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EURASIAN UNIVERSITIES UNION

Academic JOURNAL

EURAS ACADEMIC JOURNAL Volume 1, Number 2, April 2012 Istanbul/Turkey

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
Firuz Demir Yaam Istanbul Aydin University, Turkey EURAS Academic Journal E-mail: firuzdemiryasamis@aydin.edu.tr

EDITORIAL BOARD Ates Uslu, Istanbul Aydin University, Turkey Azeez .J. Shayal, Al-Mustansseriah University, Iraq Calin Sinescu, Istanbul Aydin University, Turkey Cecilia Tohaneanu, Dimitrie Cantemir Christian University, Romania David Paitschadse, Caucasian Institute of Democratic Integration, Georgia Eldar Hajiyev, Dagestan State Pedagogical University, Dagestan, Russia Esam Mahdi, University College of Applied Science, Palestine Irfan Morina, University of Prishtina, Kosovo Mixhait Reci, Iliria Royal University, Kosovo Muzaffer Baca, Istanbul Aydin University, Turkey Vagif Salmanov, Baku State University, Azerbaijan Veton Vula, European Institute for Law and Public Administration, Kosovo Zagir Ataev, Dagestan State Pedagogical University, Dagestan, Russia

EDITORIAL OFFICE / PROJECT COORDINATOR Nurlana Jalil nurlanajalil@euras-edu.org

DESIGN Nabi Sarba Fevziye Pirildar

EURAS TEAM Dr. Mustafa AYDIN, President Muzaffer BACA, General Secretary Yahya BACAK, General Coordinator Nurlana JALIL, Project coordinator Afag MAMMADLI, Communication Coordinator

PUBLISHER Eurasian Universities Union (EURAS)

ADDRESS Beyol Mah. Inn Caddesi No:40 Sefaky, Kkekmece 34295 Istanbul/TURKEY Tel: +90 212 444 1 428 Fax: +90 212 425 98 94 Website: www.euras-edu.org

CONTENT Innovative Policy in Kazakhstan in Conditions of Post-Crisis Period Saule Bishimbayeva .....1-9 Models of Governance in Romania Cristina Balaceanu, Cosmin Stoica ......11-18 System Interaction of Aspectuality and Temporality in the Modern Turkic linguistic Eldar.N. Gadzhiev ....19-23 New Trends in Eurasia and Development of the Turkic World Dr. Timur Kozyrev.......25-29 The Improvement of Intellectual Property Protection System in Central Asian Countries as a necessary Condition for Commercialization of Technologies Saule Bishimbayeva ......31-43 About the Modular Approach to the Analysis of Complex Technical Systems Behavior K. D. Kurbanmagomedov ...45-46 The Impact of Global Warming on the U.S. Foreign Policy towards Eurasia and the Middle East Yaar Onay .......47-53 Fukushima Nuclear Disaster: A Failed Technology Hayrettin Kl .....55-61 The Change of Surface Morphology of Polyproplene Irrardiated by High Energy Heavy Ions A.M. Maharramov, M.A Ramazanov, F.V. Hajiyeva, S.Q. Aliyeva .. 63-70 Premature Aging and Learning Mira zar .................71-76 Instructions to Authours.............77-85

THE GROW OF ACADEMIC DEVELOPMENT MAKES SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES MORE POWERFUL

We are delighted to meet you once again in this second issue of the EURAS Academic Journal. We are happy to have the opportunity to present the academic articles from Eurasia to you. One the initial goal of the Eurasian Universities Union is to contribute to the development of scientific activities in this region and provide a platform for the member universities on which academicians can share their works with the colleagues from other countries. As a result of becoming a pluralistic society there are several political, cultural, economic organizations, unions, NGOs in the Region. Therefore we need to cooperate and help each other in order to make our World more livable and prosperous. No doubt that the Eurasian Universities Union (EURAS) will provide an effective umbrella for the academicians and academic institutions in the Region. In the age of knowledge we have abundance of information and knowledge of every kind which have to be disseminated effectively through out the Region. Since our World is not isolated form painstaking events, only academic institutions and academicians can alter the negative outlook and sow the seeds of new and more positive and more optimistic World for the future generations. We hope that the researchers of EURAS will help to further strengthen the basis of modern civilization as well the ties between the northern and southern countries. With my best regards to the EURAS community,

Dr. Mustafa AYDIN EURAS President

INNOVATIVE POLICY IN KAZAKHSTAN IN CONDITIONS OF POST-CRISIS PERIOD


Saule Bishimbayeva 1

Introduction This article analyzes the innovation policy in Kazakhstan, the new directions of accelerated industrial innovation development during post-crisis period. An innovative model of development of Kazakhstan provides for the establishment of appropriate institutional environment enhancing innovation processes in the country. Now in front of Kazakhstan it is necessary to prepare a problem a national economy for the post-crisis development. The overcoming the crisis and post-crisis development of the country consists in partial change of an economic paradigm and carrying out in the country since January, 1st, 2010 of a five-years period of the accelerated diversification, in partial transition from the global export focused projects, which production practically had no internal consumer to projects and the branches focused, first of all, on internal demand. The given stage of economic development of the Republic of Kazakhstan more and more presses transition to innovative model of development. Thus carrying out of the active innovative policy, providing creation of corresponding institutional conditions of innovative processes in Kazakhstan is required. In the light of the occurring events, the main coordinator of a new innovative policy defines the Ministry of Industry and the New Technologies, appeared as a result of restructuring of the former Ministry of the Industry and Trade. The main operator of a new innovative policy becomes the JSC National innovation fund which shares were given to confidential control of the Ministry of the Industry and
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PhD in Economics. JSC National Innovation Fund

New Technologies of the Republic of Kazakhstan. JSC "NIF" will be given tasks on coordination of all institutes of innovative development; information-analytical maintenance of realization of innovative processes; grant support of innovations; technological forecasting, commercialization of innovative projects. For this time the National innovative system in Kazakhstan is almost created (hereinafter NIS) which reflects interests of all spheres of a society, including: the state, financial institutions, researchers, consumers. With a view of development of hi-tech manufactures of the domestic industry of Kazakhstan following legal and program documents are accepted: The Law on the state support of innovative activity; The Strategic plan for development of Republic Kazakhstan until 2020; The Program of the forced industrially-innovative development of Republic Kazakhstan for 2010-2014; The Investor 2020 Program on creation of favorable conditions for attraction of direct investments in not raw sectors of economy. Productivity 2020 - the Program of increase of productivity of the existing enterprises, and creation of new manufactures. Export 2020 - the Program on advancement of the goods of home producers on foreign markets; business Development in regions. The Road map of business 2020 - the Program on business Development in regions. The Map of Industrialization of Kazakhstan is a tool which will allow estimating those or other investment projects from their importance and necessity point of view. For this purpose we have generated a database under all projects, which realized on territory of our country within the limits of strategy of industrially-innovative development, and have defined infrastructure presence in regions. The conclusion about necessity or undesirability of manufactures in each region is also based on it. The purpose of these documents is formation of innovative system of the open type providing creation of a competitive end-product on the basis of use of domestic and foreign scientific potential. Besides, they provide introduction of system of grant financings, on a competitive basis at the expense of means of the state budget, joint state-private financing of innovative projects, a transfer of technologies, financing of priority technologies, as within the limits of scientific and technical programs, and separate themes and projects. At 2

separate stages of financial support by state for innovative initiatives of a private sector the system of co-financing of innovative workings out is widely applied. Such scheme of financial support is directed on stimulation of subjects of innovative activity by a principle of division of risks, and also on attraction of means of the private capital to innovative sphere. In Kazakhstan all state necessary institutes for innovative development are created: The Higher scientific and technical commission in the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan; Committee of science at Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan; Scientific holding Parasat; (which accumulated the JSC Fund of Science, JSC National centre of the scientific and technical information of Republic Kazakhstan; JSC Center of sciences about the earth, metallurgy and enrichment; JSC National centre of information; JSC "" Phytochemistry; LLP Institute of geography; LLP Institute of geological sciences named after K.I.Satpaev; LLP Institute of hydrogeology and geoecology named after U.M.Ahmedsafin; LLP Physicotechnical institute; LLP Seismology Institute; LLP Altay geologyecological institute ) National innovative fund (which has acted as the initiator of creation of the Kazakhstan venture funds: JSC "Fund of High technologies "Areket", JSC "Venture fund "Advant", JSC "Joint-stock Investment Fund of Risk Investment" Venture fund Sentras ", JSC "Venture fund Glotur Technology Fund ", JSC "lmaty venture capital ", JSC "Logycom perspective innovations ") The Center of engineering and a transfer of technologies (under the authority of CETT there are technoparks: national SEZ PIT Alatau IT City, and regional LLP "Technopark Algorithm, LLP "Technopark "UniScienTech, Almaty regional technopark, JSC Technopark of KazNTU named after .I.Satpaev, LLP Regional technopark Astana. Kazagroinnovation. The national innovative system of Kazakhstan includes four basic elements: Scientific potential; Financial infrastructure; 3

Innovative infrastructure; Innovative business. Scientific Potential in Kazakhstan Innovative development inseparably linked with perfection of scientific and technical potential of the country which is defined by level of financing of a science, a material condition of scientific sphere, efficiency of the received results. For today the scientific potential of the country is presented by the scientific organizations of the Ministry of Education and Science, the branch ministries, the private research organizations, the centers of researches in directions of sciences as the economic conducting, institutes of a corresponding profile co-coordinating activity, National holding Parasat, and also the scientific research institutes, which are affiliated by national companies. Features of scientific manufacture cause the necessity of high degree of state regulati on of the scientific researches sphere, directed on elimination of "failures" of the market. More often such mechanisms are used for these purposes: 1) Direct participation of the state in manufacture of knowledge on the basis of the created state scientific organizations (the centers, laboratories, research institutes etc.); 2) Granting of financial support for carrying out of scientific researches by scientist on various universities or not state research organizations; 3) Maintenance of favorable conditions for manufacture of scientific knowledge in enterprise sector (including at the expense of tax indulgences and use of various financial mechanisms); 4) Perfection of mechanisms of transfer of knowledge from science sphere in the enterprise environment. The specified mechanisms are closely interconnected with legislative, the software, and also perfection of organizational structure of national innovative system. It is possible to tell with confidence that legislative bases of formation and development of national innovative system in Republic Kazakhstan as a whole are created. The work on perfection of the given legislation, on working out of corresponding strategy and programs proceeds.

Financial Infrastructure in Kazakhstan The effective national innovative system is the key mechanism of development of the high technology sector and formation of qualitatively new economy, which is based on innovations. However, and it is quite clear, efficiency of NIS depends on efficiency of the financial mechanisms providing the fullest and timely investment of innovative process with coverage for all its stages. In the Republic Kazakhstan, very wide spectrum of financial tools is applied on supporting innovative process. The active role is played here by development institutes. As the positive factor it is necessary to note set of sources of state budget financing of a science in Kazakhstan. Firstly, it is grant programs of JSC Fund of Science. Secondly, special state resources on support of national scientific laboratories and laboratories of engineering profile. Thirdly, the public funds allocated for support and modernization of a research infrastructure. Fourthly, the sources of Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan allocated for realization of grant programs in sphere of basic researches. Fifthly, sources of institutes of development of JSC Fund of national well being Samruk-Kazyna. Thus it would be desirable to underline high degree of capitalization of the given fund and a variety of applied mechanisms of scientific and technical financing. The main objective of the National Innovative Fund created in 2003 (NIF) increase of innovative activity in Kazakhstan by creation of venture funds together with the Kazakhstan and foreign investors, financing at various stages of development is: from idea and creation of prototypes before expansion of operating manufacture, the organization and carrying out of the actions directed on increase of innovative activity. NIF is the partner in six venture funds of Kazakhstan created together with the Kazakhstan investors on principles of state-private partnership. Share of NIF in the Kazakhstan venture funds around 49 per cent. Besides, NIF is the shareholder in five international venture funds: Wellington Partners III Technology Fund LP; "The Central-Asian fund of support of small enterprises" CASEF LLC "; Flagship Ventures Fund 2004 LP; Jaic-Mayban Asian Fund, Vertex III Fund LP. Since 2005 NIF is a member of the European association of venture capital EVCA and the Singapore association of venture investment SVCA. The fund carries out financing of innovative projects (IP) by share not control participation, and also gives grants on performance of developmental workings out (R&D). Experts of Fund conduct search of the innovative ideas promoting development of not raw sector of economy of Kazakhstan. One of the major components at selection of the innovative projects, which is submitted for consideration in Fund, is innovation and possible commercialization. 5

Innovative infrastructure in Kazakhstan The innovative infrastructure as it in Kazakhstan is created practically from zero and supported now almost exclusively at the expense of means of the state budget. The active role in formation of NIS is taken away to institutes of development which are allocated with the state of financial resources necessity for financing in realization of innovative projects, for participation in formation of authorized capital of newly created and modernized enterprises of a manufacturing industry and an innovative infrastructure. Development institutes carry out a role of "locomotive" of innovative development of Kazakhstan, realization of structural reorganization of economic system on the basis of increase in a share of manufactures with the high added value, increases the level of innovative traditional sectors of economy, promoting increase of competitiveness of economy of Kazakhstan as a whole. Since 2003 in Kazakhstan the infrastructures for support and introduction of innovative workings out have been created. The main objects of an innovative infrastructure techno parks are service bases for creation and introduction of innovations. In techno parks innovators can have a complex of specialized services for development of the innovative enterprises which are carrying out orders on creation and development of new workings out, to manufacture of the modern equipment and devices. The operator of creation and development of an innovative infrastructure in Kazakhstan is the Center of engineering and a transfer of technologies the joint-stock company affiliated by JSC National innovation fund which primary goals are rendering of engineering services, a transfer of the advanced foreign technologies, rendering of consulting, information, legal and other services in transfer of technologies, marketing of the both external and internal markets of technologies and analysis of world tendencies of development in the given sphere. It is currently created five regional techno parks in the cities of Astana, Almaty (2 techno parks), Karaganda and Uralsk. Besides, the national techno park of information technology PIT Alatau IT CITY is created. For accurate and successful functioning of regional techno parks by the Ministry of the industry and new technologies the Model of development of regional techno parks of the Republic Kazakhstan developed based on experience of leading foreign countries is created as well. In the Program of the Forced Industrially-Innovative Development for 2010- 2014, one of the basic directions of a state policy in sphere of scientific and technical and innovative activity is formation of the innovative infrastructure including creation of specialized subjects of innovative activity of the state, inter-branch, branch and regional character. 6

Obviously, today the high-grade innovative activity cannot develop without essentially new economic-territorial formations (techno parks, business incubators, regional innovative funds, design offices, venture firms). Overall objective of techno parks is definition, disclosing, development of innovative potential of the country and, in particular, its regions, and also maintenance of requirement of economy in innovative products. Thus, techno parks are the basic element of national innovative system created in the republic. The main task which is put before techno parks sourcing of granting for using of initiators of innovative projects of manufacture spaces and collective business services to provide favorable conditions for commercialization of scientific workings out. It is necessary to notice also that in the republic the two-level system of techno parks national techno parks and regional is formed. Distinctive feature of national techno parks is presence of a branch orientation in their activity and a mode of the Special economic zone with the preferential taxation. Creation and the further development of techno parks in Kazakhstan urged to solve the primary goal in formation of competitive processing sector of economy - strengthening of communication of a science with manufacture, introduction of modern technologies, labor productivity increase in the industries and, as consequence, manufacture of hi-tech and competitive production. Innovative Business The enterprise environment is an environment of national innovative system in which demand for innovations is formed. Demand is that motive power which defines development of innovative processes in economic system as a whole. Demand for innovations arises when there is a competition. Without a competition, any stimulation to improvement, to innovations will not exist, as there are no innovations of own will. In Kazakhstan there was a difficult situation. Firstly, the large enterprises have appeared in the foreign property. They are not interested in development of chains of the value added, and, hence, and in innovations. Less large enterprises frequently occupy small niches in home market, being there as monopolists. Naturally, these enterprises were not engaged in innovative activity. Also branch monopolization is very high. Hence, here the problem of development of a competition in home market by acceleration of occurrence of the new enterprises, and also antimonopoly law perfection is bared. Many researchers and scientists mentioned that in Kazakhstan the majority of the organizations, potential subjects of national innovative system, are not interested in participation in NIS. Many business organizations prefer classical mechanisms of reception of the income, and the high technology researches and workings out are risky for them. Such low interest defines the lowered demand for innovations from outside the enterprises of industrial sphere. For them it is possible to add insufficient and not adapted offer of 7

knowledge under requirements of demand from outside the domestic scientific organizations, ruptures in a technological corridor, providing their transfer and commercialization, weakness of the state innovative policy as a whole. All it leads to low innovative activity of the enterprise environment in the Republic of Kazakhstan (no more than 4 per cent) though the tendency to its increase was outlined. For comparison in the developed countries this indicator is 30-40 per cent. Thus it is necessary to notice that more than 50 per cent of innovative production is delivered for outside the Republic of Kazakhstan. Certainly, on the one hand it strengthens an export potential of domestic innovatively active enterprises, and on the other testifies to short shipment of innovative production on home market or about it non-necessity in home market. Prospects of Development of Innovative System of Kazakhstan after Crisis In May, 2009 the President of the Country Nursultan Nazarbayev has presented the plan of post-crisis break of economy of Kazakhstan in which has defined the main tasks, among which innovative development, and also increase of a live standard for Kazakhstan residents. The new plan of post crisis break defines a state course on the forced industriallyinnovative development. The 5-year Government Program of the Forced IndustriallyInnovative Development and detailed Map of Industrialization of Kazakhstan is developed for this purpose. Thus, the basic emphasis in development of industries will be made on complex increase of labor productivity and an innovative component of industrial production. The operator of the given Program defines the Ministry of the industry and new technologies . At the first stage (2010-2014) the forced diversification of domestic economy will be carried out, first of all in seven directions. It is agriculture and processing of agricultural production; the building industry and manufacture of building materials; oil refining and an infrastructure of oil and gas sector; metallurgy and manufacture of ready metal products; the chemical, pharmaceutical and defensive industry; power; transport and telecommunications. The given directions, and also development of the industry of tourism and mechanical engineering become priorities of the Government Program of the Forced IndustriallyInnovative Development of Republic Kazakhstan for 2010-2014. At the second stage (2015-2019) priority directions and key indicators of a diversification will be defined taking into account results of realization of the Government Program of the Forced Industrially-Innovative Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2010-2014. Successful diversification of economy inseparably linked with the republics sustainable development, including a way: 8

