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The Guardian

How to pick wild mushrooms


Phil Daoust / Thursday 16 September 2010

The news that author Nicholas Evans needs a kidney transplant after eating deadly mushrooms hasn't done much for the reputation of our wild fungi. But it would be a crying shame if we stopped eating them
Autumn's a bit rubbish, though we've got in the habit of pretending it isn't. Yes, the leaves are nice, and there are those mists and mellow fruitfulness, but it's basically damp and chilly and sad. In summer you lie in hammocks; in winter there are snowmen and high blue skies; in between you struggle with daddylonglegs and wish the clouds would blow away. But the season has one thing going for it: mushrooms. This is when woods and meadows fill with boletes and parasols and blewitts and wax caps, and only a fool would head into the countryside without a bag or a basket. As I live in said countryside, and I like a walk, I've been picking most days for a fortnight now. A week ago I came home with four or five kilos of ceps, those squat, chunky affairs sometimes known as penny buns because of their shiny brown caps. They looked and smelled as good as they tasted. I ate a few that evening, slicing the remainder and putting them to dry above a radiator. I've now got 12 litres of mushrooms preserved in jars in my kitchen. That's enough to supply a deli, so I'll be giving a lot away. Dried fungi cost a fortune, so everyone's delighted to get them. Except this year. This year a lot of people are saying thanks, but no thanks. Their reasons vary, but as far as I can tell they're afraid I'll poison them. I've been doing this for years, and never given myself so much as indigestion, but suddenly everyone's telling me to be very, very careful about what I collect. Wouldn't it be safer to leave it to the professionals, they ask. It seems cruel to point the finger at someone who has suffered, but it's at least partly Nicholas Evans's fault. In 2008 the Horse Whisperer author went for a stroll in the Moray countryside and filled a basket where he expected to find ceps or luscious yellow chanterelles. Evans had picked wild mushrooms before, with no ill effects, but this time it was different. What he had harvested was Cortinarius speciosissimus, better known as the deadly webcap. He, his wife and his brother- and sister-in-law shared half a kilo or so for lunch, fried with a little parsley. Within three days, they were in hospital, their kidneys being destroyed by the chemical orellanin. They were lucky not to die, and luckier still that their children opted out of the feast. As it is, the adults were sick for months. Two years on, the Evanses and their brother-in-law have almost no kidney function. Every other day, they spend hours plugged into dialysis machines, having been on the waiting list for a transplant since early 2009. "I do not pee at all," Evans said in a recent interview. "But I dream about it

wonderful peeing dreams when I think I am cured. When I wake up and find it isn't true, it takes me a while to disbelieve it." Webcaps are just one of the hazards you have to worry about. Also in 2008, an Isle of Wight woman, Amphon Tuckey, died a day after eating mushrooms her niece had gathered at Ventnor Botanic Gardens. They were Amanita phalloides death caps which are said to be responsible for the vast majority of the world's mushroom-related deaths. A single death cap can kill; in the early 20th century, a Frenchman called Girard used them to murder acquaintances and collect on their life insurance. Because Tuckey's husband had warned her not to eat wild mushrooms, and she didn't want to admit that she had, she blamed her sickness on dodgy sausages and was treated for gastroenteritis. In fact, her liver and kidneys were being wrecked by cyclopeptides, the most vicious toxin found in fungi. "You do take a risk when you eat anything that grows in the wild," the coroner told Tuckey's family. "The answer is never to do it at all." Is accidental poisoning unique to Britain, where many people are so clueless about nature they can barely tell a crow from a cowslip? Hardly: in China, hundreds of villagers are believed to have been killed by an innocent-looking mushroom called the little white. And it's not just humans that can make mistakes. According to US vet Bari Spielman, dog owners should take care to remove mushrooms from their "yards", otherwise their best friends could end up with jaundice and seizures, or even in a coma. And yet, as any dog owner will tell you, most mutts will happily and safely eat fox crap or long-dead rats. Only a few mushrooms will kill you; most will just make you wish you were dead. Species such as the destroying angel, the devil's bolete, the poison pie and the sickener get their names for a good reason. What makes things particulary tricky for foragers is that many edible mushrooms are so similar to toxic varieties that only an expert can tell the difference. The yellow-staining mushroom (Agaricus xanthodermus), for instance, which can leave you racing between basin and toilet for days on end, is easily mistaken for both the field mushroom (Agaricus campestris) and the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), the usual white number that you buy in supermarkets. The only way to tell some lookalikes apart is to stick them on a piece of paper and check the colour of the spores that drop from their undercarriages. That's every bit as tedious as it sounds. So if mushrooms can be so dangerous, why do I and so many other amateurs persist in picking them? It's not just for the pleasure of walking through a sunchequered wood, trying to spot the off-white of a cauliflower fungus among the fallen leaves. If you're willing to do a little homework, the risks can be managed. They can almost be managed away. First of all, you need to ignore every single rule of thumb that you will ever hear about how to tell a good mushroom from a bad. You can safely eat anything that an animal has nibbled? Rubbish. Cooking or drying destroys all poisons? Rubbish. Peeling a mushroom removes the poisons? Rubbish. If a mushroom is easy to peel, it's all right to eat. Rubbish. All brightly coloured mushrooms are poisonous? Rubbish. All mushrooms that smell good are

edible? Rubbish. Any mushroom that turns blue when you cut it will kill you? Rubbish. Whatever the rule, it will be rubbish. As Patrick Harding, Tony Lion and Gill Tomblin put it in their book, How to Identify Edible Mushrooms, they are "dangerous superstition". The only truth in those "rules" was a partial one: cooking does destroy some poisons. It also makes all mushrooms easier to digest. Even cultivated mushrooms can make your stomach rumble if you eat them raw. With no shortcuts to take, what can you do? Simply learn how to identify at least a few edible species and pick only them. You will also need to recognise any poisonous species with which they might be confused. For a start, you'll need a good field guide perhaps the one mentioned above, or Mushrooms, by Roger Phillips, or Mushrooms: River Cottage Handbook No 1, by John Wright. This will tell you not only what particular species look like, but at what time of year you are most likely to find them, and in what surroundings. Some prefer grassland, others woods. Some wood-lovers prefer deciduous trees, others conifers. Some conifer-lovers prefer pines, others larches. Some conifer-lovers grow on the tree itself, others near it. Some edible varieties, such as the beefsteak fungus, grow so high among the branches you may need a ladder to pick them . . . Book learning is not enough, however. You should also get some personal tuition, either by enrolling on a course or by going on forays with a more experienced neighbour. Unless you're positive they know what they're talking about (be very nervous if anyone tells you "I'm sure that's safe to eat, but I'm not sure what it's called" or "They don't normally look like that but that's where I found them last year"), check everything you're told against your guide. And if you have the slightest doubt about what you're looking at, leave it alone. This, in fact, is the golden rule once you feel confident enough to go picking on your own: unless you're 100% sure you have identified your mushroom as edible ie, you can put a name to it leave it. Cap the wrong colour? Leave it. Growing at the wrong time of year? Leave it. In the wrong place? Leave it. Better to sacrifice a thousand meals than your health. When you get home, take another hard look at what you've picked. If anything causes you even a flicker of concern, into the bin with it. If you want to make life easy for yourself (and why wouldn't you?), begin by searching for boletes, a family that includes some of the tastiest mushrooms there are, from the ceps that are so delicious in risotto to orange birch boletes with their bright caps and grey-flecked stalks. You'll mostly find them in or just outside woods, often beside paths or in clearings where they get a mix of sunshine and shade. Once you know what to look for, you need never confuse a bolete with a member of any other family. They have caps and stalks, like most of their peers, but the resemblance ends there. While most mushrooms have "gills" beneath their caps, radiating horizontally from the stalk like spokes on a wheel, boletes have tiny vertical "tubes", packed so closely that they seem to form a solid or slightly spongy mass. Look at your field guide if you're not sure what I mean. In fact, look at your field guide anyway. As you should have realised by now, only someone with a death wish would pick mushrooms based

on a description in a newspaper. Not only are boletes common; there aren't many varieties, so identification shouldn't be too difficult. Best of all, of all the boletes you will encounter in Britain, none is likely to kill you. Barring some freak reaction, only a handful will even make you sick, such as the devil's bolete, with its red tubes and pale cap, or the lurid bolete, with its handsome red and yellow stalk and yellow tubes. If ever there was a beginner's mushroom, the fungal equivalent of the bike with training wheels, it's the bolete. Mind you, some people will find a way to turn anything into a dangerous sport. In Italy, at least 18 people have died gathering mushrooms this year. They weren't poisoned; they fell down mountains. Some of them had gone picking in the dark. Checking and cleaning your mushrooms As soon as you get home sort through your mushrooms. Double check the identity of each and discard any youre not 100% sure of. Its worth getting a second mushroom identification book for this double checking as it may make slightly different observations which could help. It will also have another set of pictures to check against. Clean your mushrooms and trim them to remove any damaged parts before putting them in the fridge. Paper bags are good for storing mushrooms or wrap them in kitchen paper put in a loosely sealed containers. Kept in the fridge like this most species will last several days, some even longer. A few species dont keep well however well you store them (particularly the Inkcaps). If you brought back any specimens to closer inspection now is a good time to setup any spore prints you need to take. Its also a good idea to update your mushroom diary now. Keeping a diary of when and where youve searched and what you found will prove invaluable for deciding where to go on future forays. If you know that at this time last year a particular field had parasol mushrooms in it, itll be worth a visit again. If you dont keep a diary youre unlikely to remember which or in which week you found them last time. Modern technology can help here. A handheld GPS will allow you to make a way-point when you find a mushroom and annotate it. Youll then know exactly what you found where and youll be able to navigate back to that point in the future.

Legal aspects of picking wild mushrooms The following information is the understanding of a lay person interested in mushroom collection, rather than a legal professional. As such it should not be relied upon as the definitive legal position. The law impacts on mushroom picking in at least 5 areas: Trespass Theft Local Bylaws Misuse of Drugs Poisonous Substances

Trespass Under English law all land is owned by someone. Unless this land is common land, open access land, or a public right of way then entering it without the owners permission is Trespass. Under these circumstances the land owner has the right to ask you to leave their land by the shortest reasonable route. However, unless you cause damage or are abusive/threatening there is nothing further the land owner can do. Trespass is a civil offence but is rarely ever taken to court and has little chance of being successful unless damage is caused. However, if persistent Trespass can be proved, the land owner can apply for a injunction ordering you to keep off his land. A breach of such an order is 'contempt of court' - a criminal offense. Trespass is a more serious offence under Scottish Law. Theft Theft Act 1968 Section 4(3) states that: A person who picks mushrooms growing wild on any land, or who picks flowers, fruit or foliage from a plant growing wild on any land, does not

(although not in possession of the land) steal what he picks, unless he does it for reward or for sale or other commercial purpose. For purposes of this subsection "mushroom" includes any fungus, and "plant" includes any shrub or tree. This means that you can collect wild fungi on any land for your own use without it being classed as theft. This is true even if collecting whilst trespassing! A land owner who confronts you whilst trespassing on his land has no right to ask you give-up any mushrooms you have collected - they are yours. The situation changes if you are collecting for any commercial purpose. Collecting without the land owners consent is now theft and can be prosecuted.

Local Bylaws Although, as stated above, it is generally legal to collect wild mushrooms on any land, exceptions may be made via local bylaws. Some nature reserves and SSSIs have bylaws banning the collection of forest produce, which includes mushrooms. Misuse of Drugs There are a number of fungi which contain controlled drugs. These include the Liberty Cap and some other Psilocybes (psilocin, psilocybin ) and The Panther (bufotenine). Possession of any such mushrooms without permission, whether fresh, dried or in any form of preparation, is illegal. All of the controlled drugs found in mushrooms fall into class A (the most severe offences). Poisonous Substances The deliberate collection of poisonous mushrooms for the purpose administration to any person (even yourself) is illegal. A number of offences may be involve here, including: Offenses Against the Person Act Criminal Attempts Act Criminal Law Act Suicide Act (if you attempt to knowingly consume poisonous mushrooms yourself)

Safety code for picking wild mushrooms It is best to learn to identify mushrooms from an expert in the field. There is a great deal of variation between individual mushrooms and also in how a mushroom with look at different stages of development and in different growing conditions. Any form of mushroom guide (book or online) will have difficulty expressing these variations. Learn the most dangerous poisonous species and be confident in your identification. There are relatively few really dangerous species. If you know and avoid these, then you shouldn't be able to do yourself any lasting harm. The key to not poisoning yourself is good identification. Be absolutely sure of what you are eating before cooking it. Check ALL of the relevant features and discard all mushroom which do not match them all. If in any doubt don't eat it! Don't assume that all mushrooms you find together are of the same species; different species can be found together. Check every specimen. Don't pick specimens that are too young. In their early stages many of the necessary identifying features may not have developed. Don't pick old or moldy specimens. Even if they're an edible species, they can make you as ill as eating any other food that's gone-off. As with any food you gather, avoid collecting in polluted or industrial areas. Mushrooms tend to absorb heavy metals from their environment.

Sort through your collection as soon as you get home and double check the identities. You now have time and comfort to check the features more carefully than you may have in the field. Take this final opportunity to discard anything you're not certain of. Even if you feel certain of your identification, if this is first time you'll be trying a certain species, only try a very small amount and only eat that one species. This will reduce any effects of a misidentification. This will also help if identification was right but it disagrees with you. When trying new species also keep a sample of the same collection in fridge for at least a couple of days after first eating it. This can be used to get a professional identification if you do become unwell. If you believe you or someone you know may be suffering from mushroom poisoning seek medical help.

What to do when mushroom collecting Firstly, searching for mushrooms isnt a race - walk slowly, stop and look around. Mushrooms can be hard to spot at the best of times without actually stopping to look. Beginners are particularly bad at seeing even what is directly in front of them until theyve "got their eye in." Your approach to searching can be a random wander or a systematic scan depending on your personality or the openness of the ground youre searching. When first starting out mushroom hunting its usually best to limit your self to a few common and easily identified species. As you become confident with these gradually extend your list. If possible, your first trips should be with a more experienced mushroom forager that can show you the ropes. There are many mushroom forays organised by local foraging groups or mycological societies which are a good starting point. There are also commercial courses where you pay to attend and get expert tuition. So youve spotted a fungus. Youve now got decide whether its edible. Use your field guide and systematically check all of the features of the mushroom. If they all match the descriptions of a mushroom your list, well done, pop it in the basket. You might consider taking those youre not sure of home for closer inspection, but keep them separate from your main collection. With your mushroom safely in your basket search very carefully in the immediate area for others. Many species grow in groups or rings so others may to be close by. Even if you dont find anything in the immediate area,

still pay close attention to the area around where you made your find. Youve found one mushroom that liked the conditions there, others might too.

