flavour permeates through. Fruit and flower teas are best appreciated on their own, without milk, lemon and sometimes even sugar. Jasmine tea: Traditionally served in dim-sum dishes. This is a classic Chinese tea. It is a green tea, exotically scented with the addition of real jasmine flowers. Rose pauchang tea: Made by interspersing flower petals with tea leaves during drying. Makes a pale soothing tea. Rose Conyon is another rose scented tea. Crysanthemum: Medium strength black China tea, blended with Crysanthemum leaves. Orchid tea: This is obtained by blending a semi-fermented Oolong tea with crushed Orchid flowers. It is considered to be the tea of connoisseurs. Lychee tea: It is blended by the husks of the lychee fruit. Yerba Mate and Other "Teas" Almost any hot drink that is not coffee or chocolate may be called tea nowadays. The leaves of several other kinds of plants are used to brew drinks. Yerba mate, or Paraguay tea, is made from the leaves of a species of holly found in Brazil and Paraguay. The Indians of North Carolina prepared a tea called yaupon from the leaves of another hollylike tree or shrub. In Peru and Bolivia there is a tea made from the dried leaves of the cacao tree. Trinidad tea is made from the leaves of the pimento, or allspice, tree. On the American frontier every family was familiar with sassafras tea. It was made from the aromatic roots and bark of the sassafras tree. There is today a great variety of herbal teas made from a number of different plants. Some of them are considered to be healthful, with perhaps medicinal effects

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Stefan Schmid

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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff TASK #: 4.02 TASK: Tea EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

Blending of teas: Teas are blended by mixing the leaves in a machine consisting of a revolving drum fitted with veins. Satisfactory blending requires about 16 revolutions. The drums are half-filled with leaves, ranging in weight from 300 pounds (136 kilograms) to 5,000 pounds (2,265 kilograms), depending on the size of the machine. Teas are blended by mixing the leaves in a machine consisting of a revolving drum fitted with veins. Satisfactory blending requires about 16 revolutions. The drums are half-filled with leaves, ranging in weight from 300 pounds (136 kilograms) to 5,000 pounds (2,265 kilograms), depending on the size of the machine. Tea Innovations At the fair was the young Englishman Richard Blechynden, who represented the tea interests of India and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). It was his job to popularize tea drinking in the United States. The weather that summer turned quite hot, and Blechynden watched as people passed by his booth to others that were serving cold drinks. In desperation he filled tall glasses with ice and poured hot tea over it. Iced tea was an immediate success. The invention of tea bags happened at about the same time. Thomas Sullivan of New York City owned a tea and coffee business. In sending samples of tea to customers, he decided it would be cheaper to sew the tea inside small cloth bags instead of sealing it in tins. To his surprise, orders for the tea bags poured in. In the United States tea bags are now made of a special filter paper, and the manufacturing and packing of them has become an industry in itself. Instant, or powdered, tea has become common on grocery shelves along with bulk and bag teas. Green tea powders and soluble tea extracts have been used in Japan for many years. Instant teas offer greater convenience than ordinary leaf tea; they are easy to prepare and leave no leaf sediment. Instant tea powder may be produced by evaporating already prepared tea until a dry powder remains. Another method evaporates tea directly from a fermented leaf at a low temperature. Instant tea: The manufacture of instant tea is in several ways like that of instant coffee. However the state of technology is not as advanced as in the state of coffee. Instant tea processing begins with the extraction of the selected tea blend. Generally black tea type is used, one chosen for reddish color relative freedom from haze and strong flavour when brewed. About ten parts of water are combined with one part of tea leaves by weight in extractors and extraction is carried out between 60oC and 100oC for about ten minutes. The final extract contains about 4% solids which accounts for about 85% of the soluble solids in the leaves. This dilute extract is concentrated for more efficient dehydration; just before concentration, aromatics are distilled from the extract with specially designed flavour recovery equipment. The dramatized extract is then concentrated in low temperature evaporators to between 25% to 55% solids for subsequent drying. Instant tea is primarily dried in spray driers and low temperature vacuum driers. Freeze dried tea offers more advantages.

PREPARED BY:

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Stefan Schmid

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Position: Signature: Date: Position: Director of Food & Beverage Signature: Date: Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO Eau de vin, red and white wine, liqueurs, champagne are mostly used in the pastry and bakery for desserts, cremes, cakes and torten Mousses, petits fours and pralines. TASK #: 4.03 TASK: Beverage & Food, Alcohol EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

They shouldnt be boiled up to long and added Last minute whenever possible. As otherwise the flavor is lost. They are usually dissolved in gelatine and folded in with sugar. The saucier uses them for sauces and soups and to marinate various meats as beef, veal , chicken, Duck, game and seafood. The most common are white and red wine, Marsala wine, sherry, grand marnier, champagne Rice wine, beer and various liqueurs.

Advocaat, egg nog liqueur, The Netherlands, Germany Aquavit, Scandinavia Bacardi, Cuba, Puerto Rico Calvados, France Cassis, France Cherry brandy, Germany Cinzano, Italy Cognac, France Cointreau, France Curacao, Netherland Antilles Doornkaat, Germany Drambui, France Genever, The Netherlands Gin, United Kingdom Grand Marnier, France Grappa, Italy Kirschwasser, Germany Maraschino, Italy Ouzo, Turkey Pernod, France Raki, Turkey Ricard, France Rum, Caribean Sliwowitz, Hungary Tequila, Mexico Vodka, Russia, Poland Whiskey, Ireland, Scotland, USA

Alcoholic beverage should be used carefully measured and Mixed with the ingredients - For last minute as much as possible

PREPARED BY:

APPROVED BY:

Stefan Schmid

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Position: Signature: Date: Position: Director of Food & Beverage Signature: Date:

Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO
To understand the role of Non alcoholic beverages in The kitchen

TASK #: 4.04 TASK: Beverage & Food, Non Alcohol EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT WHY
Fresh fruit juices are used for breakfast, brunch Special menus as vegetarian and health promotions and of course in the gym and health Club on a daily basis are becoming more and more popular

Fruit juices and purees: Non alcoholic beverages are used in the kitchen Mostly in the pastry for cakes, mousses, petits Fours and fruit desserts as jellies. They are favorites as well in the cold kitchen For dressings and salad sauces, cocktail dressings And dips. The saucier uses them for sauces as apple sauce Mango chutney, Californian type dishes, for Fish and seafood items in form of fruit vinegar. The entremetier includes them for vegetarian dishes and cold soups.

