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A PROJECT REPORT On Consumer Behavior towards chocolate Brands

DECLARATION

(Signature of Candidate)

CERTIFICATE

It is certified that the project entitled CONSUMER BEHAVIOR TOWARDS CHOCOLATE BRANDS submitted

PREFACE

The customer is king. Finally ten years after the liberalization of Indias economy began. The market place has, suddenly become tightening competitive. Not only have new players stormed into the country, there are more brands available then ever before in every segment of every market. The customer today buys only that which meets his/her every desire. This demands more intimate understanding of the customer by the Smart Companies the study has been divided into six parts. First part contains briefly the CHOCOLATES, history of chocolates, along with the development of passion for chocolates. Second part presents an overview of evolution of chocolates, chocolate industry-growth and competition in various categories. Major players in this industry. Third and Forth part includes a brief profile about the consumer behavior & Research Methodology for the study. This part describes the term consumer behavior and its importance. Part five deals with the Analysis & Discussion. Important findings have been discussed at last for better understanding. Lastly, Part six namely Findings & Recommendation highlights the major findings during the course of the study. Accordingly, recommendations have been made.

CONTENTS

Introduction to the study Objectives of the study Research Methodology A. Problem Statement B. Research Design Area of Study Objective of the Study C. Data Collection Data Collection Methods Data Collection Techniques D. Sampling Design Sampling Unit Sample Size Sampling Techniques Limitations of the study Analysis & Interpretation Findings Conclusions Suggestions Annexure Questionnaire Bibliography

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY

INTRODUCTION

This project is about preference of the consumers towards FMCG products i.e. chocolates in domestic market (in special context of nestle, Cadbury & Amul chocolates) The story of chocolate began in the new world with the Mayans, and also the word chocolate comes from the Mayan word xocoatl, and the word cocoa from the azlec cacahuati, who drank a dark brew called cacahuaquchtl. Later, the Aztec consumed chacahoua and used the cocoa bean for currency. In 1523, they offered cocoa beans to Cortez, who introduced chocolate to the world, where it swiftly became a favorite food among the rich and noble of Europe. From the beginning, turning raw, bitter cocoa beans into what one 17 th century writer called the only true food of the gods has been a fine art, a delicate mixture of alchemy and science. Centuries ago it was discovered that fermenting and roasting the beans could create an almost otherworldly flavor. In 1875, after years of trying, a 31-year-old candy maker in vevey named Daniel peter figured out how to combine milk and cocoa power.

The ancient Aztecs believed chocolate to be the FOOD OF THE GOD


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Firstly, there is a need to know about the chocolatethat what is chocolate. Why chocolate is the most popular dessert flavoring around.

MEANING OF CHOCOLATE:1. A preparation of the seed of cocoa, roasted, husked, and ground (without removing any of the fat), often sweetened and flavored, as with vanilla. 2. A beverage or confection made from this. 3. Dark brown. 4. A divine substance inspiring passion in those who consume it.

ORIGIN OF CHOCOLATE

The word chocolate comes from the Mayan word xocoatl, and the word cocoa from the Aztec cacahuatl. In Mexico, the beverage was called chocolath, from lath (water) and choco. Supposedly the Spaniard found the Mexican word har to pronounce and called it cacao. Chocolath, chocolath, chocolath. Puff puff. See? I did it! (But lets stick to cocoa) *LoI*

From cocoa to chocolate


Sorting, clearing, frying, crushing, grinding is the only small part of stages of production cycle transforming cocoa beans in chocolate, which we eat. Chocolate is really the unique product, tasty, highly nutritive (about 550 kkal in 100gm of a product), capable to be stored by years without change of properties. It contains 50-55% of carbohydrates, 32-35% of fat, 5-6% of fibers. And also tannin substances (4-5%), stimulators-the bromine and caffeine (1-1.5%), microelements Na, K, Mg, P, Fe and vitamins B1, & B2.