What to take mushroom picking As youll be spending time out-of-doors its worth ensuring have the proper outdoor clothing. Stout boots and a waterproof coat are necessary in mushroom environments. A would-be mushroom collector should also consider taking the following kit with them. basket - keeping mushrooms in plastic bags makes them sweat and degrade very quickly knife - for removing mushrooms growing on wood; for checking for maggots and for removing damaged or dirty sections before adding mushrooms to your basket. brush - to clean dirt, grass, leaves from your mushrooms field guide - this should be small enough to fit in your pocket hand lens (optional) - may be useful for subtle points of identification compass & map - if youre wandering randomly around a wood looking at the ground, its very easy to get lost! walking stick - doubles as a bracken

When to look for mushrooms Autumn is usually thought of as mushroom season and this is certainly the most productive time. However, you should remember that each individual species of fungus has its own season. Autumn is just when more of these seasons overlap. There are species which appear only in the spring (Morel, St. Georges Mushroom) or prefer the summer (Chicken of the Woods, Chanterelle). There are even species which are winter specialists (Velvet Shank, Oyster Mushroom). During the autumn it is usually enough to visit a suitable location and see what you find. During the quieter times of year it is probably better to choose areas favoured by specific seasonal mushrooms. In the winter visit woodland with lots of old stumps and fallen logs that would suit Velvet Shank and Oyster Mushrooms. In the spring visit chalky pasture land that St.Georges mushrooms would like or look under hedge rows and in mulched flower beds for Morels. Whilst there is a usual season for each species of mushroom, when they actually appear will vary depending on the weather conditions. A cool wet summer can mean that autumn species may appear a full month before they&rsqou;re supposed to. Conversely, a dry start to the autumn can delay the appearance of many species until the usual autumn rains eventually arrive.

Where to look for wild mushrooms Although mushrooms may be found in many and varied places, there are two main type of habitat that most mushroom hunters focus on. These are: pasture and woodland. Pasture basically means grassy areas. However, some types of grassland are better than others. The best are fields that are used for year-round grazing of animals (farm or wild). The animals keep the grass short which the fungi prefer as well as fertilising the land. Natural heath land is also a good option. Land which is used to grow hay is not so productive (for fungi) because of the long grass and the disturbance caused by heavy machinery. Ill pass on a useful tip here - Google Earth. You can see mushrooms from space, honest! Well, not the mushrooms themselves, but the tell-tale rings that some species (such as Fairy-ring Champignons) leave in the grass. These rings are clearly visible on satellite images, so you can select likely fields to visit whilst sitting at your computer (just dont tell your boss that I suggested it). Satellite images can also tell you whether a patch of woodland on a map is coniferous or deciduous. This is useful if you're searching for species that grow with particular trees. Many fungi, indeed the majority of edible species, prefer woodland. This may be a small copse or the middle of a forest. Some of the woodland fungi grow on the decaying leaf litter on the woodland floor, while others have a

direct relationship with the trees they grow under. Many species of fungi only grow in association with certain types of tree. Consequently, woods in which favoured species of tree predominate are likely to be more productive. Trees which are good for mushroom hunting include: Beech, Oak, Birch, Pine. Woods that are predominately Sycamore or Elder are likely to be less productive.

The Guardian, Wednesday 6 March 2013

Hugo Chvez: Venezuela begins seven days of mourning after president dies in Caracas
Death comes 21 months after it was revealed he had a tumour, and he will be given a state funeral in the capital
Venezuelans began seven days of painful and public mourning on Tuesday night after the announcement that their president, Hugo Chvez, had died aged 58 after a long battle .................... cancer. The country's vice-president, Nicols Maduro tipped as a likely successor ...................... the news on Tuesday night, prompting a wave of grief in the nation's streets. "We have just ..................... the most tragic and awful information. At 4.25pm, President Hugo Chvez Frias died," Maduro announced in a televised address, his voice choking. "It's a moment of deep pain," he said. Chvez died at a military hospital in Caracas, the capital of the country he has ruled ................... 1999. As soon as the news was ...................,

supporters gathered at the city's main square, Plaza Bolivar, and began chanting: "Chvez vive, la lucha sigue" "Chvez lives, the battle continues." People wearing the red beret the president was known ............... sang a popular folk song with the words: "Those who die for life cannot be called dead." As messages of condolence came from many world leaders, perhaps the most significant was from Barack Obama. He said: "At this challenging time of President Hugo Chvez's passing, the United States reaffirms its support for the Venezuelan ........................ and its interest in developing a constructive relationship with the Venezuelan government. As Venezuela begins a new ...................... in its history, the US remains committed ................ policies that promote democratic principles, the rule of law and respect for human ..................... ." Chvez, the symbol of Latin American socialism, succumbed to a respiratory infection on Tuesday evening, 21 months after he first revealed he had a tumour. He had not been ................. in public for three months since emergency surgery in Cuba on 11 December. He will be given a state .................. in Caracas on Friday, likely to be attended by millions of supporters and leftwing leaders from across the globe who have been inspired by Chvez's doctrine of "Bolivarian 21stcentury socialism", grateful for the subsidised energy he provided or simply impressed by his charisma. His death will also trigger a presidential ................., to be held within 30 days, to decide who controls the world's greatest untapped reserves of ................... . His designated ..................., Maduro, is likely to face Henrique Capriles, the losing opposition candidate in the presidential election held a few months ago in October 2012. Until then, ..................... to the constitution, the interim president should be the head of the national assembly, Diosdado Cabello. However, on Tuesday night the Venezuelan foreign minister, Elias Jaua, said Maduro was the interim president. It was not clear ................. this would only apply until the official calling of the election and beginning of the campaign, or whether Maduro would remain in charge until the election result was determined. Robert Menendez, chairman of the US Senate foreign relations committee, called for free and fair elections to replace Chvez. "Hugo Chavez ruled Venezuela with an iron .................. and his passing has left a political void that we hope will be filled peacefully and through a constitutional and democratic process, grounded in the Venezuelan constitution and adhering to the Inter-American Democratic Charter." Replacing one of most colourful figures on the global political landscape will be an immense .................. . Born to a poor family on the plains, Chvez became a tank commander and a devotee of South America's liberator, Simn Bolvar. A failed coup in 1992 propelled him into the limelight but it

was his ballot box triumphs that made him an inspiration for the resurgent Latin American left and the most outspoken and often humorous critic of the US, the war in Iraq and George Bush, whom he described as a "donkey" and a "devil". Formerly one of the most dynamic political leaders in the world with a globe-trotting schedule and a weekly, unscripted TV broadcast often hours .................. Chvez shocked his countrymen in June 2011 when he revealed that Cuban surgeons had removed a baseball-sized tumour from his pelvic region. After that, he .................... several rounds of chemotherapy and two more operations in what he described as a "battle for health and for life". His medical records were never made public, prompting widespread speculation about his imminent demise, but he and his supporters insisted he was recovering. Before the presidential election in October 2012, aides claimed he was well ........................ to complete a full term. During that campaign, Chvez was clearly affected by his illness. But although he made fewer and shorter appearances, he won ................... votes than in any of his earlier elections battles, prompting him to proclaim victory in a "perfect battle". Fears about his health escalated after he rushed to Cuba for hyperbaric oxygen treatment on 27 November. Less than a fortnight later, he made a televised ................... in which he said that doctors had discovered malignant cells that required surgery and urged Venezuelans to vote for Maduro if he was incapacitated. Since his operation in December, Chvez has been visited by family members and several of his closest political allies, ..................... Fidel and Raul Castro of Cuba, Ecuadorean president Rafael Correa and Bolivian president Evo Morales. Beyond a set of four photographs released last month that showed a remarkably hearty looking Chvez smiling in a hospital bed and flanked by his daughters, the president has not been seen or heard for three months. This prompted frequent rumours that the president was dead or on life ................. . The government denied this and said he continued to ................. the country by writing down his orders. But officials acknowledged that Chvez suffered multiple complications after his surgery including respiratory infections and bleeding. He had to undergo more chemotherapy and drug treatments and could only breathe ............... a tracheal tube. He returned from Cuba on 18 February at his own request, said officials. Since then he has been treated at Carlos Arvelo military hospital in Caracas. Hopes for a recovery dimmed on Monday, when minister of communications, Ernesto Villegas, said the president's ..................... had declined due to a "new and serious respiratory infection." Constitutional questions have been ................. by his long hospitalisation and absence from public life, which he formerly dominated with dynamic

and provocative appearances on his weekly television address, Hello Mr President. When he failed to ................. his scheduled inauguration on 10 January, the opposition asked who is running the country. The ruling party responded with a rally of more than 100,000 supporters, many carrying banners declaring "We are Chvez."

Mushroom Forays SOMA mushroom forays are field trips to collect wild mushrooms with knowledgeable fungi folk. Forays provide a great opportunity to get out in the woods in a friendly atmosphere to learn the ins and outs of identifying and collecting mushrooms. Our forays are always open to the public, and we welcome all ages, experience levels, and interests. Check out the events calendar for the next foray. Foraging, identifying, and eating

At a typical foray, we sort ourselves into several groups, each led by a foray leader who knows the area and the fungi to be found. After about an hour of foraging, we reconvene with our fungal treasures to have them identified, photographed, and sometimesif deemed edible and choice by our expertsto be cooked up for the postforay potluck by members of the SOMA Culinary Group. The potluck is the convivial time of the forays, with everyone gathering, sharing, and exchanging stories, often over a glass of good wine. SOMA Culinary Group members bring portable stoves, cookware, and condiments, and take charge of cooking up mushrooms gathered on the foray to complement the potluck dishes. When and where During the mushroom season (from September to May), SOMA leads monthly forays on the Saturday morning following the Thursday night meeting. Forays are usually at Salt Point State Park. Meet at 10am at Woodside Campground public area which is central in Salt Point, almost directly across from Gerstle Cove Campgroundwe highly encourage car pooling. There is a day use fee of $8/vehicle (Yet another reason to carpool!) To find out when the next foray will be, check out the events calendar. Ten things to bring on a Foray 1. Collecting basket or paper bag with handles 2. Wax bags or small paper bags to separate species (no plastic!) 3. A 10x hand lens or small magnifying glass is always helpful for identification 4. Water bottle and a snack 5. A notebook, pen, and a small Mushroom field guide is always useful 6. Small digging tool or knife to get at the mushrooms 7. A whistle is handy to locate your fellow foragers if you get off trail or turned around! 8. Hat and/or rain gear as weather demands 9. Some brown soap or similar disinfectant for the inevitable tangling with poison oak 10. A potluck dish, utensils*, and a good appetite *Please bring your own plates, flatware, and glassware. By not leaving behind bags of trash for a Park employee to deal with may allow us to maintain the nice arrangement we have a while longer. Andyou knew this was comingit's better for the environment. Contact information For more specific info about the forays, feel free to contact the foray leader:

Mushroom Foray Basics What is a Mushroom Foray? When people who love wild mushrooms say "foray," theyre talking about organizing a group to go into the forest to look for fungi. The purpose of a foray can be to hunt for edibles, collect for scientific study, or look at the

beauty and diversity of mushrooms. Forays can last from an hour or two, to a multi-day overnight trip. On overnight forays some of the plunder is typically cooked in delicious dishes for all to share. Whether its your first time in the woods, or if youre an experienced mushroom hunter, you need to bring along some basic tools and be prepared for the unexpected. Emergencies happen, and the better prepared you are, the better you can deal with them. Weather conditions can change quickly. You can become disoriented and hopelessly lost. You need to be aware of the natural hazards in the area where you are collecting mushrooms. And What Should I Bring? If youve been on a mushroom foray, you get the idea that everybody has a uniform look and gestalt. They wear the same gear and carry the same equipment because theyve learned from each other how to stay warm and dry and collect mass quantities of mushrooms. Fads come and go, but people adjust to new ideas and equipment when they work better. It could just as easily be a grocery handbasket that you see everywhere in the woods, but Ghana baskets are the current "thing" to carry. When I considered purchasing a Ghana basket, I thought it wouldnt last very long. Ive had the same one now for 8 years. Sometimes you'll find you need to be more discrete about collecting mushrooms. Reusable or paper grocery bags or even a day pack work in these situations. The object of a foray is to collect and carry delicate mushrooms in a way that you can bring them home in good condition. Basic mushroom equipment includes a basket, sturdy enough to keep your mushrooms from getting smashed and broken. Wax bags are carried to keep collections of different mushrooms separate and to help keep them clean. Wax paper or aluminum foil can be handy tools to protect mushrooms as well. Small collections can be stored safely in a plastic tackle box. Dont collect mushrooms in plastic bags they will quickly rot and become a jumbled mess. In a pinch, a grocery bag works. A small pocket knife can be used for cutting or cleaning mushrooms, and a small trowel can help extract the whole mushroom from its substrate. A natural bristle painters brush will help you keep edibles clean for the trip home. Some people cut off of the bristles to make the brush more stiff. A notebook, paper and pen(cil) are useful for taking notes on the mushrooms you collect. Basket Wax bags Knife Trowel Small brush Water

Mushroom forays can often take place in new places. Be sure to have good sturdy hiking boots and hiking socks. A hat can perform the double duty of protecting your head from the sun and unseen branches. Also in the basic equipment category is water. Water could be key to survival if you get lost. Keeping Oriented Doing your best to keep from getting lost and late is an important responsiblity for everyone on a foray. Before you head out the door, be sure you have some basic maps of the area you are going to, as well as directions to the foray. If you're going by yourself into the woods, let someone know your plans, so if you don't return on time, they can initiate a search. Bring along a compass, GPS device, and a watch. Use your compass or GPS device, and take readings as you walk through the woods. Walkie talkies are cheap and handy in emergencies, but they only provide communication, not directions. The same problem applies to cell phones, which are often useless in the forest - don't rely on a cell phone where you have no signal. GPS devices need three satellites for an accurate reading the deep forest can block them from working well. The foray leader should have an accurate headcount at the foray beginning point. There is a set time to meet back at the parking lot, and if you miss the rendezvous, people will get worried and anxious about your well being. A buddy system helps keep people together. Be sure to let someone know if you leave early. Maps Compass or GPS device Walkie Talkie Watch Whistle

Keeping oriented in the woods is hard when you are looking down for that next great mushroom without paying strict attention to the contours of the ground and the way back to your car. Generally, when people go in the woods together, they separate some distance so as not to cover the same ground. Either stay in visual or voice contact with someone in the group at all times. An agreed to whistle signal system in a group helps people communicate both dangers and delights (I just found a hundred morels over here. Theres lots more, come on over!). The downside of whistles is that in rough terrain, the sound doesnt carry very far. The typical system (make sure you agree before you split up signal systems vary regionally) is: One blast: Anybody out there? Two blasts: I heard you. Just keeping in touch. Three blasts: I just broke something. HELP!