- Introductions of modern technologies on the basis of renewed resources and energy sources. Stimulating conditions for development will be created, solar and geothermal power, technologies of an effective utilization of water resources of the country taking into account principles of the integrated water resources management are introduced, and also the further efforts on maintenance of the population with potable water are undertaken; - Optimization of a control system of a sustainable development and introduction of a green policy low-carbonic economy, including questions of attraction of investments, decisions of environmental problems, decrease in negative influence of anthropogenesis loading, strengthening of responsibility of users of nature sources on decrease in issues in environment, complex processing of a waste. The economy diversification will be coordinated to plans on formation of the centers of economic growth for the purpose of creation of the rational territorial organization of economic potential and favorable conditions for population ability to live. All it will allow Kazakhstan, at the given historical stage to change the main direction of economic development, towards escalating of economy of repartitions. To pass from raw materials export to export of production with constantly raising value added, and also to projects and the branches focused on an internal consumer demand.

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MODELS OF GOVERNANCE IN ROMANIA

Cristina Balaceanu 1 Cosmin Stoica 2

ABSTRACT During the last decades there has been generated an increasing gap between the expectations of the government and government representatives' opportunities to achieve reforms meant to support sustainable development of society. Trying to reduce this gap has led to a concerted effort from the professionals in finding satisfactory answers to the identification and application forms, methods and techniques appropriate to achieve the desired results. One of the approaches discussed was moving towards a new model of governance - institutional governance. In order to adapt an efficient model of governance in the Romanian economy, we used comparative research, logic and historical method. Key words: Governance, Good Governance, Institutions, Economic Policies 1. Introduction Romania goes through periods of economic and social transformations, due to the faulty management of economic resources and social and societal values ever since the early 90s. The current crisis is deemed a systemic crisis. Getting out of this crisis requires a fundamentally profound change, related to mentalities and behaviors, as well as to national and local resource management. The importance of the principles of good governance is complex and difficult to achieve without an economic and social consensus of all the institutional players. However, in order to ensure sustainable human development, actions must be taken in line with achieving the current and future goals. The governance involves
1 2

Dimitrie Cantemir Chiristian University, Bucharest, movitea@yahoo.com Dimitrie Cantemir Chiristian University, Bucharest, cosminstoica23@yahoo.com 11

the structure, a response to "who is authorized t o decide ... The leadership involves the way in which people work inside and around the formal authority structure in order to get what was decided. Governing and the "intelligent design" involve a kind of supreme, rational reasons, for the way things should be presented, while the "leadership" implies being knowledgeable about how things are, dropping the explanations for how they are performed. From the conceptual point of view, one should underline the difference between government and governance. According to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, the term (to) govern is explained as to legally control a country or its people and be responsible for introducing new laws, organizing public services etc - to control legally a state (territory) or a people and to be responsible for the introduction of a new law, organization of public services etc. The explanation of the word governance refers to the activity of governing a country or controlling a company or an organization; the way which a country is governed or a company or institution is controlled - the governance activity of the state or the control activity of a company or institution; the way in which a country is governed or a company/institution is controlled. As a result, the difference between the two terms is given by to the way and the process of achieving it no matter fit may refer to different levels: State or companies (organization for profit) or institutions (nonprofit institutions). We highlight the fact that, in the field of public policies, the concept of governance implies a the existence of a participative and deliberate system meant to achieve public policies in accordance with which people interact and influence each other reciprocally. Starting from the recognition of the role of education in the knowledge society, the EU program underlines the importance of continuing reform and modernization of institutions in Romania in order to increase public involvement and social responsibility. Thus, to meet the challenges of the new millennium on education - internationalization, regionalization and globalization, on the one hand, and equality, access and quality learning, research and innovation, on the other - institutional systems in Europe and worldwide discuss the opportunity to review the institutional structures of governance in education and society. The relevance of the theme derives of the general desiderate to achieve strategic objectives complying with the National Strategy for Durable Development of Romanian Horizons 2013-2020-2030. In this document Education and training, scientific research, innovation and technological development are identified as cross-sector areas on whose development consistent and congruent with existing regulations and practices in the European Union, the achievement of development desiderate depends. 2. Content The Romanian economy is not an atypical economy; the modality of implementation of the economic principles is atypical. The divergence between the political decisions on the economic increase and sustainable development, on the distribution and redistribution processes and the concrete actions of the real economy undertaken by the business 12

environment makes the entire economic process to become inefficient, for several reasons, including the achievement of a national consensus between the political parties on the sustainable development of Romania. Thus, the promulgation of the normative acts, the economic policy decisions, the institutional measures, will seek to increase the economic efficiency both on short and long term, taking into account the meeting of the immediate and future needs and interests of the population, under the use of their own and attracted economic resources. The political class should initiate development conditions on a competitive basis of the business environment, eliminating the personal and group interests in awarding exploitation agreements, facilitating equal opportunities for participation in tenders for all the eligible economic agents. In Romania the interest for the exploitation of some strategic resources, such as the ones in tourism, are related to the immediate earnings, which highlights the lack of depth of the economic act as a whole, starting from the actual investment, the variability of the investment recovery terms, the creation of development opportunities along the way, by attracting new investors, in order to concentrate the economic activities as poles of development, having the catalytic role of the medium and long term profits. The political class should encourage the business development starting from the comparative advantages of Romania in relationship with other countries, creating the premises of the business environment attractiveness through coherent, anti-cyclical economic policy measures, capable to generate the obtaining of some cost advantages arising from moderate monetary and fiscal policies. The invocation of the political class is related to the identification of the best way to implement a functional economy in Romania and the need for institutional flexibility in Romania and the purification thereof, as a restriction or elimination of the corruption in the system. The institutions or the institutional territory 3 represent a gear in which there are expressed the relationships between State and citizen, based on mutual control and a transparency of the rights and obligations thereof. The modern state represents the main pillar in organizing the society. The production involves a political power based on welldefined territorial units. This constitutes an operating condition of the state and the forces in power in this state cannot make any public act, nor can take taxes and fees, without which the state cannot fulfill its role. In this respect, the primary role of the state, namely of the political class, is to create conditions for achieving wealth, for creating laws to preserve and multiply the wealth, by the elimination of the factors that generate waste or actions of corrupt nature. So, the state must act on the principles of good governance. While governing refers to the decisions that define expectations, the power exercise or the performance verification, being different from the management and leadership processes, the governance is a general concept, being associated with the contemporary social sciences, particularly economics (corporate governance) and social policies (public
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Marius Profiroiu, (1998), Strategic Management of the Local Collectivities, Economics Publishing House, Bucharest 13

governance) with respect to the economic and political behavior of the organizations related to the decisional, executive and judicial process. 4 The governance involves the structure, a response to "who is authorized to decide ... The leadership involves the way in which people work inside and around the formal authority structure in order to get what was decided. Governing and the "intelligent design" involve a kind of supreme, rational reasons, for the way things should be presented, while the "leadership" implies being knowledgeable about how things are, giving up the explanations for personal performance. A major objective of democratic governing is to engage in solving the citizens' interests and to mobilize resources for this purpose. The mobilization will certainly generate conflicts, so, irrespective of the "system", the success or the failure will depend on the way the conflict is resolved. A good system will provide an equitable distribution of the rights and resources. Governing - is a neutral structure and expresses what a government does. But governing is the exercise of the management and political power, while the government is an instrument (usually collectively) for the exercise of a political power. A rational objective of governing could be the provision of the efficient economic goods production. Maybe the moral and ethical objective of governing is to provide a worthy, good model, while avoiding an undesirable, bad pattern. Good governance, following this line of thinking, might consist of a set of relationships linked to the exercise of the coercive power that provides a good model, while avoiding a model with adverse effects, making decisions that define the expectations and using the power that it holds in order to check the performance. The politics provides a significant framework for the governance process operates. Thus, the concept of governing can be applied to the state, corporations, nonprofit organizations, associations, economic agents in general. An alternative definition sees governing as the action of using the institutions, authority structures and even collaboration in order to allocate resources, as well as the action of coordination or control within the society or the economy. 5 According to the United Nations, governing was defined as the set of rules of the political system to understand and explain the conflicts between players and decisions. In addition, the governance term is used to explain the functioning of the institutions, subsequently accepted by the public (legitimacy). The governance concept is also used to invoke the effectiveness of the governing action and the achievement of a consensus through democratic means (participation). Some experts suggest that there should be differentiate between the concepts of governance and politics. The politics imply processes through a group of people with divergent views reaches collective decisions, generally, considered as mandatory for the
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Stoker G., (2006), Local Governance Research: Paradigms, Theories and Implications. Lecture prepared for presentation at Zhejiang University, October 5 Vasudha Chhotray and Gerry Stoker, (2008), Governance Theory, A Cross-Disciplinary Approach, Palgrave Macmillan, December

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group, and applied as common politics. Governance, on the other hand, transmits guidance and administrative elements. Such an argument militates for the traditional separation between "political" and "administration". The specificity of approaching the "good governance" lies in the potentiality of the players interested in negotiating and co-deciding the relevant aspects, but also in monitoring and evaluating the results achieved, being rather related to the conceptual nuances. However, one of the immediate consequences refers to the fact that such vagueness is reflective in the way of interpretation and organizational coordination or institutional development. In other words, the consequences refer to the conceptual and factual optics promoted by the new institutionalism current of thinking. The new institutionalisms aim is to highlight the crucial role of the institutions (of the rules, norms, social practices), of the institutional context in shaping the political behavior and the results of the political action. The new institutionalisms emphasize the role of the political behavior, as well as the way in which the decisions are built in the good governance of the institutions. Furthermore, once established, the institutions deepen into the routine, in the convention and are difficult to reform, to change, to be replaced. Thus, there are periods of stability, regularity in political behavior, in political institutions (which may be followed by phases of intense institutional change) that have a decisive influence on both governing and on the governance of the public and private institutions within an economic system. Gerry Stoker elucidates the persistent confusion in many theoretical and descriptive approaches published during the past decade. Thus, this author proposes a definition of "governance" as opposed to the concept of "governing. Therefore, it is clear that the difference between "governing" and "governance" lies in the modality and the process of governing, whether it is about governing a state entity, or it is about governing a profit or nonprofit organization. In principle, if considering the management of the organizational systems, then the concept of 'governing' has a systemic administration of top to bottom model, while for the term "governance" the nuance is centered on the from the bottom up model. That is why, under this approach, it is used the concept of "directing" which is specific to the unilateral, centralized, rigid and punitive public management. While, for the open, decentralized, participatory, consensual and incentive public management, the term 'governance' is used. Romania goes through periods of economic and social transformations, due to the faulty management of economic resources and social and societal values ever since the early 90s. The current crisis is deemed a systemic crisis. Getting out of this crisis requires a fundamentally profound change, related to mentalities and behaviors, as well as to national and local resource management. Consequently, the difference between governing and governance lies in the manner and process of governing regardless of the fact that it refers to different levels - state or companies (profit organization) or institutions (nonprofit organizations). We stress the fact that in the public policies field, the governance concept involves the existence of a
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participatory and deliberative system of making public policies within which the players interact and influence each other. Good governance represents an ideological instrument of a minimal state politics, a state where the public administration has not only the mission to serve the society as a whole, but also to provide goods and services to consumers-customers, having the risk of worsening the inequality between citizens. Among the major characteristics of the good governance, we highlight6: participation, consensus orientation, accountability, transparency, responsiveness, effectiveness, efficiency, equity and inclusiveness. By the implementation of the good governance practices it is aimed enforceability of the rules of law principles and the provision that a series of acts and deeds will be met: minimizing the corruption, taking into account the views of the minorities, hearing the most vulnerable voices, inclusively, in the decision making process, taking into account the present and future needs of the society. In Romania, the principle of good governance is not met for several reasons: the participation in the governing act is discretionary - even if politicians are elected by vote, the appointment within the public institutions is based on client criteria, irrespective of competence and professionalism; the quantitative assessments and appreciations prevail in the detriment of the qualitative ones; the powers conferred to each participant are chaotic and divergent, either because of the specialization it would be required a strict specialization, consistent with the objectives sought, or because of the overcharge of the position - in this case the efficiency is minimal; there are cases where there are found discrimination attitudes towards citizens, institutions or even regions. Rule of law in Romania is observed on an arbitrary basis. The legal system creates the possibility of interpreting the rules of law based on the interest and the pressures of some groups. The governments use of the emergency ordinances in order to avoid the rule of law directly or indirectly, calling the court for the clarification or indication of some pecuniary or patrimonial rights of the individuals or legal entities, due to the failure to
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Principles for Good Governance and Ethical Practice, A Guide for Charities and Foundations, http://www.nonprofitpanel.org/report/principles/Principles_Guide.pdf

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observe some collective rights on the whole, lead to the failure to comply with the governing, in terms of rule of law. Transparency deals with the way in which the decisions are made, as well as the implementation thereof; follows the rules and regulations in force. It also shows that information is available and accessible to those who will be will be influenced by their own decisions and results of their actions, enough information is accessed, in easily understandable types and in media. In Romania, the transparency issue is somewhat reversed, in the sense that many receivers of information do not have the necessary capabilities to disseminate and understand them, not using the information received in realtime. In addition, a great part of the population has no access to information, whether because of the lack of the sources of transmission, ignorance, indifference or the lack of time to access and use the information. Under these conditions, knowing the information by a part of the population can become a real power that can be seized in the personal interest or in the interest of the community (as an example, information on accessing the European funds is public, however the degree of fructification thereof is very low, namely 14 per cent). Responsiveness of the individuals and institutions in Romania is differentiated, depending on the interest, the importance of those interested, the image benefit or the material benefit brought to those concerned. Consensus orientation requires the mediation of the various interests in the society, in order to obtain a broad consensus in the community on what is in the interest of the entire community, also identifying the ways of achieving the consensus, in time, taking into account what is necessary for the sustainable development. In Romania, in order to achieve good governance, it is necessary to harmonize the principles and group interests of the political class to guide all the factors influencing the economic growth and development towards the future: the responsible allocation of the resources by introducing multi-annual budgets, the control of the public expenditure implementing a function of measuring the effect created at the community or institution level, following the benefits brought to them at the expense of public investment. In addition, by the economic policy measures undertaken by the government, the economic activity can be guided in its entirety. Equity concerns all the groups, but especially for vulnerable ones, with opportunities to increase their well being. In Romania, the equity issue is complex, being influenced by religion, morality, mentality, loyalty towards the community, respect, consideration, wealth, friendship, kinship, privileges. The fact that the number of deprived persons is increasing, the social and economic rehabilitation thereof is not only a problem of the state institutions in charge, it becomes a national priority to identify the causes that converge to poverty, reduction of the living standards, the job loss, the school abandonment, discrimination, and finding solutions by involving the entire society.

