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International Journal of JOURNAL Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 INTERNATIONAL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 6545(Print), ISSN

N 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013), IAEME & TECHNOLOGY (IJEET)
ISSN 0976 6545(Print) ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013), pp. 165-178 IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijeet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.5028 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

IJEET
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A NEW SIMPLIFIED APPROACH FOR OPTIMUM ALLOCATION OF A DISTRIBUTED GENERATION UNIT IN THE DISTRIBUTION NETWORK FOR VOLTAGE IMPROVEMENT AND LOSS MINIMIZATION
Dr.T.Ananthapadmanabha1, Maruthi Prasanna.H.A. 2, Veeresha.A.G. 2, Likith Kumar. M. V 2
2

Professor, Dept of EEE, NIE, Mysore, Karnataka, India. Research Scholar, Dept of EEE, NIE, Mysore, Karnataka, India.

ABSTRACT In the present energy scenario, increased concerns are shown towards distributed generation (DG) driven by renewable energy resources. DG is a small scale generation units that are connected near to customer load center or directly to the distribution network. Such DGs has the capability of altering power flows, system voltages, and the performance of the integrated network. When DGs are integrated to existing distribution network, offers many techno-economical benefits. To maximise the availing benefits, optimal DG planning is necessary. The two critical issues of DG planning are : Optimal Placement of DG & Optimal sizing of DG. The problem of optimal allocation of DG in the existing distribution system plays an important role in planning and operation of Smart Electrical Distribution Systems, which is the state of the art development in power system. In this paper, the optimal location of a DG is found out by using a new index called TENVDI & the optimal sizing of DG at the optimal location is decided for loss minimisation. The proposed methodology has been tested on standard IEEE-33bus radial distribution system & IEEE-69bus radial distribution system using MATLAB 2008. The method has a potential to be a tool for identifying the best location and rating of DG to be installed for improving voltage profile and reducing line losses in a distribution system. KEYWORDS: RDS (Radial Distribution System), DG (Distributed Generation), TEN (Tail End Node), VDI (Voltage Deviation Index).

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013), IAEME

1. INTRODUCTION Due to limitation on fossil fuel resources, alternative solutions to traditional large power stations areunder high priority in recent years to meet growing energy demand of the future [1]. Distributed Generation (DG) usually refers to the power generation from a few kilowatts to hundreds of megawatts ( and some proposed restrictions under 50MWs) of the small scale, distributed, efficient, reliable power generation unit which is arranged around the user [2].The IEEE defines DG is the generation of electricity by facilities that are sufficiently smaller than central generating plants so as to allow interconnection at nearly any point in a power system [2].DG is an approach that employs small scale technologies to produce electricity close to the end users of power. DG technologies often consist of modular (and sometimes renewable energy) generators, and they offer a number of potential benefits. In many cases, DGs can provide lower cost electricity and higher power reliability and security with fewer environmental consequences than can traditional power generators.DG technologies include small gas turbines, wind turbines, small combined cycle gas turbines, micro turbines, solar photovoltaic, fuel cells, biomass and small geothermal generating plants. Determining the suitable location and sizing of a DG is important in order to ensure for maximum benefits to be obtained from the integration of DG with the distribution system. with proper planning of DG integration the following technical and economical benefits such as Voltage support and power quality improvement, Utility system reliability improvement, Voltage profile improvement, Spinning reserve support during generation outages, Reduction in line losses and hence reduce demand for the grid, Environmental impact in terms of reduction in polluting emission as compared with traditional power plants, Transmission and distribution costs can be reduced since the DG units are closer to the customers, DG is available in small modular units and therefore easier to find for their resulting in sites short lead times for procurement and installation, DG plants offer good efficiencies especially in co-generations and combined-cycles (for larger plants) and many more. The main applications of DG can be found in the applications involving Base load, Standby Power, Stand alone systems, Peak load shaving, Rural and remote applications, Combined Heat & Power (CHP), & Grid support. In literature, there are a number of approaches developed for placement and sizing of DG units in distribution system. Chiradeja and Ramkumar [3] presented a general approach and set of indices to assess and quantify the technical benefits of DG in terms of voltage profile improvement, line loss reduction and environmental impact reduction. Khan and Choudhry [4] developed an algorithm based on analytical approach to improve the voltage profile and to reduce the power loss under randomly distributed load conditions with low power factor for single DG as well as multi DG systems. Hung et al. [5] used an improved analytical method for identification of the best location and optimal power factor for placing multiple DGs to achieve loss reduction in large-scale primary distribution networks. For optimal placement of DG, Mithulanathan et al. [6] presented a genetic algorithm based approach to minimize the real power loss in the system and found a significant reduction in the system loss. The optimal sizing and siting of DGs was investigated by Ghosh et al. [7] to minimize both cost and loss with proper weighing factors using Newton-Raphson (NR) load flow method. Ziari et al. [8] proposed a discrete particle swarm optimization and genetic algorithm (GA) based approach for optimal planning of DG in distribution network to minimize loss and improve reliability. Kamel and Karmanshahi [9] proposed an algorithm for
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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013), IAEME