Four blasts: Time to go back to the car

Clothing Conditions can change quickly on a foray. If you are in a sheltered forest with a thick canopy, you may not notice the first raindrops or snowflakes. Here in California, the fog can roll in suddenly with a quick drop in temperature. In the mountains, dangerous storms can arrive with no notice. Carry a jacket or extra layer. Gore-Tex works best, and if you're going to be in driving rain, as we often are in the wet season, Gore-Tex rain pants work to keep your lower half dry as well, especially if you are kneeling down a lot to pick mushrooms and take photos. Dressing in layers also works well in California, but you knew that. Hazards and Extras Being in the woods can present hazards that we dont normally encounter. Its your job to be aware of your surroundings and be ready to act when something happens. California forests have mountain lions, bears, snakes, wild pigs and the lesser dangers of ticks, mosquitoes. Deer, while very cute from afar, can injure you if surprised. Learn what poison oak (Toxicodendron diversilobum) looks like and how to avoid it. Note that the leaves turn red in the Fall, and the plants are just sticks in the Winter you can still get oils at this stage. Several over the counter treatments are available. We've used Technu and it works. Take care to avoid recontamination from your clothes and shoes. In the wet woods after a storm, trees can fall without warning. You may get hungry after expending energy hiking for a long period. Carry some extra food. Sharing a chocolate bar is a good way to meet new people. People often gather at the end of a foray to look over their finds and make some identifications. It's helpful to have a field guide and hand lens. If you are collecting small, delicate mushrooms for further study, a plastic tackle box is a good way to protect them in the field. Taking pictures in the forest is a whole separate topic collecting mushrooms and taking great photos is a difficult mix of tasks. Food and snacks Mushroom Field Guide Hand lens or magnifying glass Small tackle box Flashlight and extra batteries Camera and extra batteries Walking stick Mosquito repellant Technu or other poison oak wash First aid kit Emergency contact numbers

Mushroom Forays are Fun Going on a mushroom walk with experienced people is a good way to learn. Make the most of your expeience by asking questions. There is usually lots of time to get to know the other people in the group. Also, in case you hadn't heard this about mycophiles, we love to eat mushroom feasts in a campground are among the best gourmet meals you'll ever experience. Mushroomers come from all walks of life. Join our next foray there's lots to learn!

Taking a spore print

Before you reach for the microscope, which, lets be honest most of us dont have, taking spore prints can be the make or break solution for any identification. All you need to see is the colour of the spore deposit (reproductive spores dropped from the underside of the cap). If you have not done this before, its very easy to do. Simple example: Once you have your mushroom back at home, simply cut off the stem as close the cap as you can. Place the cap (gills down) on a sheet of blank white paper or similar. Leave undisturbed for 3-4 hours or leave overnight for the best results. When the time is ready, simply remove the cap from the paper to see the results. This is a quick and simple method in creating a spore print. Check the colour results in daylight rather than under an electric source. You may have something similar to the following examples: There are naturally many variations in colour, including white or pale pink. So its sometimes best to place the cap over both black and white coloured paper. The white spores will be more noticeable on a darker background. If you do not wish to remove the stem, simply cut a hole in some

cardboard (or heavier weight paper), slot the stem through the hole and place the card on the rim of a tall glass so the mushroom is gently suspended on the card. Its also best to make note of the sometimes subtle variations of the same colour produced by several species. ie. you will encounter many brown shades, ranging from very light/pale, medium to strong or rust-like. There are also many white to cream colour variations too. From all the information you have gathered you will have a much better idea of what youre dealing with. I may not have covered all my finds within this blog for you to look at, but at least you will have a good collection of notes to cross reference with when checking other online sources and books etc. Its all good.

B&B 1 Welcome to Sissinghurst Castle Farmhouse We are delighted to welcome you to our 5-Star B&B Sissinghurst Castle Farmhouse. The Farmhouse is on the National Trust Estate known as Sissinghurst Castle. We are two miles from the historic market town of Cranbrook and within the beautiful Kent and Sussex High Weald area of outstanding natural beauty. We're also close to Goudhurst, Tenterden, Staplehurst, Biddenden and Hawkhurst and only 30 minutes from Maidstone, Royal Tunbridge Wells and Ashford International and only an hour from central London by train. Since opening, we have welcomed guests from around the world who have used The Farmhouse as a base to visit so many places in the South East of England, all within an hour. The Farmhouse is looking fantastic after its extensive refurbishment. The National Trust has spent 7 months renovating the building to the most exacting standards. They have preserved the Victorian originality of the house but modernised the whole farmhouse so that we can offer luxury accommodation and high quality hospitality within the historic setting of Sissinghurst Castle. We think it will give

our guests a truly memorable stay. Accommodation The Farmhouse has seven double bedrooms... All our rooms have views of the magnificent Sissinghurst Estate. All rooms have been individually designed and furnished. All rooms have their own en-suite bathroom or shower room. All rooms have digital radio, i-pod docking and digital TV. All rooms have broadband access. All rooms have tea and coffee making facilities. All mod-cons perhaps. But most people will probably stand slackjawed at the window, as we did when we first arrived, and enjoy the stunning views of the Estate and breathe in the tranquillity. The seven individual rooms are named after the original early Wealden settlements around the Sissinghurst Estate. The Farmhouse has 7 luxury double bedrooms, all with en-suite bathrooms or shower rooms. All of our bedrooms can be accessed without the use of stairs as we have a lift. The bedrooms are all individual and have spectacular views across the Sissinghurst Estate and many have a view of the Elizabethan Tower. Bedrooms have all those added luxuries that you would expect in such a special location including digital TV, radio, i-pod docking and Wi Fii. In this our third year at Sissinghurst Castle Farmhouse it has been wonderful to meet so many old friends of The Farmhouse and to welcome so many new guests. Please give us a call and come and share our home.... At Sissinghurst Castle Farmhouse we are committed to providing luxurious accessible accommodation for all our guests. We can provide detailed information on our facilities. The downstairs rooms We really want to encourage you to share this special place during your visit. Feel free to make full use of the intimate Dining Room, the luxurious Sitting Room. If you'd like to book any room for a meeting or other occasion during the day, or wish us to organise special evenings using great local talent and produce, please let us know.

How To Book Frazer and Sue look forward to welcoming you to Sissinghurst Castle Farmhouse - a place that you can experience the true intimacy and specialness of Sissinghurst. Our aim is to make your stay memorable, so if you have any special requests, please ask. We do not offer online bookings as we prefer to deal with your enquiries in person and to help you plan your stay with us here at The Farmhouse. If you wish to make an enquiry click on any of the email links from the website or send and an enquiry form from the Contact Us page. We check our emails several times a day and aim to reply as soon as possible. Alternatively if you prefer please telephone The Farmhouse and we will be happy to talk to you in person. All reservations will be confirmed by e mail or telephone once it has been confirmed a deposit of 50 per room per night will secure your booking. Deposits are refundable up to 21 days prior to your booking please notify us of your cancellation by e-mail, post or telephone. If you notify us with less than 21 days notice the deposit becomes non refundable. If you cancel within 7 days of your reservation we may charge for the reservation in full, unless we are able to re-let the room(s). We will not refund the deposit. We have a secure area on this page to pay your deposit once your enquiry is confirmed but until this is live we can take a deposit over the telephone, we accept Visa and Mastercard Debit and Credit Cards. Places To Visit We are 100 yards from the entrance to Sissinghurst Castle and its World famous gardens. We have our own parking area in front of the house and disabled access at the side of the house. The south facing garden has well stocked borders and a large flat lawn where guests can enjoy a tea and cakes in the afternoon or watch the sunset. There are some fantastic local walks to enjoy including maybe across the fields to the historic market town of Cranbrook. There are many walks around the estate at Sissinghurst The National Trust owns a variety of places in Kent, Sussex and Surrey, including historic houses, famous gardens, a castle, a

lighthouse and a mill - the time periods ranging from medieval to the 20th century. In addition to the properties owned by the National Trust we are 25 minutes from the beautiful gardens at Great Dixter or the award winning gardens atPashley Manor But there is more to Kent than gardens... Tenterden is the home to Chapel Down the award winning producer of English Wines History The Sissinghurst Estate is located 4km east of Cranbrook in Kent at the junction of the High and Low Weald. It lies within the High Weald Landscape Character Area and the edge of the High Weald Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. The Farmhouse is a unique and special place, just 100 yards from the World famous gardens of Sissinghurst. The Gardens were created by Vita Sackville-West and Harold Nicolson between 1930 and the early 1960's. Sissinghurst has always been more than just it's gardens. Today it is a garden in the ruin of a great Elizabethan house, set in the middle of its own woods, streams and farmland with long views on all sides across the fertile fields and meadows of the Kentish landscape. The Farmhouse was built in 1855, by the Mann Cornwallis family as "The Castle residence" with what were the "remains of Sissinghurst Castle close-by". Built in the era of High Victorian Farming, The Farmhouse was the centre of a thriving and modern farm producing high quality timber (Chestnut and Ash), game, beef, lamb, pork, hops, wheat, barley and fruit orchards. That same diversity has now been re-established by John Hickman and his family at Sissinghurst under the National Trust umbrella so that the sustainable farm produces food for its own thriving community. The Farmhouse can be found at the heart of the Estate and we look forward to welcoming our guests to come and be a part of this unique setting, even if only for a few days. The Farmhouse offers luxury accommodation, first class hospitality and much more. We aim to become an integral part of what is being produced on the Sissinghurst estate and we are passionate supporters of the outstanding producers in The Garden of England. We are really proud to be part of the unfinished history of Sissinghurst and we look forward to welcoming you into our home. Our job is to ensure that the specialness of the environment is reflected in the level of service and quality of help and hospitality

guests will experience, from fresh flowers, seasonal fruit bowls and food so fresh and local you can taste the difference, to the quality of the bed linen and the feeling of being in your second home.

B&B 2 Welcome to Buscot Manor If you are looking for the perfect Bed and Breakfast retreat in the Cotswolds, you will find it at Buscot Manor. Buscot Manor is a beautiful Queen Anne Manor House built in 1692 idyllically positioned on the edge of the historic, tranquil National Trust Village of Buscot. Situated in its own substantial grounds, within walking distance of the River Thames and Buscot Lock, it is perfectly located in the heart of rural Oxfordshire. There are a multitude of local attractions around Oxford, Burford, Cirencester and Cheltenham all of which are just on the doorstep. A wonderfully warm welcome awaits you from Romney and her family offering a wonderful Bed and Breakfast service. For those who wish to indulge and experience life in the grandeur and splendour of an English country manor house, Buscot Manor offers the perfect solution. Enjoy the magical drawing room and experience open fires in the winter months, with the shutters closed, relaxing in the deep comfortable sofas. During the summer months, relax and rejuvenate in the privacy of the walled Manor gardens. We pride ourselves on service and can cater for all whether a romantic weekend staying in one of our truly magnificent, elegant Four poster rooms, a walker taking a well earned break from the Thames Path or a corporate or Wedding group or a family break our aim is to make your stay unique and memorable . We can also offer elderly relatives/mobility impaired the benefit of a ground floor annexe with its own entrance. Our guests can even bring their dogs and horses as well as bicycles, fishing rods and canoes ! Experience our speciality Buscot Breakfasts of a Full Traditional Sumptuous English breakfast cooked on the aga with locally sourced produce from the neighbouring farmer or a full varied selection of cereals and fruits served in the Dining Room or weather permitting guests can take breakfast in the garden or

should you not wish to stray from your bed enjoy a fully stocked tea tray in your bedroom ! To Book please call : 01367 252225 or Mob 07973 831690 All of our rooms offer exceptional comfort with luxurious fabrics and furnishings with original features. These include leaded windows with beautiful country village views, as well as oak floors and period fireplaces; all of which adds to the overall ambiance, authenticity and unique atmosphere of Buscot Manor. There is a definite romantic feel about the Manor. In fact Percy Shelly wrote his famous Ode to a Churchyard in the nearby St Lawrence Church in Lechlade and we have named our rooms after some of the Romantic poets of Shelleys time. All of our rooms have the following Facilities : Fully Stocked Tea Tray with refreshments Wash hand basins and shaver sockets Exclusive bathrooms with deep roll top baths and heated towel rails Dressing Gowns Hairdryers Iron & Ironing Board on request Flat Screen TV/DVD Players WiFi connection available Travel Cots and Single or twin additional beds available where needed. The Shelley Super King Size Four Poster with Views towards Buscot Wick. The Keats King Size Four Poster with Views towards Buscot Weir. The Byron Double or Triple Room with Views over Buscot Village. The Lovedon - Twin Room with views towards Buscot Weir. The Wordsworth Ground Floor annexe Bedroom with its own entrance , shower and toilet being very useful for those with limited mobility. Also most suitable for those who wish to bring

their dog/s with them. We aim to make your breakfast to suit you. Whether you wish to have the full English Traditional Buscot Breakfast , a full Continental Breakfast , something lighter on the palette or have special dietary requirements we will endeavour to cater for you. All of our ingredients where possible are locally sourced from the neighbouring farmers. We pride ourselves on choice, with a range of : Speciality Teas/Coffees or Hot Chocolate/Squash/milk for children Freshly Baked Bread Preserves & Honey Full selection of cereals or porridge Choice of fruit, yoghurt and juices Kelmscott Country Pork Sausages & Bacon Free Range Eggs Breakfast is served in our elegant dining room. This can also be used by parties for formal occasions and will easily seat 10-12 or 20 plus buffet style. Children are most welcome and high chairs are available. Guests are more than welcome to retreat and relax in the garden with their breakfast should they wish! Lunchtime and Evening Meals Buscot Tea Rooms are open for lunch time meals and there is a full and extensive choice of Restaurants and Pubs in nearby Lechlade, Coleshill, or Faringdon. Should our guests book all of the Manor we are happy to arrange catering for all occasions. We can also offer the use of the Buscot Manor Barn and Grounds. This is a perfect venue for our guests exclusive use for a variety of entertainment purposes such as weddings, parties etc and we are happy to make all the arrangements for your special event.