HISTORY OF CHOCOLATE

The discovery of cocoa was only a first step in the direction of chocolate. The Mayas were the first to cultivate the cocoa bean for the fruits it yielded. They used the beans as an ingredient in their favorite chocolate drink xocotlatl. Legend suggests that the first beans came out of paradise and lent wisdom and power to the person that ate them. For obvious reasons, the use of cocoa was kept to a minimum by the emperors. Before the Spanish explorers discovered the New World, chocolates and other exotic foods were totally unknown in Europe. Columbus was the first European to become acquainted with cocoa, but he wasnt exactly impressed. During one of his conquest in the New World he met the Aztecs. For many generations, they drank an infusion of grilled seeds and spices. This mixture tasted disgusting and it also contained cocoa beans. The Aztecs adopted the ides of cocoa consumption from the Mayas. However the conquistadors pizzaro and, in particular, Cortes did show interest in the bean. Fernando Cortes reached the east coast of Mexico in 1519. as an honored guest of Montezuma (Aztec emperor and inveterate chocolate fanatic) he was offered xocotlatl a small portion of aromatic chocolate drink mixed eith vanilla, pepper and other herbs. For the Mayas, cocoa beans were very important, not only were they a poplar means of exchange, they also had a religious value. The Mayas sacrificed cocoa beans at the funerals of the upper class.

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EVOLUTION OF CHOCOLATE

Chocolate is created from the cocoa bean. A cacao tree with fruit pods in various stages of ripening

(1753-1849)

1753

Swedish biologist Carolus Linnaeus revealed his feeling for chocolate while attending to the task of classifying organisms in a binomial system. To the chocolate tree he gave the botanical name of theobroma cacao. Cacao refers back to the original native language. Theobroma is a Latin term that translates to food of the gods.

1765

In 1765 the Englishman James Watt invented the steam engine and in doing so set in motion what we now refer to as the industrial revolution. Around the same time in the colony of Massachusetts one of the first machine oriented chocolate manufacturing businesses was being established. The partnership of John Hannon, an

Irishman, and Dr. James Banker of the

Massachusetts colony formed the company Hannons Best chocolate. 11

Through the use of an old grist mill, cacao beans were ground into chocolate liquor, pressed into cakes of paste for eventual use as a chocolate beverage. During a routine trading mission to the West Indies, Hannon was presumed dead when his ship failed to returned. The name of the company subsequently changed to the Baker Company. It was not until 1927 that the Baker family sold their business to General Foods. 1774 The mysterious rumors that surrounded the death of pope clement XIV, give credence to the notion that chocolate had become a favorable way of distinguish poison. The pope died after consuming a chocolate beverage, which also killed the unwritten confectioner who shared in the consumption. Through there is no proof, the Jesuits are suspected to have arranged his demise. The pope had been in opposition to the Jesuits, and they were known chocolate drinkers. So the conclusion, while not provable, is not unfounded. 1819 Francois Louis Cailler opened a chocolate factory on lake Geneva near Vevey. He used machinery he had developed himself, making him a pioneer in the evolution of Swiss chocolate. 1828 Chocolate maker and chemist Coenraad Van Houten developed the process now known as Dutching. His patented invention involved the removal of close to half of the cocoa butter from chocolate liquor through the use of hydraulic pressure. The removal of the cocoa butter resulted in a commensurate decrease in fat content. Instead of fifty percent, the hard cake that was let from this process had a fat content of only Twenty-Five percent. The cake could then be crushed into a powder. The use of alkaline salt allowed for easier mixing with warm water. It also made the color darker and had the pleasing affect of a less bitter taste. This invention would be the key in the development of chocolate as a confection. 1847 Joseph Fry was a Quaker who began manufacturing chocolate under the name of Joseph Fry & Sons. While the original Joseph Fry left the company to become a type founder, his sons continued the business. One of his sons, another Joseph Fry, purchased a Watts steam engine in 1789 to more efficiently grind cacao. A great-grandson of the original Joseph 12

Fry led the business toward the development of edible chocolate. Hoe found that by remixing some of the cocoa butter back into the processed Dutched cocoa powder and adding sugar, a paste was formed that could be pressed into molds. The effect of this was a chocolate bar that gathered as much attention as chocolate beverages had. 1849 Ghirardelli, an Italian native, planned early on having a chocolate business. However, he traveled first to Uruguay and then to Peru before setting in California in 1849. Though he had been attracted by the Gold Rush, he soon learned that there was more reliable profit to be had selling tents to other gold miners than in actual mining. He used the money he saved and started the Ghirardelli chocolate factory, which is still located in San Francisco. (1850-1986) 1850s Prime Minister William Gladstone, in an effort to boost the economy, lowered the taxes on cacao beans, allowing British manufacturers to expand their market. 1860 British FDA is founded. A British journal called the Lancet discovered that many chocolate manufacturers were employing various methods of Cutting chocolate with something less expensive. One report revealed that cocoa powder was being thinned with brick powder. Stirred to respond, the British government passed its first food and drug act in 1860. 1868 John Cadbury was another Qyaker who became interested in chocolate production. In 1824 he had opened a Grocery store in Birmingham, England. Cadbury featured cacao beans that he would roast and grind himself. In time he realized the interest and profitability in changing his focus to manufacturing of chocolate. Cadbury became so renowned that he received a Royal Warrant in 1854 to be the single cocoa and chocolate provider for Queen Victoria. Richard and George Cadbury took over their fathers business and in 1866 purchase a Van Houton machine. They began to market Cadbury cocoa powder. By 1868, the Cadbury Company produced the first box of chocolate candies. Their business continues to 13