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Effectiveness and efficiency show that the economic processes and the institutions have the role to meet the needs of society members, while making the best use of resources at their disposal. The efficiency concept in the terms of governance covers to the sustainable use of the natural environment. The accountability is a key of process of good governance. All the institutions, public or private ones, must be accountable for the benefit of whole society. I think that the biggest problem in Romania with respect to good governance is the accountability. As long as the economic policy decisions will not be accountable, in the sense that the involvement of the resources and the economic wealth in economic acts and deeds do not converge towards prosperity and welfare, under conditions of freedom of action of the economic agents, the consequences in the long run will be adverse with repercussions on the development potential, and, hence, on the social and economic autonomy. 3. Conclusion The specificity and the complexity of the principles of good governance are complex and difficult to achieve without an economic and social consensus of all the institutional players. However, in order to ensure sustainable human development, actions must be taken in line with achieving the current and future goals. 7

This work was supported by the project "Post-Doctoral Studies in Economics: training program for elite researchers - SPODE" co-funded from the European Social Fund through the Development of Human Resources Operational Program 2007-2013, contract no. POSDRU/89/1.5/S/61755".

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SYSTEM INTERACTION OF ASPECTUALITY AND TEMPORALITY IN THE MODERN TURKIC LINGUISTIC

E.N. Gadzhiev 1 ABSTRACT The article is devoted to the systematic study of the major categories of verb aspect and time in the Turkic languages. It presents a comparative analysis of systems of Turkic aspectuality and temporality. In the comparative coverage is considered Aspect classification categories in modern Turkic. Keywords: Turkic Languages, Aspectuality, Temporality, Verbal Category, Type and Time, the Moment of Speech. Introduction The Turkic form of organically intertwined with many grammatical categories of verbs, especially with the category of time, creating within them certain nuances that affect the way the flow of verbal action. The ratio of verbal categories of aspect and tense in the Turkic languages is determined by strict ratio systems of aspectuality and temporality. Traditionally, temporality is "outside" time, and aspectuality - "internal" time of action, where the verb form is a category of grammatical core aspectuality. Both of these categories reflect the ratio of the leakage of his time. Category represents the ratio of the

Doctor of philology, Professor, Department of Romance-Germanic and Oriental Languages , Daghestan

State Pedagogical University, Makhachkala.

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time, at the time of speech, and the category of the form - the way the flow of his time [Bondarko: 1971, 13-20]. These definitions clearly show us the existence of a direct relationship between the categories of time and species. The emergence and development of species-time relationships in any language dependent: "First, the method of implementation of the temporal and aspectual values, and secondly, the characteristics of their interaction" [Koshevaya: 1972]. There are many different views in linguistics on the relationship between category type and time. Some of them are reduced to the interpretation of the forms of the indicative mood, as a predominantly temporary or species. Several hypotheses related to this matter, lead to the fact that the original system aspectuality and temporality developed independently, but their interaction can be traced in the development of languages. Of interest is the hypothesis that "the category of time formed by the interaction of individual elements of the category of temporality and aspectuality" [Bondarko: 1971, 14]. In Turkic, we can observe most contradictory opinions on the question of the primacy and the primacy of a grammatical category of verb. Placing the center of the content aspect and the consideration of time as the background of its implementation are related to the search for new solutions of the relationship between the type and time. They are based on the idea expressed earlier about the origin of the aspectual category of time. V.M. Nasilov in their work correctly notes that "the Turkic languages, like many other languages, has kept a historical data about the origin of the forms of time the species category" [1947, 34-35]. N.A. Baskakov in the Karakalpak language identifies a category of the form and brings it to the category of time. The author writes: "In determining the category of the form as an objective description of the process steps or conditions with respect to time and space, we thus partly brings this category with the category of time, which, however, as the derivative with respect to the species forms of the verb in the present stand out in the Karakalpak language form an independent group, realized in the system of grammatical word-formation "[1952, 352-354]. The assertion that the Turkic languages, the grammatical category of the form does not exist, but at the same time there is an extensive system, with which species are transmitted values, has a long tradition. It points to the fact that temporality is the primary relative to aspectuality and on the basis of its apparent value of the expression of the form. We observe a striking confirmation of this in many Turkic languages [Hajiyev: 2004, 22-29]. E. Koshmider in aspectology concept recognizes the temporary nature of the concept category type. He notes that "the concept of a temporary kind - is the notion of grammatical in nature, relating to different temporal interpretations of the same action ..." [1962, 15-23].
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Regarding the issue B.A. Serebrennikov notes that in the Turkic languages "aspectual values have some form of past time" [1958, 30]. For proponents of this view various forms of past tense should be evaluated primarily on the degree of remoteness of the action denoted by the moment of speech, depending on whether the plane in which they are located: in the plane of the preceding moment of speech (preterite) or in the plane of simultaneity with him (perfect). Interpretation of species forms the indicative mood most fully and consistently reflected in L. Yuhanson, who singled in the Turkish language, several species of values: 1) of the limit fixed by, as it were in the action "inside" (intraterminalitat), Wed: Opposition units -yordu, -maktayd (marked members, the differences between them are mostly stylistic) and -d (unmarked member), 2) the value of actional saturation (pragnanz), Wed: Opposition units -yor, -makta (labeled terms), and -r (unmarked member), and 3) of the limit fixed by "outside" (postterminalitat), as a result of acts committed before, Wed: Opposition and units m, -d [1971, 113-114, 136, 283, see PI . Kuznetsov: 1975, 68-81, 3]. Considering the indicative Turkish E.A. Grunina notes that the "semantic structure forms of basis inclination - a field of close interaction of heterogeneous and not equally clear values: temporal, aspectual and modal [1975, 91-93]. When there are three semantic components in some languages dominate the time value in the other the more reason to consider the primary function of the inclination of the system forms of basis species transmission category, whereas the third time and presented in the form of content forms of basis inclination approximately equal measure. The nature of the relation of the form and time is definitely related to the circumstances and the diachronic order [Shcherbak: 1981, 72-73]. To address the question of the relationship between type and time of a special approach in an attempt to put some turkology overcome the difficulties of semantic skills of verbal forms by providing each of them in a separate class. Using this approach, L.Bazen distinguishes five classes of simple verb forms, not including indirect forms of moods: two perfect (-dy and -thinking), two actional (iyor-and-mekte) and an aorist (-p). He points out that "the first two classes are opposed to the second two on the basis of completeness / incompleteness, while they are opposed to each other on the basis of ascertaining. Aorist forms an opposition to all four classes on the basis of limited/unlimited action" [1966, 282284]. In "Comparative Grammar of the Russian and Azerbaijan languages" [1954, 205-215] that in the Azerbaijani language the verb only in the indicative mood can express the concept of species. Other forms of moods are neutral in the sense of form, that is, they are transferred to and perfect and imperfect verb forms of the Russian language. It also indicated that species values are expressed in, or forms of the verb (yazdi, "wrote" - yazardy "would have
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written"), or a combination of a verb with another word (uchup gitti "flew" okumaya basladi "began to read"). In Turkic are some facts showing that the distance from the current state of knowledge of the verb in the semantic differences between the forms of the Turkic indicative of great importance aspectual side. We see that there are different viewpoints on the issue of relations aspectuality systems and temporality, showing how diverse and complex nature of the interaction of the form and time. According to these views in some Turkic languages, the main category is the category of species, in others - the category of species subject to the category of time, and in the third - both of these categories are developed independently. The complexity of the problem is that the types, expressing different shades in the way of the flow, are closely related, on the one hand, the values of lexical verbs, which contain a description of how the flow of action and, on the other hand, the system of verb tenses. In other words, the category of species in the Turkic language closely related to the category of the verb. The problem of the relation of the form of verbal categories with other morphological and syntactic phenomena in the Turkic languages requires a separate and more detailed study. In our opinion, the problem and the problem of temporality aspectuality should be considered closely as between these two systems are numerous transformations occur in the form of time-specific and vice versa. Only with this approach to the problem can be solved theoretical and practical aspects of the problem of the interaction and the existence of the category type and time. However, it is necessary to take into account actionsart, since the verbal form is a kind of nucleus in this category. You can select form a stable triad of verbal categories in the following scheme: actionsart - kind of - time. Thus, we see that the problem is most urgent in the modern Turkic and its further study is needed to expand and carry out a comparative light on the background material of all the Turkic languages.

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References: 1. Bondarko A. The type and time of the Russian verb. - M., 1971. - 238. 2. Baskakov N.A. Karakalpak language. Phonetics and morphology. Part 1. - M., 1952. 542 p. 3. Gadzhiev E.N. Analytical expression aspectuality Turkic verb constructions (based on the Kumyk and Turkish). - Makhachkala, 2004. 59 p. 4. Grunina E. Indicative in the Turkish language (in a comparative historical interpretation). ADD. - M., 1975. 58 p. 5. Koshevaya I.G. Typological structure of the language. The scope of aspectual and temporal values. - Kiev, 1972. 6. Koschmieder . Turkish verb and Slavic verbal form // Questions the verbal kind. - M., 1962. - P.382-394. 7. Kuznetsov P.I. Aspect and aktsional in the Turkish language (to be released in the monograph L. Johansson) / / Soviet Turkology, 1975. Number 3. - P.68-82. 8. Nasilov V.M. On the grammatical category of aspect in the Turkic languages / / Proceedings of the IVI. - M., 1947. Number 4. - P.32-52. 9. Serebrennikov B.A. The problem of the verbal form in the Turkic languages / / Questions of grammar of the Turkic languages. - Alma-Ata, 1958. - P.12-30. 10. Comparative Grammar of the Russian and Azerbaijani languages. - Baku Univ. ASU them. Kirov, 1954. - 391 p. 11. Shcherbak A.M. Essays on comparative morphology of the Turkic languages. (Verb). Leningrad, 1981. - 181 p.

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24

NEW TRENDS IN EURASIA AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE TURKIC WORLD

Dr. Timur Kozyrev 1

Recently, Turkish people have been introduced to various opinions and ideas on the Eurasian and neo-Eurasian approaches; and at the same time the Republic of Turkey has entered into active economic cooperation with the Russian Federation on an unprecedented scale. The stance of the Turkish people towards these two recent developments is quite contradictory. The Purpose of this paper is to evaluate this contradictory situation from a Central Asian point of view, and to try to analyze it. Since its independence in 1991, Kazakhstan has followed the multi-vector foreign policy strategy. This multi-vector policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan aims to have positive relations with Russia, China and the USA as much as possible; and seeks to find a balance point between their conflicting interests. It is apparent that such a policy is the only possible option for a country located in the central point of Eurasia, and having rich oil and mine resources which attract the attention of the superpowers. On the other hand, it should be noted that such a policy is essentially inconsistent because of the instability of the current geopolitical situation in the globalizing world; and it is clear that in principle, such a policy is not a long-term strategy. In the first days of Kazakhstans Independence, the Russian Federation was dramatically weakened; while the USA was at the peak of its power. Besides, China could not exhibit such an outstanding development at that time as she can today; and it was never regarded as a main strategic partner by the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Kazakh people. Relations with China are still not regarded as having such a nature. On the contrary, the
Kazakhstan Strategic Research Institute affiliated to the Presidency of Kazakhstan, Almat, KAZAKHSTAN
1

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existence of China in Central Asia has always been deemed as a potential threat towards the independence of our country. Thus, the Kazakh people pinned their hopes on the West the USA and the EU up until a short while ago. Relations of Kazakh society with Russia were also contradictory. On the one hand, Kazakhstan wanted to walk away from Russia as a big brother; on the other hand, there was a decisive approach to maintain a partnership with Russia against China to a certain extent; and this approach is still continuing2. Lastly, as for Turkey, it is possible to say that the perception of Turkey in Kazakh society was varying. Kazakh people had a great interest in Turkey as a sister country but also a considerable fear of a new big brother. On the other hand, in spite of protests by Russia, NATO membership of Turkey and her strategic partnership with the USA were important factors which increased the attraction of Turkey for the Kazakh people both as a sister country and also as a bridge to the Western World. By the end of the 2000s, the above-mentioned situation had changed dramatically: The Influence of Russia, under the leadership of V. Putin and D. Medvedev, on the post-Soviet region has been increasing; China has also increased its influence on the Central Asian region and has exhibited development on an unprecedented scale; Post-Soviet countries have considerably lost their trust in the Western countries regarding both their political structures and their core values3.

Under these new circumstances, the recent Kazakh agenda has been dominated by discussions about the collapse of the multi-vector foreign policy strategy followed by Kazakhstan so far; and it is even claimed that this strategy has come to an end4. In this regard, it becomes practically inevitable for Kazakhstan to follow a Russian-based policy instead of a multi-vector policy from now on. It should also be noted that there are also some more driving factors, such as economic connections between Kazakhstan and Russia, as well as the cultural unity between the two countries, which was established during the period of Soviet rule (regardless of its artificial nature). For example, today, Kazakh people often speak Russian language in their daily life and working places. They are reading

According to a Kazakh idiom, Qara Qtay kelgende sar Ors ke kriner - When a dark-skinned Chinese comes, a blonde Russian seems like your own father. 3 Besides all of these reasons, the apparent weakness or reluctance of the Western countries to provide real support to their partners in the post-Soviet region during and immediately after the conflict between Georgia and Russia in August 2008 was an important factor for post-Soviet countries. This was the biggest strategic triumph of Russia at that time. 4 It would not be an exaggeration to say that there is a common climate within the Kazakh(stan) community, claiming that We experienced an independence adventure; and now were going back to Russia; th e Soviet Union is being founded again. 26
2

books in Russian and watching Russian movies, etc.5. Finally, it should be added that the longest land border in the world is the Kazakhstan-Russian border of 5,866 km6. Despite all this, new trends in Eurasia and economic cooperation between Turkey and Russia, which is rapidly increasing and approaching a level of strategic partnership, provides new opportunities to the Central Asian countries, particularly to Kazakhstan, to strengthen their positions in the international arena and to maintain their independence. Above all, the fact that Turkey has adopted a new image as a Eurasian power with its own independent policies instead of her previous image as a NATO member, as well as its rapprochement with Russia, has relieved Kazakhstan (and other Central Asian states) of the necessity to make a choice between these two countries. These two vectors of our foreign policy are not contrary to each other anymore, instead they have become two parallel development vectors making up for each others deficiencies and acting in coherence. In accordance with that situation, a new, so-called, pragmatic Turkism and neoEurasian7 approach or discourse has arisen on the Turkish agenda. This new approach proposes a project for long-term cooperation between Russia and the united Turkic world including Turkey (unlike in classical Eurasianism) based on the concepts of Turk-Slav synthesis and Turk-Slav cooperation which are the basic principles of classical Eurasianism8. Such a neo-Turkism is not an anti-Russian and Western-oriented Turkism approach. On the contrary, it is a Eurasian approach, in other words, a Turkism approach for cooperation in the whole Eurasia macro-region9. For instance, Mr. Namk Kemal Zeybek expressed such opinions during his Presidency of the Board of Trustees of Ahmet Yesevi University in Kazakhstan. There are some more factors above all, which make such a neo-Eurasian project possible in the current historical period and even create a real need for this:

If you directly ask a Kazakh person on the street Is Turkey or Russia closer to you?, the reply will probably be Russia. In other words, factors affecting their daily life are more predominant compared to cultural and historical connections. 6 In other words, the current male population of Kazakhstan may not be sufficient to maintain the border with Russia under normal condition. 7 This neo-Eurasian approach should not be regarded as an approach followed by some Turkish people who seriously believe in the advice of fiction authors like A. Dugin and thereby accept a Russian-based Eurasianism. 8 Within the framework of such a project, autonomous Turkic republics affiliated to the Russian Federation (e.g. Tatarstan) will start acting as a bridge between the Turkic World and Russia, instead of being a potential subject of irredentist claims (which may frighten Russia more). The current developments in Turkey-Russia relations are probably the last opportunity for those autonomous communities to protect their identities. 9 Here, Eurasia macro-region refers to the geographical region (+Turkey) described as Eurasia in the classical Eurasia theory. 27

The ever-increasing uncertainty about the EU membership perspectives of Turkey The new position of Kazakhstan as a regional leader in Central Asia and, as a result, a view of Turkey which has lost the fear of a new brother; i.e. a new conceptualization of Kazakhstan as a subject of politics which can be compared to Turkey (not equally but potentially), The commercial expansion of China in the Eurasian market10.