The Guardian

Black smoke reveals no new pope yet from first papal conclave vote
Papal conclave in Rome fails to elect new leader as police raid dents chances of frontrunner Cardinal Angelo Scola
John Hooper in Vatican City / Tuesday 12 March 2013 19.27 GMT

Roman Catholic cardinals will continue to search on Wednesday for a new ....................... (SPIRIT) leader for the world's 1.2 billion baptised Catholics after black smoke poured from the chimney above the Sistine Chapel tonight, signalling they had failed to elect a new pope on the first ballot. Shortly after 5.30pm in Rome, the ................... (POPE) master of ceremonies, Guido Marini, drew shut the doors of the Sistine Chapel, locking inside the "princes of the church" who are to elect a pope great enough to lead his church out of the maze of scandal and controversy into which it stumbled during the strife-torn reign of former Pope Benedict XVI, who resigned last month. After listening to a homily by one of their number, the Maltese Augustinian, Prosper Grech, the cardinals held at least one ballot. But black smoke issuing from the chimney above the chapel two hours later showed that none of the cardinals had obtained the necessary twothirds ........................ (MAJOR). The cardinals now return to the Vatican's Santa Marta hotel for the night. They return to the Apostolic Palace for Mass on Wednesday morning and a new round of voting. The 115 men who took part in the ballot had earlier filed into the chapel in two long columns as they chanted Ora pro nobis (Pray for us) in .................... (RESPOND) to the names of the litany of saints and prophets. Dressed mostly in vivid scarlet, the cardinals advanced down the chapel towards Michelangelo's intimidating .................... (DEPICT) of the Last Judgement where they bowed their heads before the altar and took their places in the stalls on either side. The judgment the cardinals ........................ (SELF) will have to make in their ....................... (ASSEMBLE), or conclave, is among the most difficult in recent times. Benedict's abdication has robbed them of the chance that most of their predecessors had to swap opinions on a likely ....................... (SUCCEED) as the pope of the day advanced in age and infirmity. According to a report in the Italian daily Corriere della Sera, one of the two frontrunners, Cardinal Angelo Scola, the

archbishop of Milan, had secured the backing of up to 50 electors. But in the run-up to the conclave, several cardinals warned that an early result was unlikely because of the lack of a clear favourite. The traditional ...................... (WISE) has it that he who starts the election as the likely pope emerges a cardinal. But Scola is also handicapped by his close association with the ............................. (CONTROVERSY) Communion and Liberation movement, and just hours before the start of the ballot there was a ....................... (REMIND) of the scandals in which it has been entangled. Anti-mafia investigators carried out dawn raids in Scola's diocese in an investigation into ..................... (CORRUPT) linked to hospital supplies. Healthcare in Lombardy is the principal responsibility of the regional administration, which for the past 18 years has been run by Roberto Formigoni, a ......................... (CHILD) friend of Cardinal Scola and the leading political representative of the Communion and Liberation fellowship. Among those arrested was a local politician said to have organised expensive holidays for Formigoni that are central to an investigation into the former governor's affairs. Formigoni, who has been accused of, but not charged with, conspiracy and corruption, denies all wrongdoing. Until recently, Scola was seen as the conservative group's most distinguished ecclesiastical ....................... (SPEAK) but he has progressively loosened his ties to Communion and Liberation, and in early 2012 publicly rebuked the movement's ........................ (LEADER). According to sources close to the cardinals' preliminary ....................... (DELIBERATE), Scola was the champion of a largely non-Italian faction that is challenging the entrenched power of the Vatican cardinals. His chief rival as the voting began was said to be the archbishop of Sao Paolo, Odilo Scherer. The ......................... (MANAGE) of the Roman Curia, the central administration of the church, appeared to be foremost among the issues dividing the ................... (ELECT). Reports in the Italian media indicated that the final

meeting of the cardinals before the Conclave witnessed a clash between the Vatican's top official, Secretary of State Tarcisio Bertone, and a Brazilian cardinal, Joo Cardinal Brz de Aviz.

BBC Falklands referendum: Voters choose to remain UK territory


The people of the Falkland Islands have voted overwhelmingly in favour of remaining a UK overseas territory. Of 1,517 votes cast in the two-day referendum - on a turnout of more than 90% - 1,513 were in favour, ................. just three votes were against. It follows pressure from Argentina over its claims to the islands, 31 years after the Falklands War with the UK. The UK government welcomed the result and urged "all countries" to accept it and ................. the islanders' wishes. The referendum had asked: "Do you wish the Falkland Islands to retain their current political status ................ an Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom?" 'Wish them success' There was a turnout of more than 90% from 1,672 British citizens eligible to vote in a population of about 2,900. Nigel Haywood, governor of the Falkland Islands, said: "Obviously it is a major principle of the United Nations that a people have their right to self-determination, and you don't get a ............... clearer expression of the people's selfdetermination .............. such a large turnout and such a large 'yes' vote." Dick Sawle, a member of the island's legislative assembly, said it was an "absolutely phenomenal result ............... will send out the strongest possible message to the .............. of

the world about our right to self-determination - a right that was fought for in 1982, and which we have honoured tonight." Islanders had "very, very clearly said they wish to remain as a British overseas territory with those rights", he said, and it would "be our job now as a government to get that message out to the rest of the world and every country that will listen ................. us". He added: "What is very clear is that these islands never have belonged to Argentina; what is also extremely clear to me here, and from the results that we heard tonight, is that they ................ will do." UK Foreign Secretary William Hague said: "We have ................ been clear that we believe in the rights of the Falklands people to determine their ............... futures and to decide on the path they wish to take. It is only right that, in the 21st Century, these rights are respected. "All countries ................. accept the results of this referendum and support the Falkland islanders as they continue to develop their home and their economy. I wish them every success in doing ............... ." Argentine President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner has maintained that the Falkland islanders' wishes are not relevant in what is a territorial ................ . Most Argentines .................. the islands, which they call Las Malvinas, as Argentine and their recovery is enshrined in the national constitution. 'Big news' Journalist Celina Andreassi, of the Argentina Independent, said: "The majority of people here agree with the official position that the issue is not about self-determination and it is not about ............... the islanders consider themselves British or not - because obviously everyone knows that they do and that they are British. "The issue for most people here is whether the territory is Argentine or British, not the people ....................... ."

Carolina Barros, editor of the Buenos Aires Herald, said the referendum result was "quite a blow and big news for any Argentine saying that the Malvinas islands ............... to Argentina, or that the islanders living there are an implanted population". "I don't think it's going to change the mind of the government," she said. "It might change the mind of the Argentines. "Most of the Argentines think that the territory, the land, belongs to the Argentine map. But most of the Argentines, I think, think that the islanders are entitled to believe or feel themselves ................ the true inhabitants of the islands after almost nine generations." Election observers from different countries oversaw the vote, including representatives of Chile and Mexico despite an Argentine request for Latin American countries ................. to take part. Argentine forces invaded the Falkland Islands on 2 April 1982. The garrison of the UK's Royal Marines was overwhelmed and other British South Atlantic territories including South Georgia .................. also seized. In two months of fighting after the UK military responded, 255 British and about 650 Argentine servicemen were killed, along ............... three Falklands civilians, before Argentine forces surrendered. Argentina says it inherited the islands from the Spanish .................. in 1767 and the islands were seized by Britain in 1833, but the UK says it had long previously established a settlement there and never relinquished sovereignty. BBC

Chris Huhne and Vicky Pryce jailed for eight months


Former cabinet minister Chris Huhne and his ex-wife Vicky Pryce have each been jailed for eight months for perverting the course of justice. Huhne had admitted asking Pryce to take his speeding points to avoid losing his licence in 2003, and Pryce was convicted of having agreed to do so. Pryce, 60, went to a newspaper with the story after their marriage broke up. The judge said Huhne, 58, had fallen from a "great height", but any tragedy was their "own fault".

Huhne, who resigned as an MP after pleading guilty, told Channel 4 News ahead of sentencing that his actions in 2003 had spun into a "massive, devastating set of consequences for family, for career and for everything". Sentencing the pair at Southwark Crown Court, trial judge Mr Justice Sweeney said Huhne had lied "again and again". He told the couple: "To the extent that anything good has come out of this whole process, it is that now, finally, you have both been brought to justice for your joint offence. Any element of tragedy is entirely your own fault." During Pryce's trial, the prosecution alleged that she had chosen to take the points but later plotted to expose Huhne after he revealed he was having an affair with an aide and ended the couple's 26-year marriage. Pryce, a prominent economist, was described as being "controlling, manipulative and devious" by the judge. He said her "weapon of choice" - telling newspapers she took the points - had been a dangerous weapon because they had both broken the law. And the momentum of the news story led to Pryce's "unmasking". Mr Justice Sweeney said point-swapping was "all too easy to do" but it amounted to the serious criminal offence of perverting the course of justice. The judge told former energy and climate change secretary Huhne he was "more culpable" for the offence. He said: "You have fallen from a great height, albeit that is only modest mitigation given that it is a height that you would never have achieved if you had not hidden your commission of such a serious offence in the first place." He said Huhne would have been sentenced to nine months, had it not been for his guilty plea which meant he was entitled to a "discount" on the term. Turning to Pryce, who was sitting just a few metres apart from her ex-husband in the dock, he told the economist she had been readily persuaded to take the points. The judge said that, unless released earlier under supervision, the pair would each serve half of their eight-month sentences. Huhne resigned from the cabinet after being charged and as the Liberal Democrat MP for Eastleigh in Hampshire after pleading guilty. Speaking to The Times ahead of sentencing, he said: "Going to jail is a fairly small bit of the total penalty. What was really painful was losing the one job I really wanted to do. Climate change is something I care passionately about." He added that he had hoped Pryce would be acquitted for the sake of their family. She was found guilty last week. The breakdown of the relationship between Huhne and the couple's son Peter over the case was laid bare during Pryce's trial. Text messages between the father and son were read out in court. Huhne told the Times: "I didn't want her to go to jail, I told the kids and everybody else that. Revenge eats you up. It does worse things to you than to the person you are attempting to attack." 'Life-changing consequences' Asked about the jailing of his former cabinet colleague, Prime Minister David Cameron said: "It's a reminder that no-one, however high and mighty, is out of the reach of the justice system." And a spokesman for Liberal Democrat leader Nick Clegg said: "As Nick has said, this is a personal tragedy for Chris, Vicky and their families. After their sentences are served, Nick hopes that they will both be given the time and space to rebuild their lives."

The court heard the cost of Huhne's prosecution was 79,015 and Pryce's was 38,544 - making a total of 117,558. Prosecutor Andrew Edis QC said the CPS was seeking to claim an extra 31,000 from Huhne for costs incurred by his attempts to get the case thrown out and the extra police investigation. Speaking outside the court, Assistant Chief Constable Gary Beautridge - from the Kent and Essex Serious Crime Directorate - said: "This case acts as a very timely reminder for all those people who may be facing a driving ban and are thinking of passing their points onto others. This is not only unlawful but, as you can see from today's events, leads to life-changing consequences." The pair were greeted by hordes of photographers and TV cameras as they arrived at court before sentencing. Huhne arrived with partner Carina Trimingham, whom he left Pryce for in June 2010. Huhne and Pryce were charged last year over an incident in March 2003 when Huhne's BMW car was caught by a speed camera on the M11 between Stansted Airport in Essex and London. He was an MEP at the time. The prosecution said that between 12 March and 21 May 2003, Pryce had falsely informed police she had been the driver of the car, so Huhne would avoid prosecution. He was in danger of losing his licence having already accrued nine penalty points. In mitigation, Huhne's barrister John Kelsey-Fry QC told the court: "They were his points, it was his idea to pass them to his then wife, and he persuaded her to do so when she was initially reluctant and he accepts that it was his fault. However, he did not force her, nor coerce her, nor bully her, nor was he overbearing." He said Huhne denied the claim made during Pryce's trial that he had made her have an abortion. Julian Knowles QC for Pryce said she had suffered a "truly tragic personal life" in the past few years and would struggle to rebuild her career. After the case, Liberal Democrat peer Lord Oakeshott issued a personal statement as "a longstanding family friend" of the pair. "This is a personal and political tragedy. Chris was a dynamic, decisive, strategic minister - an object lesson to us all in how to fight as hard in office as in opposition for the environment, economic growth, Europe and essential liberties," he said. Lord Oakeshott is a distant cousin of Sunday Times political editor Isabel Oakeshott, to whom Pryce first revealed details of the points swapping in 2011 after her marriage broke up.

Fill in each blank with the correct word. If both words can be used, choose the one that sounds more natural in each situation:

1. Your room hasn't been (clean/cleaned) yet. 2. You can check (in/on) from 11:00 AM.

3. Check out (schedule/time) is 12:00 PM. 4. Let me know if you need anything else = Let me know if you (require/request) anything else 5. I can't (see/seem) to find your reservation. 6. Did you make your reservation (online/internet)? 7. Everything is in (good/order) = Everything is alright (= especially when talking about formal matters) 8. Do you have a restaurant on (promises/premises) ( = in or attached to the hotel) 9. We hope you (enjoy/please) your stay. 10. How long will you be (staying/stay)?

2. Would you like me to check another (date/schedule) for you? 3. I'm sorry, we're all- (books/booked) ( = we have no free rooms) because of a big conference. 4. I'll need to see your passport, or some other form of (identity/identification). 5. We don't have room (servants/service). ( = We don't bring food, etc. to your room) 6. The concierge will (show/carry) you to your room. 7. There's a (tiny/mini)-bar in every suite. 8. Let me know if I can be of further (assistance/assistant) = Let me know if there's anything else I can do to help 9. Before you arrive = (Prior/Previous) to your arrival 10. We also have a gym which you can use at your (dispersal/disposal).

1. A (concierge/counsellor) is someone who works at the reception desk. 2. I'll get one of the bellhops to take your (bags/baggage) to your room. 3. Someone (left/gave) a package for you.

4. If a room (spacious/spatial).

is

"bigger",

you

can

say

it's

"more

5. I'll have to (console/consult) with the manager = I'll have to discuss it with the manager 6. To reserve a room = To (book/reservation) a room 7. I can't (warrantee/guarantee) (= promise) that the price won't go up. 8. We have really good weekend (deals/offerings) ( = special offers). 9. Would you like me to (request/call) you a taxi? 10. Breakfast is (inclusive/included) in your room rate.