flourish, and in 1879 they took over the Birmingham suburb of Bourneville. The factory they built there supported a town, providing both worker housing and recreational facilities. 1879 During the same period that Cadbury was developing into a formidable chocolate force, a Swiss chocolate manufacturer was struggling to find a way to combine chocolate with milk. Daniel Peter could not produce something with a smooth consistency because the milk could be made more shelf-stable for use a baby formula. The product of Nestles experimentation was a sweetened condensed milk. The new milk, which had lesser water, was mixable with chocolate and made a product that would not spoil easily. Henri Nestle and Daniel Peter formed a company in 1879. Today, the largest food company in the world is Nestle. 1879 A conching machine was created in 1879 that allowed for the smoothest chocolate yet. Rudolf Lindt used a concave granite bed where chocolate liquor, sugar, and milk if desired, would be ground back and forth by heavy rollers. Lindt named his chocolate Fondants because their texture was as smooth as the popular creamy candies. The process of conching soon became a part of common chocolate manufacturing. In addition, the friction of the rollers produced a heat that made roasting an unnecessary steps. Today, the rollers in conching machines are kept at a controlled temperature for an even higher quality. 1893 Milton Suavely Hershey was a Mennonite from Pennsylvania who owned a caramel manufacturing plant. When he visited the world Colombian Exposition in Chicago his interest was initially to purchase and use machines to make chocolate covered candies. His interest changed course after visiting Europe and researching the many chocolate manufacturers there. Hershey then decided to focus his business on chocolate production and in 1900 he introduced to the world the milk chocolate Hershey bar. It was followed five years later by the Hershey kiss. With business expanding beyond expectation, Milton Hershey took over the town of Derry Church, Pennsylvania and renamed it Hershey. Thought he also developed a Hershey, Cuba around a sugar mill he owned, Milton Hershey 14

was focused out of Cuba in1959 when Castro gained control. Today Hershey, Pennsylvania is an impressive tourist attraction. 1908 1913 The triangular Toblerone chocolate bar was created and launched into market by Swiss chocolate maker Jean Tobler. Swiss chocolate maker Jules Sechaud invented the chocolate filled bonbon. 1929 At the end of the twentieth century Cellas Confections, on West Broadway and canal, was a part of many factories that made up New York Citys confectionary district. In 1929 their candy factory began manufacturing chocolate-covered cherries. Today, while the other confectioneries have disappeared, Cellas remains. 1936 Philip Silverstein owned a candy company on Delancey Street in New York City. In 1936 he created a thick, nut and raisin filled chocolate bar, known as the Chunky Bar. 1940s As the United States geared up for a war in Europe, Militon Hershey suggested an addition be made to the standard soldiers D-Ration. The American military began to include three 4 ounce, 600 calorie chocolate bars in each D-Ration. While from todays perspective this may seem odd, the Aztecs had used chocolate for the edification of their own warriors. In addition to lifting the energy and spirits of the troops during World War II, the chocolate bars became associated with peace, as malnourished holocaust survivors were rescued by American troops offering chocolate. 1986 When Jim Walsh left his life as an adventures executive in Chicago, he decided to move to Hawaii to start a chocolate business. He purchased plantations on Keaau and Kona, and decided to use the fine criollo cacao beans for his foundation. The beans he harvested are sent to California, after they have been fermented and dried, and are processed into high quality chocolate. Only available through mail order, the chocolate is used primarily by pastry chefs.

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MAJOR PLAYER IN THE MARKET

CADBURY (INDIA)

Trading at rs.850, the Cadbury (India) stock presents a good long-term investment option. After hitting a high of Rs. 981 in March 2000, the stock retraced to its present level. The current price discounts the latest EPS 49 times. With good growth protects ahead and a strong financial background, the stock may hold good potential for steady returns over the long term.