optimal sizing and siting of DGs at any bus in the distribution system to minimize losses and found that the total losses in the distribution network would reduce by nearly 85%, if DGs were located at the optimal locations with optimal sizes. Singh et al. [10] discussed a multiobjective performance indexbased technique using GA for optimal location and sizing of DG resources in distribution systems. This paper presents a simple method for voltage profile improvement, real power loss reduction, substation capacity release and is based on tail end nodes voltage sensitivity analysis. Power flow analysis is done using the forward-backward sweep method. Test results carried out on IEEE-33 bus system & IEEE-69 bus system using MATLAB 2008 validates the suitability of this proposed method. 2. NOMENCLATURE
Nn TENVDI TENVDIi NTE SDG SDGmin & SDGmax Ploss, Qloss, & Sloss SDGopt SDopt SDG : :
:

:
: : : : : :

Total number of nodes or buses in the given radial distribution system. Tail End Nodes Voltage Deviation Index (matrix of order Nn X 1) Tail End Nodes Voltage Deviation Index evaluated by placing DG at bus number i. Number of Tail End Nodes. Complex Power rating of DG in MVA Minimum & Maximum Complex Power rating of DG in MVA Real Power, Reactive Power & Complex Power loss in distribution system Optimal Size of DG (Complex power rating in MVA) Complex demand at optimal location in MVA Incremental value of Size of DG (Complex power rating in MVA)

3. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY The optimal allocation of DG problem consists of three important steps. Viz Selection of Load flow analysis technique, finding optimal location and selection of optimal size of DG. 3.1 LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS Conventional NR and Gauss Seidel (GS) methods may become inefficient in the analysis of distribution systems, due to the special features of distribution networks, i.e. radial structure, high R/X ratio and unbalanced loads, etc. These features make the distribution systems power flow computation different and somewhat difficult to analyze as compared to the transmission systems. Various methods are available to carry out the analysis of balanced and unbalanced radial distribution systems and can be divided into two categories. The first type of methods is utilized by proper modification of existing methods such as NR and GS methods. On the other hand, the second group of methods is based on backward and forward sweep processes using Kirchhoffs laws. Due to its low memory requirements, computational efficiency and robust convergence characteristic, backward and forward sweep based algorithms have gained the most popularity for distribution systems load flow analysis. In this study, Backward and Forward sweep method [11] is used to find out the load flow solution. 3.2 OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF DG USING TENVDI : In order to restrict solution space to few buses, tail end nodes are first identified by viewing the distribution network topology. By penetrating DG with 50% of the total feeder
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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013), IAEME

loading capacity at each node at a time, the Tail End Nodes Voltage Deviation Index (TENVDI) is calculated using (1). When DG is connected at bus i, TENVDI for bus i is defined as: TENVDIi =

---

(1)

Where, m corresponds to the each tail end node element of Tail End Nodes (TEN) matrix of order NTE X 1 ; Vnominal is taken as 1.0 Pu ; TENVDIi gives the total deviation of voltages of all tail end nodes of the network with respect to the nominal voltage. The bus corresponding to the minimum TENVDI value when DG is inserted at the same bus is the optimal location of DG in the distribution system. The flowchart for finding optimal location for DG placement is shown in fig1.

Figure 1: Flowchart for finding optimal location of DG in distribution system using TENVDI
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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013), IAEME

3.3 OPTIMAL SIZING OF DG AT OPTIMAL LOCATION: For deciding the optimal size of DG to be placed at the optimal location obtained from TENVDI, the DG is inserted at the optimal bus, size is varied from minimum value (SDGmin) to maximum value (SDGmax) with step size of (SDG). The size which gives the minimum complex power loss is the optimal size of DG to be placed at optimal location. The flowchart for determining the optimal size of the DG to be placed at optimal location for loss minimisation is shown in fig2.