1. The rate for that room is (slightly/lightly) ( = a little) higher. 2. I can (assist/assess) ( = help) you with this. 3. Is there a (trouble/problem) with your room? 4. Are you having (trouble/problem) opening the door? 5. We offer (washing/laundry) service for our guests. 6. This service is (given/provided) as part of your room rate. 7. Breakfast is not included in the price. You will have to pay (extra/money) for it. 8. We offer 24- (hour/hours) room service. 9. The word "amenities" refers to "comforts" or (conveniences/conventions). These may include a pool, a sauna, a restaurant, etc. 10. We have an (indoor/inside) pool for our guests.

1. Can someone bring my bags up to my room?

I'll get someone to do that right away. I'll get the bags into your room. Are you going to take the bags yourself?

2. Do you have valet parking? Yes, I'll get someone to park your car. Yes, you can park it in the parking lot around the corner. No, we don't have free parking.

3. Can I stay an extra night? $100 per night. We don't accept credit cards. I'm sorry, but we're all-booked for tonight.

4. Where can I get a taxi into the city? Yes, you can get there by taxi. I'll call you a cab/taxi. It's not too expensive.

5. Can you give me a different room? This one is too small. I'm sorry it's so small. Yes, would you like to pay for the extra room by credit card? I'm sorry but it's the biggest room we have available right now.

6. Is there a restaurant nearby?

There's a Chinese restaurant right across the street. There are many good restaurants in our city. Chinese food.

7. Can my guests stay in my room overnight? Yes, but they have to register at the reception desk. We have many international guests staying at our hotel. Would you like to reserve a room for your guests?

8. I'd like a room for three nights. How many nights will you be staying? All of our rooms are non-smoking. Would you like a room with one bed or two?

9. Can I pay cash? No, we only accept cash. That'll be $300 for four nights. Of course.

10. I don't want my sheets changed every day. There's a card you can put on your door handle to let the cleaning staff know. Yes, it's part of room service. The cleaning staff does that every day.

1. Can you get someone to clean my room? Yes, I'll get someone to do that right away. Yes, it was cleaned this morning. Yes, all of our rooms are always clean.

2. Why was my credit card declined? You can pay cash. I don't know. You'll have to contact your bank to get that information. No, we don't have free parking.

3. Where is breakfast served? Breakfast is included. We offer a breakfast buffet. In the hotel restaurant.

4. Could you please confirm my reservation via (by) email? Yes, I'll send you a confirmation email right away. I'll give you our email address. Please send us a confirmation right away.

5. We need some clean towels. There is a shower in every room. The cleaning staff will pick up the dirty towels when they clean the room.

I'll ask the cleaning staff to bring you some.

6. How much are the small bottles of brandy in the mini-bar? I'll get more sent up right away. They are $10 each. There are 10 small bottles in each mini-bar.

7. I need to wake up at 7:00 AM. I'll make sure you get a wake-up call at that time. It's 8:30 PM Would you like me to call you a taxi?

8. Do you accept Mastercard? You can pay with your bank card as well. Yes, we accept all major credit cards. You can pay with a credit card.

9. How much is your cheapest double room? For one person? Right now our cheapest one is $200 per night. Our double rooms are usually booked well in advance.

10. I reserved a room for Friday. I'd like to change that to Saturday. OK, you will be leaving on Saturday? I see that you've already made a reservation.

OK, let me check your reservation.

1. Id like to file a complaint with the manager. There's a conference in the hotel this weekend. He's not around right now, but I'll have him call you as soon as possible. The manager likes to complain, but he's a good person.

2. Hi, I have a reservation. My name is McAlister. Spelling? I don't know how to spell that. OK. How do you spell your last name?

3. How do I get to your hotel from the airport? Our shuttle bus runs until 11:00 PM We have a shuttle bus that runs to and from the airport. Public transportation is not very convenient here.

4. How far is your hotel from the train station? We're about 2 kilometers away. You can come by taxi. The fact that we're located close to the train station makes us a very convenient choice.

5. I think the taxi driver cheated me!

You have to make sure that the taxi driver uses the meter. The best way to get to the airport is by taxi. Sometimes you have to wait a long time for a taxi to come.

6. Is it safe to walk alone around here? Yes, we care about your safety. Safety first! Yes, this is a very safe neighborhood.

7. Where is the conference room? It's on the second floor. There is a conference this weekend. Would you like a room?

8. How do I get to the conference room? Take the elevator up to the second floor and turn right. You'll see the door marked "Conference Room." Take the elevator up to the second floor and turn right. You'll see the door named "Conference Room." Your room is on the third floor. You can take the elevator or the stairs.

9. Hmm... that's a little out of my price range. Will you be paying by cash or credit card? OK. Let's see if we can find you something more affordable. OK. When will you be leaving?

10. Why do I have to leave my passport? You have leave your passport at the reception desk. Give me your passport, please. It's hotel policy. All guests have to leave their passports at the reception desk for the duration of their stay.

1. Do I have to pay for this? No, our resort provides this freeof-.............. . 2. That's not the price I was .................... over the phone. 3. Guests are allowed to keep small .................... such as dogs and cats in their room. 4. Breakfast is ...................... from 7:00 AM to 11:00 AM in the hotel restaurant. 5. Each room comes with an electric fireplace and a private .................... overlooking the ocean. 6. You can access/check your ..................... mail by dialing "55" on your telephone. 7. Each suite comes with a ...................... where you can store all your valuables. 8. We organize sight-.................... every other day. 9. I'll get the staff to bring up some new filters for the ...................... . 10. Use of the golf ...................... is included in the price.

course seeing

balcony safe

served quoted

charge pets

voice coffeemaker

1. There's a 10% tax on ................ of ( = in addition to) the basic room rate. 2. Yes, your guests are allowed to stay .................. in your room. 3. The "reception the ....................... desk. desk" is often referred to as

4. This suite ..................... up to 5 people. 5. If you like, I can have your dry cleaning picked up and .................... to you later. 6. I suggest in ....................... . you book our executives suites well

7. We don't have any free rooms = We don't have any ........................ . 8. Please fill out this ........................... . 9. Would you like a two ......................... beds? room with one king bed or

10. Each suite has multiple data .................... , so you can go online ( = access the internet) anytime you like.

advance overnightports queen form top vacanciesdelivered front

sleeps

1. We ........................ you an additional $5 for the two longdistance calls that you made. 2. There are no ....................... for you. 3. You can leave your .......................... here until 5:00 PM. 4. This is a service that the resort ......................... to all its guests. 5. There's a ......................... center on the second floor. 6. We use (swipe) ........................ keys. 7. I can't check the status of your reservation because our ( = computer) is ...................... down right now. 8. I'm printing out your ................... right now. 9. I'll bring you some ..................... blankets. 10. There's a fax ....................... in the main lobby.

messages receipt machine

system card

extra

charged

fitness

baggage offers

BBC Q & A: Cyprus Bailout People in Cyprus have reacted with shock to news of a one-off levy of up to 10% on savings as part of a 10bn-euro (8.7bn; $13bn) bailout agreed in Brussels. The controversial plan, negotiated with the European Union and International Monetary Fund, marks a radical departure from previous eurozone bailouts. How would the bailout affect depositors in Cyprus? People with under 100,000 euros in their accounts would face a one-off levy of 6.75%, while anything above would get a onetime tax of 9.9%. Depositors would be compensated with the equivalent amount in shares in their banks. If it goes ahead, the levy would affect many non-Cypriots with bank accounts, including UK expatriates. However, depositors in Cypriot banks' operations outside the country would not face a levy. Was Cyprus not doing quite well before the global financial crisis? Yes. The International Monetary Fund described the country's economic performance before 2008 as a "long period of high growth, low unemployment, and sound public finances". There was a recession in 2009 but it was the mildest in the eurozone. But two interlinking factors have brought Cyprus close to default - the deteriorating government finances and the country's struggling banks.

So what went wrong? During the good years Cyprus did build up what the IMF calls "vulnerabilities". There was rapid growth in credit, the banks made many loans to Greece and there was a property market boom. The banks are central to this story. They grew rapidly. By 2011, the IMF reported that their assets - which include all the loans they have made - were equivalent to 835% of annual national income, or GDP. A chunk of that is down to foreign-owned banks, but those that are Cypriot had made loans to Greek borrowers worth 160% of Cypriot GDP. There have been losses on the loans to private borrowers because of the depression that has hit the Greek economy. And the value of the debts owed by the Greek government was cut in a debt relief exercise undertaken last year. It might have helped Greece, but the Cypriot banks were hit. What does that mean for the government finances? Many countries have rescued their banks in the financial crisis recapitalising them, in the jargon. It means governments put in money and get shares in return. It is controversial, but governments have taken the view that it is better for the economy than allowing important banks to fail. Cyprus cannot afford the recapitalisation to the extent that the banks need. The government finances have been further weakened by the slow economic growth and, more recently, decline in the eurozone which have hit Cyprus too. Growing doubts in the financial markets about the government's financial position have made it almost impossible for Cyprus to borrow. Why the bank levy? When countries get an international bailout, they are often expected to raise funds themselves, by raising taxes or selling state-owned assets. The levy on bank deposits is playing the same role. It is intended to reduce the size of the bailout and therefore the amount of new debt Cyprus has to take on. But there is almost certainly a political aspect too. In the eurozone, there are concerns about money-laundering in Cyprus and the presence of large amounts of Russian-owned money in the banks. Germany is reputed to be especially unhappy about the idea of using taxpayers' money to rescue them.

Didn't savers think they were protected? To a degree, yes they did. The point is, the banks have not collapsed. This deal is aimed at saving them from collapse. Had they done so, then savers would have had their first 100,000 euros (86,000) protected under the Cyprus Deposit Protection Scheme - assuming the scheme could have paid out all this compensation. As it is, it is likely that some, but not all, of their savings will be lost to this levy in return for some shares. Are the UK operations of Cypriot banks affected? No. Deposits with the UK arms of Bank of Cyprus and Laiki Bank will not face the levy, the firms confirmed on their websites. Bank of Cyprus UK is a separately incorporated UK bank and depositors are protected by the UK's Financial Services Compensation Scheme (FSCS), which covers savings up to 85,000. Laiki said on its website that the "levy is not intended to have an effect on customer deposits held with the overseas branches of Cyprus banks, which includes Laiki Bank UK". Deposits with Laiki UK are protected up to 100,000 euros (86,000) by the Cyprus Deposit Protection Scheme and not the UK's (FSCS).

Wild Mushroom and Double Smoked Bacon Linguine by Closet Cooking (makes 2 servings)

Ingredients: 4 strips bacon (cut into 1 inch pieces) 8 ounces wild mushrooms (sliced, your favorite mushrooms) 1/2 pound linguine (I used whole wheat) 1 clove garlic (chopped) 1 teaspoon thyme

1/4 cup white wine (or dry sherry, or chicken stock) 1 splash heavy cream salt and pepper to taste 1 tablespoon parsley (chopped, optional) parmigiano reggiano (grated)

Directions: 1. Cook the bacon in a pan. 2. Add the mushrooms and saute until golden brown and just starting to caramelize, about 7-15 minutes. 3. When the mushrooms are halfway done start cooking the pasta as directed on the package. 4. Add the garlic and thyme to the mushrooms and saute for a minute. 5. Add the wine, deglaze the pan and simmer to reduce a bit. 6. Remove from the heat and stir in the heavy cream and parsley. 7. Season with pepper. (It should already be salty enough from the bacon.) 8. Toss the mushrooms with the pasta. 9. Serve topped with the parmigiano reggiano.

Spinach Salad with Bacon, Caramelized Onions, Mushrooms and Blue Cheese in a Bacon Pan Sauce Dressing Topped with a Hard Boiled Egg from Closet Cooking (makes 2 servings) Ingredients: 2 eggs 4 slices bacon (cut into 1 inch slices) 1 cup red onion (sliced) 4 ounces mushrooms (sliced) 3 tablespoons red wine vinegar 1 teaspoon sugar 1 teaspoon dijon mustard

1 small clove garlic (grated) salt and pepper to taste 4 ounces baby spinach 1/4 cup mild blue cheese (crumbled) Directions: 1. Cover the eggs in water, bring to a boil, turn off the heat, cover and let sit for 7 minutes. 2. Transfer the eggs to cold water and let cool enough to hold. 3. Remove the shells from the eggs and slice. 4. Meanwhile, cook the bacon in a pan and set aside reserving 2 tablespoons of bacon grease. 5. Caramelize the onions in the remaining bacon grease and set aside. 6. Caramelize the mushrooms in the remaining bacon grease and set aside. 7. Add the vinegar to the pan and deglaze it. 8. Add the reserved bacon grease, sugar, mustard, garlic and season with salt and pepper and remove from heat. 9. Assemble salad and toss with dressing.