Therefore we should evaluate the recent expansions in Turkey-Russia relations as a positive development to be supported by any means. In this regard, it is possible for Kazakhstan, which has close relations with both Turkey and Russia in several fields and continues expanding her cooperation with these two countries, to act as a mediator between the two countries in certain situations; to act as a power which both balances and promotes coherence; and finally to strengthen her position to a considerable extent. Furthermore, we are of the opinion that Kazakhstan should be active before Turkey in expanding cooperation among Turkic countries because no matter how willing Turkey is to expand such cooperation, her over-activity for such a purpose will risk her recent partnership with Russia. Stating that Kazakhstan should be active, we should add that there will be a steady or Eurasian multi-vector strategy which can be a long-term and reliable basis for our national independence especially when compared to our previous foreign policy11, provided that Kazakhstan continues actively expanding her cooperation with India, Iran, Turkey, recently Ukraine i.e. partner countries of Russia, which is objectively our main partner on a larger scale, throughout the large continent in the fields of economy, science, etc. At the centre of such a circle of partner countries -including China, which is not out of this continental partnership in spite of following its own interests- Kazakhstan will use every opportunity to express and develop her image as the heart of the continent with real policies. Thereby she can strengthen her position in the international arena by being an enemy neither for Russia nor for China. It should also be noted that in spite of the great potential of Turkey, it is very difficult for her to achieve the Turkic World Integration on her own. In order to enable the Turkic World to establish a sound structure, one more leader country is necessary to make the Central Asian region structured in line with
10

It is necessary to touch upon this issue in more detail. The rapid economic development of China in recent years has brought its neighbours face to face with a new strategy of Chinese expansionism. This is not a demographic or military expansionism anymore; instead it is a commercial expansionism. The common belief (see above) among the Kazakh public If we experience a conflict with China, Russia will side with us refers to the possibility of an armed conflict. On the other hand, it is now clear that missiles and nuclear weapons will not work to stop the current commercial expansion of China. China is a potential threat even for Russia in the long-term. However, the only weapons to save both us and Russia are i) a sound economy and ii) regional and macro-regional cooperation. 11 See paragraph 2. 28

integration. In this respect, both Turkey and the Turkic World deeply need a fully independent and powerful Kazakhstan in the region. To conclude my remarks about this issue, I would like to state that it will be a reality to achieve the purpose of a powerful Turkic World united within the framework of a comprehensive strategy as described above and also around the macro-regional Eurasian Cooperation Project launched (or, more precisely, to possibly be launched in the future) by Turkey and Russia.

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THE IMPROVEMENT OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PROTECTION SYSTEM IN CENTRAL ASIAN COUNTRIES AS A NECESSARY CONDITION FOR COMMERCIALIZATION OF TECHNOLOGIES
Saule Bishimbayeva 1 , 2 The bulk of Central Asian states are on the new stage of its development the stage of competitive economy formation, its modernization and certification. The most important priority becomes the transfer to the new way of innovative development, knowledge economy. Obviously, for this purpose realization the conformity of contemporary improved practice of intellectual property protection is necessary as well as an understanding of basic tendencies of its development in the world practice. With the collapse of USSR and gaining the independence of Central Asian countries at the beginning of 1990 the independent national intellectual property systems have been established. It is not a secret that during the existence of Soviet Union in legislative system of Central Asian states the fairness legal security of intellectual property was absent, because an exceptional rights for the results of intellectual activities belonged to the state. In December 1998, Kyrgyzstan was the first post-soviet country that entered WTO. Kazakhstan (since January 1996), Tajikistan (since May 2001), Uzbekistan (since December 1994) have the observer status in the WTO and are at the negotiation stage to the WTO accession. Turkmenistan is the only state that has no official relations with WTO. Kyrgyzstan had extraordinary short period of accession into WTO two years. Other central Asian countries adhere more cautious position regarding the accession to WTO and are in a stage of long negotiations. Thus, negotiation process in Uzbekistan lasts 14 years, in Kazakhstan 12 years, in Tajikistan 7 years. Discussions regarding the necessity and expediency of such step are still ongoing.

PhD in economics. National innovation fund. The article is dedicated to legislation of intellectual property and its improvement in the countries of Central Asia, as an essential condition for innovations commercialization and integration into global technological community. 31
1 2

Kazakhstan interrupted the negotiations on the entrance to WTO, according to decision of Russia, Kazakhstan, and Belarus to enter to the WTO as a part of Customs Union. This decision was made by the results of meeting of heads of governments for these countries. As a result the negotiator from the name of three countries will be the unified Customs Union, which plans to create the common position for the World trade organization entrance. According to this the common pool for negotiations with WTO will be established for representation of interests of Russia, Kazakhstan, and Belarus. As a rule, for big countries with more complex economic structure it requires more time for negotiations on the discussion of conditions for the access to the goods and services. Besides, the introduction or accession period depends on the requirements that established by countries members of WTO towards the country-candidate and on the extent to which country- candidate defends more favorable conditions and protects own national interests. For example, the requirements for Kyrgyzstan where not very complicated because it has a small economy size and economy oriented on the export of raw-materials. On the other hand, in Kyrgyzstan, because of the economic recession, there were no sufficient forces lobbying protection of the internal market. Main problems with WTO accession of central Asian countries are requirements of WTO member countries regarding agriculture, requirements on the number of financial issues (bank and insurance activities), determination of countrys status (country with market economy or in transition) and so called WTO + problems, that include additional requirements. The problems of intellectual property protection are widely discussed, and fast solutions to these problems to the entering countries are limited due to the number of reasons. Many points are an issue because of the weak technical regulation reform and standardization. For many countries it is very important to receive status that is, on their point of view, more vividly reflects the level of their economic development. Thus, for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia, it is crucial to be at the status of a country with developed market economy 3. The status of a country with market economy has both pluses and minuses. Theoretically, the country with market economy is capable to defend rights on some issues more successfully, but requirements to such country as to WTO member are more strictly. Tajikistan for example believes that developing or less developed country status is more applicable to them, and that this status will allow having more favorable conditions for WTO membership.

World Bank list of economics, July 2008.

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Intellectual Property Rights (TRIP Agreement) The necessity of an effective protection of rights and legitimate interests of authors and intellectual property rights owners in central-Asian region can be explained with the following objective reasons: economies of these countries are at the transition stage towards market relations, the capital of intellectual property founders is limited, the infrastructure in the field is poorly developed, and, finally, there is no tradition or legal culture in the field. For this reason, in central Asian region the process of improvement of all international agreements, harmonization of national legislation and legal practices in the field of intellectual property protection is ongoing. All central Asian countries have problems related to the illegal use of intellectual property objects, counteraction to piracy and distribution of counterfeit production. With this regards in 2008, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan were listed by USA to the list of countries that dont provide intellectual property protection. Intellectual Property Protection System in Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan has already 10 years of experience as a WTO member. The procedure of Kyrgyzstans WTO accession lasted two and a half year and was one of the fastest in the organization history, while in average this procedure takes around 4-6 years in average. There were 150 legislative acts on foreign trade regulation that were accepted in a short run to be in accordance with WTO requirements. Kyrgyzstan government was eager to the fastest WTO accession. Consequently, negotiations were uncomplicated and characterized by considerable concessions from Kyrgyz side. Tariff positions on all goods and services where connected, which is not an indispensible condition. Unlimited access to almost all services was allowed to nonresidents: bank services, air transportation inside the country, electric supply and lawyer and patent services. As a result of the accession to WTO, the uncontrollable stream of comparatively inexpensive foreign goods has displaced many domestic products of agriculture, food and light industry from the internal market. Kyrgyz businesses have become noncompetitive, and especially agricultural sector have become very weak and vulnerable. An intensive flow of foreign dealers and businesses has created economic difficulties, people in remote areas started suffering from hunger. These conditions made Kyrgyz government to put WTO unprecedented requirement to reconsider joining conditions. To avoid the grandiose international scandal, developed countries started allocating inconsiderable financial help. However, any help, even sincere, is different from development and is only temporary. Gradually, developed countries have forgotten the reasons that caused the crisis and reduced the scale of help to Kyrgyzstan. The influence of WTO accession on Kyrgyzstan economy is hard to evaluate. There was a good opportunities at the opened world market for Kyrgyz goods. The advantage of WTO accession was mainly in the course of the country that was undertaken towards competitive
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market economy development. However, the country had no visible, direct and immediate benefits. Basically, because of the aspiration to the fast accession and a big number of concessions, Kyrgyzstan refused to protect such important sectors as agriculture, processing industry, financial sector and telecommunications. Kyrgyzstan was one of the first post-soviet countries that signed TRIP Agreement. It is important to notice that the country has achieved considerable advancement and progress in the patent system development and intellectual property protection. The intellectual property protection system in Kyrgyzstan has passed a number of institutional transformations. Since 1996, Kyrgyz patent became a special state body that is responsible for the formation of intellectual property protection policies. It is also responsible for creation of legal protection of intellectual property rights and for granting rights on the objects of intellectual property. Issues related to intellectual property rights infringement are carried out to the competence of other state structures (law-enforcement, customs and judicial). Special role in intellectual property development in Kirgizia is given to international cooperation. Currently, Kyrgyz Republic has become a member of number of international organizations: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), The International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV), Eurasian Patent Organization (EAPO), and Interstate Council for the Protection of Industrial Property. Today, Kyrgyz Republic is the participant of 22 multilateral contracts on intellectual property field - Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, Madrid Agreement for the Registration of Marks, the Patent Cooperation Treaty, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights under the laws of the Singapore Treaty on Trademarks and others. Currently, legislative basis for intellectual property protection is well developed. At the moment of the legislative base accept it was in a strict accordance with requirements. However, from the moment of accept, it was found that reality is different from what is expected. That is why it is very important to learn from international experience in this field. International cooperation, in turn, helps in constant corrections in the sphere of legal regulation. Intellectual Property Protection System in Uzbekistan Uzbekistan joined the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in 1991. Uzbekistan has noticeably become active on international arena in the area of intellectual property rights; in particular, it has acceded to several agreements and conventions of VOIS: to Convention on protection of new kinds of plants; to Berne convention on protection of literature and arts; to Locarno agreement on establishment of International classification of industrial samples; to Agreement on patent rights (PLT); to Protocol to Madrid agreement on international registration of signs.
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In the area of intellectual property rights of the national legislation of Uzbekistan, there have been passed the following laws: On topology of integrated/integral microcircuits; On copyrights and neighboring rights; On trademarks, service marks and names of goods origination places; Law on inventions, useful models and industrial samples; On firm-names. As mentioned before, Uzbekistan was listed in Control list of USA in 2008. Meanwhile, The United States is still concerned with insufficient progress in issues of intellectual property rights in Uzbekistan. Although Uzbekistan passed the specified law on copyrights in 2006, and recently has started closing down firms selling pirated products, there still remain numerous shortcomings in the area of intellectual property rights. Uzbekistan acceded to Berne convention, but the United States mention their concerns about remaining in force Uzbekistans reservation related to article 18 of the convention, which obligates its member countries to provide protection of copyrights on previously existing products. Uzbekistan does not provide protection of sound recording and previously existing products, it has not acceded to Genve convention on phonograms and Agreements of VOIS on internet. Moreover, observance of intellectual property rights remain weak in Uzbekistan due to absence of official powers which would enable customs officers to seize goods violating these rights, absence of civil procedures for conducting searches in unilateral order and insufficient criminal sanctions for violating intellectual property rights. The United States calls Uzbekistan for removal of these inefficiencies in the area of intellectual property rights in its legal regime and for taking immediate and effective measures on improvement of observance of intellectual property rights. The United States will continue working with Uzbekistan over unsolved issues on intellectual property rights by means of negotiations, related to application of Uzbekistan for joining WTO, and by going on consideration of Uzbekistans status as a country receiving preferences under American program Generalized preference system.