Cadbury (India), subsidiary of Cadbury Schweppes Overseas, is one of the leading players in the chocolate and sugar confectionary segment. The parent has a 51 percent

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stake in the company. For the year-ended December 1999, close to 76 percent of the sales turnover was derived from chocolate followed by malted foods (22 percent). Cadbury (India) has for long been the leading player in the chocolate industry. It is virtually a household name with leading brands such as Five Star and Dairy Milk. Of late, the company has been flooding the market with new launches. Among the successes of recent years are Perk and Picnic. In the malted food segmented, Bournvita is one among the popular brands. However, the health- drink segment has failed to lead support to the companys bottom-line in the recent past. Volumes in Bournvita have been deciding for some time. However, this is not likely to be a drag on the profitability. Cadbury (India) has levered on its marketing strengths and product range. Competition may stem from players such as nestle in the near term. Apart from this, other new players such as Mars and Hersheys may have an impact on the level of competition. However, the reduction in the excise duty on malted drinks and chocolates and the lower import duties on cocoa is likely to have a positive impact on the cost-structure of the firm. The earnings performance of 2000 first quarter was impressive. Sales revenue rose 20 per cent to Rs. 139.34 crores compared to the corresponding previous period. Operating margins declined marginally from 16.4 per cent to 15.7 per cent. Post-tax earnings rose an 11.5 per cent to Rs. 10.34 crores. If the top line growth is sustained at this level, it could provide a boost and growth over the long term. Shareholders can stay invested. Cadbury was controversially taken by Kraft co.ltd in February 2010.Cadburys market share in India is 79%

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NESTLE

The story of chocolate began in the new World with the Mayans, who drank a dark brew called cacahuaquchtl. Later, the Aztecs consumed chacahoua and used the cocoa bean for currency. In 1523, they offered cocoa beans to Cortez, who introduced chocolate to the world, where it swiftly became a favorite food among the rich and noble of Europe.

From the beginning, tuning raw, bitter cocoa beans into what one 17 th century writer called the only true food of the gods has been a fine art, a delicate mixture of alchemy and science. Centuries ago it was discovered that by fermenting and roasting the beans, 18

an almost otherworldly flavor could be created. In 1875, after tears of trying, a 31-yearold candy maker in Vevey named Daniel Peter figured out how to combine milk and cocoa powder. The result-milk chocolate. Peter, a friend and neighbor of Henri Nestle, started a company that would quickly become the worlds leading maker of chocolate. For three decades the company called Peter, Cailler, Kohler relied on Nestle for milk and marketing expertise. In 1929, the almost inevitable merge took place as Nestle acquired Peter, Cailler, and Kohler. Nestle chocolates has increased its sales tremendously in India. Latest news for nestle chocolates India is,that it will not only be undertaking selective price hikes, but will also be reducing the weight for its chocolate products in order to combat rising raw material costs, reportsThe Economic Times . According to company sources, the weight of Nestle's Kit Kat, Milkybar and Munch chocolate bars will be reduced by around 5-7%, which implies a price hike of around 7%. Sources expect this measure to pan out by April end, the report adds. Although Nestle's milk product division generates the majority of its revenues, chocolates generate nearly 15% of sales for the company. Nestle's move follows market leader, Cadbury India's Rs 5 (9%) price hike of its flagship brand, Cadbury Dairy Milk to Rs 60, the report says.Nestles market share in India is 14%.

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AMUL
AMUL CHOCOLATE is made from Sugar, Cocoa Butter, Milk Solids, Chocolate mass Composition Milk Fat 2% Sugar 55% Total fat 32.33% (Milk fat + Cocoa Fat) Cocoa Solids 7.5% Milk Solids 20% Product Specifications: Meets all requirements under the PFA for boiled sugar confectionary. A gift foe someone you love. Amul Chocolate has chosen the phrase A gift of someone for love to market their chocolate products. Today, GCMMFs Amul brand of milk products receives business queries from dozens of countries, ranging fron the U.S. and the Netherlands to Singapore and New Zealandthanks to an innovative marketing campaign on the World Wide Web.

The round-eyed, Chubby-Cheeked Amul Moppet has been a wildly popular advertising fixture, with its punchy one-liners amusing Indian viewers from bus stands, lamp kisos 20

and billboards for over thirty years. The ultimate compliment to the butter came when a British company recently launched a butter and called it Utterlt Butterly, a fitting recognition of the Thorough bred, utterly Butterly Delicious Amul. Every week, Amuls topical ads for its butter products are posted on its Web site, along with recipes fore Indian dishes featuring Amul products. Archives of hundreds of topicals dating back to 1979 are available on the site. The topicals have also been carried every day on the Indian World home page.amul chocolates market share in India is 5%.