Morchella From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Morchella, the true morels, is a genus of edible mushrooms closely related to anatomically simpler cup fungi. These distinctive mushrooms appear honeycomb-like in that the upper portion is composed of a network of ridges with pits between them. They are prized by gourmet cooks, particularly for French cuisine. Commercial value aside, morels are hunted by

thousands of people every year simply for their taste and the joy of the hunt. Morels have been called by many local names; some of the more colorful include dryland fish, because when sliced lengthwise then breaded and fried, their outline resembles the shape of a fish; hickory chickens, as they are known in many parts of Kentucky; and merkels or miracles, based on a story of how a mountain family was saved from starvation by eating morels. In parts of West Virginia, they are known as "molly moochers." Other common names for morels include sponge mushroom. Genus Morchella is derived from morchel, an old German word for mushroom, while morel itself is derived from the Latin maurus meaning brown. Habitats favorable to fruition Morchella species appear to have either symbiotic mycorrhizal relationships or act as saprotrophs. Yellow morels (Morchella esculenta) are more commonly found under deciduous trees rather than conifers, and black morels (Morchella elata) can be found in deciduous forests, oak and poplar. Deciduous trees commonly associated with morels in the northern hemisphere include ash, sycamore, tulip tree, dead and dying elms, cottonwoods and old apple trees (remnants of orchards). The fruiting of yellow morels in Missouri, USA, was found to correlate with warm weather, precipitation, and tree species, and most usually in the springtime. Morels are rarely found in the vicinity of most common poisonous mushrooms such as the sulphur tuft and fly agaric (AprilMay time frame), but can occur alongside "false morels" (Gyromitra sp.) and "elfin saddles" (Verpa sp.). Morels in western North America are often found in coniferous forests, including trees in the genera Pinus, Abies, Larix, and Pseudotsuga, as well as in cottonwood riparian forests. Association with wildfire All types of morels may grow abundantly in forests which have been burned by a forest fire, with black morels at the start of the season, followed by the yellows, greys and greens. The mechanism for this behavior is not well known, but appears to be related to both the death of trees and the removal of organic material on the forest floor. Moderate-intensity fires are reported to produce higher abundances of morels than low or high intensities. Where fire suppression is practiced morels often grow in small amounts in the same spot year after year. If these areas are overrun by wildfire they often produce a bumper crop

of black morels the following spring. Commercial pickers and buyers in North America target recently burned areas for this reason. The Finnish name, huhtasieni, refers to huhta, area cleared for agriculture by the slash and burn method. These spots may be jealously guarded by mushroom pickers, as the mushrooms are a delicacy and sometimes a cash crop. Efforts to grow morels are rarely successful and the commercial morel industry is based on harvest of wild mushrooms. False morels When gathering morels, care must be taken to distinguish them from the poisonous false morels, including Gyromitra esculenta, Verpa bohemica, and others. Although the false morels are sometimes eaten without ill effect, they can cause severe gastrointestinal upset and loss of muscular coordination (including cardiac muscle) if eaten in large quantities or over several days in a row. They contain a gyromitrin-like toxin (an organic, carcinogenic poison) that is produced by the mushroom. The false morels can be told apart from the true morels by careful study of the cap, which is often "wrinkled" or "brainy", rather than honeycomb or net-like. Gyromitra esculenta has a cap that is generally darker and larger than the true morels (Morchella sp.). The caps of early morels (Verpa sp.) are attached only at the apex (top) of the cap, unlike true morels which have caps that are attached at or near the bottom. The easiest way to tell the false from the true variety, is to simply look inside the stem. False morels contain a cotton-ball looking substance inside their stem while true morels are hollow inside. Cooking Morels are a feature of many cuisines, including Provenal. Their unique flavor is prized by cooks worldwide, with recipes and preparation methods designed to highlight and preserve it. As with most edible fungi, they are best when collected or bought fresh. Morels occasionally contain insect larvae that drop out during the drying process. One of the best and simplest ways to enjoy morels is by gently sauteeing them in butter, cracking pepper on top and sprinkling with salt. Others soak the mushrooms in an egg batter and lightly bread them with saltine crackers or flour before frying them.

Morels are not improved by extensive washing or soaking, as it may ruin the delicate flavor and require long cooking times. Due to their natural porosity, morels may contain trace amounts of soil which cannot be washed out. They can best be 'flash frozen' by simply running under cold water or putting them in a bucket to soak for a few minutes, then placing on a cookie sheet or pizza pan and placing into a freezer. After freezing they keep very fresh with the frozen glaze for a long time in Tupperware containers. However, when thawed they can sometimes turn slightly mushy in the cap. Any visible soil should be removed with a brush, after cutting the body in half lengthwise if needed. Drying is a popular and effective method of long-term storage for morels, and they are readily available commercially in this form; dried morels can be reconstituted by soaking in warm water or milk. They may also be frozen after steaming or frying. Canning is not recommended because the necessary high pressure and temperature destroys much of the nutty flavor. Toxicity Morels contain small amounts of hydrazine toxins that are removed by thorough cooking; morel mushrooms should never be eaten raw. It has been reported that even cooked morels can sometimes cause mild intoxication symptoms when consumed with alcohol. When eating this mushroom for the first time it is wise to consume a small amount to minimize any allergic reaction. Morels for consumption must be clean and free of decay. Morels growing in old apple orchards that had been treated with the insecticide lead arsenate may accumulate levels of toxic lead and arsenic that are unhealthy for human consumption.

Russian money in Cyprus: Why is there so much?


By Emily Young / Business reporter, BBC News

One of the interesting aspects to emerge from the Cyprus bailout is the close financial relationship ................... Cyprus and Russia - and ................. particular the large amount of Russian money invested ................. the eurozone's smallest economy. It is estimated that about one half to a third of all Cyprus bank deposits are ................. Russian origin. The ratings agency Moody's estimates that there is about $31bn (21bn) of Russian money in Cypriot bank accounts - $12bn from banks and $19bn from businesses and individuals. Moody's also estimates that about $40bn has been loaned .............. Russian companies based ................ Cyprus. The suspicion - particularly in Germany - is that a lot of the money is ............... ill-gotten gains. A leaked report from the German foreign intelligence service, quoted ............... Der Spiegel, suggested that the main beneficiaries from a eurozone bailout of Cyprus would be Russian oligarchs, businessmen and mafiosi. And that is believed to be one of the main reasons why savers with money in Cyprus are being forced to contribute ................ the bank bailout - an unprecedented event. The close financial relationship between the two countries is said to date ................ to the early 1990s and the breakup of the Soviet Union when newly-rich oligarchs were looking ................ places to put their cash. "It is safe to assume that these are richer Russians that have parked their money there, not .................. the purpose of getting higher returns in Cyprus, but to probably avoid close government attention," said Ivan Tchakarov, chief economist at Renaissance Capital. Edward Savulyak director of the Moscow office at Tax Consulting UK told BBC Russian: "There were many Russians in Cyprus because they weren't asked many questions ............... the origins of the money. Other countries are more careful." Cyprus refutes those claims, arguing that it has effective measures in place to combat money laundering. There are also perfectly legitimate reasons ............... a Russian company to want to set up in Cyprus; the 10% corporate tax rate, as well as Russia's tax treaty ............... Cyprus which means a firm will not be taxed in both places. "Russian business takes great advantage of the low corporate tax rate and favourable tax rates for profit and dividends in Cyprus. But that is also true of western companies wanting to set ............... in Russia," said Andrey Goltsblat from the Moscow-based law firm Goltsblat BLP. Mr Goltsblat explained that there is a whole industry in Cyprus based ............... serving Russian clientele. "You don't need to actually go there," he said. "A Cypriot-based financial advisor will offer you a full package and the customer gets an online password to access the account."

Loan at risk? As part of the bailout deal agreed over the weekend, bank customers face a one-off levy.

Those ................. less than 100,000 euros will have to pay 6.75%, while those with more than 100,000 euros will be expected to pay 9.9%. There was a deep unease and unhappiness at the move in Moscow. Moscow lent Cyprus 2.5bn euros in 2011 and it recently asked ............... another 2bn-euro loan. But the tax ................ savings may lead the Russian government to rethink whether to loan more money ................. the indebted Mediterranean state. "It looks like the Eurogroup took this action ................... consulting Russia," Finance Minister Anton Siluanov was quoted as saying by Interfax. "So, we are going to take a second look ................ whether to take part in a deal to restructure our earlier credit," Mr Siluanov said. Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev said Russia would also "need to draw certain conclusions" before entering more loan talks ............... Cyprus. Mass exodus? There is now the fear that businesses will simply move their money elsewhere, exacerbating the already disastrous situation .............. Cyprus' banks. The BBC's Ekaterina Drobinina spoke to one businessman who used to be based in Limassol, who said his friends and colleagues were immediately going to transfer their funds ................. Singapore or Dubai. Analysts backed ............. that sentiment. "The unhappiest of the Russians will simply look for other places to put their money," said Paragone Advisory Group analyst Alexander Zakharov. Measures are in placed to try to stop money ................. flowing out of the country. But one tax consultant said a lot of it had already been moved. "I don't know a single millionaire who has kept their money in Cyprus. As for private depositors, they have hundreds of thousands in their bank accounts, but not millions," said Mr Savulyak. He said they had moved it elsewhere more than a year ago when the safety of Cyprus' banking system was first looking questionable.

BBC Cyprus MPs reject EU-IMF bailout tax on bank depositors

Cyprus' parliament has rejected a ............................ (CONTROVERSY) levy on bank deposits, proposed as part of an EUIMF 10bn-euro (8.7bn; $13bn) bailout ................... (PACK). No MPs voted for the bill, with 36 voting against and 19 abstaining. The finance ministry had ................... (MODE) the package, proposing an ..................... (EXEMPT) for savers with smaller deposits, but opposition had remained fierce. Thousands of ...................... (PROTEST) who had filled the streets outside parliament reacted with joy to the news of the vote. EU finance ministers have warned that Cyprus' two biggest banks will collapse if the deal does not go through in some form. However, there has been ....................... (SPREAD) outrage on the island at the prospect of ordinary savers being forced to pay a levy of 6.75%. The plan was changed to exempt savers with less than 20,000 euros (17,000), with those over 100,000 euros charged at 9.9%, but this was not enough to placate critics. Meanwhile, the UK ministry of defence said a plane carrying 1m euros was heading to Cyprus as a contingency measure to provide military personnel and their families with emergency loans. The money is to be used for British personnel and their families if cash machines and debit cards stop working. 'Against the interests of Cyprus' Several MPs during the parliament debate on Tuesday evening denounced the proposed plan as "blackmail". President Nicos Anastasiades had urged all parties to back the bailout, saying Cyprus will be bankrupt if the deal does not go ahead. But he also said earlier on Tuesday that MPs were likely to reject the levy, despite the ........................... (MODIFY). "They feel and they think it's unjust and that it is against the interests of Cyprus at large. But I have to admit that it was something which was not expected by the troika and by our friends, the Eurogroup." He has called an emergency meeting of political party leaders on Wednesday morning to discuss the way forward. The president of the Eurogroup of eurozone finance ministers, Dutch Finance Minister Jeroen Dijsselbloem, ...................... (EMPHASIS) on Monday that no other eurozone country would be

forced to impose such a levy. The Cyprus central bank chief, Panicos Demetriades, has warned that scrapping the tax on small savers would scupper the plan to raise 5.8bn euros in total from bank deposits. He also predicted account holders could suddenly withdraw 10% or more of the total in Cypriot banks if the levy was imposed. Fearing a run on accounts, Cyprus has shut its banks until at least Thursday. The local stock exchange also remains closed. Cyprus' banks were badly exposed to Greece, which has itself been the ..................... (RECEIVE) of two huge bailouts. Russian anger Mr Demetriades said that he favoured imposing the levy only on deposits larger than 100,000 euros, with eurozone finance ministers also suggesting such a move. Instead, they argue that wealthier savers should pay the levy at a higher rate - losing more than 15% of their investments, correspondents say. However, many of those larger deposits are held by Russians, and Russian leaders have already .................. (ACT) angrily to the Cypriot levy - on Monday President Vladimir Putin called it "unfair, .......................... (PROFESSION) and dangerous". Of the estimated 68bn euros in total held in Cypriot bank accounts about 40% belongs to foreigners - most of them thought to be Russians. The government fears a higher levy on these larger deposits would prompt many large investors to withdraw from the island and would ...................... (EFFECT) destroy its financial sector. Russia has also said it may reconsider the terms of a 2.5bn-euro loan it made to Cyprus in 2011, which was separate from the proposed eurozone bailout. Cypriot Finance Minister Michalis Sarris arrived in Moscow on Tuesday to see if the ...................... (PAYMENT) on that loan could be delayed until 2020, and whether the interest rate could be reduced. Officials said he would also be looking for "................... (FAR) investment" in his country, correspondents report, with some speculating this might mean Russian access to Cyprus' large undeveloped gas deposits. The BBC's Mark Lowen in Nicosia says it now appears that a battle is taking place over Cyprus: on the one side the EU is pushing for a lighter burden on lower savers and, on the other, Russia is angry

because its wealthy nationals would be taxed hard in Cyprus. Meanwhile, the tiny Cypriot economy's future hangs in the balance.
Reuters

Popesetstoneforhumblerpapacy,callsfordefenseoftheweak
countenance bishop delegations confidential vestments communion poverty predecessor humility disadvantaged altar inaugural defile loudspeakers homily splendor

PopeFrancissetthetoneforanew,humblerpapacyathis.........................MassonTuesdaywhere hecalledfortheChurchtodefendtheweakandprotecttheenvironment. Addressingupto200,000peopleincludingmanyforeignleadersgatheredunderbrightsunshine inSt.Peter'sSquare,theArgentinepopeunderlinedhiscentralmessagesincehewaselectedbya secretconclaveofcardinalslastWednesdaythattheChurch'smissionwastodefendthepoorand ..............................TheMass,formallyinstallingFrancisasheadoftheworld's1.2billionRoman Catholics,wasmuchsimplerandanhourshorterthanthebaroque...................ofhispredecessor Benedict'sinaugurationin2005. AlthoughheisasconservativedoctrinallyasBenedictFrancis'ssimplerstyleandemphasisonthe poormarkedaseachangefromhis........................thathasbeenwidelywelcomedbyCatholics. ThefirstJesuitpopeinheritsaChurchmiredinscandalsoverpriests'sexualabuseofchildrenand theleakof..........................documentsallegingcorruptionandrivalrybetweencardinalsinsidethe ChurchgovernmentorCuria. HehasalsobeenaccusedbysomecriticsinArgentinaofnotdoingenoughtoopposehuman rightsabusesunderamilitarygovernmentduringthe19761983"dirtywar"whensome30,000 leftistswerekidnappedandkilled.TheVaticanhasdeniedtheaccusations. Inhis.........................,deliveredonthestepsofthegiantSt.Peter'sBasilica,Francis,76,saidthe Church'smission"meansrespectingeachofGod'screaturesandrespectingtheenvironmentin whichwelive. "It means protecting people, showing loving concern for each and every person, especially children,theelderly,thoseinneed,whoareoftenthelastwethinkabout." Themessagechimedwiththeteachingsofthe13thcenturySt.FrancisofAssisi,fromwhomthe popetookhisnameandwhoisasymbolof.....................,simplicity,charityandloveofnature. Inanothersignthathewantstomaintainasimplelife,FrancisisstillstayingattheVaticanhotel wherehelivedduringtheconclaveanddidnotmoveintoasuitereservedforhim,aspokesman said.ItisnotclearwhenhewillmoveintotheApostolicPalace. Inhishomily,Francissaidthatwheneverhumanbeingsfailedtocarefortheenvironmentand eachother,"Thewayisopenedtodestructionandheartsarehardened.Tragically,ineveryperiod

