Sie sind auf Seite 1von 44






Until well into the twentieth century, most devices developed for measuring distance worked on the same principle. The measured distance is compared with a standard unit of length. Other means are available. One of these is the measurement of time taken by the sound wave to cover a certain distance. This sound normally lies beyond human hearing. The ultrasonic sensor is used to measure the distance in digital form and also automatically braking the vehicle when the obstacle closer to the vehicle.

The aim is to design and develop a control system based an intelligent electronically controlled automotive braking system is called PNEUMATIC BRAKING SYSTEM . This B r a k i n g s y s t e m i s c o n s i s t s o f ultrasonic sensor unit, IR sensor unit, Pneumatic breaking system. The Ultrasonic sensor is used to detect the obstacle distance in LCD display. There is any obstacle in the path, the IR sensor senses the obstacle and giving the control signal to the breaking system. The pneumatic breaking system is used to break the system.

In o u r p r o j e c t o f U L T R A S O N I C D I S T A N C E M E T E R i s s u i t a b l e f o r measuring distances between 25 cm and about 6 m. The measured distance is shown on a 3-digit liquid crystal display (LCD).

The low current drawn by the unit makes battery operation possible: LO BAT reading on the LCD indicates when the battery needs to be replaced. The block diagram of this meter is shown in figurer. This is having the four major parts of the meter

A sender and A Receiver Timing and time reference section A counter with display

The technology of pneumatics has gained tremendous importance in the field of workplace rationalization and automation from old-fashioned timber works and coal mines to modern machine shops and space robots. It is therefore important that technicians and engineers should have a good

knowledge of pneumatic system, air operated valves and accessories.



We have pleasure in introducing our new project AUTOMATIC DISTANCE MEASUREMENT AND BRAKING SYSTEM USING

ULTRASONIC, which is fully equipped by ultrasonic and IR sensors circuit and Pneumatic breaking circuit. It is a genuine project which is fully equipped and designed for Automobile vehicles. This forms an integral part of best quality. This product underwent strenuous test in our Automobile vehicles and it is good.

The PNEUMATIC BRAKEING CIRCUIT can stop the vehicle within 2 to 3 seconds running at a speed of 50 KM. The pneumatic breaking system is a fully automation project. This is an era of automation where it is broadly defined as replacement of manual effort by mechanical power in all degrees of automation. The

operation remains an essential part of the system although with changing

demands on physical input as the degree of mechanization is increased. Degrees of automation are of two types, viz. Full automation. Semi automation.

In semi automation a combination of manual effort and mechanical power is required whereas in full automation human participation is very negligible.

NEED FOR AUTOMATION Automation can be achieved through computers, hydraulics, pneumatics, robotics, etc., of these sources, pneumatics form an attractive medium for low cost automation. The main advantages of all pneumatic systems are economy and simplicity. Automation plays an important role in mass production.

To reduce man power To increase the efficiency of the vehicle To reduce the work load To reduce the fatigue of workers To achieve good product quality

Less Maintenance

To reduce the accident SENSORS

A sensor is a transducer used to make a measurement of a physical variable. Any sensor requires calibration in order to be useful as a measuring device. Calibration is the procedure by which the relationship between the measured variable and the converted output signal is established.

Care should be taken in the choice of sensory devices for particular tasks. The operating characteristics of each device should be closely matched to the task for which it is being utilized. Different sensors can be used in different ways to sense same conditions and the same sensors can be used in different ways to sense different conditions.


Passive sensors detect the reflected or emitted electro-magnetic radiation from natural sources, while active sensors detect reflected responses from objects which are irradiated from artificially generated energy sources, such as radar. Each is divided further in to non-scanning and scanning systems.

A sensor classified as a combination of passive, non-scanning and nonimaging method is a type of profile recorder, for example a microwave radiometer. A sensor classified as passive, non-scanning and imaging method, is a camera, such as an aerial survey camera or a space camera, for example on board the Russian COSMOS satellite.
Sensors classified as a combination of passive, scanning and imaging are classified further into image plane scanning sensors, such as TV cameras and solid state scanners, and object plane scanning sensors, such as multi-spectral scanners (optical-mechanical scanner) and scanning microwave radiometers.


