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Training analysis looks at each aspect of an operational domain so that the initial skills, concepts and attitudes of the

human elements of a system can be effectively identified and appropriate training can be specified. Training Needs Analysis (TNA) is defined as the Identification of training requirements and the most cost effective means of meeting those requirements. A TNA should always be performed where a major new development in policy, equipment acquisition or procedures is deemed to have potential impact upon the current training regime Training needs analysis process is a series of activities conducted to identify problems or other issues in the workplace, and to determine whether training is an appropriate response. The needs analysis is usually the first step taken to cause a change. This is mainly because a needs analysis specifically defines the gap between the current and the desired individual and organizational performances.

2.3 WHY NEED ANALYSIS MUST BE DONE BEFORE TRAINING


To identify specific problem in an organization Hr and management must know what the problems are so that the most appropriate training will be directed to that problem To obtain management support Trainer should view themselves the same way that management does, making a direct contribution to bottom line. Management will committed to training when hr can show that it clearly improve the performance of job. To develop a data for evaluation

Unless information needs are developed prior to conducting training, evaluation that take place after the program may not be valid. In conducting need analysis first, trainer can measure the effectiveness of a program. To determine cost and benefits of training Training need analysis identify problem and deficiencies, allow management to put a cost factor on the training need. To determine what type of training will improve performance

2.4 WHO CONDUCTS NEEDS ANALYSIS & WHY


An in-house trainer or a consultant performs a needs analysis to collect and document information concerning any of the following three issues : 1. Performance problems 2. Anticipated introduction of new system, task or technology 3. A desire by the organization to benefit from a perceived opportunity In all three situations, the starting point is a desire to effect a change. We must know how the people who will experience change perceive it. In the absence of a needs analysis,

may find employees resistant to change and reluctant to training. They may be unable to transfer their newly acquired skills to their jobs because of the organizational constraints. A needs analysis often reveals the need for well-targeted training areas. However, we must keep in mind that training is not always the best way to try to close a particular gap between an organizations goals and its actual performance. Those conducting the needs analysis must get a clear idea of the problem. Organizations that fail to support needs analysis make costly mistakes; they use training when another method would have been more effective; they use too much or too little training, or they use training but fail to follow up on it. A well-performed

analysis provides the information that can lead to solutions that focus on the areas of greatest need. In many ways, the needs analysis is like detective work; you follow up on every lead, check every piece of information and examine every alternative before drawing any solid conclusions. Only then you can e sure of having the evidence on which to base a sound strategy for problem solving .A needs analysis is not a one-time event. Professional organizations administer needs analysis at regular intervals, usually every year or two.

2.5 TECHNIQUES FOR DETERMINING SPECIFIC TRAINING NEEDS


There are a number of practical methods you can use to gather data about employees performance. Always use at least two, if for no other reason to validate your findings. One of those you choose should always be observation. 1. Observation In this approach, an employees performance itself is you source of information. We evaluate a workers performance through first-hand observation and analysis. This is best accomplished by watching the worker and playing the role of non-participating observer. This means that you watch and listen and evaluate what we see and hear, but do not get involved in his work process in any way. To make this activity more productive, use a checklist to remind what to look for and take notes. The objective during observations is to identify both the strengths to build on and the deficiencies to overcome. A key advantage of using direct

observation in the needs analysis is that you gain first-hand knowledge and understanding of the job being performed and the strengths and weaknesses of the relevant worker.

1. Interviews The prime value of interview guides is that they ensure the same types of data from all sources. This allows you to determine whether a piece of information is one persons

opinion, or part of a widespread perception. Since the interview guide forces you to ask each worker a number of predetermined questions, you must select those questions that are essential to what you are trying to learn. Interviews allow you to meet employees face to face to discuss their impressions of performance. Because you are in conversation with workers, we can explore their responses in depth. 2. Questionnaires A questionnaire is a sort of interview on paper. Create a questionnaire by writing down all the questions. Then you mail it to them and await their responses. Employees can complete the questionnaire when and where they choose. We need not travel and spend time with all respondents. Every employee is asked the identical questions, and consequently data is very easy to compile and analyze. Questionnaires can be useful in obtaining a big picture of what a large number of employees think while allowing everyone to feel that they have had an opportunity to participate in the needs analysis process.