Intellectual Property Protection System in Tajikistan In 1994, Republic of Tajikistan entered World Intellectual Property Organization and acceded to important international agreements in the area of industrial property protection. Thus, currently Republic of Tajikistan is acceded to Eurasian patent convention; to Berne convention on protection of literature and art; to Budapest agreement on international recognition of deposit of microorganisms for purposes of patent procedures; to Paris convention on protection of industrial property; to Agreement on patent cooperation. Protection of public interests in the area of intellectual property in Tajikistan is entrusted to National patent-informational center of the Republic of Tajikistan. Legislative base of intellectual property of the Republic of Tajikistan is represented by Law On licensing of certain kinds of activities, Law On trademarks and service marks, Law On inventions, Law On industrial samples, Law On copyrights and neighboring
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rights, Law On selection achievements of crops. In 2008, Tajikistan also remained in Control list of USA. Tajikistan attained progress by passing the law on intellectual property rights in the previous year. However, The United States is still concerned with the fact that Tajikistan has not yet fulfilled its obligations in the area of intellectual property rights under bilateral agreement between USA and Tajikistan, and calls Tajikistan for taking necessary measures for full fulfillment of TRIPS agreement within the ceaseless efforts on joining WTO. In addition, there remains liberal law-enforcement regime in Tajikistan which does not imply application of criminal sanctions for violating intellectual property rights. Legislation of Tajikistan does not provide official powers for initiating criminal proceedings, civil procedures for conducting searches in unilateral order which are so necessary for efficient control of pirates at user level, and other important lawenforcement measures. According to customs law of Tajikistan, customs officers are not authorized to seize at the borders goods presumably violating copyrights. There is also necessity for judicial reforms for instance, amendments to laws of Tajikistan on copyrights which do not provide protection of sound recording or previously existing records/products. The United States also calls Tajikistan for acceding to VOIS Treaties on internet and for fulfilling them. The United States will continue working with Tajikistan on framework agreement on trade and investments and on the line with going on negotiations for joining WTO, in order to remove deficiencies in its laws on intellectual property rights and to enhance protection and provision of these rights. Intellectual Property Protection System in Turkmenistan The Patent Service of Turkmenistan was established in 1993. At present the Patent Service is in the structure of the new Ministry of Economics and Development of Turkmenistan. Since independence Turkmenistan established international partnership in protection of industrial property rights: in 1995 became a member of the World Organization of Intellectual Property (WIPO), joined Paris Convention on Industrial Property Protection, Patent Cooperation Agreement and Eurasian Patent Convention. Besides in 1999 Turkmenistan joined Madrid Agreement on International Trademark Registration. In 2006 Turkmenistan joined four international agreements which regulate classification of industrial property objects: Strasbourg Agreement on International Patent Classification, Locarno Agreement on International Classification of Industrial Samples, Nice Agreement on International Classification of Goods and Services for Trademark Registration, Viennese Agreement on International Trademark Classification of Graphic Elements. Legislative base for protection of intellectual property in Turkmenistan is presented by the Patent Law of Turkmenistan, the Civil Code of Turkmenistan by Saparmurat Turkmenbashi, the Law of Turkmenistan on Protection of algorithms, programs for computers, databases and topology of integrated microcircuits", Law on Commercial confidentiality and Scientific intellectual property". However, legislation on protection of intellectual property needs further improvements. At present time Patent Department of the Ministry of Economics and Finance is working on the projects of the Law on protection of invention rights, useful models and industrial samples, the Law on trade and service marks. These two laws are called to replace the current Patent Law of
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Turkmenistan. Since 1999 Turkmenistan joined a number of international conventions and agreements, current Patent Law doesnt reflect those changes. Also the law comprises too diverse range of industrial property objects, for example, inventions and industrial samples protected by patents, trade and service marks protected by registration certificates. Therefore, taking into account international experience in protection of different industrial property objects it should be regulated by separate laws. Each of the specified laws will have new sections concerning the use of industrial property objects and customs control. The Government is also intending to adopt the Law on Unfair Competition. Development of such law is necessary measure to strengthen protection of industrial property rights and will provide conformity with item 10 of Paris Convention, legal bases of protection against an unfair competition. Such law is accepted by many countries of the world and is the effective tool in fighting against illegal trading practice. Adopting it Turkmenistan will comply with its international obligations, will ensure protection of industrial property rights and promote realization of fair trade. In addition to that, a number of legal acts concerning intellectual property protection need amendments. Among them is the Law on Commercial Confidentiality which requires adding a new section to regu late protection of rights and transfer of know-how; Customs code of Turkmenistan which requires adding a section on procedure of revealing and responsibility measures for intellectual property rights infringement on border. Amendment of Customs code and corresponding rules will provide effective operation of registration mechanism of intellectual property objects patented and registered in Turkmenistan, hence will protect property right owners from counterfeit infringement of the third parties on border. Such practice is accepted by majority countries of in the world. It promotes fair trade and ensures compliance with international obligations. Furthermore, it provides significant inflow of foreign currency to the country by means of payment of duties upon registration of industrial property objects and provision of customs control of passage of goods through border. At present, the most problematic is development and implementation of the Law on protection of domain names because there are no precise international rules regulating the Internet. Registration of domain names at a national level is provided be "Turkmen Telekom" under the Ministry of Communications. However, the right of registration is given only to businessmen and legal bodies of Turkmenistan. For foreigners this right is given on condition that they have industrial or the trade mission in the territory of Turkmenistan. The order of registration of domain names of foreigners who dont have representations in territory Turkmenistan is not sorted out yet. It is necessary to study international experience and develop a law that covers all issues mentioned above, as well as methods of conflict regulation between domains name owners and owners of trademarks. Turkmenistan also needs Law on Selection Achievements" to regulate property and personal non-property relations in use of the new patented breeds of plants. There are more than 300.000 types of plants in Turkmenistan; many of them have valuable economic attributes, including medicinal features. Hence the problem is of regulation is quite
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important. Turkmenistan in 2008 was in the Control list. The United States are still worried about absence of progress in intellectual property rights protection in Turkmenistan and its failing to meet obligations under the trade agreement between the USA and Turkmenistan. For example, Turkmenistan has not joined and does not comply with Bern Convention on Protection of Art Works and Literature (the Bern convention), the Geneva Convention on Protection of Soundtrack Manufactures from unauthorized duplicating their soundtracks (the Geneva Convention on Soundtracks) and Contracts of World Organization of Intellectual Property about the Internet. There are no laws on copyrights, precise criminal procedures or sanctions for infringement of intellectual property rights in Turkmenistan. However, availability of those conditions was stipulated by trade agreement between the USA and Turkmenistan. Customs code doesnt have instructions about official rights to withdraw the materials which infringe copyrights on border; also there are no civil procedures on carrying out rummage unilaterally. The United States call Turkmenistan to carry out legal reforms which will help Turkmenistan to comply with obligations under the bilateral trade agreement between the USA and Turkmenistan, and to undertake lawenforcement actions which will strengthen intellectual property rights protection in the country. Intellectual Property Protection System in Kazakhstan Entrance of Kazakhstan to the world market space (first of all, forthcoming membership in WTO) as well as successful industrial and innovative development of the country requires upgrading of the national legislation on intellectual property. Intellectual breakthrough is a good challenge to Kazakhstan since the country has all necessary prerequisites: well skilled staff and financial opportunities. For this reason Kazakhstan allocates significant resources to the space program, development of oil chemistry, the nuclear physics, etc. The prospect of joining the WTO gives an opportunity to use worlds achievements in high technologies, and at the same to export own scientific and hi-tech production to external markets. For this purpose the intellectual property should be protected at a level corresponding to international requirements. There is a two-level system of industrial property protection in Kazakhstan. The first level is presented by Intellectual Property rights Committee belonging to the Ministry of Justice, which is responsible for state regulation and registration of intellectual property rights. The Second level is presented by the "National Institute of Intellectual Property under the Ministries of Justice, the organization which provides expertise (expert services) in industrial property protection. Since 1993 the Republic Kazakhstan is a member of the World Organization of Intellectual Property. The country signed a number of international conventions: the Paris Convention of Industrial Property Protection; Patent Cooperation Agreement; the Eurasian Patent Convention, etc. Also Kazakhstan is a participant of the Madrid Agreement on the International Trademark Registration. This membership gives countries an opportunity to register their trademark after submission of application to the International Bureau of World Organization of Intellectual Property in Geneva. In conformity with Clause 43 of the Agreement on Partnership and Cooperation, Kazakhstan took liability to gradually achieve high EU standards in intellectual property protection.
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At the moment Kazakhstan ratified almost all multilateral agreements on intellectual property protection. With the aim of joining WTO Kazakhstan is planning to become a member of the International Union on Protection of New Breeds of Plants (UPOV). This will enable to export the work of domestic selectors to the international market. At the same time the country is intending to join to the Madrid Agreement on International Trademark Registration (Madrid, 1989) which should simplify procedure of registration of national trademarks outside the country. The membership will help to strengthen countrys positions in joining WTO. The main objective of Kazakhstan in intellectual property right protection is implementation of the international law and realization of the international obligations at an interstate level. International legal provisions are being transformed to national laws. National Patent system is presented by following legislation: Kazakhstan is among the first CIS countries that adopted the Patent Law in June 1992, the Law on Trademarks, Service marks, Goods and Places of Their Origin", "Law on Copyright and Adjacent Rights", "Law on Selection Achievements Protection", "Law on Protection of Integrated Microcircuit Topology". In the Civil Code of Republic Kazakhstan has one chapter is devoted to intellectual property. Protection of intellectual property is also presented in chapter in the Customs Code of Republic Kazakhstan. In order to increase of innovative activity of the enterprises in 2006 the government adopted the Law on State Support of Innovative Activity ". Government made amendments to 11 legislative acts (6 codes and 5 special laws, concerning questions of intellectual property), including in the Criminal Code and Administrative Code. The given amendments will toughen the sanctions of corresponding clauses, giving more concrete instructions on infringements. In order to diversify of branches of economy from exporting raw materials several years ago government accepted The Strategy of Industrial and Innovative Development 20032015. Realization of the Strategy requires carrying out intensive scientific and innovative policy which will stimulate development of science and innovative activity in the country, complying with the world standards in all branches of economy and management. In these conditions the special attention should be given to consecutive development of the national patent system, which is the important strategic resource for economic and social security of the state, and the factor of development of intellectual potential of the country. The work is based on strong foundation represented by the Patent Fund, the biggest structure in the Central Asia which is functioning for more than forty years. Resources of Fund are bases to activate the works on intellectual property protection in Kazakhstan. It is necessary to note, that according to the level of activity of patenting the inventions Kazakhstan takes leading position among the Central Asia countries. However, the level of foreign patenting makes less than 1 % out of total submitted applications to national patent agency. Such situation causes significant danger to export of domestic scientific production and high technologies. It is necessary to take complex measures on stimulation and provision of intellectual property protection of domestic products on foreign and world markets, including the use of resources from state budget. With that purpose the government is developing the Project of Patent Strategy which will show the basic directions of development of patent and license system of Kazakhstan. Meantime, it is planned to make essential changes of the process of patenting, so that it will meet the
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requirements of economic development Kazakhstan is striving to achieve. Importance of the strategy become obvious, Kazakhstan needs the program and new methods of protection, management and introduction of objects of intellectual property. Recently, in 2007 the government adopted a new Law on modification and amendments of some legal acts of Republic Kazakhstan concerning intellectual property" according to which, previous tentative patent was replaced by innovative patent. Delivery of tentative patent required not only formal examination, but also examination of its local novelty. The innovative patent gives an opportunity to receive quick protection (within one year), including local novelty and industrial applicability, that essentially raises reliability of the protection document and reduces risks. Thus, replacement of tentative patent by innovative is strengthening verifying elements. More strict expert examination of inventions enables the owner of the security document to protect his technical blueprints, to license technologies and to accelerate application of innovation in the industry. One of essential achievements of the law is modification of the innovative patents validity period. If validity of the tentative patent extended for 5 years, with possible prolongation for three years, the innovative patent will operate three years, with possible prolongation, by patent body, not exceeding two years. Thus, validity of innovative patent will not exceed five years, and will enable its transformation to patent at any stage of work. The given innovation makes our standards closer to European standards of patenting. Recent years, significant work has been done to improve legislation on intellectual property right. As a result, the amounts of legal acts in the court have grown, and the amounts of infringements have been noticeably reduced. According to international organization DC Kazakhstan has been removed from the list of 20 countries with the highest level of a piracy, achieving the worlds record of reducing piracy level to 4 % in comparison with the previous year. Nevertheless, presence of counterfeit production in domestic market is still high, that is because intellectual property rights protection is carried out inside of the country, less attention is given to borders. Mainly counterfeits are audiovisual and alcoholic production, clothes, cosmetics, the software and other kinds of production. Taking into account geographical position of Kazakhstan, location between such large suppliers as China and Russia, the import of production becomes more preferable than domestic manufacturing. In other countries of the world this problem is solved by giving initiative on intellectual property rights protection to customs bodies, delegating them additional power. For example, in European Union countries and the USA customs bodies can operate independently. At present, due to forthcoming membership of Kazakhstan in WTO, some amendments of Customs Code are under consideration. Changes in customs legislation of Kazakhstan are done in conformity with requirements of WTO member countries, taking into consideration practice of defining customs cost, enlarging list of people eligible to declare goods and vehicles going through customs border of Kazakhstan. The requirements also concern implementation of "ex officio" method in customs administration. At present a new legislation on copyright protection, use of Internet, transferring to the market the objects of intellectual property financed by state budget (currently, the objects
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of intellectual property production of which is financed by state budget are not well demanded, the changes in Budget Code will assure return of investment and making profit by government itself) are developed and being discussed with governments stakeholder agencies. It is expected that Patent Law, Law on Copyright and Adjacent Rights, and Budget Code will also be amended. Rapid development of innovative processes requires special knowledge from stakeholders and government bodies; therefore, it is important task of new bodies to train specialists in intellectual property right protection. Modernization of intellectual property system and implementation of Patent development programme requires further improvement of current legislation. The advantage of Kazakhstan in international arena is the agreement with European Patent Organization about purchasing of databases and establishing of the Regional Patent and Research Center in Kazakhstan, agreement on collaboration with USA Patent Agency. Besides, Kazakhstan is a member of Budget Committee World Organization of Intellectual Property; it gives an opportunity to establish partnership with international organizations. Furthermore, Kazakhstan has agreements on collaboration with World Academy of Intellectual Property (USA), European Organization of Intellectual Property. These agreements are regarding teaching personnel and methodical base to train domestic specialists. By the all discussed above we can conclude that: 1. The legislation on intellectual property right protection in the Central Asian countries is quite good, but its effect on increase of innovative activity is still not essential. Both the industry and the science are gradually adapting to the requirements of market mechanism, which determines creation and distribution of new knowledge and technologies. However, they are far from becoming the key parts of the national innovative system corresponding to the aim of long-term development. They are characterized by structural disproportions, isolation, and low innovative activity. One of the main reasons is absence of institutional bases for motivations of economic agents to innovations. In research field lack of motivation to make applied work focused on creation of innovative potential for the industry. Therefore, its very important to create institutional conditions to increase innovative activity. The reasons of innovative backwardness of the Central Asian countries are the following: a. Low level of research intensity of innovations, the main reason is low involvement of science in enterprise sector. Purchase of none progressive technologies. The enterprises solve their current problems by replacing of the worn out technologies, instead of transition to new, higher technological level of production. Purchase of none materialized technology, such as patents rights, licenses for use of inventions, the industrial samples, useful models is not well developed yet.
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b.

c.

Having small level of innovative activity the enterprises of the Central Asian countries mainly acts as passive participants. They join the innovative process at final stage, which in fact, can not increase of competitiveness of their production. Central Asian countries should improve their national legislations using uniform systematic approach to the development of innovative policy. 2. Current legislation and social system do not stimulate, but even prevent the development of innovative entrepreneurship among scientists and in research organizations. 70 per cent of all scientists in Kazakhstan work in universities. Unfortunately, scientists of the region do not have enough experience of finalizing the inventions up to a level of market goods. There is lack of qualified experts in commercialization of intellectual property. It is necessary to create mechanisms of stimulation which will improve participation of scientists in commercialization of their developments. 3. At the current stage of development of the Central Asian countries it is more referable to purchase of a greater part of necessary technologies, both in the country and outside, in the form of the licensed technologies or patents. In a foreign practice often government bodies decide on rationality of agreements on commercial exchange of technologies and conditions meeting economic interests of the country. The important role in the world license trade belongs to the export control of technology transfer. 4. It is necessary to note, that in the countries of the Central Asia have no effective strategy for development of the national market of technologies. Also they lack the strategy of patent protection in the international market of technologies, and dont have effective mechanisms to involve the objects of intellectual property into economic circulation. The technological policy of the developed countries is to focus on active export and, at the same time, on import of new technologies. They have high share of royalty and license fees in the balance of technological services. Central Asian countries lack the strategy of attracting initial sources of innovations and technologies. It leads to import of more mature technologies, sometimes becoming outdated. They do not focus on active transfer of advanced foreign technologies that is confirmed by low share of royalty and license fees in structure of technological services and in gross national product. In order to achieve the maximal positive effect, alongside with commercialization of own scientific and technical production, it is necessary to use widely the transfer of advanced foreign technologies. In order to have beneficial long-term achievements, imported technologies should be improved, so that it will enable them to enter foreign markets as the exporter of technological product. Move from simple to complex can be successful. Gradual accumulation of knowledge, experience and the capital will help to enter the markets of complex technology production. The world practice shows that transfer of technologies from abroad is the fastest and effective method of creation of hi-tech, competitive industries. The approach of dissemination of imported modern technologies alongside with modernization of technical base leads to development of innovative activity, gives a push to independent expansion of scientific and technical programs. As a result, the countries
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become more independent in technological development. It is reflected in character of economic development, structure of a national production and structure of export. 5. Improvement of commercialization of intellectual property will have an impact on economic development. It is necessary to regulate evaluation of non-material assets and commercialization of objects of intellectual property, by putting them to the equal position with objects of a property right, and using non-material actives in legal and economic relations. At a present a good mechanism of using intellectual property with commercial purposes is required. Finally it will be beneficial not only to the enterprises, but also to the state. Being financed by the state of research and development has accumulated valuable scientific works which should be commercialized in the market. 6. Taking into account increasing amount of investments Central Asian that come from industrially developed countries - members of the European Union and the USA, it becomes very important for the countries to improve their national legislations in intellectual property protection and its conformity with norms of international law. Protection of intellectual property is an issue of national security because it became a matter of survival of the states in the world, and building the civil society, fundamentals of which is respect for property, intelligence and the individuals. It is a good basis for perspective development of Central Asian countries, a tool for prosperity regardless availability or lack of natural resources. Competitiveness of our state is based on it.

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ABOUT THE MODULAR APPROACH TO THE ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX TECHNICAL SYSTEMS BEHAVIOR
K. D. Kurbanmagomedov
1

Using of modern program means with the big memory and high efficiency allows manipulating with complex models and algorithms. They can be used and focused on decision of tasks with the big number of parameters as well as on design stage and on the stage of operation. It can be concerned as to social and economic objects, so to technical objects. Besides, actual are both tasks of condition object analysis and maximal information measurement. The given procedure cannot be done without management of this object due to the feedback organization in a system object of analysis - the device of analysis. The task of conceptual model development in the analysis of complex system behavior in view of the greatest volume of information reception of object condition requirement is placed in work. During the decision tasks of industrial objects functioning analysis the approach based on their representation as system is traditionally used. Thus the notion of system means set of the elements which are in communications and connections with each other and form the certain integrity, unity. 2 In many cases such approach leads to the methodology decision of industrial objects functioning correctness analysis from the point of their structure and the basic attention given in the analysis with the separate structure components, instead of their interaction character tasks. So the necessity of coordinated structure separate component results of analysis association appears. Last task much more complicates the common statement of analysis task seeming simplicity in decision of task in a view of separate components. Thus, the traditional decision of a task analysis will consist of some stages with the separate components and their association in the common decision at design stages, manufactures and operation. In the framework of the systems theory, which represents axiomatic mathematical theory mathematical device and effective tasks decision methods are developed.

1 2

Prof., Moscow State Open University. Russia, Republic of Dagestan, Makhachkala. The philosophical encyclopedic dictionary. M.: The Soviet encyclopedia. 1983. 45

All strict mathematical systems theory definitions can be examined from the point of separate components and as converter object representation in a whole. Strict mathematical object representation and its description as the converter allow examining tasks from the process view and in tasks decision not only object - system structure, but also the processes which occur in it. The use of process point of view on object functioning allows to examine and analyze dynamic characteristics of the object (system). The concept of the converter includes various primary concepts from which it is possible to note a determinism and causality. They allow to describe process as a sequence of the replaced in time phenomena which are organized definitely. It is dictated by generation of one phenomenon by others. It is necessary to note the following feature: the condition and the law of conditions change is in connection with the concept of causality. The definition of condition at which there is a specification of concepts influence on object (input influences or an input) also is very important. It is marked, that the central nucleus of determinism as a matter fact make the regulations about existence of causality, i.e. such phenomena connection in which one phenomenon under quite certain conditions with necessity generates serve, creates other phenomenon (consequence). 3 At reason converter functioning - process is a converter input, and the process consequence is a converter output. It is also used the fundamental condition notion which is connected with all input background - the reasons during the previous moments and output consequence during the moment t. 4 The condition notion characterizes the law of converter functioning and finally the law of output - consequences formation. Along with using notion of reasons conclusions, conditions other notions, limiting a class of considered process, are used. They include an input and output, which concern to them. Thus the display of input characterizes the law of conditions change, and the display of output - the change of system reaction (outputs) in various conditions. Display characterizes the law of change in system condition in the set of conditions space. The converter functioning means the presence of three processes: process of condition change, change of systems inputs and outputs.