An example of an active, non-scanning and non-imaging sensor is a profile recorder such as a laser spectrometer and laser altimeter. An active, scanning and Imaging sensor is radar, for example synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which can produce high resolution, imagery, day or night, even under cloud cover.

The most popular sensors used in remote sensing are the camera, solid state scanner, such as the CCD (charge coupled device) images, the multi-spectral scanner and in the future the passive synthetic aperture radar.

Laser sensors have recently begun to be used more frequently for monitoring air pollution by laser spectrometers and for measurement of distance by laser altimeters.



In comparison to X-Rays, ultrasonic encompasses a region where the frequency is much lower. Ultrasonic or supersonics implies a range of frequencies above the audible range. We, the human beings can listen to frequencies in the range between 20Hz to 20,000 Hz. Ultrasonics can currently be produced for frequencies as high as 10 Hz. Ultrasound is widely used in industry and as an important tool in the medical field. Ultrasonics can be prepared by,

The magneto striation effect The piezoelectric effect.



Main intension of this project is to design an ULTRASONIC BASED DISTANCE MEASUREMENT using microcontroller.

1) Designing the power supply for the entire circuitry. 2) Selection of microcontroller that suits our application. 3) Selection of LCD 4) Selection of sensor

Complete studies of all the above points are useful to develop this project.


In-order to work with any components basic requirement is power supply. In this section required voltage level is 5V DC.

Now the aim is to design the power supply section which converts 230V AC in to 5V DC. Since 230V AC is too high to reduce it to directly 5V DC, therefore we need a step-down transformer that reduces the line voltage to certain voltage that will help us to convert it in to a 5V DC. Considering the efficiency factor of the bridge rectifier, we came to a conclusion to choose a transformer, whose secondary voltage is 3 to 4 V higher than the required voltage i.e. 5V. For this application 0-9V transformers is used, since it is easily available in the market.


The output of the transformer is 9V AC; it feed to rectifier that converts AC to pulsating DC. As we all know that there are 3 kind of rectifiers that is

1) Half wave 2) Full wave and 3) Bridge rectifier

Here we short listed to use Bridge rectifier, because half wave rectifier has we less in efficiency. Even though the efficiency of full wave and bridge rectifier are the same, since there is no requirement for any negative voltage for our application, we gone With bridge rectifier. Since the output voltage of the rectifier is pulsating DC, in order to convert it into pure DC we use a high value (1000UF/1500UF) of capacitor in parallel that acts as a filter. The most easy way to regulate this voltage is by using a 7805 voltage regulator, whose output voltage is constant 5V DC irrespective of any fluctuation in line voltage.


SELECTION OF MICROCONTROLLER: As we know that there so many types of micro controller families that are Available in the market.

Those are 1) 8051 Family 2) AVR microcontroller Family 3) PIC microcontroller Family 4) ARM Family

To implement this application 8051 is some what difficult. So, that is the reason we are selecting AVR controller to fulfill our requirement. Here we are selecting ATMEGA8515 controller. If user want to implement any application using ATMEGA8515 some basic connections are required. Those are:

1) power supply section 2) pull-up resistors for PORTS


3) Reset circuit 4) Crystal circuit 5) ISP circuit (for program dumping)


A liquid crystal display (LCD) is an electronically-modulated optical device shaped into a thin, flat panel made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector. Here LCD is used for only debugging purpose. Ultrasonic sensor values are displayed n the LCD.


A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. Here in this project I selected TS 601 ultrasonic sensor used to measure the distance.

