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Production of H2SO4 and Ca(OH)2 Submitted to: Tr. Hammed 25-Mar-13 JALOLIDDIN Rustamov 10 IK

Production of H2SO4
We use contact process to produce H2SO4. Contact process In the first step, sulfur is burned to produce sulfur dioxide. S (s) + O2 (g) SO2 (g) This is then oxidized to sulfur trioxide using oxygen in the presence of a vanadium (V) oxide catalyst. This reaction is reversible and the formation of the sulfur trioxide is exothermic. 2 SO2 (g) + O2 (g) 2 SO3 (g) (in presence of V2O5)

The sulfur trioxide is absorbed into 9798% H2SO4 to form oleum (H2S2O7), also known as fuming sulfuric acid. The oleum is then diluted with water to form concentrated sulfuric acid. H2SO4 (l) + SO3 (g) H2S2O7 (l) H2S2O7 (l) + H2O (l) 2 H2SO4 (l) Note that directly dissolving SO3 in water is not practical due to the highly exothermic nature of the reaction between sulfur trioxide and water. The reaction forms a corrosive aerosol that is very difficult to separate, instead of a liquid. SO3 (g) + H2O (l) H2SO4 (l)

Raw Materials
The raw materials (the things you need) are sulfur, air and water. Sulfur is available from fossil fuels and sulfide ores.

Diagrams

Production of Ca(OH) 2
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1. Find a source of pure calcium carbonate. Some brands of commercial chalk are mixed with other compounds, and hence are unsuitable for this purpose. If you are using limestone, choose the whitest shade you can find; darker limestones contain contaminants. 2. Put on your safety goggles and prepare the calcium carbonate. If it is not already powdered, crush it to a fine powder using a hammer or a mortar and pestle. 3. Add the powdered calcium carbonate to the porcelain crucible until it is approximately half-full. The powder level must be at least 1 centimeter below the rim. 4. Make sure there are no children or animals nearby for the remainder of this procedure. Ensure there are no flammable materials close by. Perform the remainder of this procedure on a flameproof lab bench or outside in a suitable location where there is no danger of starting a fire. 5. Put on the safety goggles, face shield and welding gloves. Mount the iron ring on the ringstand (the iron ring will have a clamp to secure it to the stand) and position the clay triangle on the iron ring. Put the porcelain crucible in the clay triangle and ensure that it fits snugly and will not fall through. 6. Heat the porcelain crucible with the Bunsen burner or the airacetylene torch. Do not use an oxy-acetylene torch since the temperature may be too high. For the first 30 seconds or so leave the lid off the crucible; afterwards, USING THE TONGS, position the lid on the crucible but put it on loosely so gases can escape from the crucible. 7. Heat the crucible until its red hot, and then heat it for another five minutes. 8. Turn off the Bunsen burner or torch and leave the crucible to cool until cool enough to handle; generally allow at least an hour. Do not remove the lid from the crucible while it is cooling. Remove the welding gloves & face shield. 9. Add distilled water to the beaker. The beaker should be made of borosilicate heat-resistant glassware (e.g. Pyrex). Make sure you are wearing safety goggles and gloves for the next step. 10. Add a little calcium oxide at a time to the water. Do NOT add the water to the calcium oxide. Note that when calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide react, the heat released by the reaction may be sufficient to crack ordinary glassware, which is why borosilicate is preferable. Take care to avoid splashing yourself or your surroundings while doing so.

11. Watch the solution as you add the calcium oxide. A white precipitate will form at the bottom of the beaker. Once the bottom of the beaker is covered in white precipitate, cease adding calcium oxide. 12. Decant the liquid from the top of the beaker while leaving the precipitate in the beaker. The liquid is a solution of calcium hydroxide in water. Keep it stored in an airtight container; if it's allowed to come in contact with air, the calcium hydroxide will slowly react with carbon dioxide to form calcium carbonate.

Raw Materials & Diagram


1. Calcium Carbonate 2. Distilled water

3. Porcelain crucible with lid