ofhistorythereare'Herods'whoplotdeath,wreakhavocandmarthe......................ofmenand women." OPEN BeforetheMass,thepopetouredSt.Peter'sSquareinanopenwhitejeep,abandoningthebullet proofpopemobileoftenusedbyBenedict.Hestoppedfrequentlytogreetthoseinthehuge,flag wavingcrowd,kissingbabiesandgettingouttoblessadisabledman. "Heisasimple, humbleperson, heisnot liketheuntouchablepopes,heseems like someone normalpeoplecanreachoutto,"saidArgentineelectricianCiriglianoValetin,51,whoworksin southernItaly. ArgentinianCardinalLeonardoSandritoldReuters:"Formethisisacallto.......................and servicetoothersthatwillmarkhispapacy...Thisisanewbreezeoffreshairthatisblowing throughtheChurchandthenameofthatbreezeisFrancis." Six sovereigns, U.S. Vice President Joe Biden, Argentine President Cristina Fernandez, other leadersaswellasheadsofmanyotherfaithswereamongthe130...........................Theyincluded Muslim,Jewish,Buddhist,RussianOrthodoxandAnglicanleaders. Franciscalledforworldleaderstobe"protectorsofoneanotherandoftheenvironment...Letus notforgetthathatred,envyandpride.........................ourlives.Beingprotectors,then,alsomeans keepingwatchoverouremotions,overourhearts." FortheMassheworeplainwhite.........................,trimmedwithgoldandbrown,andblacklaceup shoes,incontrasttothestylishredloafersthatBenedictwore. "WehavegonefromtherigidtheologyprofessortoateacherofChristiansimplicity,"saidItalian churchhistorianAlbertoMelloni,referringtothecontrastbetweenthewarm,commontouchof FrancisandBenedict'sstiff,intellectualmanner. Theceremonywasshortenedtotwohoursafterathreehourservicein2005whenBenedictbegan hispapacy.TheVaticansaidFrancislatertelephonedBenedicttowishhimwellforTuesday'sfeast ofSt.Joseph,thesaintdayoftheformerJosephRatzinger. FAVOUR BeforetheMass,Franciscollectedhisnewlymintedgoldringandpallium,aliturgicalwoollen bandwornaroundtheneck,thathadbeenplacedovernightonthetombofSt.Peterunderthe basilica's ....................... . Hundreds of priests, sheltering from the sun under umbrellas in the Vatican'swhiteandyellowcolors,distributed......................tothecrowdwhileFranciswatched fromaraisedthronebehindthealtar. FrancisgreetedforeigndelegationsinsidethebasilicaaftertheMass.TheyincludedZimbabwe PresidentRobertMugabe,whohasbeenunderaEuropeanUniontravelbansince2002becauseof allegationsofvoteriggingandhumanrightsabuses.HewasabletotraveltotheVaticanbecauseit isaseparateterritory,outsidetheEU. ThepopealsometEcumenicalPatriarchBartholomewfromIstanbul,thefirsttimethespiritual headofOrthodoxChristianshasattendedaRomanpope'sinauguralMasssincetheGreatSchism betweenwesternandeasternChristianityin1054.

Before the Mass, Latin America's first pope made a surprise phone call to thousands of his compatriotslisteningat...........................inthePlazadeMayosquareinBuenosAireswherethey hadgatheredhoursbeforedawntowatchthecelebrationsonlargetelevisionscreens. Inhismessage,at3.30a.m.(0630GMT),theformerBuenosAiresCardinalJorgeBergogliothanked thecrowdfortheirprayers"whichIneedalot"."Iwanttoaskyouafavor,thatwewalktogether, thatwelookaftereachother...Don'tforgetthis...................who,thoughfaraway,caressomuch foryou,"hesaid. IntheUnitedStates,aReuters/Ipsospollfound85percentofthosewhosaidtheywereawareof thenewpopehadafavorableviewofhim,including94percentofCatholics.TwothirdsofU.S. adults,including9outof10Catholics,expecthimtobeagoodleaderoftheCatholicChurch. About50percent,however,saidtheywouldhavelikedtoseesomeoneyoungerelected.

Tsagarada Tsagaradaisastunningmountainousvillage54kmfromVolosandatanaltitudeof 450m. Tsagaradaconsistsoffoursmallertowns,AgiaParaskevi,AgiaKiriaki,AgioStefano andAgioiTaxiarhes.TsagaradaisbuiltonagreenhillonthemountainofPelionandis oneofthemostfamousallofthevillagesinPelion. Itistheperfectplaceforbothsummerandwintervacations.Hereyouwillfindthe famousbeachesofMilopotamosandFakistras.Everywhereyougoyouwillseespring waterfountainsandsmallarchedbridges. YoumusttryandvisitthesquareofAgiaParaskevi,andenjoyyourdrinksittingunder thethousandyearoldplaintree.Thishugetreehasadiameterof14meters. AtthesquareofAgoioTaxiarhesdrinkfromthespringwaterfountainwithitsfour taps and enjoy your meal sitting in the shade of the plain trees in front of the churchyard.You must also visit if you can the old secret school and the chapel of PanagiasofMegalomatas,whichisactuallybuiltinsideacave. You can swim at the beach of Fakistra, just 8km from Tsagarada, which is very beautiful,withstunningsceneryofgreenbluecrystalwater.Anotherimpressiveand beautiful beach is the famous Milopotamos, with its golden sand and crystal blue watersandgiantrocks.Ifyouwalkandfollowasmallpaththroughtherocks,youwill findanothersmallerbutbeautifulbeach. YouwillbeabletofindagreatselectionofhotelsandaccommodationinthePelion town of Tsagarada. For the best hotel deals and lots of special offers for hotels in Tsagaradawhereyoucansearchthroughmanyhotels,simplyclickhere! Mouresi ThisvillageisoneoftheoldestinPelion.Itisatanaltitudeof370mandis60kmfrom Volos.Itwasbuiltonahillsurroundedbychestnuttrees.Intheolddays,Mouresiwas situatedintheplacewherethevillageofDamouhariliestoday.

Thecobblestonedsquareisjustbeautifulandissurroundedbylargetrees.Locatedon themainsquareisthechurchofAgiaTriatha. Ifyouenjoywalking,youshouldtryandtakeawalkintheforest.Justfollowthepath thatleadssouthtoTsagarada. AlittlefurtheroutofthevillageonthewaytoPapaNero,onahill,youwillseethe ruinsofaVenetiancastle. July20thisthenamedayfor"ProfitiHilia"andiscelebratedwithafestival.Other festivalstakeplaceonJuly27thforthecelebrationofAgioPanteleimona,andAugust 27thforAgioFanourio. ForswimmingyoushouldgotoDamouharibeachwithitspebbles,orPapaNerowith itsbeautifulgoldensand. Xourihti Xourihti is a traditional mountainous village 47km from Volos and 5km from Tsagarada,atanaltitudeof500m.Itisapicturesquevillage,surroundedbyaforestof chestnutandhazelnuttrees.Itisaccessiblebybeautifulcobblestonedpaths. Thenameofthevillagetakesit'snamefromacoppermine,thatstillexistsnearthe village,andwasinoperationintheolderdays. YoucanvisitthechurchofKimiseostisTheotokouonthemainroadofthevillage(just beforethepetrolstation),whichdatesfrom1450.Ithassomeverybeautifulgolden sculpturedandpaintedicons. OnAugust15thabigfestivaltakesplaceatthesquarewithmusicanddance,andgoes onuntiltheearlyhoursofthenextmorning.EverySeptember,thereistheCheastnut Festival, which is organised, where visitors can join in the celebrations, and try a varietyofcheastnutdishesandsweets. Recently,acopperminehasbeendiscovered,whichdatesfrom2500yearsago. Youcantalkabeautifulwalkthroughtheforestwithitsbeautifulgreensceneryand springwaters.Ifyoukeepwalkingitwilltakeyouthroughtothebeautifulbeachof Limninas.Hereyoucanenjoyalongcoolswim. Thispathsplitsintotwo,withoneendfinishingatthevillageofMilies,andtheother in the village of Tsagarada. For a night out, if you head to Tsagarada, you'll find restaurants,tavernasandbars.

Tsagarada ViaMilies(s.route3),Lambinou(withitsgreencolouredseaandLambinoubeach)and Xorithi along a road full of bends, you arrive at Tsangarada that means "beautiful view". It is a stunning mountainous village and everywhere you go you will see water fountains,smallarchedbridges,squares,churches,oldmansionsthatalmostgiveitthe lookofamagicalscene. Aonethousandyearoldplanetreeinthesquareisoneofthemostremarkableplaces ofthevillage.Tsangaradaisplacedjustafewkilometersfromthefamousbeachesof MilopotamosandFakistra. OnthewaytoKissosyoucanvisitthetraditionalvillageMouresi. Kissos offers the visitor a unique combination of mountains and sea with the marvellousbeachesofAgiosIoannis,PapaNeroandPlakawhichareallwithineasy reachfromhere.ThechurchofAgiaMarinainKissosisthemostimportantbasilicaof Pelionandiscalled"thejewelofPelion". AfterKissos,onthewaytoHania,wearedrivingthroughthevillageAgiosDimitrios, AnilioandMakrirahi.NortheastliesthebiggestvillageofPelion,Zagora,especially knownfortheappleplantation. Haniaisamountainousvillagesituatedatanaltitudeof1.200mabovethesealevel.

ThisareaisalsoperfectforwintersportsattheskicentreAgriolefkes(atthealtitudeof 1.500m).Heretheskiersareofferedanexcellentview:ontheirleftthePagasiticGulf andontheirrighttheAegean. RemarkableforPortariaandMakrinitsaaretheoldmansions.Makrinitsaisknownas "thebalconyofPelion".Thecentralsquarewiththeoldplanetreesoverlooksthecityof VolosandthePagasiticGulf. ViaVolos,thecapitalofPelion,itgoesbacktoAfissos,allalongthesea.Voloswas built on the ruins of the ancient city of Iolkos, home of Jason and the Argonauts. Nowadaysitisamoderntownwithimportantcommercialandtouristcenterwhilethe portisthegateofEuropetotheMiddleEast. Ifyouwalkthroughthecitydon'tmisstheArcheologicalMuseumandtheTownHall, sampleofthepelioriticarchitecture.

ABOUTPELION TherearemanybeautifulregionsalloverGreece,butnonecanbecomparedtothe uniqueandstunningregionofthePelionpeninsula. Pelionisamountainous peninsulawiththeAegeanSeatotheeastandthealmost landlockedPagasiticGulftothewest.MountPelionwithanaltitudeof1600metres, offers skiing during the winter months and spectacular sea views. Its foothills are coveredwithmagnificentchestnutandplanetrees.Duringthespringandsummer, olivegrovesandorchardsofapplesandpearscreateagreenbackdroptotheunspoilt beachesandfishingvillagesoftheAegeancoast.Thecascadingwaterfallsandnatural springwaterfromthemountainskeepthearealushandgreenallyearround. There are twentyfour traditional mountain villages, with rich cultural history and uniquearchitecturalstylekeptintactandunspoilt,thankslargelytotheremarkable culturalawarenessofthelocals.ThisiswheretheGreekscomefortheirholidays.

Tsagarada

Tsagarada is this is one of the most appealing villages of Pelion. Set in a charming position in a lovely hillside area, overlooks the deep blue sea. It is well positioned with numerous amenities in the surrounding area to make it an enjoyable place for pleasant holidays. The structure of the village is particularly impressing, comprising four smaller areas. It can be reached through a densely vegetated forest and it offers unforgettable experiences, combining both the mountain landscape and the splendid blue beaches of the Aegean Sea. Its history begins in 1500BC and its greatest peak is depicted upon the impressive mansions and its ancient churches that give their name to the boroughs of Agioi Taxiarhes, Agia Paraskevi, Agios Stefanos, Agia Kiriaki and Agios Georgios. The most characteristic of all, is Agioi Taxiarhes. A miracle is depicted upon its woodcut iconostasis. At the square that bears the same name, one can see four fountains. There is also Agia Paraskevi, built in 1909. At its square there is the famous thousand-year-old plane tree whose perimeter is about 13m and under it there is the famous arched fountain built in stone. Both Agia Paraskevi and Agios Georgios have characteristic old, stone-built campaniles. Visit to Agios Stephanos Church is a must. Almost 1 Km away there is the magnificent beach of Mylopotamos, divided into two by huge, impressive rocks. A little bit more to the north there is Karavostasia, where, as the historian Herodotus narrates, according to myth, Xerxis fleet crashed in AD480. Towards the north, 5,5Km away, one can find the beautiful beach of Fakistra with its emerald waters. At its left, there is Palaiokastro (meaning Old Castle). It is said that there used to be the village and one can see the remnants of a Castle while not far away, there is the ancient country church of Panagia Megalomata in the rock caveXourihti, is a picturesque region built upon a densely vegetated precipitous gorge with a magnificent view of the Aegean Sea. This colorful region has been named after an old mine-quarry. Its old and well preserved churches, Panagia (Virgin Mary), Agioi Pantes, Agios Konstantinos, Agia Barbara are points of interest for every visitor. Another worth visiting place is Rahi and its natural cave with built stone benches inside it. The old fountains and the Centaurs' cave may also attract the interest of any visitor. Walking down the country footpath or driving through a 4 Km passable earthen road one can visit the blue beach of Limnionas (last picture on the right). where the "Secret School" used to be.