R.Kalman, P.Falb, M.Arbib. Sketches under the mathematical theory of systems. - M.: Editorial. URSS, 2004.- P. 400.
4

A.I.Moroz, The theory of systems: the Manual for HIGH SCHOOLS on Applied mathematics . - M.: The Higher school, 1987. P. 304. 46

THE IMPACT OF GLOBAL WARMING ON THE U.S. FOREIGN POLICY TOWARDS EURASIA AND THE MIDDLE EAST
Prof. Dr. Yaar ONAY 1 Introduction The Middle East and the Eurasia are strategically, economically, politically, culturally, and religiously sensitive regions of the world. Therefore it has always been important for the global powers. This historical truth is maintaining her validity today and it is clear to see, it will continue to maintain her validity in the coming years. The collapse of the Soviet Union opened a new era in the international system. September 11, 2001 terrorist attack and fighting against terrorism pulled the attraction of USA on the Middle East and Middle East was also known as the gate of the Eurasia. Afghanistan was followed by Iraq. Then the New Middle East project was introduced publicly by Washington administration. Promoting democracy and good governance; building a knowledge society; and expanding economic opportunities were the reasons of USA to be in the region. According to the USA these reform priorities were the key to the region's development. However the developments in Iraq showed that democracy could not be exported by using violence. For many intellectuals the USA military presence in Iraq was accepted to be the preparatory ground for the Balkanization (division) and Finlandization (pacification) of the Middle East. On the other hand, The Middle East, Afghanistan, and Pakistan are stepping stones for extending the U.S. influence into the former Soviet Union and the exSoviet Republics of Central Asia shortly the region which is defined as Eurasia. The Middle East is to some extent the southern tier of Central Asia. Central Asia in turn is also termed as Russias Southern Tier or the Russian Near Abroad. 2 It should be noted that in his book, The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy and Its Geo-strategic Imperatives, Zbigniew Brzezinski, a former U.S. National Security Advisor, alluded to the
1 2

Hali University http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=viewArticle&code=NAZ20061116&articleId=38826. 17.08.2007. 47

modern Middle East as a control lever of an area he, Brzezinski, calls the Eurasian Balkans. The Eurasian Balkans consists of the Caucasus (Georgia, the Republic of Azerbaijan, and Armenia) and Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan) and to some extent both Iran and Turkey. Iran and Turkey both form the northernmost tiers of the Middle East (excluding the Caucasus) that edge into Europe and the former Soviet Union.3 Many explanations have been put forward to explain the reason of invasion of Iraq. Controlling the energy sources of the region was one of them and may be the most logical one but for me this was not satisfactory enough to cover the truth. It must not be forgotten that the USA controls three major financial institutions: The World Bank (WB), International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Trade Organizations (WTO). The US also controls the OPEC by way of two important oil stock exchange centers located in London and New York. The US oil companies in the region are very important actors also. Thus the United States does not need to send her troops to guard the oil wells. Another explanation related with the US presence in the Middle East is economic rather than being politics. The war between Euro and Dollar is becoming more important issue that is threatening the US Global sovereignty. Saddam Hussein switched to the Euro in November 2002; the result was the total destruction of the country and loss of independence. However, OPEC or others decide to accept Euro only for its oil then American economic dominance can be over. It can be said:

Oil + Dollar = US Hegemony Oil + Euro = End of the US hegemony. So according to some other intellectuals US intention of holding the Middle East and Afghanistan in his hands was the result of this politics. Everybody and every institution will be used as long as they serve for the intentions of USA. Another important factor that affects the US policy in the Middle East is the undeniable conclusions of the Global Climate Change which I also believe. The clues of the Greater Middle East Project can be found in the speeches of US decision makers in 2004. However it is officially announced in the summit of G-8 in 2004. Both the Pentagons report on Global Climate Change and the Greater Middle East Project are announced in February 2004. Since this geography is clarified as less affected geography from the Global Climate Change in the Pentagons report, this can not be a chance.

Ibid. 48

Global Climate Change A widely accepted theory assumes that the period lasting from the 4th until the 7th Century A.D. has been called the period of the Migration of the Nations, reflecting the extensive migration of many groups. Many explanations have been put forward to explain the reasons of the migration of nations. Among them the most logical one is the change in the climate and change in conditions of life depending on this. Thousands of years later, the humanity is once more face to face with the danger of the migration of the nations. The reason is once more the same: the change in the climate. In February 2004, the Pentagon presented a secret report to President Bush about the potential results of the global warming. According to the report, climate change over the next 30 years will result in a global catastrophe costing millions of lives in wars and natural disasters. As Pentagon said, once again, warfare would define the human life. Peter Schwartz, the CIA consultant and former head of planning at Royal Dutch/Shell Group, and Doug Randall of the California-based Global Business Network, has stated that climate change should be elevated beyond a scientific debate to a US national security concern. The whole world will naturally be affected from the results of the global climate change. However, according to the scientists the North Africa, South Eastern Europe, and Middle East will be more fortunate than the other regions. Thus in February 2004 President Bush made a speech about the importance of democracy in the Middle East and pronounced the Greater Middle East Project for the first time. The "Greater Middle East" refers to the countries of the Arab world, plus Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey, and Israel. In other words, this is the geography that will be less influenced by the results of Global Climate Change. Especially if the ocean conveyor slows down or collapses during the next two decades it can cool the North Atlantic region by as much as 5 C (9 F), creating winters of much greater severity. This means the end of the heating system of the Western civilization and the beginning of the migrations of Nations II, from West to East. According to the Global Climate Change report prepared by the climatologists of the United Nations, there is no turning point from the level that the humanity has reached today. Even if we decide to reject what the high technology offer us and prefer natural way of living as our ancestors did once upon a time to protect the future of the humanity, it is impossible to return the process back. 4 The only thing we can achieve by doing this is to extend the time. According to the climatologists, the humanity has 30 or 40 years more. Thus, it can be said that towards the middle of the 21st Century. There will be sharp changes in the dynamics of the international system. In the report, it is said that there is a risk of loosing the rain forests depending on the increase of the CO2 rate in the air. So many agricultural areas will be a desert. The inevitable result of this which is waiting for the humanity is the emergence of very serious starvation and diseases.
4

http://www.sabah.com.tr/ozel/kuresel820/dosya_820.html, 28.01.07 49

Seasons will change. Winters will not be cold, springs will come earlier. Falls will be late so the balance of the nature will change. Melting of the terrestrial glaciers will affect the balance of the Gulf Stream, Atlantic Ocean Current. Thus, depending on the collapse of the system, the Northern Hemisphere will turn back to the ice age, life will stop in these lands and mass migrations will be seen. Shortly the loss of Gulf Stream Atlantic Ocean Current will close one era and open a new one which is full with a lot of ambiguity. 5 It will not be wrong to say that the global climate change will create the forming of the New World Order. Naturally the new world order will have its own political, social and economic dynamics. The leading actors of the international system of today are preparing themselves for the future to maintain their presence in the international system. Principle of continuity of the state is vitally important for every state in the system. However those states that can not determine their policies for the future, can not take place in the world of the future. History is full with the states disappeared like this. Shortly, states will either prepare themselves for tomorrow. The U.S. Ministry of Defense, Pentagons report about Global Climate Change is therefore very important. This report is presented to US President Bush under the title of Climate change will destroy us. Many parts of the report are found dangerous for the security of US and therefore the report is kept as a confidential document. However the British Guardian Newspaper managed to publish some parts of the report. According to the report, major European cities will be sunk beneath rising seas as Britain is plunged into a 'Siberian' climate by 2020. Nuclear conflict, mega-droughts, famine and widespread rioting will erupt across the world. The document predicts that abrupt climate change could bring the planet to the edge of anarchy as countries develop a nuclear threat to defend and secure dwindling food, water and energy supplies. 6 The report was commissioned by influential Pentagon defense adviser Andrew Marshall, who has held considerable sway on US military thinking over the past three decades. He was the man behind a sweeping recent review aimed at transforming the American military under Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld. Therefore this report is proclaimed as Pentagon is preparing for climate wars. On the other hand, according to the climatologists, in the year 2020 the climate of the Western Europe will change and life conditions will be very hard because of the severe colds. Especially England will be covered by ice. As a result of this development, millions of people will have to leave their places both in Europe and Continental America including USA and Canada. States of Central and South Eastern Europe, Eurasia, Middle
5

The scientific name of this is Global Climate Change. Global warming is one of the results of climate change.
6 Now the Pentagon tells Bush: climate change will destroy us

http://www.monthlyreview.org/0504editors.htm 26.01.2007 50

East, North Africa will be less influenced from the Global Climate Change. Shortly the whole world will be influenced from this change. Some will leave their places to find new life sources; others will fight to protect their life sources. And it can be said nothing will the same from now on. How will the scenario of the catastrophe work? Climatologists are explaining the process that will be the end of the Europe and North America like this: when it is gone to the North from Equator in the Northern Hemisphere, sun lights are striking to the world with a less angle and therefore the heat is decreasing. This is called latitude effect. For example Turkey is located between 36-42 Northern Latitudes, and therefore she has very severe winter months. On the other hand, although England is located between 50-58 Northern latitudes, even Finland that is located in the 70 Northern latitude, winter months are not severe enough to threat the life of humans. The reason of this is the Gulf Stream Atlantic Current. Gulf Stream that originates in the Gulf of Mexico, exits through the Strait of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean. At about 30 W, 40 N, it splits in two, with the northern stream crossing to northern Europe and the southern stream recirculation off West Africa. The Gulf Stream influences the climate of the east coast of North America from Florida to Newfoundland, and the west coast of Europe. Depending on the loss of this current, all these states because of their geography will be face to face with freezing air and very severe winter conditions. According to Andreas Schmittner, from Oregon State University, global warming can melt the glaciers of the North Pole, and melting glaciers can stop the Gulf Stream current, and if this happens, the Northern hemisphere of the world can be in an ice age.7 Some other climatologists are also agree with Prof. Andreas and they say that Gulf Stream Atlantic Current has a power that is equal to 250.000 atomic power plants, the loss of this current especially in the winter months can cause the northern hemisphere to turn back to the ice age. 8 Gulf Stream current is triggered in the waters of Iceland and it is getting heavy by cooling fast and flowing to the south from the 3 km depth and this pulls the hot water that has been formed in the tropical regions.9 This is how the system works under normal circumstances. But if the sea water is fed by the sweet water, this system does not work and big currents of the oceans loose their power. 10 This is the danger. Because, too much evaporation in the tropical regions, can cause much rain in the North and so the ratio of salt in the sea water decreases. In addition to this, melting glaciers together with rains are mixing with the salty ocean currents will also decrease the ratio of salt. According to the results of the search done by National Center for Atmospheric Research NCAR and McGill University, all the glaciers may melt in the summer of 2040. 11 Many climatologists claims that in the next ten years the glaciers will decrease from 5.9 million
7 8

http://www.innovations-report.de/html/berichte/umwelt_naturschutz/bericht-43005.html, 22.02.07 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_Stream, 22.02.07 9 http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleturkish.html, 22.02.07 10 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_Stream, 22.02.07 11 http://lyricstr.wordpress.com/page/2/ , 02.02.2007 51

km2 to 1.9 million km2 and 35 years later there will be few glaciers in Greenland and Canada and there will be no glacier in the North Sea in September 2060. 12 As it is known glaciers reflects the sun heat to the sky, but melting of the glaciers means these heat will be absorbed by the water and this will increase the global warming. 13 Briefly, the future of the humanity is in the critical level. If the glaciers go on melting, the result will be a great tragedy. Thus, it can be said that towards the middle of the 21st Century. There will be sharp changes in the dynamics of the international system. Although the climatologists discussed about the destructive affects of the global warming in their scientific reports in details, they were not able to express one very important truth openly. This truth that is hidden between the lines of these scientific reports is the collapse of the Northern hemisphere which determined the dynamics of the international system for centuries by remaining under the waters and glaciers. Since the states of the Northern hemisphere are the important actors of the international system for centuries long, it is impossible to think that they will accept these potential developments as their destiny. So in a situation like this, the states of the Northern hemisphere or the civilization they built which is known as Western Civilization will rebuild their civilization in other parts of the world. At this point a critical question is coming to the minds. Where will they rebuild their civilization? Naturally the regions that they will rebuild their civilization must be the regions that are less influenced from the negative impacts of the climate change such as global warming and glaciations when compared with the remaining parts of the world. These regions are Middle East, North Africa and Turkey. In other words these regions and the states of these regions are concealing with the geography which is defined as The Greater Middle East Project by the USA. This means that the second wave of the migration of nations will be from West to this geography. Conclusion According to the climatologists, it is impossible to prevent the conclusions of the global climate change. From now on there is only one thing to do: to survive in the other parts of the world. At this point, it is clear to see how Greater Middle East Project is important for the USA. Even if the disasters mentioned in the reports dont damage the lands of USA, it is impossible to accept that the USA will give up her intentions to be the global sovereignty. Especially changes in the international system depending on the scenarios of the climate change will be very trembling. The role of the USA in the new world order that will start forming towards the middle of the 21st century is depended on the success of the Greater Middle East Project. One of the basic reasons of the efforts of the USA to make her presence in the region is her determination to shape the world of the future.

12

Ibid Nature, International Weekly Journal of Science, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v408/n6811/full/408453a0.html,02.02.2007


13

52

Sources
http://www.sabah.com.tr/ozel/kuresel820/dosya_820.html, 28.01.07 Now the Pentagon tells Bush: climate change will destroy us http://www.monthlyreview.org/0504editors.htm 26.01.2007 http://www.innovations-report.de/html/berichte/umwelt_naturschutz/bericht-43005.html, 22.02.07 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_Stream, 22.02.07 http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleturkish.html, 22.02.07 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_Stream, 22.02.07 http://lyricstr.wordpress.com/page/2/ , 02.02.2007 Nature, International Weekly Journal of Science, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v408/n6811/full/408453a0.html,02.02.2007 http://www.ntvmsnbc.com/news/352066.asp,02.02.2007 http://www.guardian.co.uk/globalwarming/graphic/0,,397048,00.html,24.02.2007 konu hakknda ayrca bkz: http://www.carelpress.co.uk/adobe/cities_at_risk.pdf, 24.02.07 http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C3%BCresel_%C4%B1s%C4%B1nma,22.02.07 http://www.ntvmsnbc.com/news/398898.asp,22.02.07 http://www.iyibilgi.com/index.php?s=dosya&id=5835&k=4, 09.02.2007 Yaar Onay, Euro-Dolar Sava Kurban ki lke: ABD ve ran, Neden Kitap Yaynlar, stanbul. 2007 Zbigniew Brzezinski, Byk Satran Tahtas, Amerikann ncelii ve Bunun Jeostratejik Gerekleri, stanbul. Sabah Kitaplar, 1997 Zbigniew Brzezinski, Byk Satran Tahtas, Amerikann ncelii ve Bunun Jeostratejik Gerekleri, stanbul. Sabah Kitaplar, 1997

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54

FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR DISASTER: A FAILED TECHNOLOGY


Hayrettin KILI 1 First Anniversary Letter from Fukushima March 11, 2012 marks first anniversary of the Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan. The Fukushima anniversary provides a fitting time and backdrop to revisit the issues relating to safety and environmental aspects of nuclear power plants, specially the global effects of the Fukushima accident, which proved one more time that radioactive radiation recognize no boundaries. Today, a year after Fukushima, 26 years of following Chernobyl, 33 years after Three Miles Island, and more than 60 years after the launch of the Atom for Peace program, nuclear power continues to be a failed technology. There remains no solution of the problem of mounting huge piles of lethal radioactive waste, nuclear power still the most expensive way to provide electricity, and continued operation of atomic reactors poses unacceptable and unpredictable safety, public health and weapon proliferation risks around the World. Like Chernobyl accident, the debate surrounding the increased prevalence of diseases, induced from the Fukushima accident is likely to continue for many decades. Up to this date, it is not clear how many people have already died, or are suffering from illness resulting from Fukushima radiation, due to systematically relocating and sending the local children away to different areas in the Japan, and hindering medical records of victims. After the Chernobyl accident, in Ukraine along, 2.6 million contaminated inhabitants living in 2300 villages and towns were relocated.