Figure 2: Flowchart for determinign optimal size of DG at optimal location for loss minimisation

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013), IAEME
4. SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 IEEE-33 BUS RADIAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

The distribution system characteristics: Number of buses=33; Number of lines=32;Slack Bus no=1; Base Voltage=12.66KV; Base MVA=100 MVA; The test system is simulated in MATLAB 2008 & the proposed methodology has been tested, whose results are as shown below.

Figure 3: Single line diagram of standard IEEE-33 Bus system Table 1: Tail End Node matrix elements Sl.no 1 2 3 4 Tail End Nodes 18 22 25 33

Table 2:Base case Bus Voltages for IEEE-33BUS test system Bus Bus Bus no Voltage no (Pu) 1 1.0000 12 2 0.9970 13 3 0.9829 14 4 0.9754 15 5 0.9679 16 6 0.9495 17 7 0.9459 18 8 0.9323 19 9 0.9260 20 10 0.9201 21 11 0.9192 22 Bus Voltage (Pu) 0.9177 0.9115 0.9093 0.9078 0.9064 0.9044 0.9038 0.9965 0.9929 0.9922 0.9916 Bus Bus no Voltage (Pu) 23 0.9793 24 0.9726 25 0.9693 26 0.9475 27 0.9450 28 0.9335 29 0.9253 30 0.9218 31 0.9176 32 0.9167 33 0.9164

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013), IAEME

Figure 4: Basecase Voltage profile for IEEE-33bus system

Table 3: Variation of TENVDI with DG Placement

Bus TENVDI Bus TENVDI Bus TENVDI no (x10-4) no (x10-4) no (x10-4) 1 12 23 5.231 0.913 3.969 2 13 24 5.028 1.378 3.914 3 14 25 4.049 1.681 4.005 4 15 26 3.471 2.009 1.668 5 16 27 2.918 2.452 1.558 6 17 28 1.755 3.593 1.229 7 18 29 1.525 4.201 1.137 8 19 30 0.894 5.019 1.141 9 20 31 0.775 5.172 1.289 10 21 32 0.832 5.297 1.378 11 22 33 0.856 5.611 1.513

Figure 5: Variation of TENVDI with DG Placement

Figure 6:Variation of Tail End Node Voltage with DG Placement

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013), IAEME

Table 4 : Comparison of Complex Power Losses for Optimal sizing of DG at Optimal location: Bus 9 Optimal Location = Bus 9 DG Rating in MVA 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 Minimum Loss Optimal DG capacity (SDGopt) in MVA Complex Power Loss (Sloss) in KVA Case1 (Unity Pf) 193.9777 159.0668 147.3413 156.6458 185.1807 231.3957 293.8651 371.4385 147.3413 1.5 Case2 (0.9Pf lag) 182.1617 136.2883 113.8010 112.0736 128.9607 162.6299 211.3234 273.8590 112.0736 2.0 Case3 (0.8Pf lag) 182.1227 136.1958 113.5875 111.6356 128.1659 161.3234 209.3202 270.9834 111.6356 2.0

Figure 7: Comparison of complex power losses after placement of DG for different cases

Figure 8: Comparison of System Voltage Profile after DG placement (3 cases) with base case 172

International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013), IAEME

Table 5: Improvement of system parameters with optimal allocation of DG


Parameters Active Power losses in Pu Reactive Power losses in Pu Active Power drawn from Substation in Pu Reactive Power drawn from Substation in Pu Base Case 0.211 0.143 3.926 2.443 Case I 0.1215 0.0834 2.3365 2.3834 Case II 0.0908 0.0643 2.0058 1.4925 CaseIII 0.0902 0.0644 2.2052 1.1644

As per the flowchart of fig.1, the optimal location for DG having rating of 50% of total complex demand of distribution system found to be Bus No: 9 (corresponding to minimum TENVDI). At this optimal location the optimum size of DG for loss minimisation for various cases is given in table4. From fig 8, it is evident the optimal allocation of DG results in improved voltage profile.. 4.2 IEEE-69 BUS RADIAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM:

The distribution system characteristics: Number of buses=69; Number of lines=68;Slack Bus no=1; Base Voltage=12.66KV; Base MVA=100 MVA; The test system is simulated in MATLAB 2008 & the proposed methodology has been tested, whose results are as shown below.