CIRCUIT OPERATION: This project is used to measure the distance of the object. The ultrasonic waves spread in the air and hit the nearest object and reflected. The reflected signal from the object is received by the ultrasonic receiver. The received wave is given to the input of the microcontroller. Now the microcontroller compares the time between the transmitted signal and received signal and generates the corresponding pulse output

which is equal to the distance of the object. This "ECHO" Ultrasonic Distance Sensor from Rhydolabz is an amazing product that provides very short (2CM) to long-range (3M) detection and ranging. The sensor provides precise, stable noncontact distance measurements from 2cm to 3 meters with very high accuracy. Its compact size, higher range and easy usability make it a handy sensor for distance measurement and mapping. The board can easily be interfaced to microcontrollers where the triggering and measurement can be done using one I/O pin. The sensor transmits an ultrasonic wave and produces an output pulse that corresponds to the time required for the burst echo to return to the sensor. By measuring the echo pulse width, the distance to target can easily be calculated.

Here we are using 40 KHz ultrasonic sensors. Microcontroller is Measured the distance and that is displayed on the display 2x16 characters. The microcontroller will generate measurements using 8bit timer port frequency 40 kHz, which passes through inverters for amplifying the current and used to drive the ultrasonic transmitter that will broadcast the ultrasonic waves at 40 kHz. Simultaneously with the activation of the posting run 16bit timer that measures time by receiving the reflected signal. Sending a signal spread environment. After hitting the barrier is part of it is reflected and returns back to the sensor. The reflected signal is detected by the receiver, at this time microcontroller acts as input so it takes signal from receiver and it calculates the distance when the signal is coming from object to receiver and that distance is displayed on LCD 16*2 through microcontroller.

MECHANICAL SENSORS: Mechanical sensors measure a property through mechanical means, although the measurement itself may be collected electronically. An example of a mechanical sensor is a strain gauge.

The strain gauge measures the physical deformation of a component by experiencing the same strain as the component, yet the change in resistance of the strain gauge is measured electrically. Other types of mechanical sensors include:


There are many other types of sensors:

robes (magnetic field)

Sensors may be simple physical measurement systems, or complex electronic devices requiring sophisticated data acquisition systems. No matter the type of Sensor, input type, or output type, every sensor has inherent characteristics that allow the user to select the right sensor for the task at hand.

SENSOR CHARACTERISTICS: Some sensor characteristics include:

INPUT RANGE: Input range is the maximum measurable range that the sensor can accurately Measure. For example, a compression load cell may have an input range of 0 - 5000 Pounds. The load cell cannot accurately measure "negative", or tensile loads, or compressive loads greater than 5000 pounds. Generally, quantities outside of the input range can be measured, but characteristics such as accuracy and repeatability may be compromised when the input is outside of the specified range.

OUTPUT RANGE: Output range generally refers to electronic sensors, and is the range of electrical output signal that the sensor returns. However, the output range could be a physical displacement, such as in a spring scale, or rotation, such as in a clock-style analog thermometer. The output range is related to the input range by the conversion


algorithm specific to the sensor type, and the algorithm may include factors based on the calibration of the specific sensor.

ACCURACY: Accuracy actually refers to the amount of error, or inaccuracy that may be present in a sensor. Accuracy can be stated as a unit of measurement, such as +/- 5 pounds, or as a percentage, such as 95%. In most cases, increased accuracy results in an increased cost for a sensor.

REPEATABILITY: Repeatability, as the name implies, refers to how often a sensor under the same input conditions will return the same value. If a sensor is designed to be used over and over again, it is important that the output value is accurate over every measurement cycle for the life of the sensor. Repeatability is determined by calibration testing of the sensor using known inputs.

RESOLUTION: Resolution is the smallest unit of measurement that the sensor can accurately measure. Some transducers return output signals in discrete steps, and therefore the resolution is easily defined. Resolution can be stated as a unit of measurement or as a percentage. For electronic sensors, resolution is also dictated by the resolution of the signal conditioning hardware or software. These qualities are common to all sensors, no matter what characteristic is being measured. All of these traits must be considered when selecting the right sensor for the specific needs of a test.