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Consumer Behavior

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INTRODUCTION

The term consumer behavior refers to the behavior that consumers display in searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of products and services that they expect will satisfy their needs. The study of consumer behavior is the study of how individuals make decisions to spend their available re- source (time, money, effort) on consumption related items. It includes the study of what they buy, why they buy it, when they buy it, where they buy it, how often they buy it and how often they use it. Information about the pattern of consumption in various segments of society and dynamics of consumer behavior are central to the understanding for developing new concepts in marketing. The essence of modern marketing concept is that all elements of business should be geared towards identifying and satisfying the needs of the consumers. Decision Making Process The consumers decision to purchase or reject a product is a moments of final truth for marketer. It signifies whether the marketing strategy has been wise, insightful, and effective, or whether it was poorly planned and missed the mark. Thus, marketers are particularly interested in consumers decision-making process. We would be discussing a simple model of consumer decision making that emotional consumer. The modal, has three major components: 1) 2) 3) Inputs Process Output

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CONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESS

External influences
Firms Marketing Efforts Product Price Place Promotion Socio culture Environment Family Reference Group Other non-commercial influence Social class Culture and subculture influences

Input

Consumer Decision Making


Psychological Factors Need recognition Information search Valuation alternatives Process Perception Motivation Attitude Learning Personality

Experience

Post Purchase Behavior


Purchase Trial Repurchase Post purchase evaluation
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Output

INPUTS
The input component draws on external influences that serve as sources of information about a particular product and influence a consumers product-related values and behavior. Chief among these input factors are the marketing mix activities of organizations that attempt to communicate the benefits of their products and services to their potential customer, and the no marketing socio-cultural influences, which, when internalized, affects the consumers purchase decision.

PROCESS
The process component of the modal is concerned with how consumers make decisions. The psychological field represents. The internal influences (motivation, perception, learning, personality, and attitudes) that effect the consumers decision making processes.

Prepurchase Activity: After the problem is identified, the buyer indulges in


prepurchase activity. It is under stood that need is a father of a deed. There generally remains a time lag when a person thinks to buy and the actual incidence of buying. During this time, the person is energized and is likely to be influenced by various factors. Need arousal drives the consumer to collect information about the required product. He first indulges in internal search, scans his psychological field so as to recollect of retrieve any information or past experience related to particular need. His psychological field comprises of his past learning. Perception, personality and past experience. If he is not satisfied he then goes in for external search and looks for various sources of information. The degree of perceived risk can also influence this stage of the decision process. In high risk situation they are likely to engage in complex information search and evaluation tactics. Of key interest to marketer are the various sources of information that the consumer will return to and the relative influence that they will have on his buying behavior.

Evaluation of Alternatives: when evaluating potential alternatives consumers tend


to use two types of information: 25

1. 2.

A list of brands from which they plan to make their selection (the evoked set), and The criteria they will use to evaluate each brand. The criteria consumers use to evaluate the brands that constitute their evoked sets usually are expressed in terms of important product attributes. Consumers use certain procedures or rules to facilitate a choice among multi attribute objects. Consumers decision rules have been broadly classified into two major categories compensatory and non compensatory decision rules. An understanding of which decision rules consumer apply in selecting a particular service or product is useful to marketers concerned with formulating a promotional programme.

Output
The output portion of consumer decision marking model concerns two closely associated kinds of post decision activity. Purchase behavior and post purchase evaluation. The objective of both activities is to increase the consumers satisfaction with his/her purchase.

Purchase Behavior: Consumer make two types of purchase and repeat purchase. If a
consumer purchase a product (or brand) for the first time, and buys a smaller quantity than usual, this purchase would be considered a trail. Thus, a trail is the exploratory phase of purchase behavior in which consumers attempt to evaluate a product through direct use. If the new brand is established product category (cola, chewing gum, candies) is found by trail to be more satisfactory or better than other brands, consumers are likely to repeat the purchase, Repeat purchase behavior is closely related to the concept of brand loyalty, which firms try to encourage because it contributes to greater stability in the marketplace.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

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1.

To study the brand preferences of consumers from the three brands of chocolates i.e. Amul, Cadbury, Nestle available in the market.

2. 3. 4. 5.

To find the extent of brand loyalty of consumers that exists among different chocolate brands. To study the influence of various aspects on buying behavior. To study the usage & brand awareness of chocolates product in among the residents of Lucknow. To checkout the satisfaction level of the consumers for chocolate bars they are using.