Pineapple, apple, apricots, avocado, banana, pear Cherimoya, strawberry, peanut, fig, grapefruit Blueberry, raspberry, kaki, cherry, kiwi, Coconut, kumquat, lemon, lime, lychee, pomelo Watermelon, longan, guava, papaya, orange, Almond, passion fruit, peach, plum, grapes Tamarind, mandarine,

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com PREPARED BY: APPROVED BY: Position: Signature: Date: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date: Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Restaurant JOB TITLE: All Restaurant Staff WHAT TO DO Grandin Method Champenoise TASK #: 4.05 TASK: Method Champenoise EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY To give the correct Explanation and detailed Guidance about Champagne

The traditional Methode Champenoise used in making Grandin Sparkling Wine is a process strictly controlled by French law. The words Methode Champenoise Cannot be used on a bottle of French sparkling wine, Unless the stipulated procedure is followed: 1. The grapes are pressed and the juice must be used for fermentation to make still wine, this is traditionally a white wine without carbonation. 2. The still wine is bottled and to each bottle the dosage, a small amount of unfermented must and yeast is added. The bottle is corked and the dosage causes the wine to ferment again in the bottle. The bottles are stacked lying down for 8-12 months during the second fermentation. 3. A by-product of the fermentation is carbon dioxide Gas which cannot escape from the sealed bottle and goes into the solution with the wine. 4. Another by-product is sediment. It is removed by stacking the bottles upside down and turning them by a quarter every few days until the sediment reaches the cap, this turning process is called riddling. 5. The neck and cap are dipped into a solution, which freezes the sediment into a plug. The plug is discorged and the bottle is topped off with a little finished sparkling wine and finally corked. This process is required by French law to take a minimum of 9 months; Grandin takes a total of 12 months Grandin started making Sparkling Wine with his Invented and approved Methode Champenoise in 1886. and is still made that way till today. Blind tastings were conducted by Arthur D. Little Company among 400 sparkling wine drinkers in New York, Chicago and Los Angeles. The results were impressive: Grandin was preferred over leading Spanish Methode Champenoise ( Freixenet & Cordoniu ) Importing wine category leaders. Grandin was preferred over Moet Chandon, theiImporting Champagne category leader. Grandin was at parity with

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Korbel, a leading producer of U.S. Methode Champenoise

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date: Page 1 of 1

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Restaurant JOB TITLE: All Restaurant Staff WHAT TO DO TASK #: 4.06 TASK: Alcohol Contend of Wine EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com


8.0 9.0 9.0 12.0 9.0 14.0 10.0 12.0 10.0 10.5 10.0 13.5 10.5 13.0 11.0 12.0 11.0 13.0 11.0 13.5 11.5 13.5 11.5 14.5 12.0 12.0 13.5 12.0 13.0 12.5 16.0 12.5 13.0 12.5 13.0 12.5 12.5 12.5 14.5 13.0 14.0 13.0 15.0 13.5 15.0 15.0 16.0 18.0 20. 19.0 20.0 The correct suggestion as per the guests request

To learn about the alcohol Contend in wine

German Kabinett French vin de table German Beerenauslese German Qualitaetswein German Auslese Beaujolais Bordeaux Cru Classe Red Bordeaux Chablis Premier Cru Beaune Alsace Riesling California Chardonnay Muscadet Montrachet Chianti California Zinfandel Chambertin Rioja Reserva Chateauneuf du Pape Australian Shiraz Barolo Sauternes Chateau dYquem Fino Sherry Oloroso Sherry Vintage Port

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Stefan Schmid Signature: Date: Page 1 of 3

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 4.07 DEPARTMENT : Restaurant TASK: The White Grapes JOB TITLE: All Restaurant Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT

WHY

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com


To learn about the various white grapes, grown nowadays on the vineyards Around the world Chardonnay The worlds most popular and widely planted premium white Grape variety and the one whose name has become almost a Synonym for dry white wine, is surprisingly hard to define. The flavour of any example will depend enormously on the climate, soil and the particular type of clone. Burgundy the best California examples (Kistler, Peter Michael, Sonoma Cutter ), taste of butter and hazelnuts, lesser New World efforts are often sweet and simple and often very melony ( a flavour which comes from the clone ). Australians range from subtle buttery pineapple to oaky tropical fruit juice. Petaluma, Giaconda, Coldstream Hills and Leeuwin show how it can be done. New Zealands efforts are tropical, too, But lighter and fresher ( Te Mata, Cloudy Bay ) Elsewhere Chile is beginning to hit the mark, as in South Africa & Jordan. In Europe, look around southern France ( James Herrick ), Italy ( Gaja ), Spain, and Easter Europe, but beware of watery cheaper versions. Chenin Blanc Loire variety with naturally high acidity that makes it ideal for fresh sparkling, dry and luscious honeyed wines, also raw staff like unripe apples. Most California Chenins are semi sweet and ordinary South Africans call it Steen and use it for cheap, dry and luscious sweet wines. There are few good Australians ( Moondah Brook ) or New Zealanders( Milton) Gewuerztraminer Outrageous, oily-textured staff that smells of parma violets and tastes of lychee fruit. At its best in Alsace ( Zind Humbrecht, Leon Beyer, Schlumberger, Fallet ) where identically labeled bottles can vary greatly in their level of Sweetness. Wines that guarantee luscious sweetness will be labeled as either Vendange Tardive or the intensely sweet Selection de Grains Nobles. Try examples from Germany, Chile, New Zealand and Italy too. To give proper guidance and suggestions for choosing the right wine For selection as preference given.

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APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date: Page 2 of 3

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Restaurant JOB TITLE: All Restaurant Staff TASK #: 4.07 TASK: The White Grapes EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT Gruener Veltliner


Fast rising star, helped by the success of Austrian examples in tasting with white Burgund. Fleshy limey &capable of ageing Marsanne A classic, flowery, lemony variety used in the Rhone in Hermitage, Australia (Chateau Tahblik & Mitchelton ) Southern France from Mas de daumas Gassac, Switzerland from Provins and innovative wines from California. At its Best, young or after 5 6 years. Muscat The only variety whose wines actually taste as they are made of grapes, rather than some other kind of fruit or Vegetable. In Alsace, southern France and northeast Italy it is used to make dry wines. Generally though it Performs best as sparkling wine ( Moscatos and Astis from Italy and Clairette de Die Tradition from France ) and as sweet fortified wine. Look out for Beaume de Venise and Rivesaltes in southern France, Moscatel de Setubal in Portugal, Moscatel de Valencia in Spain and Liqueur Muscat in Australia. Pinot Blanc / Pinot Blanco As rich as Chardonnay, but with less fruit. At its worst When over-cropped, it makes neutral wine. At its best However ( also in Alsace ) it can develop a lovely Cashew nut flavor. When well handled it can also do well in Italy, where it is known as Pinot Biancho ( Jermann ) and in Germany, especially in Baden where it is called Grauer Burgunder. Look out for examples from Oregon ( Eyrie ), California and New Zealand.