Ph.D. The Green Think Tank of Turunch Foundation, N.J USA. Member of the Istanbul Aydin University Science Council. 55

Nuclear Coma in Shi No Machi With firm geological foundations and major earthquakes rare, Fukushima is a safe and secure place to the businesses. The government of Fukushima Prefectures website slogan before the March 11, 2011 nuclear accident. September 10, 2011 A Town of Death- Shi No Machi, the Economy, Trade, and Industry minister of Japan, Mr. Yoshio Hachiro who was charged to handle one of the worlds largest nuclear energy complex accident at the Fukushima site, told ultimate truth to the world, and lost his job. On March 11, 2011, about 100 kilometers away from the Fukushima site, a major rupture took place and propagated along the segments of the ocean floor all the way to Kamaishi Bay to trigger an earthquake of magnitude 9.0. Two minutes of tremendous ground shaking crippled 4 of 6 nuclear reactors and auxiliary backup systems at the Daiichi nuclear complex, one of the world largest. The tsunami that was created by the earthquake, reached to 40 meters high in some area, swept eastern shores of Japan and destroyed one of the largest Kamaishi Barriers, anchored to the sea floor 63 meters down, 20 meters thick, and rising 8 meters above the sea level. In a couple of minutes, the Daiichi Power Plant was disconnected from its life support of cooling water, and slipped into a Nuclear Coma forever. In the frantic days of the accident, a huge quantity/dose of radiation, 10,000 mili Sievert/hour were entered into atmosphere as result of hydrogen explosions and fires contaminating primary food chain and everything humans contact (permissible radiation dose for person is 50-100 mili Sievert/year). The Japanese government and the owner of power plant, TEPCO released copious amounts of crude and conflicting data about every aspect of the accident. Monitoring of radioactive fallout was patchy, including daily environmental radiation measurements which determine the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES). In the meantime, the seismological uncertainties associated with the constant aftershocks not only lowered the moral of heroic workers and stuff at the Fukushima site, but also in all the other communities living near nuclear facilities in Japan. Since the accident at Fukushima Daiichi, communities throughout Japan have refused to let nuclear power plants restart until the triple crisis; earthquake, tsunami and nuclear accident measures are completed. In Japan, local governments have the ability to block nuclear facility restarts after they shut down for even routine maintenance. On May 6, the Japanese government ordered the other 34 nuclear reactors, all of which are built on the highest sensible earthquake coastal areas, to seize electrical production. In fact, as of March 11, 2012 only 3 Japans nuclear reactors operating in very low capacity, remaining 51 react ors in Japan still shutdown. In the meantime, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) kept a low profile about the severity and the scale (INES) of the accident, waiting for instruction from the Japanese government, just as they have done in past nuclear accidents. In the beginning of the accident, it was determined to be level 4 by Japans Nuclear and Safety Agency, and was changed a couple of times until April 12, 2011, when it was upgraded to level 7. IAEA immediately followed the Japanese authoritys decision and declared the Fukushima
56

accident the same level as Chernobyl. However, most experts believe that because of power outages which hampered the measurements, it is impossible to have a detailed assessment of the radiation release during the first a couple days. Further, considering the size of the reactors and the volume of the fresh and waste fuel involved in the Fukushima accident, and a plutonium and uranium mixture fuel (MOX) that is also melted in unit 3, some experts believe that Fukuhima accidents must be rated seven plus on INES scale. The radioactive clouds that were injected into the atmosphere during the three hydrogen explosions and subsequent fires have spread across the northeastern inland region of Japan, and followed the predicted easterly path over the Pacific Ocean. A week after the accident, low levels of radiation arrived at the northwestern coast of the USA and was detected at the Pacific Northwest National Lab of Oregon, and two weeks later it was also detected Europe as well. If prevailing winds blew to the south of Dai-ichi, 7.7 million people along path and more than 30 million Tokyo region, living in 150 kilometer distance would have been exposed to a high level of radiation. Unlike TMI, and Chernobyl, during the first a few weeks Fukushima accident, millions of gallons of contaminated water were discharged into sea. By the month of July 2011 researchers picked up low levels of radiation in sea water more than 600 kilometers from the Dai-ichi site. Nuclear Renaissance People are not asking what went wrong at Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima anymore; instead they are questioning what is wrong with the nuclear reactors. In the USA department of energy (DOE) secretary Stephen Chiu testified before the congressional committees and admitted that, (presented official reports, based on officially records) identifying 14 near misses accidents in USA power plants in 2010 alone. According to latest reports of the Pew Research Center in Washington D.C, USA, public support for a possible increased use of nuclear power has dropped to 39 per cent with 52 per cent of the people opposed to it, in comparison the centers poll found 47 per cent were for nuclear power before the Fukushima accident. In Europe, nuclear safety regulators announced new criteria for safety reviews for Europes 143 nuclear reactors, and asked operators to conduct stress tests against all possible natural disasters. As a result of diminishing public confidence, Germany shut down its seven unsafe reactors immediately after the Fukushima accident, and finally a great sense of political urgency and public pressure propelled German policy makers to make the historical decision to abandon nuclear power by 2022. Switzerlands government said that it will close its five nuclear reactors in the next two decades. Italian government introduced a one year moratorium on new reactors proposals, halting possibility of build four new nuclear reactors. Further, On April 20, 2011 Italian Senate proved a new amendment by which extending moratorium indefinitely. China suspended construction of 26 reactors temporarily and are reconsidering expansion plans of building 50 more reactors. On September 18, 2011 German corporation Siemens announced that, they will no longer build or finance nuclear power plant in Germany or elsewhere.
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The Fukushima accident has clearly shredded worldwide public confidence in atomic energy, and validated the concerns and mistrust of those environmentalists and anti-nukes activists who oppose nuclear power in every shape and form. They point out that, it is an urgent worldwide requirement to reexamine efficiencies of civil and technological emergency measures in all operational, civilian and military nuclear power plants built in the last 6o years. The accident of Fukushima took also the nuclear industry and policy makers by surprise, and proved one more time that, with the existing knowledge and the technology available today, every possible emergency system in nuclear power plants are inherently prone to natural disasters The last 50 years, policy makers in Japan created a nation that was heavily addicted to energy consumption in every step of their daily life. However, TMI, Chernobyl, and Fukushima collectively serve as an exhibit A for the inherently risky energy source of nuclear power which energized all glorious lightening in Tokyo and such cities. The fate of the nuclear energy in Japan hangs in two different fronts first, isolation of Fukushima plant and prevention of further radioactive release, second close inspection and eliminating any other reactors that are vulnerable to natural disasters like Fukushima, and do not believe that the energy corporations claim that the remaining nuclear power plants in Japan are not at the eminent risk. The Fukushima earthquake also showed that the point-source of earthquake assumptions failed due to successive rupturing of segments, ripping hundreds of kilometers of fault lines parallel to the coastal areas of eastern Japan. Therefore any nuclear power plant, which is near to a major fault line in the sea, may be subject to the propagation of ruptures creating unpresented scale of tsunami, such as what happened in Japan. Even if a major earthquake takes place hundreds of kilometers away in sea, it may indeed overwhelm most nuclear power sites situated near the shores. It cannot be denied that, after the Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima accidents, the immense complex system of nuclear power plants are often more unpredictable than their designed parameters. They produced events with global ramifications, and they cannot withstand substantial natural trauma. They are sensitive to smallest unpredicted beyond-design changes and abnormalities during their operation. It is a complicated system which exhibits both high interactive technological complexity, meaning that number and degree of system inter-relationships among its components, and tight coupling, meaning that initial failures can rapidly bring down other parts of the system. In fact, a small amount of water that was leaked into instrumentation system in TMI reactor, caused malfunction and prevented operators to see an open-stack valve in secondary cooling system, and triggered an escalating chain of events resulting loss of coolant and partial meltdown. The 6 reactors at the Fukushima complex are approximately 100 times more powerful (6000 MWe) than the one in the unit- number 4 of the Chernobyl power plant, which exploded in 1986 due to equipment- components malfunction and a massive human-operators error. A major problem with a nuclear power plant, which
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houses multiple numbers of reactors, is that a major accident in one of the reactors or in the storage waste tank may cripple normal operations at other reactors. The Fukushima accident captivated all walks of life around the world, especially in countries, where nuclear technology remains largely unknown. However, medias invaluable feedback and real time coverage, enable people around the world learned more about the merits of nuclear energy, and finally attain a richer understanding of this particular energy source which is being still portrayed as a source of secure and limitless energy, like of perpetual motion machine. Despite the confusing claims by Tepco, IAEA, and Japanese government, all independent experts agreed that significant, catastrophic amounts of radioisotopes have been released into atmosphere and sea during the hydrogen explosions from the Fukushima plant. Including but not limited to the radioactive gases such as Iodine, Xenon, as well as Cesium-137 and Strontium-90 in aerosol form, and perhaps plutonium, uranium, terriliuim isotopes-particles in oxide forms. Unit number 1 and 2 contained more than 100 tons of Uranium fuel, and unit number 3 was loaded with fresh nuclear fuel of uranium and plutonium mixture called MOX. In addition each reactor building contained huge amount waste fuel stored in cooling pools, more than 300 000 tons which is 1 million times more radioactive than fresh fuel. In recent years, there has been the introduction of new and exciting so called, third-plus generation nuclear power plant designs; these exotic/advanced nuclear reactor designs have captivated the attention of investors and energy policy makers in developing countries. Despite the continuing 25 year cleanup efforts in Chernobyl, radioactive releases still lingering from Fukushima, and major industrial countries are abandoning nuclear energy, some governments in the Middle East still aggressively pursuing to build nuclear reactors is indeed a troubling development. Ironically, the nuclear industry and policy makers ask people to imagine untested new design so called advanced reactors from which no radiation can escape. In the light of Fukushima accident, energy authorities should realize that, the idea of a nuclear device with new complex structural properties that can withstand the unexpected force of nature is still illusive. The echoes of TMI, Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents are an ultimate proof of our understanding of how natural forces and technological systems interact in three dimensional world in real time, much different than computer simulations in virtual time, and also reflect our inability in controlling them during major natural disasters. The Fukushima accident shows one more time that controllability of complex networks in nuclear power plants becomes impossible. Unfortunately, IAEA, nuclear industry and a handful of pro-nuclear scientists have been complicit in distorting TMI and Chernobyl facts-data and misleading the public since 30 years, and during the first week of the Fukushima accident, they tried to give misleading impressions saying that there is no need to worry about a complete meltdown; Fukushima
59

is not the same as the Chernobyl accident, and collectively conveying unconvincing, defensive and selective information since the onset of the accident. In fact, during the Hydrogen explosions in Fukushima, some prominent pro- nuclear physicist described the Hydrogen explosions as an insignificant event. In June of 2011, the Japanese government and IAEA acknowledged that most of the radioactive isotopes, including Cesium-137, Strontium-90 were injected into the atmosphere during the Hydrogen explosions, which amounts (equivalent) to 17% of the release from Chernobyl, and the total radiation released into environment during the first 3 months is 770.000 Tera Becquerel, twice the amount of early estimates of Japanese government. Atmosphere does not Lie But October 2011, truth was revealed when team of independent scientists published their findings on the journal of Atmospheric Chemistry Physics Discussions (11, 2831928394, 2011). The results of their study that is summarized below based on collected measurements of atmospheric activity of radioactive xenon and cesium isotopes concentration detected by variety of sources including The Comprehensive Nuclear-TestBan Treaty (CTBT) stations. A global International Monitoring system which is established to foresee a global ban of all nuclear explosions and verify compliance with the CTBT. In this study, we estimated the total releases of the radioactive isotopes 133Xe and137Cs as well as their temporal emission patterns from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear power plant (FD-NPP) in March and April 2011. 20 Regarding the noble gas 133Xe, it is very likely that the accumulated inventory of the reactor units 1 3 was completely set free into the atmosphere between 11 and 15March. The study indicates a total release of 16.7 (uncertainty range 13.420.0) EBq, Which is the largest radioactive noble gas release in history not related to nuclear bomb testing. The release is a factor of 2.5 higher than the Chernobyl 133Xe source term. Regarding 137Cs, the inversion results indicate a total emission of 35.8 (23.350.1) PBq, or about 42% of the estimated Chernobyl emission. This means that nearly2% of the available inventory of the reactor cores in units 13 and the spent-fuel pool in unit 4 was discharged into the atmosphere. These early emissions were until now underestimated by the Japanese authorities However, the situation could have been even much worse, as fortunately no rain occurred at the time when the densest part of the FD-NPP plume was transported over Tokyo.

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Source: Atmospheric Chemistry Physics Discussions (11, 28319 28394, 2011).

During the hydrogen explosions, despite the Japanese government and Tepco claims, huge amount of both Xe-133 and Cs-137 were emitted into atmosphere and detected by 60 CTBTO radionuclide monitoring stations located in different parts of the world. Unlike any other accidents, nuclear reactors represent hidden technological chaos that take over during a serious accident and evolve overtime into global socio-economic catastrophes as what happened in Japan. Complete meltdown of three reactors at the Fukushima site created a zone of no return, more than 100,000 people lost their houses/businesses, there are millions of people in the Northeast of Japan that continue to suffer on a day to day basis in every aspect of their life. And finally, a sobering reminder to energy policy makers that nuclear reactors are economically risky energy sources. On August 9, 2011 TEPCO announced a net loss of $7.4 Billion US dollars in the first quarter of 2011-12 financial years.

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THE CHANGE OF SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF POLYPROPLENE IRRARDIATED BY HIGH ENERGY HEAVY IONS

A.M. Maharramov 1 M.A. Ramazanov F.V. Hajiyeva S.Q.Aliyeva

ABSTRACT This work has been carried out by atomic force microscopy (AFM) method taking into consideration of different factors such as: heavy ions beam density, temperature and concentration parameters of etching on sizes and depth pores of polypropylene track membrane. It is been established that thermal treatment and etching reveal the real structure of track in polymer. Researches show that concentration and temperature dependence of etching velocity of damaged molecules, filling the track differs for initial polymer. As a result one can get an opportunity to change the shape of nuclear filters, varying within broad limits the technological parameters of process of chemical treatment. Varying the conditions of ionic radiation (type and energy of ion, application of multi component bundles) it is possible to manage with nano extraction (average size, orientation, crystallinity). Key words: Irradiation, Heavy Ions, Atomic-force Microscope, Polypropylene, Nanopores

Baku State University, Baku, Azerbaijan. AZ 1148, Zahid Khalilov Str. 23. e-mail: mamed_r50@mail.ru 63

Introduction Preparation of nanostructure with given properties and formation functionalized nanomaterials is one of the most important area of modern materials. Nanomaterials are perspective materials in term of its application in storage device with over high density of recording, in laser active elements with altering wave length, in microelectronics. Unfortunately, the stability of compound in nanocrystalline state strongly complicates practical application of nanosystem. This is connected with increasing specific surface contribution and surplus surface energy of physical chemical properties of system. The diminution of the linear size of particles up to nano size leads to increasing chemical activity and aggregation of nanoparticles. For solving of this problem widely apply the methods of preparation of nanomaterials on the polymeric matrix for prevention of nanoparticles aggregation, external influence and as a sequence facilitate the application of these materials. There are different physical and chemical methods of modification of polymer properties. Among versatile modification methods of polymer properties and preparation nanostructure materials on its basis the nuclear technology method takes special place. The technology of porous polymer nanostructures preparation based on irradiation of polymer by heavy ions with high energy. This process induced to appearance narrow tracks trough the whole polymer material strata. It is known that charged particle moving with high velocity through polymer film forms radiation damage canal (hidden, latent tracks) with identical defect density. Latent tracks are random zone with diameter ~ 5-12 nm. Following selective etching removes this defect zone and form porous material with nanopores having within limits density (106-109) sm-2. Controlling the etching conditions and spatial distribution of particles, forming tracks it is possible to prepare structures having specified geometrical parameters2. At the present time there are working methods of physical chemical modification of surface and porous structure of polymer materials with the aim of improving its operational characteristics and preparation of membranes with given properties. It is supposed that nanomodification of polypropylene matrix by accelerated beam of heavy ions leads to preparation of new polymeric structures with nanosized pores and controlled physical, chemical and mechanical properties 3. The purpose of present work is the evaluation by atomic force microscopy (AFM) method of influence of different factors such as: heavy ions beam density, temperature and concentration parameters of etching on sizes and depth pores of polypropylene track membrane.