Sensors Applications covers all major fields of applications Commercial sensors like Temperature sensors, Pressure sensors, Micro sensors, Microsystems and integrated electronic sensors etc. More and more utilization of microcontrollers in different areas also increase the use of sophisticated, low cost sensors. In Household applications sensors are used in modern washing machines, dish washers, dryers, freezers as well as in cooking, domestic heating, air conditioning or small appliances results in reduction of electricity, water or detergent consumption, less noise emission, increased efficiency and higher user comfort. In Medical Applications like Glucose Biosensors, Coagulation Rate Biosensors, Cholesterol Biosensors and Others in laboratories etc. Remote sensors include film photography, Infrared, charge-coupled devices, and radiometers. The Remote Military applications include strategic systems for early warning of intercontinental ballistic missile launches, methods for the detection of atmospheric contaminants, such as poison gas, under field conditions, aids for the precision delivery of weaponry (including passive, active, and laser designator guidance techniques), and sensor systems for reconnaissance and surveillance.



The magnetostriction effect is the phenomenon of expansion or contraction which takes place in a rod of ferromagnetic material (such as iron or nickel) when placed in a magnetic field parallel to its axis. The change in the length is a function of the magnitude of the field and nature of the material.


It is independent of the sign of the field. If the applied magnetic field isAlternating in nature then the rod or tube placed in the field will contract and expand alternately with the frequency which is twice the frequency of the applied magnetic field. The longitudinal expansions and contractions produce ultrasonic frequencies. The frequency of vibration is a function of the dimensions of the magnetostrictive material and the mode of vibration.

The figure shows an iron bar which is clamped at the middle and placed inside two coaxial coils. By suitable choice of the value of the condenser C, high frequency oscillation currents are set up in the circuit coil A. The high frequency current flowing in coil results in a periodically varying magnetic field this produces alternate compression and extension of the bar. An induced e.m.f. is now set up in coil B due to the alternate compression and extension of the bar (inverse magnetostrictive effect).

The induced e.m.f. in coil B now amplifies it producing a higher value of current in coil A. This in turn produces a higher e.m.f. in coil B (inverse magnetostrictive effect) thus reinforcing it. In this way, the coil A current

ultimately rises to very large amplitude with a frequency limited by the longitudinal frequency of the rod. If the

frequency of the circuit equals the frequency of vibration of the rod, then

resonance takes place and sound waves of maximum amplitude are produced, by varying
the length of the rod and the capacitance, the frequency can be varied.


Piezoelectric Effect:

By the term piezoelectric effect, we mean production of a potential difference across the opposite faces of a substance, crystalline or ceramic, due to contraction or expansion between the opposite faces. appears due to the crystal lattice deformation. This voltage

The application of force to a

crystal of quartz or Rochelle salt produces a voltage across the crystal. Conversely, application of an electric field may cause the crystal or expand or contract in certain directions. The piezoelectric deformations are directly

proportional to the electric field and changes sign when the field is reversed. Piezoelectric effect is possible only in crystals that do not posses a centre of symmetry. Ultrasonic System A prototype has been implemented using a Hexamite HXN43TR ultrasonic sensor acting as transmitter-receiver, shown in Figure 3 together with its signal conditioner. The most important characteristics of this sensor are its central frequency of 43.0 5.0 kHz, its bandwidth of 4 kHz and its narrow beam pattern of 8.5 at 3 dB.


To trigger the ultrasonic sensor and to capture and process the signal received, a laptop equipped with a data acquisition card has been used. Signal processing is performed ten times per second, according to the model described in the previous section. This processing involves several stages:

1. Filtering to reduce the noise level through a band-pass filter with lower and upper cutoff frequencies of 42 and 44 kHz respectively.

2. Calculation of the Hilbert transform to obtain the envelope of the signal.

3. Raising the signal envelope to the third power, to selectively amplify those parts with greater amplitude. This improves the discrimination between the signal and the noise or the false echoes caused by turbulences or irregularities in the road.