WHY

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date: Page 3 of 3

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Restaurant JOB TITLE: All Restaurant Staff TASK #: 4.07 TASK: The White Grapes EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT


Viognier A cult grape , Viognier was once only found in Condrieu And Chateau Grillet in the Rhone, where small numbers Of good examples showed off its extraordinary perfumed, Peach-blossomy character, albeit at a high price. Today however it has been widely introduced to the Ardeche, Languedoc-Roussillon and California and made with loving care. ( and often over-generous exposure in Oak barrels ). In Eastern Europe, Argentina and particularly Australia ( where Yalumba makes several Good examples ) While examples of affordable Viognier are welcome, most lower-priced efforts are disappointing, because this Is a variety that performs poorly when asked to produce too much wine per acre. Clones of this grape vary widely too.

WHY

PREPARED BY:

APPROVED BY:

Stefan Schmid

Position:

Signature: Date:

Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Signature: Date:

Page 1 of 3

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Restaurant JOB TITLE: All Restaurant Staff WHAT TO DO TASK #: 4.08 TASK: The Red Grapes EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com


To learn about the various red grapes, grown nowadays on the vineyards around the world.

PREPARED BY: Position:

To give Barberra proper A widely planted, wild-berryish Italian variety, at its best in guidance Piedmont, where it is increasingly successful in blends with And Nebbiolo and Cabernet. Also good in Argentina, California and suggestions Australia. for Cabernet Sauvignon choosing King of the Medoc and Graves ( in blends with Merlot ) and top the right reds from the New World, especially California, Chile and wine for Australia. Eastern Europe and southern France ( Vin de pays ) have good value examples, and Spain is rapidly climbing aboard selection as Preference ( in the Penedes and Navarra ).The hallmark to look for is given blackcurrant, though unripe versions taste like weeds and bell peppers. There are also great Italian Cabernets. Good New World Cabernets can smell and taste like fresh mint, but like the best Bordeaux, develop a rich, leathery cigar box charcter. Carmenere A peppery-berryish grape once grown in Bordeaux And now almost only found in Chile and Italy. ( Ca del Bosco ) Grenache / Garnacha Freshly ground black pepper is the distinguishing flavour here, sometimes with the fruity tang of sweets. At home in Cotes du Rhone and Chateauneuf-du-Pape, it is also used in Spain ( as Garnacha ) in blends with Tempranillo. There are good bush examples from Australia. Malbec Another peppery Bordeaux refugee, used in France ( for Cahors ) the Loire and Italy where it generally produces dull stuff. It shines however in Argentina and is finding a new home in Chile and Australia. Nebbiolo / Spanna The red wine grape of Barolo and Barbaresco in Piedmont now, thanks to modern winemaking, Increasingly reveals a lovely cherry and rosepetal Character, often with the sweet vanilla of new oak Casks. Lesser examples for earlier drinking tend to be labeled as Spanna. APPROVED BY: Stefan Schmid Signature: Position: Signature: Director of Date: Food & Beverage Date:

Page 2 of 3

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Restaurant TASK #: 4.08 TASK: The Red Grapes

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com JOB TITLE: All Restaurant Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT

WHY

Merlot The most widely planted variety in Bordeaux and the subject of (enthusiastic over - ) planting in California. In Bordeaux, where in some vintages it performs better than Cabernet Sauvignon, it is at its best in Pomerol, where wines can taste of ripe plums and spice, and in St. Emilion, where the least successful wines show the Merlots less lovable dull and earthy character. Wherever it is made, the naturally thinskinned Merlot should produce softer, less tannic wines than Cabernet Sauvignon ( though some California examples seem to contradict this ) Pinot Noir The wild-rapherryish, plumy and liquoricey grape of red burgundy is also a major component of white and pink Champagne. It makes red and pink Sancerre, as well as light reds in Alsace and Germany (where it Is called Spaetburgunder ). Italy makes a few good Examples but for the best modern efforts look to California, Oregon, Australia, Chile, South Africa and especially New Zealand (Martinborough , Felton Road ). Pinotage Almost restricted to South Africa, this cross between Pinot Noir and Cinsaut can - though rarely and only in the hands, such as Kanonkop make berryish young wines that may develop rich gamey-spicy flavours . Poorer examples can be dull and muddy. Sangiovese The grape of Chianti, Brunello di Montalcino and a host of popular IGT wines in Italy, not to mention new wave Italian-style wines in California and Argentina. The recognizable flavour is sweet tobacco, wild herbs and berries.

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date: Page 3 of 3

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 4.08

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com DEPARTMENT : Restaurant TASK: The Red Grapes JOB TITLE: All Restaurant Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT

WHY

Syrah / Shiraz The spicy, brambly grape of the Northern Rhone ( Hermittage, Cornas etc. ) and the best reds of Australia ( Henschke Hill of grace and Penfolds Grange ) where it is also blended with Cabernet Sauvignon ( just as it was once in Bordeaux ). Marquis de Grinon has a great Spanish example And Isole e Olena makes a fine one in Tuscany. Increasingly successful in California and Washinton State and finally in South Africa. Surprisingly Good too, in both Switzerland and New Zealand. Tempranillo Known under all kind of names around Spain , including Cencibel in Navarra and Tinto del Pais in Ribeira del Duero and Tinta Roritz in Portugal, the grape gives Spanish reds their recognizable strawberry character. Often blended with Garnacha, it works well with Cabernet Sauvignon. So far little is used in the New World, but watch out for examples from Argentina and Australia.

Zinfandel Until recently thought of as Californias own Variety, but now proved (by DNA tests) to be the same variety as the Primitivo in southern Italy. In California it makes rich, spicy, blueberryish reds ( see Turley and Ridge Vineyards ), ports and often with a little help from sweet Muscat , sweet pink White Zinfandel . Outside California, Cape Mentelle makes a good example in Western Australia.