4. Job Descriptions Before establishing a job description, a job analysis must be made. This job analysis involves a thorough study of all responsibilities of the relevant job. It is companywide in scope and should be detailed to such a degree that those conducting the training can use the job analysis as a yardstick for their course content. After the job analysis phase has been completed, the writing of job description and needs analysis is a relatively simple task. When an employees job description has been defined, the trainer can easily tailor his training curriculum to a very close proximity of what will be expected of the employees.

5. The Difficulty Analysis The Job Analysis will focus attention on enumerating the numerous duties that a worker must perform. On the other hand, the Difficulty Analysis establishes which of the duties cause the employee the greatest amount of troubles and how this trouble can be reduced through better training.

6. Problem Solving Conference Another time-tested technique for gathering needs analysis material from employees is to conduct periodic problem solving conferences which may take the form of or be part of a plan for a new product, task or technology, or tied in with a training program It is always helpful to utilize an outside consultant to moderate such sessions. This outside sponsorship has a tendency of letting the workers express their feelings about his organization, and the session can then be geared to training needs. The current problems will evolve that represent potential areas for training. 7. Appraisal Reviews During the periodic counseling performance interview, an employee should be questtined regarding the duties and training of a worker. Comments rendered during the appraisal interviews normally are genuine, and can frequently assist in establishing the needs, variations and penetrations that a training program should include. Feed- back at appraisal interview time is valuable since it is timely information. Training needs differ from worker to worker, and appraisal sessions allow the employee and supervisor to uncover the cause of weaknesses in performance. These deficiencies represent areas for training.

2.6 TRAINING NEED ANALYSIS / ASSESSMENT IS CARRIED OUT AT THREE LEVELS


2.6.1 ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS The organizational analysis is aimed at short listing the focus areas for training within the organization and the factors that may affect the same. Organizational mission, vision, goals, people inventories, processes, performance data are all studied. The study gives cues about the

kind of learning environment required for the training. Motorola and IBM for example, conduct surveys every year keeping in view the short term and long term goals of the organization.
2. 6.2 JOB ANALYSIS

The job analysis of the needs assessment survey aims at understanding the what of the training development stage. The kind of intervention needed is what is decided upon in the job analysis. It is an objective assessment of the job wherein both the worker oriented - approach as well as the task - oriented approach is taken into consideration. The worker approach identifies key behaviors and ask for a certain job and the task - oriented approach identifies the activities to be performed in a certain job. The former is useful in deciding the intervention and the latter in content development and program evaluation.
2.6.3 INDIVIDUAL ANALYSIS

Individual analysis is concerned with who in the organization needs the training and in which particular area. Here performance is taken out from the performance appraisal data and the same is compared with the expected level or standard of performance. The individual analysis is also conducted through questionnaires, 360 feedback, personal interviews etc. Likewise, many organization use competency ratings to rate their managers; these ratings may come from their subordinates, customers, peers, bosses etc. Organizations also make use of attitude surveys, critical Incidents and Assessment surveys to understand training needs.

2.7 STEPS IN TRAINING NEED ANALYSIS


2.7.1 Identify Problem Needs Determine circumstance for training request Identify potential skill gap Set objectives 2.7.2 Determine Design of Needs Analysis Establish method selection criteria Assess advantages and disadvantages for methods 2.7.3 Collect Data Conduct interviews Administer surveys and questionnaires Conduct focus groups Observe people at work Review documents

2.7.4 Analyze Data Conduct qualitative or quantitative analysis Determine solutions and recommendations 2.7.5 Provide Feedback Write report and make oral presentation Determine next step training needed? 2.7.6 Develop Action Plan Use results as the basis for training design, development and evaluation