4. Amplification with an exponential gain to compensate for the attenuation of the ultrasonic wave.

Finally, the distance between vehicles is obtained by comparing the resulting signal with a preset threshold level. The first time the signal exceeds this threshold is the well-known time of flight. The distance is calculated by multiplying the time of flight by the speed of sound in air, and halving to take into account that the ultrasonic pulse goes back and forth between the sensor and the vehicle ahead. Figure 4 shows a real ultrasonic signal acquired with the ultrasonic sensor described, together with the results of the processing steps. The capture time is equivalent to a maximum distance of 10 m. The emitted pulse is about 1 m long, during which it is not possible to receive any echo. For this reason the output of the mathematical model of the ultrasonic system was bounded between these two values. Echoes from a pedestrian located at 4.8 m from the sensor and a vehicle located at 7.5 m can be observed.

Ultrasonic Ranging Circuit For this circuit, it can be divided into several parts, which are process to produced ultrasonic wave part, transmitter part, receiver part, amplifier part and lastly output part.

Transmitter The supply circuit is needed to supply a short 10s pulse to the trigger input to start the ranging. The sensor will send out an 8 cycle burst of ultrasound at 40 kHz and raise its echo line high. It then listens for an echo, and as soon as it detects

one it lowers the echo line again. The echo line is therefore a pulse whose width is proportional to the distance to the object. By timing the pulse it is possible to calculate the range in inches/centimeters or anything else. If nothing is detected then the sensor will lower its echo line anyway after about 36 ms. It uses a PIC12C508 to perform the control functions and standard 40 kHz piezo transducers. The drive to the transmitting transducer could be simplest driven directly from the PIC. The transducer can handle 20V of drive the transmitting wave.

A MAX232 IC, usually used for RS232 communication makes and ideal driver, providing about 16V of drive. Receiver The receiver is a classic two stage op-amp circuit. The input capacitor C8 blocks some residual DC which always seems to be present. Each gain stage is set to 24 for a total gain of 576-ish. This is close the 25 maximum gain available using the LM1458. The gain bandwidth product for the LM1458 is 1 MHz. The maximum gain at 40 kHz is 1000000/40000 = 25. The output of the amplifier is fed into an LM311 comparator. A small amount of positive feedback provides some hysterisis to give a clean stable output.

A convenient negative voltage for the op-amp and comparator is generated by the MAX232. Unfortunately, this also generates quite a bit of high frequency noise, therefore shut it down whilst listening for the echo. The 10uF capacitor C9 holds the negative rail just long enough to do this.


Operation In operation, the processor waits for an active low trigger pulse to come in. It then generates just eight cycles of 40 kHz. The echo line is then raised to signal the host processor to start timing. The raising of the echo line also shuts of the MAX232. After a while (no more than 10-12ms normally), the returning echo will be detected and the PIC will lower the echo line. The width of this pulse represents the flight time of the sonic burst. If no echo is detected then it will automatically time out after about 30ms (it is two times the WDT period of the PIC). Because the MAX232 is shut down during echo detection, you must wait at least 10ms between measurement cycles for the +/- 10V to recharge

Detection of Ultrasonics:

Ultrasonic signals can be detected by thermal detectors, Kundts tube etc. A quartz crystal may also be used for detection of ultrasound.Electric


will then be produced on the pair of faces that are perpendicular to the faces that catches the Ultrasonics.


Characteristics of Ultrasonics:

The important characteristics of ultrasonic signals are that (i) Ultrasonic signals exhibit very negligible diffraction due to their small values. They can thus be transmitted over long distances

without appreciable attenuation or loss. (ii) The speed of propagation of ultrasonic signals depends on their frequency, i.e. the speed decreases with decrease of frequency. (iii) (iv) Ultrasound is highly energetic. If an ultrasonic wave is transmitted through a liquid, stationary wave patterns are generated due to the reflection of the wave from the other end. The liquid density thus changes from layer to layer along the propagation direction. plane diffraction grating can thus be formed which can diffract light. (v) Intense ultrasonic wave possesses a disruptive effect in some fluids. A


The advantages of Ultrasonic Sensor Ultrasonic have a lot of advantages for using in real application. The Advantages of ultrasonic sensor are:

i. Discrete distances to moving objects can be detected and measured.

ii. Less affected by target materials and surfaces, and not affected by color. Solid-state units have virtually unlimited, maintenance free life. Ultrasonic can detect small objects over long operating distances.

iii. Resistance to external disturbances such as vibration, infrared radiation, ambient noise, and EMI radiation.

iv. Measures and detects distances to moving objects.

v. Impervious to target materials, surface and color.

vi. Solid-state units have virtually unlimited, maintenance free lifespan.

vii. Detects small objects over long operating distance.

viii. Ultrasonic sensors are not affected by dust, dirt or high moisture environments.