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date: Page 1 of 3

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Restaurant TASK #: 4.09 TASK: The Ten Basic Wine Styles - White

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com JOB TITLE: All Restaurant Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT Examples are: Most branded jug whites: Entre-DeuxMers, Gaillac, Muscadet Swiss whites such as: Fendant Italian whites such as : Soave, Verdicchio, Orvieto Secco, Frascati, Pinot Bianco & Pinot Grigio Most Spanish & Portuguese whites European Welschrieslings Many Chenin Blancs and South African Sauvignon Blanc Examples are: German Qualitaetswein, Most Kabinetts and some Spaetlese Light French Sauvignons From Bergerac and Touraine, Savoie whites ( Crepy, Apremont ) Portuguese Vinho Verde and Spanish Albarino. Certain California Chenin Blancs, Australian Rieslings, some New Zealand Sauvignons and English Mueller Thurgaus & Seyal Blancs & simpler Austrian Gruener Veltiners. PREPARED BY: Position: Dry white wines of neutral, simple winey flavor Among the cheapest wines, generally useful but too Plain to be exciting, or to be particularly pleasant as aperitifs without the addition of extra flavor (such as black currant or grenadine syrup) These wines are better with simple food, Especially with strong-flavoured or highly Seasoned dishes as hors doeuvres, antipasto, Fish stew, mussels, herrings & mackerel, salad Nicoise, red mullet, grilled sardines, terrines and Sausages, curries & Chinese foods ( both of These are better with a little sweetness in the Wine, like Australian Chardonnay or a Pinot Gris from Alsace. All should be served very well chilled at : About 8 C. Light, fresh, grapey white wine with fruity and Sometimes flowery aromas This is a category that has grown most in recent years at the expense of the dry whites. Modern techniques, especially cold fermentation, capture whatever flavour the grape has and add As little as possible. The very aromatic German-style grapes are nearly always in this or the sweet white wine category. All these wines make excellent aperitifs or refreshing betweenMeal or evening drinks, most of all in summer. Those with relatively high acidity are also good with many first courses, but are dominated by seriously savory dishes and lack the substance to be satisfying throughout the meal. Suitable Dishes to accompany them include: Poached trout, crab salad, cold chicken; they need slightly less chilling than the previous category. APPROVED BY: Signature: Date: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

WHY

The correct wine to be served according to the guest preference Wine glasses are clean and polished The label of the bottle of wine is visible The sommelier or waiter to be professional

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:

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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Restaurant TASK #: 4.09 TASK: The Ten Basic Wine Styles - White

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com JOB TITLE: All Restaurant Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT Examples are All good mature Chardonnays (e.g. white burgundies after two or more years, depending or their quality ). Their equivalents from California & Australia, Alsace Riesling, Gewuerztraminer & Pinot Gris, Sancerre and Pouilly Fume & Savennieres from the Loire. Exceptional Italian wines ( the best of Frascati, Soave Classico Verdicchio, Cortese di Gavi, Mature Rioja, Manzanilla sherry from Spain, Rulaender from Baden, Australian Semillons & dry Barossa & Coonawarra Rieslings with 3-4 years in bottle. Examples are The finest natural sweet wines are produced by the Action of noble rot. Sauternes and Barsac. As well the Beerenauslesen & Trockenbeerenauslesen From Germany. Tokaji Aszu best with Foie Gras, Sweet Muscats like those light ones from Asti in Northern Italy. Heavier Muscats are made in Languedoc and Roussillon, France and Sicily, east coast of Spain, at Setubal in Portugal, in Greece and Russia and best of all in northeast Victoria, Australia PREPARED BY: Position: White wines with body & character, aromatic from certain grapes or with the bouquet or maturity Fine French dry whites all come into this category High flavor often makes them taste rich even when fully dry. Without food, these wines can be to assertive, they Are best matched with a savory dish which is also Rich in flavor and pale in colour, e.g. oysters, clam Lobsters and prawns, smoked fish, frog legs, snails Onion or leek tart, ballotines, prosciutto, salmon Turbot and other rich fish in butter, sauce Hollandaise or monte butter-cream sauces; as Well scallops, poultry, sweetbreads and hard Swiss Or German cheeses. Wines only should be lightly chilled ( 10 C 13 C ). Sweet white wines Varying from delicately fruity and lightly sweet to Overwhelmingly luscious, these wines are to be Sipped slowly by themselves and are rarely improved by food. Very rich and highly flavoured desserts, however Delicious, tend to fight sweet wines . Chocolate and coffee ones are fatal. The best choice is a French apple tart or raspherry tart / cake, crme Brulee, fruity sponge cakes and simple desserts which are not to heavy. Sweet wines are usually drunk after meals, but in France often as aperitifs, too. They should be served at 4 C - 6 C APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:

WHY

Signature: Date:

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STANDARD OPERATING PROCED


FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 4.09

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com DEPARTMENT : Restaurant TASK: The Ten Basic Wine Styles - White JOB TITLE: All Restaurant Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT

WHY

Examples are:

Roses divide broadly into two camps: the light, Purply-pink, usually faintly sweet Loire style, and the drier more orange-pink, stronger, and more sun-burnt Wine glasses The great exception is pink Champagne, which, Provencal variety. Portuguese although generally made in the same way as still rose are clean and carbonated fizzy roses and polished ( before undergoing a second fermentation in the Californian blush wines fit bottle, is very highly sought-after. Few things are into the first category. Tavel The label of more delicious. from the Rhone most roses from Roses are best in summer with salads and on picnics, the bottle of Spain and Italy are stronger and and the Provencal style with oily and garlicky or even wine is drier. A third group are visible oriental dishes . They have possibilities with such Vins gris, red-grape white wines antipasti like artichokes, crudities, salami or merely shaded with color, more The taramasalata. grey than pink; and a fourth, Pink wines need to be served really cold, colder than sommelier or pelure doignon ( onion skin ), waiter to be most whites. If this is difficult to arrange choose a which are very pale orange professional light Red wine instead. brown. Both are made usually Dry white wines of neutral, simple winey flavor very dry, the gris more fruity, the onion skin more alcoholic. Among the cheapest wines, generally useful but too plain to be exciting, or to be particularly Examples are: Pleasant as aperitifs without the addition of extra Most branded jug whites: flavor (such as black currant or grenadine syrup) Entre-Deux-Mers, Gaillac, Muscadet These wines are better with simple food, Swiss whites such as: Fendant Especially with strong-flavoured or highly Italian whites such as : Seasoned dishes as hors doeuvres, antipasto, Soave, Verdicchio, Orvieto Fish stew, mussels, herrings & mackerel, salad Secco, Frascati, Pinot Bianco & Nicoise, red mullet, grilled sardines, terrines and Pinot Grigio Sausages Most Spanish & Portuguese whites European Welschrieslings Many Chenin Blancs and South African Sauvignon Blanc PREPARED BY: APPROVED BY: Stefan Schmid Position: Signature: Date: Position: Director of Food & Beverage Signature: Date: Page 1 of 3

Rose Wines Roses are usually workhorse, compromise wines of adequate quality, made by fermenting the juice of red grapes, very briefly with the skins, then separating it and making it like white wine.