Research Methodology
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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research methodology in a way is a written game plan for conducting research. Research methodology has many dimensions. It includes not only the research methods but also considers the logic behind the methods used in the context of the study and complains why only a particular method of technique has been used. It also helps to understand the assumption underlying various techniques and the criteria by which they can decide that certain technique will be applicable to certain problems and other will not. Therefore in order to solve a research problem, it is necessary to design a research methodology for the problem as the some may differ from problem to problem. This chapter focuses on the various techniques, methods and assumptions used in this study. It sheds light on the research problem, objectives of the study, and also its limitations. The later part of the chapter explains the manner, in which the data is collected, classified, tabulated, analyzed and interrupted so as to each to conclusive results. The study is of diagnostic nature and thus the overall research design is going to be rigid. The design should provide enough provision for protection against bias-ness and must maximize reliability.

A) PROBLEM STATEMENT:29

Research work is management parlance is extremely important for a given close view of the relatives of the real life business issues. For any management student who is striving to perform outstandingly. It is of paramount importance that apart from theoretical knowledge he must also gain some practical knowledge. Survey report deals specially with providing an opportunity to management students to have some exposure in real business world. My study topic deals with Consumer Behavior and different factors that influence consumer to purchase a particular brand of chocolates. As chocolate is regarded as one of the biggest Fast Moving Consumer Good (FMCG), there are many factors in mind of consumer which induce them to purchase a particular brand of chocolate. Some of these factors are Price, Taste, Packaging, Brand name. Ever changing behavior of consumer, dominance of different brands in the market compelled me to undertake a research work in this segment. The prime objective of my study is to analyze the effect of various factors on buying behavior of consumers.

B) RESEARCH DESIGN:To analysis the buying behaviors of the residents of Bhiwani Sample Survey Methods has been employed through other methods are also important. This method is given prime significance in modern research because of its extensive use to study the relationship of different factors, attitudes and practices of society and to explore the problems that cannot be treated by experimental methods.

To collect data, a number of techniques are employed under the sample survey method i.e. questionnaire. The increasing use of questionnaire is probably due to increased emphasis by social scientists on quantitative measurement to uniformly accumulated data.

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a) Area of study
The area of the study is different Markets of Bhiwani in order to collect the Primary data from the respondents.

b) Study area
Study area is Lucknow.

c) Target Segment
Consumers of Milk chocolates bars of age group 18-25

C) SELECTION OF SAMPLE:It becomes impossible to contact each and every individual of the population due to limitations of essential resources like time and money. Therefore, the study is preferably allowed down to a representation sample to make the study more manageable. Keeping in the view the objectives and resource limitation of the study, 100 respondents were considered. Respondents practicable. -100(Youths of age group 18-25) The selected sample is representative of the population and is accurate and

D) SAMPLING PLAN:The following factors will be taken into consideration within the scope of sampling plan:

I Sampling Unit: It defines the target population that will be sampled i.e. it answers who is to be surveyed. In this study, the sampling unit is youth with in the age group of 18-25 years.

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II Sampling Size: - It indicates the numbers of people to be surveyed. Though large


samples give more reliable results than small samples but due to constraints of time and money, the sample size was restricted to 100 respondents.

Probability sampling can be of following types:


Simple random sampling Stratified random sampling Cluster (area) sample

In this case, stratified random sampling was done since the respondents will classified into well defined classes or strata that were distinct from each other.

E) COLLECTION OF DATA:
After the research problem has been defined and the research design has been chalked out, the task of data collection begins. The data can be collected mainly through primary sources, but it was supplement with secondary data.

I Primary data collection:


Primary data is the data which is collected through observation or direct communication with the respondent in one form or another. These are several methods for primary data collection like Observation Method, Interview Method, through schedules, through questionnaires and so on.

II Secondary data collection methods:


Secondary data is collected through Magazines Journals Portals

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Formation of Questionnaire
Quite often the questionnaire is considered as the heart of a survey operation. Hence it should be carefully constructed. It is an investment that is widely used to collect various types of data and consists of long lists of questions designed to collect any information. It has personally been found that people are more frank in giving replies to a questionnaire than to an interview schedule. Though being less expensive, it has certain limitations like incomplete entries and erroneous responses. But the educational qualification of the respondents is an additional factor which renders this technique the most relied upon. Formation of a good questionnaire involves intensive thinking and deliberation of the problem with predetermined objective and aims properly placed in the questionnaires. The questionnaire framed for the purpose of the study consists of a limited

number of questions placed in logical order. So, that the objective of the question is clear to the respondents. All the questions are centered on the problem keeping in the mind. The questions were both open and close ended as well as multiple choices.