The Disadvantages of Ultrasonic Sensor Some disadvantages of ultrasonic sensor are:

i. Overheating of a wave emitter precludes the energy of ultrasonic waves emitted there from being enhanced to a practical level.

ii. Interference between the projected waves and the reflected waves takes place, and development of standing waves provides adverse effects.

iii. It is impossible to discern between reflected waves from the road surface and reflected waves from other places or objects.


Applications of Ultrasonics: The applications of Ultrasonics are too many. Some of the applications of Ultrasonics are,

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi)

Physical, chemical and biological effects Ultrasonic flaw detection Depth sounding (or sound signaling) Cleaning and clearing Direction signaling Coagulation and crystallization

(vii) Degassing of liquids by ultrasonic waves (viii) Metallurgical applications


COMPONENTS AND DESCRIPTION SELECTION OF PNEUMATICS: Mechanization is broadly defined as the replacement of manual effort by mechanical power. Pneumatics is an attractive

medium for low cost mechanization particularly for sequential or repetitive operations. Many factories and plants already have a compressed air

system, which is capable of providing both the power or energy requirements and the control system (although equally pneumatic control systems may be economic and can be advantageously applied to other forms of power).

The main advantages of an all-pneumatic system are usually economy and simplicity, the latter reducing maintenance to a low level. have out standing advantages in terms of safety. It can also



The pneumatic bearing press consists of the following components to fulfill the requirements of complete operation of the machine.



The control valve is used to control the flow direction is called cut off valve or solenoid valve. This solenoid cut off valve is controlled by the intelligent control unit.


In our project cut of solenoid valve is used for flow direction of braking cylinder. It is used to flow the air from air tank to the single acting cylinder.

Single acting cylinder

Single acting cylinder is only capable of performing an operating medium in only one direction. Single acting cylinders equipped with one inlet for the operating air pressure, can be production in several fundamentally different designs. Single cylinders develop power in one direction only.

Therefore no heavy control equipment should be attached to them, which requires to be moved on the piston return stoke single action cylinder requires only about half the air volume consumed by a double acting for one operating cycle.



APPLICATION: For automobile application Industrial application

ADVANTAGES Brake cost will be less. Free from wear adjustment. Less power consumption Less skill technicians is sufficient to operate. It gives simplified very operation. Installation is simplified very much. To avoid other burnable interactions viz. (Diaphragm) is not used. Less time and more profit.




It is used to measure the distance between two blocks (bellow 6 meter).

Depth measurement.
Length Measurement.


Height Measurement. Automobile Application


This circuit only measures the distance bellow 6 meter. This circuit doesnt senses fast moving obstacle distance. Cost of the sensor is very high when compared to other sensors.



In the present work, a prototype of an ultrasonic ACC for low speeds and short distances typical of urban traffic, where the systems available on the market do not work, has been designed, built and experimentally tested. An ultrasonic sensor, cheaper and less demanding of hardware than other types of sensors currently used, such as those based on radar or computer vision, is used to measure the distance between vehicles. The relative speed is estimated using consecutive samples of this distance. These two quantities are used by the control system to calculate the actions on both the accelerator and the brake, and to adjust the speed in order to maintain the safety distance. As ultrasonic sensors can detect any kind of obstacle, this system can also prevent collision with pedestrians, or at least reduce the injuries sustained.

Since the control system does not use the absolute speed to calculate the safety distance as do the currently existing systems, interaction with automotive electronics is limited to actions on the accelerator and brake. This fact, coupled with the lower cost of ultrasonic sensors compared with other kinds of sensors, could facilitate the mounting of the system in low-end vehicles, helping to improve comfort and safety at a reduced cost.