The correct wine to be served according to the guest preference

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 4.10

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com DEPARTMENT : Restaurant TASK: The Ten Basic Wine Styles - Red JOB TITLE: All Restaurant Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT Examples are: Italys Valpolicella and Bardolino, Barbera and Dolcetto, and even Chianti, can be freshly fruity if they are caught Young enough. Fizzy red Lambrusco is a sort of Caricature of the style. Spain provides few examples, although Valdepenas has possibilities and no doubt Will be made fresher in the future. The heat of the vineyards in California, Australia, South Africa and South America have proved inimical to this style of wine. Light Zinfandels and Gamays From California sometimes achieve it. Examples are: Most inexpensive imports From southern, central and eastern Europe , North Africa, Argentina, Chile, South Africa and Australia are in the classes that follow PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date: Grapey young reds with individuality, not intended to mature Beaujolais is the archetype of a light red wine: Made to be drunk young, while it is still lively with fresh, grape flavor. BeaujolaisVillages is a better, stronger and tastier selection. Simple young Bordeaux, burgundy and Rhone reds, Cabernet from Anjou and Mondeuse from Savoie should have the same appeal. Similar wines are now made in the Midi ( Corbieres Minervois, Roussillon St-Chinian ) by the Beaujolais technique of carbonic Maceration and also of most of the popular red grape Varieties: light wines to drink young. In its liveliness and vigour this is perhaps the safest and best All around class of red wine for mealtimes, appetizing with Anything from pate to fruit and often better than a more serious or old wine with strong cheese, in mouthfuls rather than sips. For the same reason it is the easiest red wine to drink without food. It is usually best served cool. Ideal dishes include: pates & terrines, (including those made from vegetable),quiches, salads, hamburgers, ham, grilled meats, cheese and soft fruits as raspberries, plums or peaches. Plain every day or jug reds

WHY The correct wine to be served according to the guest preference Wine glasses are clean and polished The label of the bottle of wine is visible The sommelier or waiter to be profession al .

These are unpretentious and anonymous blended wines with little body or flavor. French brands and country wines of Italy, Portugal or Spain, as well as Californias jugreds, come into the category. Often a slight sweetness remains in the wine to disguise its lack of body. Like the neutral cheap whites, these are essentially wines for mealtimes, a healthy and stimulating accompaniment to almost Any homely food. They are always best served rather cool as drinks on their own there are improved by being iced and in summer ( as Sangria, with orange juice added ) and mulled On the stove with sugar and spices in winter. ( Gluehwein in Bavaria

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date: Page 2 of 3

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Restaurant TASK #: 4.10 TASK: The Ten Basic Wine Styles - Red

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com JOB TITLE: All Restaurant Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT Examples are: Mature reds of light to medium strength and body Apart from the French wines they include thebest This category includes most of the worlds finest of Rioja & Penedes from Red wines, epitomized by claret ( red Bordeaux ) Spain, Chianti Riservas, And most of the typical wines of Burgundy and the Rhone, Tuscans such as although some of the greatest fall into the next glass, depending on Tignanello, Carmignano & the ripeness of the vintage. Vene-Gazzu, Portuguese These wines need more care in serving than any others, since they reds from Dao, Alentejo & often throw a deposit in maturing. Bairrada. Top California, Oregon They are wines for meat and game dishes with the best ingredients and Washington Cabernet and moderate seasoning. Lamb, beef And Pinot Noirs. Veal ( also sweetbreads and tongue ) chicken, duck, Coonawarra and some Partridge, grouse, pheasant are all ideal, although very gamey Hunter Valley reds, birds may need wines from the next Argentinian Malbec Category. Only mild chesses should be served with Chilean These relatively delicate wines. Cabernet & Bordeaux Blends from New Zealand They need to be served at a temperature of between 15 C - 18 C Examples are: to bring out their flavor. California, Australia Exceptionally concentrated, full flavored and powerful reds, And South Africa find it usually but not always needed to mature. hard not to make such big reds. In Europe this category depends more on the vintage Most of their best wines Than the producer. Wines that achieve this status are carefully restrained in Fairly regularly include Petrus in Pomerol, Chambertin and Corton ripeness, but in California in Burgundy, Hermittage and a number of wines Chateauneuf-du-Pape ( Cote-Rotie ) is often in the previous especially Zinfandel, are category. Exceptional Roussillons made to be larger than life. ( not for maturing ) Barolo and Barbaresco, Brunello Australia makes many di Montalcino, Recioto Amarone from Valpolicella, such wines, especially in Spanish Vega Sicilia, Pesquera and Priorato Victoria, Barossa and Portuguese Barca Velha, Dalmatian Posip and Postup. Southern Vales in South Australia. Top Shiraz such Well hung game and strong-flavored cheese are the as Penfolds Grange and Obvious candidates for these wines, although those in the Henschkes Hill Of appropriate price bracket are also excellent Grace are good example For BBQs and dinners. PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date: APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:

WHY

Page 3 of 3

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 4.10 DEPARTMENT : Restaurant TASK: The Ten Basic Wine Styles - Red JOB TITLE: All Restaurant Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT Examples are: Other wines in this category include Spanish Malaga And Tarragona, Sicilian Marsala Cypriot Commandaria French vins doux naturels and a host of wines, usually with borrowed names in the New World. Wines whose natural strength is augmented with Added alcohol, either during the fermentation to Preserve the natural sweetness ( as in port ) Or after they have fermented to dryness as a preservative ( as in sherry ). Since the role of these wines is largely determined By their sweetness, which is at their makers discretion, all that can usefully be said is that dry versions ( whether of port, sherry, Madeira or their Equivalents are intended as aperitifs, while sweet Ones are used either before or after meals According to local taste and custom. The French, for example, prefer sweet aperitifs The Italian bitter ones, and the British who divide everything along class lines, some sweet and some dry. In all cases, small glasses are needed, because the alcohol strength is higher than that of table wine. Dry Sherry is always drunk with Tapas in Spain. It is one of the best wines for smoked eel and cuts the silky sweetness of fine Iberian ham. Old Oloroso sherry, whether dry or with added sweetness, is very good with cakes, nuts and raisins. Port, both vintage and tawny, is often drunk with Cheese. Madeira has a cake especially designed for it. Fortified Wines

WHY

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:

Page 1 of 3

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO
To learn about the mechanics Of menu planning, rules and Regulations.