Analysis of Data:
Data, after collection, has to be analyzed in accordance will the outline laid for the time of developing the research plan. The term analysis refers to the computation of certain measures along with searching for patterns of relationship that exist among data groups. Data presented in raw state appear unrecognized and complex. Statistical processors are used this complex data into some significant understandable form.

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LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY


The project was successfully completed with certain inherent limitations. These limitations were: 1) 2) 3) 4) The time of research was short due to which many fact has been left untouched The Area undertaken in research in Lucknow only. But to do a complete research a wide area is required, so the area is also a constraint of the study. Sample for the study taken is of only 100 consumers. This can also act as a constraint in the study. While collecting data some of the consumers are not willing to fill the questionnaire, so they might not fill their true behavior. This can also be a constraint of the study.

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Data Analysis & Interpretation

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ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

Q1. Which companies chocolate do you prefer to purchase? Brand Name Cadbury Nestle Amul Percentage 40 35 25

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25%

40%

Cadbury Nestle Amul

35%

As per shown in the Pie chart, the maximum market share is hold by Cadbury. And least share is hold by Amul followed by Nestle. And this result is obtained from the response of customers towards Questionnaire filled by them for the consumption of milk chocolate bars.

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Q2. What is your pattern of consumption?

Pattern of consumption More than one per day Daily one 3-4 chocolates per week Weekly Rarely

Percentage of consumption 15 25 45 10 5

Percentage of consumption More than one per day Daily one 3-4 chocolates per week Weekely Rarely

10% 5%

15% 25%

45%

As shown in Pie chart, most of the consumers consume milk chocolate bars as 3-4 per week, which represent 45% of the total number of surveyed consumers. And second most percentage of consumers consumes milk chocolate bars are of daily one.

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Q3. Do you purchase the same chocolate every time?

Answer Yes No

Percentage 68 32

Percentage

32%

Yes No
68%

As pie chart shows, 68% of the consumer purchase the same chocolate every time, it means that mostly consumers are brand loyal.32% of consumers dont purchase the same chocolate every time.

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Q4. If no, then while switch over to another brand of chocolate then what factor you consider (tick any one)? Factors Price Quality Brand Name Advt. and Ref. Group Taste Response 6 12 3 3 8 Percentage 18 38 9.5 9.5 25

Percentage Price 25% 9% 10% 18% Quality Brand Name 38% Advt. and Ref. Group Taste

As shown by the pie chart, 38% of consumers consider Quality as most important factor while switching over to any other brand of milk chocolate bars, and the second most preferred factor is Taste

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Q5. Which factor you consider the most while purchasing the chocolate? Please tick any one.

Consumer's consideration Price Taste Brand Packaging Availability

Percentage 16 48 18 9 9

Percentage Price 9% 18% 48% 9% 16% Taste Brand Packaging Other

48% of the consumer of milk chocolate bars said that the most considering factor by them on the basis of which they purchase a particular brand of milk chocolate bars is Taste of that milk chocolate bars. And the least interested factor is Packaging and Availability.

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Q6. Which mode of advertisement influence you most to buy a particular Chocolate? Please tick any one. Media Newspaper Magazine Radio Television Others(hoardings,banner,pamplets etc) Percentage 22 14 4 54 6

Percentage
Newspaper

6%

22% 14% 4%

Magazine Radio

54%

Television Others(hoardings,b anner,pamplets etc)

The buying behavior of consumers is also affected by the different type of advertisements. As shown in the pie chart, the most influencing media is electronic media i.e. TV, and the second most influencing factor is newspaper.

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Q7. Which reference group influence you most to buy a particular chocolate? Please tick any one. Reference Groups Friends Family Retailers Celebrity Others Percentage 55 3 1 39 2

Percentage

2 39 55 13

Friends Family Retailers Celebrity Others

As shown in the pie chart, from reference group friends are the most influencing factor which influence consumer to purchase a particular brand of milk chocolate. And this statement is supported by 55% of consumers of milk chocolate bars. And the second most influencing factor which influence customer to purchase a particular brand of milk chocolate bar are celebrities , and this statement is supported by 39% of consumers.

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Q8. Whether you check or consider manufacturing and expiry date while buying any chocolate?

ANSWER YES NO

Percentage 55 45

Percentage

45% 55%

Yes No

Pie chart says that 55% of the consumer check or consider manufacturing and expiring date while buying any chocolate. 45% of consumers dont go for that. This should be a matter of concern

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Q9. How much you are satisfied with the present brand of chocolate which you often purchase?