Figure 9: Single line diagram of standard IEEE-69 Bus system

Table 6: Tail End Node matrix elements Sl.no Tail End Nodes 1 27 2 35 3 46 4 50 5 52 6 65 7 67 8 69

Figure 10: Basecase Voltage profile for IEEE-69bus system


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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013), IAEME

Table 7:Base case Bus Voltages for IEEE-69 BUS test system
Bus no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Bus Voltage (Pu) 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9998 0.9991 0.9901 0.9808 0.9786 0.9774 0.9724 0.9713 0.9681 0.9652 0.9623 0.9594 0.9589 0.9580 0.9580 0.9576 0.9573 0.9568 0.9568 0.9567 Bus no 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 Bus Voltage (Pu) 0.9565 0.9564 0.9563 0.9563 0.9999 0.9999 0.9998 0.9997 0.9997 0.9995 0.9992 0.9992 0.9999 0.9997 0.9995 0.9994 0.9994 0.9983 0.9980 0.9979 0.9979 0.9978 0.9978 Bus no 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 Bus Voltage (Pu) 0.9998 0.9985 0.9947 0.9942 0.9785 0.9737 0.9746 0.9714 0.9669 0.9626 0.9401 0.9290 0.9248 0.9197 0.9123 0.9120 0.9117 0.9098 0.9092 0.9091 0.9091 0.9088 0.9088

Table 8: Variation of TENVDI with DG Placement


Bus no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 TENVDI (x10-3) 0.3982 0.3980 0.3978 0.3973 0.3918 0.3298 0.2716 0.2583 0.2517 0.2443 0.2433 0.2416 0.2450 0.2546 0.2702 0.2737 0.2809 0.2810 0.2879 0.2925 0.3007 0.3011 0.3049 Bus no 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 TENVDI (x10-3) 0.3137 0.3343 0.3434 0.3486 0.3978 0.3978 0.3986 0.3988 0.4004 0.4072 0.4328 0.4663 0.3978 0.3977 0.3978 0.3979 0.3979 0.4028 0.4070 0.4076 0.4078 0.4096 0.4096 Bus no 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 TENVDI (x10-3) 0.3973 0.3969 0.3974 0.3980 0.2580 0.1536 0.2305 0.2084 0.1796 0.1533 0.0537 0.0263 0.0194 0.0138 0.0113 0.0115 0.0123 0.0221 0.0530 0.2206 0.2203 0.2101 0.2100

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013), IAEME

Table 9 : Comparison of Complex Power Losses for Optimal sizing of DG at Optimal location: Bus 61 Optimal Location = Bus 61 DG Rating in MVA 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 Minimum Loss Optimal DG capacity (SDGopt) in MVA Complex Power Loss (Sloss) in KVA Case1 (Unity Pf) 180.2229 128.9543 102.0178 96.7717 111.0474 143.0446 191.2309 254.1131 96.7717 Case2 (0.9Pf lag) 162.6008 95.4359 53.8736 34.8566 35.7901 54.7633 90.1621 140.5060 34.8566 Case3 (0.8Pf lag) 161.3606 92.9176 50.1355 30.0237 29.9683 48.1141 82.9125 132.8839 29.9683

2.0

2.0

2.5

Figure 11: Variation of TENVDI with DG placement

Figure 12:Variation of Tail End Node Voltage with DG Placement

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013), IAEME

Figure 13: Comparison of complex power losses after placement of DG for different cases Table 10: Improvement of system parameters with optimal allocation of DG
Parameters Active Power losses in Pu Reactive Power losses in Pu Active Power drawn from Substation in Pu Reactive Power drawn from Substation in Pu Base Case 0.2365 0.1065 4.1272 2.8001 Case I 0.0872 0.0420 1.9779 2.7356 Case II 0.0300 0.0174 2.1206 1.8393 CaseIII 0.0254 0.0152 1.9161 1.2088

Figure 14: Comparison of System Voltage Profile after DG placement (3 cases) with base case As per the flowchart of fig.1, the optimal location for DG having rating of 50% of total complex demand of distribution system found to be Bus No: 61 (corresponding to minimum TENVDI). At this optimal location the optimum size of DG for loss minimisation for various cases is given in table9. From fig 14, it is evident the optimal allocation of DG results in improved voltage profile.