TASK #: 5.01 TASK: Menu Types, Breakfast EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

Basic Rules for successful menu arrangement: - Proper recipes - Proper calculation - Market survey and analysis - Type of hotel/property - Season and climate Definition of the word - Wishes and expectations of the guests menu: - Up-to-date nutrition facts A menu is set up of dishes, - Correct spelling whereby the various food - True declaration items should be balanced - No repetition of color, ingredient, preparation, According to ingredients, decoration Preparation and seasonal Availability. Menus have to be changed on regular basis The menu is usually sold And revised according to the sales analysis. With a fixed price. Some rules have changed and it is quite common To make menu planning To mix western and oriental dishes in one menu. Successful: - Knowledge of Menus should be offered according to the market ingredients And guest expectations and wishes. - Knowledge of preparation Certain products which include protected animals - Knowledge of Should not be used, like turtle meat, dolphins, calculation Bear, tigers etc. - Knowledge of Menu sections 1: Menu sections 2: Nourishment, nutrition - Knowledge of menu Appetizer Appetizer, cold Writing and spelling

Proper knowledge of menu Arrangement is the key issue For a successful F&B operation and satisfied guests

Soup Main course Dessert Coffee or tea

Soup Appetizer, hot or fish Sherbet Main course Dessert Coffee or Tea Pralines APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date: Page 2 of 3

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 5.01

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Menu Types, Breakfast JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT

WHY

PREPARED BY: Position:

Breakfast: Most important meal of the day, with lot of choice, a`la minute A menu preparation, a`la carte or buffet. should be - Continental Breakfast tailored - American Breakfast According - Oriental Breakfast to the - Japanese Breakfast occasion, Season, Room Service Breakfast: Should be served within 20 minutes, choosen religion and From the door knob / room service menu guest Expectation Brunch: Usually a mix of breakfast and lunch, startin From 11.00 AM 3.00 PM s. Lunch: Usually a 3 course meal, and should be served as fast as possible, as people get back to work. Dinner: Can be from 3 7,8 courses, with candle light Comfortabl surroundings. Business Lunch: 3-4 courses, easy to eat, sometimes served during meetings, light ingredients, nice set up and dcor Quick Lunch: Fast preparation and reasonable price Gala Menu: Something special, can be outstanding and expensive ingredients, nice room decoration, Entertainment, music, special table decoration Childrens Menu: Should be in smaller portions, menu can be printed on paper with colorful decoration in kids Manner with possibility of painting., colourful & fancy plates to be used Vegetarian menu: According to the season, with all vegetarian Ingredients, very popular in Asia and Europe and America. Diet Menu: According to the prescribed diet by the doctor, Chef needs special diploma, usually in hospitals And recreation centers Employees Menu: Staff have the right for proper and nutritious menus, it keeps the morale high and motivates on a daily basic APPROVED BY Stefan Schmid: Signature: Date: Position: Director of Food & Beverage Signature: Date:
Page 3 of 3

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO To understand the mechanics Of the breakfast buffet, menu And set up. TASK #: 5.01 TASK: Menu Types, Breakfast EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

The Breakfast Buffet is served from 6.00 AM 10.30 PM daily. Mice en place will be done by the morning shift the day before and final preparation by night chef For hot dishes as bacon, ham, sausages and main Course. Chefs attending the buffet have to be well mannered, clean hair cut and proper uniform. Courtesy for the guest and a helpful hand at all time. The buffet has to be constantly checked For refill and mice en place. Cold food cold and hot food hot. Coordination with stewarding very important for Equipment set up and heating fuel. Breakfast dishes will be changed on regular basis For all sections. Set up has to be easy accessible, with nice decoration and prepared service area. The chefs corner will be used to prepare egg and Hot dishes a`la minute Breakfast Buffet: Wide variety on cold and hot items Cold platters, salads, fruit section, Asian section Hot buffet, egg corner, carving trolley, pastries Dairy products, cereals Brunch: A combination of breakfast and lunch buffet Starting from 11.00 2.30 . Lots of cooking stations, champagne, juices, hot appetizer and Main courses, usually with music and entertainment, games, ice cream counter

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date: Page 1 of 2

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 5.02 DEPARTMENT : Kitchen TASK: Ala Carte & Room Service JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT
To get familiar with the a`la Carte service in the hotel.

WHY

Guests will choose from the a`la carte menu Which can include specials of the day. 1. Speed and Quality is rule number one. 2. Availability of ingredients most important. 3. Daily double and triple check of mice en place. 4. Communication between kitchen and service Essential. 5. Flexibility of all Chefs is priority. 6. Cleanliness of kitchen, mice en place and Utensils, equipment and personal hygiene Very important. 7. Special request should be followed up at all times. 8. Good mice en place is half the service!! 9. 10. Complaints to be handled immediately. Hot food hot Cold food cold.

Good preparation for the A`la carte service is essential For the satisfaction of the guests.

11. Egg dishes never in contact with metal 12. Arrangement of food items to be checked On color and shape harmony 13. All garnish should be edible. 14. Deep-fried dishes should never be covered With sauce 15. 16. PREPARED BY: Position: Plates should never be overloaded. Different dishes for one table should arrive on the same time APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date: Page 2 of 2

Signature: Date:

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO TASK #: 5.02 TASK: A la Carte & Room Service EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

To learn about room service Its operation and role for the Kitchen department.

Quality and speed is rule number one. The room service is an important part of F&B and the business and possibilities should not to Be underestimated. Room service is normally operating 24 hours A day. Divided into different sections as ; - Breakfast Menu/door knob menu - All day dining - Late night menu The room service manager/assistant will receive the call from the guest and takes the order. Which is passed on to the coffee shop chef. All food order have to be served in 20 minutes time. Proper check for mice en place at all times, Especially for the night shift by the night chef Has to be conducted on a daily basis. The room service menu is usually prepared By the coffee shop kitchen which is in operation 24 hours. For VIP guests, special action plan and set ups Will be arranged, changing several times Throughout the day. Only the best ingredients available will be served and offered on such occasions. A proper functioning room service is a good Money maker and if people feel comfortable They will order in big amounts, especially In regards of beverage and special set ups.

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO
To get familiar with the different buffets and promotions held in the Hotel.