Satisfaction Level Highly satisfied Satisfied Undecided Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied

Percentage 27 32 21 12 8

Percentage
Highly satisfied Satisfied Undecided
21% 32%

12%

8%

27%

Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied

About 27%of consumers are highly satisfied with the present brands of Milk chocolate bars in Bhiwani and 32% are satisfied. if we consider brand wise then milk chocolate bar of Cadbury is the most preferred brand in Bhiwani which holds 40% of the market share and after that Nestle has second position with a holding of 35% of the market share and the least preferred brand from the take brand to make report is Amul with a holding of 25% of market share.

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Findings & Conclusion

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FINDINGS & CONCLUSION


The findings of the study of consumer buying behavior in chocolates states among all the three to brands i.e. Cadbury, Nestle and Amul. The brand at first place is Cadbury, the Nestle (2nd) and last is Amul. Among all these three Cadbury is having the largest market share i.e. 40%, Nestle 35% and Amul 25%. Among all these Brands Cadbury is the only company offering largest number of brands in chocolates i.e. 6 (only for milk chocolate bars). As compared to Cadbury Nestle Company is having 2 brands and Amul is with 4 brands of chocolates. For 48% of the consumers the most important factor which is considered while purchasing any milk chocolate bars is Taste of that chocolate. They give preference to other factors also, but most important thing is taste. The buying behavior of consumers is also affected by the different type of advertisements. And the most influencing media is electronic media i.e. TV, and from reference group friends are at most influencing position. Quality is the most important factor which consumers consider while switching over to any other brand of milk chocolate bars. Consumers of Bhiwani are more attracted towards the foreign brands like Cadbury and Nestle and demand that more number of foreign milk chocolate bars should be available in the market, like some milk chocolate bars brands of Swiss and French chocolates. As this thing shows that consumer of Bhiwani are more satisfied with the foreign brands and hence demand more of it. But brands like Amul are not able to get proper place in the market in spite that good advertisement is being done by Amul also. 68% of the consumers are brand loyal. The buying behavior of consumer for different brands of milk chocolate bars is affected by various factors like price, taste, packaging, brand etc.55% of the consumer check or consider manufacturing and expiring date while buying any chocolate. 45% of consumers dont go for that. This should be a matter of concern.

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SUGGESTIONS

SUGGESTIONS
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A detail study of the Consumers Buying Behavior of Age Group 18-25 For Milk Chocolates Bars was done. Some important suggestions are as follows: 1. The Indian company AMUL has to review its process so as to gain brand loyalty of the consumers. The chocolates whose expiry dates goes off should be replaced at once and fresh stock should be offered. 3. 4. 5. The chocolate companies should think on the matter that why the consumers switch over to the other brands. The chocolate companies should put more & more emphasis on the taste and quality of the chocolate so as to gain brand loyalty. As factors other than TV and Newspaper are considered less so companies should use the print and electronic media for advertisement in large extent.

2.

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Annexure

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Questionnaire

Name of the consumer Age Sex Income

____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ________________________________

Q1. Which companies chocolate do you prefer to purchase? Cadbury Nestle Q2. What is your pattern of consumption? More than one per day 3-4 Chocolate per week Rarely Q3. Do you purchase same chocolate every time? Yes No Daily One weekly Amul

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Q4. If no, then while switch over to another brand of chocolate then what factor you consider? Please tick any one. Price Name Advertisement and Reference group Taste Q5. Which factor you consider the most while purchasing the chocolate (tick any one)? Price Brand Availability Q6. Which mode of advertisement influence you most to buy a particular Chocolate? Please tick any one. Magazine Radio Other Q7. Which reference group influence you most to buy a particular chocolate? Please tick any one. Friends Retailer Celebrity Other Family Newspaper Television Taste Packaging Quality Brand

Q8. Whether you check or consider manufacturing and expiry date while buying any chocolate? Yes No

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Q9. How much you are satisfied with the present brand of chocolate which you often purchase? Highly Satisfied Undecided Highly Dissatisfied Q10. What is your suggestion for the improvement of your preferred chocolate Brand? Satisfy Dissatisfied

_____________________________________________________ __________

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BIBLOGRAPHY BOOKS Marketing Research, Donald T.S Research Methodology, C.R kothari Consumer Behaviour, Della A.J

MAGAZINES & JOUNALS Advertising Express, September 2006,Traditional Mass Media, By K.Suresh Business World, November 2006 Business Today, Trends

WEBSITES www.amul.com www.nestle.com www.cadburyindia.com www.consumerpsychology.com www.altavist.com

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