2 3

Vilensky Alexander Isaakovich Avtoreferat of the dissertation 258p.(2005) V.F.Reutov, S.N.Dmitriev Ionic-track nanotechnology of Dews. Chemical. (Z.Ros. Chemical societies of D.I.Mendeleeva), 2002, XLVI, 5 64

Methods of experiments Polypropylene (PP) film samples with thickness 100 micron have been prepared by hot pressing method from izotactic polypropylene powder with particles size 0,5-1,0 micron. Then the film samples were irradiated by high energy heavy ions with further chemical treatment. The PP film samples were irradiated by Xe ions beam with energy 1,3 eV with beam density within limits 108 1010 cm-2 on cyclotron AC-100 in the laboratory of nuclear reaction JINR. Uniform irradiation all parts of film by heavy ions are carried out by beam reamer in horizontal plane by alternating electric field scanning with frequency 2000 Hz. The velocity of film moving in irradiation process is within 0.1 up to 2 m/sec. depending of ions beam intensity and density. Irradiation was carried in special vacuum chamber with tape mechanism. Accelerated beam of xenon ions was taken out from chamber by means of electrostatic deflector and was directed to chamber with system for uniform scanning of ions beam and to chamber of film irradiation. The xenon beam after passing through scanning system get in vacuum chamber for film irradiation 42-4. After irradiation films have been treated by 0,5 M and 1,5 M aqueous solution of KOH at 800 during one hour. Investigation of dependence of velocity etching of through track on temperature, concentration and etching duration allow choosing the softest optimal regime of etching, giving through track. Results and discussion Passing through irradiated film heavy ion forms chanell of strong radiation damage. At the formed channels the molecules of irradiated polymer are disrupted and splited to fine components (radicals). The heavy ion loses the part or whole energy by interaction with irradiated compound. At the same time it makes radiation damage of compound length ways of track. As the result forms the area with modified structure, that, as a rule, has high solubility. The irradiation of polymers by heavy ions leads to chemical bonds changes due to disruption or cross sewing of molecular chains. The disruption leads to forming of short chain molecules with high radiation resistance. The sequence of disruption is the change of compound properties in a latent track: decreasing of molecular weight, increasing of polymer solubility, reduction of softening temperature, deterioration of mechanical properties. Radicals, ions and activated molecules, forming at polymer irradiation, excite the polymer molecules interaction. As a result of these interactions the bonding of macromolecules by carbon bridges and formation of branched spatial net take place. However the sensibility of polymers to slight changes of chemical structure is too high and the changing of even chemical bond leads to modification of polymer. As a result we got a
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Flerov Q.N., Apel P. J, Didyk A. J., Kuznetsov V. I., Oganesyan R.S. //Atomic energy, V. 67, p.274 (1989) and V.M.Golovkov, V.V.Sohoreva Ionic-track nanotechnologies of reception of membranes and nanostructures. News of higher educational institutions of the Physicist 2009 . 65

modified polymer with different solubility, viscosity and durability. The further action of specially selected chemical etching on irradiated polymer leads to forming of hollow etching channels. The changes of topography and physical structure of polypropylene induced by irradiation with accelerated heavy ions have been studied by AFM method. There are images of films surface of polypropylene irradiated by Xe accelerated heavy ions with energy 1,3 MeV and density of particle flow within 108 up to 1010 cm-2. The microscopic images show that formed pores on the first stage of etching close due to swelling of etched polymer. AFM studies demonstrate that etching process begins from local swelling of polymer in track area, and it leads to formation of so-called protuberances. The appearance of protuberances evidently connected with extraction (pressing out) of destructive polymer from damage area.

Picture 1: F images of polypropylene irradiated by Xe accelerated heavy ions with energy 1,3 MeV. a) non-irradiated film of PP, b) films of polypropylene irradiated by ions with flow density within 108 cm-2 , c) films of polypropylene irradiated by ions with flow density within 109 cm-2, d) films of polypropylene irradiated by ions with flow density within 1010 cm-2

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The protuberances size at etching in alkali is approximately the same of size of damaged track area. It is known that etching process consist of several stages 5[5-9]. The first stage of etching starts with extraction of the radiolysis products through the track from its core and ended by formation of primary through channels. The second stage starts with the polymer swelling in track area and formation of characteristic zones filled by gel; this stage completes by close of primary through channels. The time of track swelling defines the average velocity of etching. On the third stage the gel partially passes in etcher solution; at the same time minimum sized pores form on tracks (for example, for ion with energy 1eV/.u. in PP the average diameter of holes makes is 20 -140 n).Then the further etching of changed area of polymer takes place, i.e. the further swelling of pores walls and passing of formed gel-layer to etcher solution. And only after completion of passing of gel from the changed track area (for ion the changed area is up to 60 n) starts radial etching of pores walls up to demanded diameter. It is shown that thermal treatment and etching change the structure of track in polymers. On Picture 2 there are AFM images of polypropylene samples etched by 0,25 solution of .

iture 2: AFM images of polypropylene samples irradiated by Xe ions with energy 1,3 MeV and etched by 0,25 solution of .

Flerov Q.N., P.J.Apel, A.J.Didyk Use of accelerators of heavy ions for manufacturing of nuclear membranes. Atomic energy, 67, 274(1989); Vilensky A. I, Olejnikov V. A, Poppies . , Mchedlivili B. V, Dontsova E.P. //High-molecular connections, V. 36, 3, 475(1994); Apel P. Ju, Berezkin V. V, Vasilev A.B., Vilensky A. I, , Mchedlishvili B. V, Kuznetsov V. I, Orelovich O. P, Zagorsk D.L. //Colloidal Journal , V. 54, 64, p. 220 (1992); Vilenskij A.I., Tolstihina A.L News of academy of Sciences, Sulfurs. Chemical, 6, 1115(1996) and Vilensky A.I., Zagorski D.L. et al. Surface Science, 507, 911(2002). 67

a) films of polypropylene irradiated by ions with flow density within 108 m-2 b) films of polypropylene irradiated by ions with flow density within 109 m-2 c) films of polypropylene irradiated by ions with flow density within 1010 m-2

As it is shown from the table 1with increasing of particle flow density the amount, diameter and depth of pores on surface and volume of polypropylene films also increase. ble 1
Particle flow density (m-2) Diameter of pores in PP matrix (n) Depth of pores (n) 3-5 5-10 20-30 20-70 30-80 60-140 108 109 1010

Also experimentally found that the increasing of KOH solution concentration leads to changes of pores diameter and depth in polypropylene matrix. So, in case with 1,5 solution of KOH pores diameter and depth decrease in contrast to 0,25 of KOH (table 2).

iture 3: F images of polypropylene irradiated by Xe ions with energy 1,3 MeV with ions flow density 1010 m-2 and etched in an aqueous solution of KOH.
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) PP, etched in 0,25 KOH, b) PP, etched in 1,5 KOH

ble 2 Concentration of KOH (mol/l) Diameter of pores in PP matrix (n) Depth of pores (n) 0,25 60-140 20-30 1,5 50-100 7-25

Preparation of track membranes with enhanced properties reached in case with high temperature chemical etching. However, the carrying out the process at over 100 leads to dramatically declining of the selectivity of process, and as consequence to deterioration of structural characteristics of membranes. The carried out researches confirm that thermal treatment of polypropylene film at etching process in alkali define the depth and size of pores. On the pi.4 there are presented the results of AFM studies of polypropylene surface of track membranes, etched in alkali solution at 80 .

Picture 4: F 3D images of polypropylene irradiated by Xe ions with energy 1,3 MeV with ions flow density 1010 m-2 and etched in an aqueous solution of KOH at 800

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ble 3 Concentration of KOH (mol/l) Diameter of pores in PP matrix (n) Depth of pores (n) 0,25 30-100 3-20 1,5 40-90 3-12

It is shown that increasing the temperature up to 800 leads to decreasing of diameter and depth of pores in polypropylene (table 3). Conclusion As the result of carried out physical and chemical researches of polypropylene irradiated by Xe ions with high energy it has been found that structural (amorphization, crystallization) and chemical changes of polymer on all stages of preparation of track membrane. It is shown that thermal treatment and etching reveal the real structure of track in polymer. Researches show that concentration and temperature dependence of etching velocity of damaged molecules, filling the track differs for initial polymer. As a result we get an opportunity to change the shape of nuclear filters, varying within broad limits the technological parameters of process of chemical treatment. Varying the conditions of ionic radiation (type and energy of ion, application of multi-component bundles) it is possible to manage with nano extraction (average size, orientation, crystallinity). Application the atomic force microscopy method allows take into account the shape of pores, channels and the topography of the surface of track membranes as a whole.

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PREMATURE AGING AND LEARNING


Dr. Mira ZAR 1 ABSTRACT This paper includes the key issues related to the phenomenon of learning. There are critical developmental periods of the human brain during the process that began with the birth of the human and at such times it is essential for a brain to be exposed to various stimuli for its own development. Questions that force brain to think, problems that are waiting to be solved, the skills that need to be developed are actually the nutrients of our brains. Especially if the new learning does not take place in the following ages, this situation leads to "premature aging". Until recently, educators believed that "learning by living" was sufficient for the persistence of learning. However, it has been discovered with the new approaches that there are some other important studies to be done in the learning cycle for the persistence of learning. In this article, these steps in the learning cycle are discussed with examples. In addition, during their recent studies scientists have observed that "to act" is another variant that directly affects the learning process. The new research being carried out on the correlation between academic achievements and to act is also briefly addressed in this paper. Key words: Learning, Physical Exercise and Learning. Introduction Asking a question is the first and most important step to understand and investigate. Perhaps the most difficult ones to answer are seemingly simple questions. The scope and accuracy of a response that is given to any question today is changing over the years and gaining another dimension in light of new research. In this article we try to answer the following questions in accordance with the available data:

Istanbul Aydin University. This essay was presented in a symposium on The Nature of Learning and Evaluating organized by Tevfik Fikret Schools on 18, April 2009.
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- What is our basic knowledge about the human brain? - What is the phenomenon that is called learning? Is it sufficient to learn something by living for permanent learning? - What is the significance of stimulus for brain cells? - Is there a relationship between premature aging and learning? The human brain includes approximately 100 billion neurons at birth. Each neuron has the potential to connect to the other 10,000 neurons and this means about 1 billion potential connections. New connections between brain cells and new neuron networks that originate as a result are called learning. The brain of a 3-year-old child is 90% as mature as that of an adult. The human brain weighs on average 1.36 kg and comprises only 2% of the human body. However, it consumes more than 20% of the oxygen and nutrients that the body receives. 'Stimulus' that are sent to brain to work together with cells and for the specialization of brain cells are first and sine qua non conditions. The time these stimuli are sent is also very important. In other words, the effect of the stimulus that is exposed during the first periods after birth is not the same as the effect of the stimulus that are exposed during adulthood for the development of human brain. This has been demonstrated with a simple test by scientists; One eye of a kitten is sutured and it is removed after two weeks. Although the eye cells are anatomically healthy, they cannot function as they havent been exposed to light when they were first born and that eye cannot see anymore. So, as the missing stimulus could not prompt neurons during the critical period function cannot be provided. These neurons which are not stimulated by the light are either used for another function or die. The simple experiment above also applies to people. Stimulus that a child should be exposed to during the critical growth stages and the basic skills (reading, writing, calculation, etc.) that need to be developed have vital importance. In this sense, it seems possible to say; 'At certain periods, especially during childhood, being exposed to the right stimulus in a structured way (with planned training) is a fundamental right of human beings.' This subject is an important and sensitive matter to be handled under the title of "learning and human rights. Is Learning by Living Enough? Is learning something by experiencing it enough to remember it forever in terms of brain cells (knowledge, skills, etc.)? If we ask in another way does learning by living guarantee the permanence of information? Zull (2002) remarks that learning by living is not sufficient on its own for real learning and a conscious effort should be exerted to understand the item that is being learnt. Zull (2002) also point out that individual deduction and abstraction
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should be done with a conscious effort on the learnt case/concept/information and the abstraction should be tested. Imagine a fisherman showed you how to tie a complex sailor's knot years ago and even if you learned to tie it without receiving any help, can you guarantee that you can tie the same knot perfectly years later, for example 10 years later? Even though you are the one who experienced to tie a complex sailors knot, you should do more besides learning by living for the learning to become 'a part of you' for the permanency of it. What do the new educational approaches say in this regard? First of all, the so-called phenomenon of learning (new networks established between brain cells / links) takes place in the student. For this reason, it would be correct to call the students as the learner'. In order to ensure the permanency of knowledge, attitudes and some skills, opportunity should be provided to ask the following questions regarding the learner's experience and to find answers to these questions: -What does this experience that I have gained mean for me? - Does it matter to me? - Is it meaningful to me? - In which way did the experience that I have gained change my life? Can I transfer this new knowledge / skill that I have acquired into other areas of my life? For the learned thing 'to pass thorough us and to be a part of us (personal reflection)these questions and their answers are of great importance. The second step we need to take during this process is to question the learning process and to make inferences about the process. For example if we turn back: Why do I twice pass the long end of the rope through the ring that I have made with the short end that I am holding? What would change if I passed it through three times or just once? Here what we are trying to do is to question the experience process and make individual inferences. It is important to come up with new hypotheses and abstractions at this stage. Another stage is to test personal hypotheses/abstractions/inferences and to record them carefully and systematically. To perform the above-mentioned stages of learning learner gives the opportunity to take control of his own learning process. Modern educators believe that these processes should be taken in an order for the learned thing to become a part of the learner. In fact, each learning is a prize for the human brain. The human brain rewards itself by releasing happiness hormone as a result of learning and releases endorphins.

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Providing and planning a training environment based on 'learning' rather than rotting should be the first objective for us, educators. The learning cycle in Figure 1 below summarizes these processes Zull (2002):

Concrete Experience

Active Testing

Reflective Observation

Abstraction & Hypotheses Hypotheses&hhhhhhHHhhhhDF FFFHHHHHHHHHypothes Figure 1. Learning Cycle

How to Prevent Premature Aging of the Human Brain? Each case of learning means to create new 'networks established between the brain cells. Actually, creating new networks of neurons (to learn) is the basic food for our brains. Brain cells undergo a great destruction especially after the age of 30. One of the most important ways to avoid this is always learning something new such as learning to play a musical instrument, learning a foreign language, using the new technology that has never been used previously, knitting carpet, sculpting, dealing with a sports branch that we have not experienced before. "Use it or lose it" seems a very appropriate motto for the brain. Physical Exercise and Learning Moving is believed to be one of the most important variants that affect the learning phenomenon. One of the first developed parts of the human brain is the part called cerebellum. It is determined that commands related to motor activities are given and controlled from this section. For this reason, the creation of action-oriented learning environments is especially important during childhood. How much opportunity do we give
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children to move in a large area? We, educators, must dwell on this question especially. Jensen (1997) reported that in 1960s children spent approximately 100 hours sitting in a car and the duration has increased to 500 hours on average in 1995. Those passive hours should be spent in wide areas where children move freely and planning should be done accordingly. For one thing, moving in large areas from infancy onwards is now known to have a positive effect on learning. A recent survey revealed that subjects that spare more time for physical education ,regardless of their socio-economic status, exhibit a superior performance on academic subjects (math and reading) (Hillman & Erickson, 2008). New research has demonstrated that the effect of exercise first occurs in the muscles (muscle contraction and relaxation) then in the brain with the protein called as IGF (Insulinlike Growth Factor) which is generated as a result of this. The IGF produced in muscles reaches the brain through blood and triggers the formation of neurotransmitters. BDNF (Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor) is one of these essential neurotransmitters in providing the communication between the two brain cells.(BDNF level increases in people who do regular exercise and as a result of these dendrites occur in brain neurons.) This situation sets up a substructure for the probability of neuro-network occurrence that is to new learning. In summary, the IGF produced in muscles triggers the formation of BDNF and BDNF forms the learning substructure and eases communication between the two brain cells. (Ozdinler & Macklis, 2006) Approximately 20 years ago, scientists used to believe that the brain cells that especially die rapidly from the age of 30 are not renewed. However, in recent years, especially experiments conducted on animals have shown that new nerve tissue can be produced in brain with exercise. Unfortunately, doing sports at certain times is not enough. To maintain the positive effects of exercise on our brain we should exercise regularly When we do not use our brain to learn new things 'premature aging' takes place. In other words, it is in our hands to age our brain earlier or to keep it young. A philosopher says; If one is never confused, it means he is never using his brain. Between two rivers, only the obstructed one will make noise. If this article confused your mind about the learning phenomenon, then it reached its objective.

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References: Hillman, C.H., K.I. Erickson, and A.F. Kramer. (2008). Be smart, exercise your heart: Exercise effects on brain and cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 9:58-65. Jensen, E. (1997). Brain based learning (handout), Six Day Brain Based Certification Level One Conference, San Antonio. August 4-9. Ozdinler,P.H & Macklis, J.D (2006). IGF-I specifically enhances axon outgrowth of corticospinal motor neurons. Nature Neuroscience. Zull, J.E. (2002). The Art of Changing the Brain.

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