TASK #: 5.03 TASK: Restaurant Buffets, Promotions EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT WHY
Cold and hot buffets should Be a good combination of fresh quality food products, Dcor, entertainment and Information for promotions.

Buffets are usually for self service and include A`la minute cooking on various stations and carving trolleys. Breakfast buffets are very popular as breakfast is the most important meal of the day with a big Selection of - breads and pastries - cereals - fruits and fruit juices - cold cuts and cheese - egg dishes a`la minute - hot western and asian dishes Lunch and dinner buffets will include - cold and hot appetizers - soups - fish and seafood - meat, poultry and game dishes - carving section - bread and dessert section - fresh vegetables - salad bar with dressings and condiments Promotion buffets are to promote special holidays, events, national days and celebrations Usually with entertainment and dance shows As folklore. They provide with the seasonal change a Variation and with special decoration and display Give a good opportunity for the guests to try different cuisines and ethnic foods Chinese, Thai, Vietnamese, Japanese, German, Italian, French, Swiss, American, Mexican, Caribbean

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO To get familiar with banquet And catering production, Service, set-up, clearing, Planning and arrangement. TASK #: 5.04 TASK: Banquet & Catering EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY Proper planning, meeting and Site inspection with all details on the event order for all Banquet parties is essential for A smooth running and execution of these important Events. Banquet and catering plays A mayor role in the F&B Department, with 50% of the revenue coming from this Section throughout the year.

Banquet Types: - Cold buffet - Hot buffet - Combination buffet cold/hot - Cocktail party - Coffee break - High tea - Breakfast buffet - Brunch - Set Lunch, Set dinner - Special buffets ( October fest, international, ) - Outside Catering - Set up of buffets should be finished at least 30 minutes of official starting date - Decoration should be suitable and interesting - Plates, boards and food containers should Be placed high and on different levels. - Chefs attending the buffet have to be absolute clean uniform and have a proper personal appearance Refill is very important and Chefs working at the buffet have to be on the spot. Polite service for the guests at all times For VIP arrangements meeting will be contacted. Function sheets checked daily and mice en place Double checked. Samples to be prepared for set dinners. Check list for outside catering to be prepared Inspection on site prior to the event. Drawings, photos and action plan to be set up Decoration for promotion buffets to be set up The night before

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO TASK #: 5.05 TASK: Banquet Cocktails EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY
Cocktail parties reflect the skills know how of the catering and kitchen department and is a good opportunity for PR and celebrations

To learn about different Cocktail set ups and events

Cocktail parties are arranged in the assigned Ballroom , function rooms, private rooms, guest Rooms or for outside caterings.

A festive arrangement through the catering manager and decoration is displayed which has been selected by the customer.

It is arranged with different stations as : cold canapes hot canapes sweet and dessert section carving trolley and section a`la minute preparations display as ice and fruit carving stage set up for musician, dance and wedding cake ceremony

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO
To learn about different Cocktail set ups, events And menus

TASK #: 5.06 TASK: Banquet Cocktails, Menus EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

Cocktail parties are arranged in the assigned Ballroom , function rooms, private rooms, guest Rooms or for outside caterings. A festive arrangement through the catering manager and decoration is displayed which has been selected by the customer. It is arranged with different stations as : cold canapes hot canapes sweet and dessert section carving trolley and section a`la minute preparations display as ice and fruit carving stage set up for musician, dance and wedding cake ceremony

Cocktail parties reflect the skills know how of the catering and kitchen department and is a good opportunity for PR and celebrations

A set menu is prepared according to the event order issued at the catering office. Menu selection are available for different Occasions as - weddings - anniversaries - national days - conventions - holidays A set menu can be prepared from 5 to 5000 People and good coordination is necessary Between the different kitchen sections. It can be arranged either in house or for an Outside catering. PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Stefan Schmid Signature:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Date: Food & Beverage

Date: Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO TASK #: 5.07 TASK: Food Preparation In Public EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY What the guest expect:


To have a pleasant Experience when observing the display cooking and Specialty demonstration s.

How to satisfy - behaviorally


Welcome the guest by making eye contact, smiling and using a welcome phrase ( a wai ) If unable to attend a guest immediately, acknowledge him / her by making eye contact and smiling. Inquire into guest preferences & prepare accordingly the mise en place. Explain and promote the dishes as they are being prepared as well as those on the buffet. Prepare and present food in a professional and stylish manner to make dishes more appetizing. Wish the guest an enjoyable meal. ( Enjoy your dinner sir /madam )

How to satisfy operationally


Guest should be welcomed and receive a friendly service throughout. Ensure that a minimum number of staff for the buffet service are Bilingual-language ( Thai English ) Ensure that guests queue no longer than 3 minutes. Ensure that the cook is present at all times at the cooking station. Cater for special needs. Present dishes attractively & display showmanship when preparing food. Make sure that uniforms are impeccable throughout the service and that Always provide proper ventilation to avoid unpleasant cooking odors.

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of

Stefan Schmid Signature:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Date: Food & Beverage

Date:

Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO
To understand the daily mice En place in combination with The daily market list.

TASK #: 6.01 TASK: Market List EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY
The daily food supply ordered Through the market list will Guarantee a smooth set up of the daily mice en place.

The daily restaurant a`la carte mice en place depends very much on the proper storage and handling of the food. Daily food supplies are ordered through the Daily market list, divided into the sections: - fruit - vegetables - fish/seafood - meat - spices and herbs Proper arranged storage for all products will help the chef who writes the market list for the correct Ordering. If supplies are not enough due to busy restaurant Operation and last minute orders, other kitchens Will help out temporarily.

PREPARED BY:

APPROVED BY:

Stefan Schmid

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Position: Signature: Position: Director of Date: Food & Beverage

Signature: Date: Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO TASK #: 6.02 TASK: Purchasing & Receiving EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY

How to satisfy behaviorally


Inspect all goods, without exception, upon delivery For quality and condition. Adhere to local laws and company policies Cooperate with receiving staff and stewards for proper Execution of guidelines, safety and cleanliness

What the guest expect:


That the hotel purchases Food items of high standards at the right Price.

How to satisfy - operationally


Check quality and price for fresh market produce Minimum twice a week. Have specifications for all goods received, e.g. : Examine the vehicle the goods arrive in. Inspect all packaging of goods. Check expiring date. Check freshness, size and quality of all goods Check and record temperature of goods received. Reject goods immediately if dissatisfied Keep receiving area clean of debris Receiving area to be deep-cleaned on daily basis.