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013), IAEME
5. CONCLUSION The determination of size and location of DG are two important factors for the planning and operation of smart electrical distribution systems. This paper presents a simplified approach for optimum allocation of DG in distribution system in which the optimal location of DG is determined by TENVD index for improving the tail end node voltages and optimal sizing of DG is determined at the optimal location for minimising the power losses. The proposed method has been tested on IEEE33bus system & IEEE-69bus system using MATLAB 2008. The results of these two systems have proved the impact of optimal allocation of DG in terms of better voltage profile especially for consumers connected to tail end node and reduced power losses. REFERENCES [1] A. Ipakchi and F. Albuyeh. Grid of the future. IEEE Power and Energy Magazine. 2009, 7 (2): 5262. [2] T. Ackermann, G. Andersson and L. Soder. Distributed generation: a definition, Electrical Power System Research. 2001, 57 (3): 195-204. [3] P. Chiradeja and R. Ramkumar. An approach to quantify the technical benefits of distributed generation. IEEE Transaction on Energy Conversion. 2004, 19 (4): 764-773. [4] H. Khan and M.A. Choudhry. Implementation of distributed generation algorithm for performance enhancement of distribution feeder under extreme load growth. International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems. 2010, 32 (9): 985-997. [5] D.Q. Hung, N. Mithulanathan and R.C. Bansal. Multiple distributed generators placement in primary distribution networks for loss reduction. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics. (In Press). [6] N. Mithulanathan, T. Oo and L. V. Phu. Distributed generator placement in power distribution system using Genetic Algorithm to reduce losses. Thammasat International Journal on Science and Technology. 2004, 9 (3): 55-62. [7] S. Ghosh, S.P. Ghoshal and S. Ghosh. Optimal sizing and placement of DG in network system. International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems. 2010, 32 (8): 849-856. [8] I. Ziari, G. Ledwich, A. Ghosh, D. Cornforth and M. Wishart. Optimal allocation and sizing of DGs in distribution networks. Proc of IEEE Power and energy society general meeting. 2010:1-8. [9] R.M. Kamel and B. Karmanshahi. Optimal size and location of DGs for minimizing power losses in a primary distribution network. Transaction on Computer Science and Electrical and Electronics Engineering. 2009, 16 (2):137-144. [10] D. Singh, D. Singh and K.S. Verma. Multi-objective optimization for DG planning with load models. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. 2009, 24 (1): 427-436. [11] M.H. Haque. Efficient load flow method for distribution systems with radial or mesh configuration. IEE Proc. On Generation, Transmission and Distribution. 1996, 143 (1): 33-38. [12] J.V.B. Subramanyam and C. Radhakrisna. Distributed Generation placement and sizing in unbalanced radial distribution system. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology. 2009, 52: 737-744. [13] N. Acharya, P. Mahat and N. Mithulananthan. An analytical approach for DG allocation in primary distribution network. International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems. 2006, 28 (10): 669678. [14] N. Upadhyay and A.K.Mishra. A method for suitable location and capacity of distributed generation units in a distribution system. Proc. of 20th Australian university power engineering conference (AUPEC). 2010. [15] M.A. Kashem, V, Ganapathi, G.B. Josman and M.I. Buhari. A novel method for loss minimization in distribution networks. Proc. of International Conference Electric Utilization, Deregulation Restructure, Power Tech. 2000: 251-256. 177

International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) 3(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013), IAEME
AUTHORS

Dr. r. T. Ananthapadmanabha received the B.E. degree in


Electrical Engineering in 1980, M.Tech degree in Power Systems (1st Rank) in 1984 and and Ph.D. degree (Gold Medal) in 1997 from University of Mysore, Mysore. He is presently working as Professor in Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering and Controller of Examinations at The National Institute of Engineering, Mysore, Karnataka, India. His research interest includes Reactive Power Optimization, Voltage Stability, Distribution Automation and AI applications to Power Systems.

Maruthi Prasanna. H. A. received the Diploma in Electrical &


Electronics Engineering in 2004 from D.R.R.Government Polytechnic, Davanagere D and B.E. degree in Electrical & Electronics Engineering in 2011 from B.M.S.Evening College of Engineering Engineering, Bangalore. He is presently pursuing research work at Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Engineering, The National Institute of Engineering, ering, Mysore, Karnataka, India. His research interest includes Distribution System Optimisation, Power System Stability studies, A.I. applications to power system and Smart Grid.

Veeresha. A. G. received the B.E. degree in Electrical &


Electronics Engineering in 2003 from SJMIT, Chitraduraga. He is presently pursuing research work at Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Engineering The National Institute of Engineering, Mysore, , Karnataka, India. His research interest includes Wind Energy, Distribution System Design, Distributed Generation.

Likith Kumar. M. V. received the B.E. degree in Electrical &


Electronics Engineering in 2011 from SKIT, Bangalore. He is presently pursuing research work at Department of Electrical and Electronics tronics Engineering, Engineering The National Institute of Engineering, Mysore, , Karnataka, India. His research interest includes Smart Grid, Communication System, Renewable Energy.

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