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of

Stefan Schmid Signature:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Date: Food & Beverage

Date:

Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 6.02 DEPARTMENT : Restaurant TASK: Handle Store Requisitions JOB TITLE: All Restaurant Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT
Check par stock Check stock item

WHY

Issue requisition

Correctly fill out the General Store requisition form Be sure to write down quantity required, item name. Send for signature Get approval from the outlet manager Send to F&B manager for approval and signature

In order to maintain sufficient stock, store items must be requisitioned accurately, promptly and efficiently using correct form with authorized signature

Send to stores & receive stock

Send approved orders to the stores and collect stock items for your department twice a week on specific days. Keep one copy of order form to check against items received

Send approved orders to the stores and collect stock items for your department twice a week on specific days. Keep one copy of order form to check against items received

PREPARED BY:

APPROVED BY:

Stefan Schmid

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Position: Signature: Position: Director of Date: Food & Beverage

Signature: Date:

Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Restaurant JOB TITLE: All Restaurant Staff WHAT TO DO
Monitor

TASK #: 6.04 TASK: Repair Order EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY
Maintenance orders must be issued with clear description of the maintenance work to be carried out

Check if anything is damaged in need of repair Carry out daily inspection before opening for operation

Issue repair order

Prepare E-mail with repair order in detail Send to Engineering department

Clean and in good condition

Follow up

After engineering has fixed the order Check to ensure the job has been done properly Remind engineering department if any order is still not completed after a certain period Report the outstanding order to the F&B Manager

Efficient

Job completed promptly

PREPARED BY:

APPROVED BY:

Stefan Schmid

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Position: Signature: Position: Director of Date: Food & Beverage

Signature: Date:

Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Kitchen Staff WHAT TO DO
Prepare

TASK #: 6.05 TASK: Inventory Control EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY
Inventories must be correct and received on time.

Get Count Sheet from F&B Controller All cupboards, drawers, etc. must be opened Items must be put together and sorted

Assign Staff

Decide how many staff are needed to carry out the task Give staff clear instructions about this procedure

Stock-take

Coordinate with Chief Steward Count and fill in Count Sheet Sign the Count Sheet

Send to F&B controller

F&B Controller should double check every item and make sure correct figures have been filled in One copy of each Count Sheet is collected by F&B controller

File

Place all items back in original place

PREPARED BY:

APPROVED BY:

Stefan Schmid

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Position: Signature: Date: Position: Director of Food & Beverage Signature: Date: Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Restaurant JOB TITLE: All Restaurant Staff WHAT TO DO
Meet in F&B Office punctually on Scheduled date and time

TASK #: 6.06 TASK: Attendance Of Daily F&B Briefing EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT WHY
Pending matters and complaints to be followed up On immediately

Meeting is held daily at a.m. F&B Manager will inform daily occurrences Make a note of any special information Note any VIPs in house. Note any information regarding occupancy and special requests.

Insure all important information to mention in your daily briefing Make sure all necessary pending matters are executed and followed upon Report of all matters regarding to your outlet, positive comments by guests, complaints, equipment matters And staff update info

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature:

APPROVED BY: Position:

Stefan Schmid Signature:

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com Director of Date: Food & Beverage

Date:

Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Restaurant JOB TITLE: All Restaurant Staff WHAT TO DO
Prepare daily F&B logbook

TASK #: 6.07 TASK: Log Book EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY
The F & B logbook must be completed daily after operating hours, and the report must be passed on to the F & B Manager every morning.

Fill in daily report form with the following details (logbook): a. Covers (all day) b. Average check (all day) c. Food revenue (all day) d. Beverage revenue (all day) e. Promotion analysis f. Last year figures Make comments on the general situation of business and about any special events

Submit to F&B Manager

After operating hours, the daily report should be completed and sent to the F&B office Make sure the daily report is kept in the appropriate location for F&B Managers approval before 8.30 hr.

Timely Accurate Good observations and suggestions

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com PREPARED BY: APPROVED BY: Position: Signature: Date: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date: Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT : Kitchen JOB TITLE: All Restaurant Staff WHAT TO DO
Manage the complaint Demonstrate Understanding

TASK #: 6.08 TASK: Complaint Handling EQUIPMENT NEEDED: HOW TO DO IT

WHY
It costs 5x more to get a new customer than to keep a repeating guest happy. If you dont handle the Issue yourself, call for your Supervisor at once.

The first few seconds are crucial !! Your positive impression towards the guest is important You have to show sympathy Apologize at once !! Listen carefully to the guests points Remember the details, signalize understanding Bring-in the I message Tell the guest what your action plan is Take notes, if the case is to complex Confirm and repeat the main points Never argue with the guest Offer one or even more solutions, Signalize your understanding & he /she will cool down Explain a detailed step-by-step procedure Give a solid time frame for the compensation I will arrange this at once, if this is ok with you ? Most important is speed for the execution Let the guest decide, ask what he/she would like to have Demonstrate your good-will to please the guest Admit the mistake Repeat the reason / main issue for the apology Be grateful Thank You Mr. X Move away from the problem Ask for other services, which are surely positive By the way, your room is fine, are you happy with ? Be grateful Thank you Mr. X for letting me know . Most guest dont expect you are coming back once more

Get the main issues

Offer solutions

Explain your follow up

The compensation

It is important that the guest feels being recognized

Our apology

Demonstrate relation

We are grateful

Only 1 in 20 guests really complain, the rest remains quiet & does not return

The follow-up talk

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com


It will help in the future, guest will remember

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date: Page 1 of 1

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE


FOOD & BEVERAGE TASK #: 6.09 DEPARTMENT : Restaurant TASK: Scheduling Staff JOB TITLE: All Room Service Staff EQUIPMENT NEEDED: WHAT TO DO HOW TO DO IT
Produce a vacation plan Schedule departmental holidays taking requests into consideration, only after blocking periods when the department is busiest. The busiest period must be fully staffed i.e. peak seasons, public holidays and special events Ensure an even spread of holidays for every level/type of staff throughout the year, to avoid any potential staffing crisis

WHY
Sufficient manpower must always be available to run the operation smoothly and efficiently

Incorporate vacation plan with roster

Produce roster in conjunction with vacation plan

Daily/weekly schedule

Schedule staff on a daily basis according to occupancy levels. Schedule staff according to room service peak times (ie breakfast)

Oriental Hospitality Consultants OrientalHospitality.com

PREPARED BY: Position: Signature: Date:

APPROVED BY: Position: Director of Food & Beverage

Stefan Schmid Signature: Date:

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