Conde Nast Travellers Guide to Pelion There are sleepy seaside villages linked by donkey tracks, landscapes unchanged for millennia, rustic tavernas and smart guesthouses in restored mansions, and some of the most spectacular beaches in Greece. This isn't a myth, this is the Pelion peninsula. Midway between Athens and Thessaloniki, the Pelion peninsula is like a sliver of some other, lusher country latched onto the eastern side of the Greek mainland. Its backbone is a mountainous ridge of forested peaks speckled with the silvery scales of slate roofs; on either side translucent coves have been carved out of the cliffs. To the south, the peninsula curls into the Pagasitikos Gulf, a glassy expanse of sea almost landlocked by the port of Volos and the island of Evia. Here, the low-slung hills and shallow bays are a calm counterpoint to the dramatic ravines and cliffhanger villages of the northern heights. A monastic retreat and a stronghold of resistance during the Turkish occupation (from the 15th to the 19th century), Pelion still feels remote - except, that is, from mid-July to late August, when Greeks descend in numbers on what are among the most spectacular beaches in the country. Few foreigners go to the region, most of them German campers and British ramblers. What To See The peninsula is only 95km long, but its tortuous roads make for slow driving, and the infrequent signposts for tricky navigation. It can be quicker to walk along the kalderimia, cobbled donkey tracks that connect many villages and beaches. These ancient, fairy-tale footpaths are overgrown with wild flowers and crisscrossed by streams and waterfalls. On slopes cloaked in chestnut and beech and in orchards fragrant with figs, apples and pears, little seems to have changed since the centaurs galloped through. Simple village life is a big part of Pelion's charm. Strict building restrictions have saved the region from the architectural eyesores that blight so much of Greece. Of the two dozen villages, Tsangarada, Milies, Kissos and Lafkos are the best preserved. Their architecture is generally austere, the thick stone walls and tiny, barred windows a defence against fierce winters and foreign interlopers. But several 18th-century mansions in mountain villages have been converted into upmarket guesthouses, fitted with fine antiques and fireplaces, these arhondik are designed for winter as well as summer, and

they are more stylish and snug than the generally rather basic beachside hotels. DOWN SOUTH The beaches along the unruffled Pagasitikos Gulf are narrow and shallow. Belian, Marathias and Paou are ideal for small children and people who like romantic sunsets. Horto and Milina, the biggest resorts in the south, are popular stopovers for sailboats, thanks to Sunsail's Leda Club (Sunsail Leda Club (023 9222 2300; www.sunsail.com) near Horto. The sleepy seaside settlements of Lefokastro, Agios Andreas and Kottes are a throwback to 1950s Greece, with a few rickety taverna tables parked beside peeling fishing boats. PELION'S HEARTLAND To the north, the forests get denser, the canyons steeper and the air cooler. Poking out from among the plane trees is the large village of Tsangarada, linked by a well-preserved kalderimi to the car-free coastal hamlet of Damouhari. The crumbling Venetian castle in the latter stands above a couple of waterfront tavernas and the Kleopatra Miramare caf-bar, where impromptu concerts are staged. Within trekking distance of Tsangarada is a series of dramatic beaches: the twin coves of Mylopotomas (go early: they are shaded by mid-afternoon), the fine white sands of Papa Nero and Agia Saranda, the mile-long Horefto (its far end favoured by nudists) and little Lambinou, with a lovely caf dangling above the bay. Fakistra, north of Mylopotomas, is accessible only via a treacherous footpath, but has a waterfall spilling down its cliff. Just off the road running above the east coast from Tsangarada is Kissos, whose main attraction is the woodcarvings in the 17thcentury church of Agia Marina. Back on the main road, Anilio is north-west of Kissos; its Aniliotika co-operative offers preservative-free preserves and a mean baklava. Further on is Zagora, the apple capital of Greece and a bustling market town whose Byzantine churches, marble fountains and well-worn kafenia merit investigation. THE NORTH-EAST The villages above Volos, such as Makrynitsa and Portaria, are pretty but packed with day-trippers, especially at weekends. Deeper into the hills is a constellation of traditional villages that provide a scenic base for exploring both north and south Pelion. There are awesome views of wooded slopes sweeping down to

the gulf from Agios Yiorgos Nileas; and the village has several guesthouses. Nearby Vyzitsa, once desolate, has morphed into a hotel hub thanks to a restoration project funded by the Greek Tourist Board. Vyzitsa has surprisingly little entertainment apart from a couple of mediocre tavernas. After dark the action spills over to the next village, Milies, which has a pretty square and several reputable restaurants. Milies is also the terminus for the steam train that chugs up from Ano Lehonia at weekends: a 90-minute rollercoaster ride across plunging gorges, it makes a great day trip for children. THE SOUTH-EASTERN BEACHES Heading south, all roads lead to Argalasti, a lively town with a large square lined with cafs. East of Argalasti are two stunning beaches: fashionable Potistika, fringed by rocks; and Melani, a two-kilometre stretch of golden sand dotted with dreadlocked beach bums. With a limited road network and a shortage of attractive accommodation, Pelion's south-east shores see very little traffic; but boat-trippers from Volos and Skiathos pile off at the forgettable port of Platanias and swim at nearby Mikro beach. On the southernmost tip of Pelion, Agia Kyriaki is the quintessential Greek fishing village. A crescent of whitewashed houses with gaily painted woodwork hugs the harbour, where colourful boats dip and sway.

Pelion Pelion, land of the legendary Centaurs, the site chosen by the ancient gods for their weddings and celebrations, rises in lush magnificence to the northeast of Volos. It was here that the centaur Chiron, the wise teacher of demigods and heroes, gave his pupils daily instruction in the proper care of body and soul. Here, as well, the first beauty contest took place between Thetis and Eris. Many-leaved Pelion was an inspiration to Homer, Pindar, and Euripides but also to the modern popular muse who sung of the unquenchable desire of the Greek people for freedom.

The highest peaks of Pelion (Pliasidi 1548 m. and Pourianos Stavros 1610 m.) are in the northern part of the range. Its inaccessible eastern flank, with the Aegean Sea stretching out into the distance like a vast mirror, comes to an abrupt end in the sea, creating wildly beautiful rocky shores. Conversely, the tranquil, calm coast of the western flank on the Pagasetic Gulf is much easier to reach and

encourages shipping activity.

Pelion's picturesque villages, sometimes clinging to wooded slopes or perched on steep bluffs, sometimes hidden away in verdant ravines, are so much a part of the scenery that, seen from a distance they create the impression of having "sprouted up"; along wiith the trees.

The distinctive traditional architecture of the old houses with their narrow windows and decorated walls, stone stairways and roofs of grey or greeny slate; the Byzantine churches with wonderful wall paintings and icon screens; the winding cobbled paths, sculpted fountains, courtyards redolent of basil and gardenia; squares paved with huge flag stones where the cheeful bubbling of a little brook is never absent -are all typical features of a Pelion village.

Northeastern Pelion

Climbing northeast of Volos, the road bisects the charming suburb of Ano Volos (5 km.), with the steep hill of Episkopi demarching its eastern side. At the nearby villages of Anakasia and Ali Meria, where there are some wall paintings by Theophilos, it is worth stopping to admire the panoramic view of the Pagasetic Gulf and the plain of Thessaly while seated in one of the district's picturesque restaurants. Continuing the ascent up the slope of the mountain, after Anakasia the road leads to Portaria (13 km.,alt. 600 m.), a lovely summer resort with abundant crystalline water and a number of hotels. The village's delightful main square and the chapel of the Panagia of Portaria with 16th century frescoes are sure to make their impression. From Portaria west a fork in the road winds up at a flat area filled with shady plane trees through which the beautiful traditional village of Makrinitsa (17 km., alt. 750 m.) can be seen. Built amphitheatrically up the side of the mountain, it offers a splendid view of the gulf below. The flag stone lanes link its unique buildings, which because of the steep slope are three storeys on one side and only one on the other. The higher facade is adorned with the wooden balconies so typical of Pelion. Some of these old houses have been restored by the Greek National Tourism Organisation and are operated as guest houses under its supervision. Try the tasty local delicacies, bean soup and "spetzofai" - a spicy concoction of sausages and peppers- served

in the traditional restaurants ("tavernakia") in the square. And if you visit the area on May Day, you may see some wild revels very reminiscent of ancient Dionysian rites. Zigzagging up the mountainside past a series of stunning ridges, the main road climbs up to Hania (26 km., alt. 1200m.), which has become a winter sports centre thanks to the development of Agriolefkes, where there is a refuge, ski lifts, a big slope for experienced skiers and a separate area for beginners, along with all the comforts of a modern ski resort. After Hania, the road starts to descend, weaving in and out of forests of oak and chestnut trees to arrive at Zagora (47 km . from Volos,alt. 480m), Pelion's largest village. If you can take your eyes off the fantastic view of the Aegean Sea, pay a visit to the famous school where many of the spiritual fathers of the Greek Revolution studied, the historic library with rare books and manuscripts, and the Byzantine churches of St. Georgios and St. Kiriaki which contain richy carved icon screens. You would be fortunate indeed if you happened upon a traditional Pelion wedding celebrated in one of them. Don't forget to refresh yourself with the sycculent apples of the region. Horefto (55 km. from Volos), the port of Zagora, lies 8 km. further east, an irresistible spot with shining sea and a lovely beach, while 6 km. to the north the road ends in Pouri (63 km. from Volos, alt. 400 m.). Known as the "Balcony of the Aegean", its three-tiered, three filled square has an extraordinary view; on a clear day you can see as far as Halkidiki. Heading south from Zagora, you come to the village of Makrirahi (46 km. from Volos, alt. 300 m.). A deep dramatic ravine seperates it from its neighbour Anilio (means without sun), a typical Pelion hamlet. Continuing south it is worth taking the secondary road off to the right to climb up to Kisso (52 km. from Volos, alt. 550 m.), one of the most mountainous villages on the eastern flank of Pelion, drenched in a riot of greenery. Or you might prefer to take the left hand fork and descend to the summer seaside resort of Agios Ioannis (57 km. from Volos), where the green of the mountain blends with the blue of the Aegean. You can swim for miles along its enormous coarse - sandy beach and feast on fish at the tavernas by the shore. Returning to the main road, you next come to Mouressi (59 km. from Volos, alt. 370 m.), built amphitheatrically amidst apple orchads and chestnut woods. Of interest here is the wooden icon screen in the church of the Vergin Dormition. From Mouressi, it's a simple matter to get down to the pebbled beach at Damouhari. Five kilometres after Mouressi, still driving through thick forest, you arrive at Tsangarada, on the spine of Pelion (54 km. from Volos, alt. 450 m.). One of the most enchanting summer resorts in Greece, it has ample hotels hidden among its plane and chestnut trees. The villages houses, which are divided into four levels, are strung out along the

mountainside and covered with lush vegeration. Characteristic features of the village are its many old mansions, flag stoned piazzas, picturesque cobbled alleys and a superb view of the Aegean Sea, not to mention its emblem -the thousand year old plane tree in the main square whose diametre measures 14 metres. Don't miss as well the chance to taste the local specialities, "spetzofai" and "fasolada" (bean soup). An asphalted road takes you down to Milopotamos, the port of Tsangarada, 8 kilometres away. After following a series of steps cut out of the rocky coast, you come to its sheltered beach composed of lovely smooth round stones. Not far from Milopotamos there is another beach in a bewitching setting - Fakistra. Along the Pagasetic Gulf The road southeast of Volos to Agria, a coastal suburb with an extensive beach in a fertile district filled with olive groves and orchards. The chapel of the Virgin of Goritsa and the icon screen with carved and painted scenes from everyday life in the chapel of the Holy Cross are sure to leave an impression. From Agria a secondary road rises 12 km to Drakia (17.5 km from Volos, alt. 500 m.), a village characterised by lush vegetation, running streams, well-made alleyways and marvellous popular "tower houses". The main square, thought by historians to be the oldest in Pelion, hosts a folk festival on the 23rd of August, complete with traditional costumes and music. After Agria the main road passes by Kato and Ano Lehonia, where most of Pelion's cultivated flowers are grown and sold. The air is scented with the blossoms of gardenias, hortensias, camellias and tuberoses. Platanidia, the port of Ano Lehonia is a good place for fresh fish. Continuing south the main road proceeds towards the long beach of Malaki before arriving at Kato Gadgea (17 km.), a village blessed with protected beaches and surrounded by a vast olive grove. Next comes Kala Nera (20 km. from Volos), another seaside village with a beach, leafy plane trees, orchards and abundant water. A side road to the east winds 7 kilometres up the mountainside to Milies (28 km. from Volos, alt. 360 m.), one of the most delightful larger villages of Pelion and an important cultural centre, as witnessed by the wealth of rare books and manuscripts in its library. Some of its traditional homes have been renovated to operate as guest houses. Milies also has a fine collection of folk art (local museum), while its little railway station - the end of the old Volos line - is particularly attractive. You can try the local speciality "tyropsomo" (cheese-bread) and "firikia", a kind of lady apple. Just 3 kilometres further up the road you will find Vizitsa (32 km. from Volos, alt. 450

m.), a mountain village concealed among plane trees whose lovely Pelion-style towers and magnificent old mansions have led to its declaration as a landmark settlement protected from unseemly development. Some of the latter have been renovated by the GNTO and are run as guest houses. If you feel like forgetting your cares and troubles for a while, try a little of the potent local brew, "tsipouro". The old-fashioned railway station at Milies traditional house at Vizitsa The interior of a

Back on the main road, you pass through more olive groves and orchards on the way to Koropi which occupies the site of the ancient city of the same name, famous in the past as the home of the Oracle of Apollo Koropaios. On the 24th kilometre of the main road, a short deviation will take you to Afissos (26 km. from Volos) with various magnificent beaches. The main road, which starts its ascent of Pelion after Afetes, forks near here: after Neohori the northern branch leads to Tsangarada passing through Lambinou, with a stunning view of the Aegean; while the southern branch goes to the big village of Argalasti (40 km. from Volos, alt. 250 m.), situated on a fertile plateau reknowned for its olives. Several secondary roads radiate out from Argalasti to the seaside villages ob Kalamos and Paos on the Pagasetic gulf and the mountain hamlets of Kallithea, Xinovrisi and Paltsi, on the Aegean coast. Continuing south there is a succession of sandy beaches one after the other as far as Milina, a pretty summer resort. After Milina the road has recently been extended as far as Trikeri (82 km.), the lovely village at the tip of the Magnesia peninsula. Up to now communications with Volos were possible only by boat via the little port of Agia Kiriaki, a charming fishing hamlet whose tavernas specialise in seafood. The weddings in local costume and the traditional customs observed there during Easter week and on May Day are not to be missed if you happen to be in Greece in the spring. East of Milina the road goes on to Lafkos and Promiri, a typical example of a village submerged in olive trees, winding up in Platania, a quaint fishing village to the south.

The emerald of Pelion and best known village to Greeks and foreigners alike. It is located on the north-eastern side of the mountain at an elevation of 500 meters. From this altitude it commands an absolutely unforgettable view of the great expanse of the Aegean Sea. The beauty of every sunrise and the full moon is unparallelled. It is no wonder that the name in Slavonic means "beautiful view". Tsangarada is a sprawling village extending over 5 klm along the main road. Because of the lush vegetation most of the village is invisible. The inhabited area extends mainly down the slope toward and up to the seashore. It consists of four communities: Agia Paraskevi [St. Friday's], capital of the village and the Municipality, Agii Taxiarhes, Agios Stefanos [St. Steven's], and Agia Kiryaki [St. Sunday's].The coastline of Tsangarada is enhanced with the small but spectacular beaches of Milopotamos, Karavostasia, Fakistra and Damouhari. Tsangarada is blessed with rich history, a maze of cobbled muletracks, alleyways, paths and roads that lead both to the higher peaks and to several idyllic beaches and coves, whose photographs have been included in all kinds of tourist publications. It also takes pride in two great plane trees, 1,000 and 800 years old, with circumferences of 14 and 17.5 meters respectively. An awesome sight both of them. One is struck with wonder and admiration in their presence and cannot help feeling humbled, respectful and fortunate to have seen such wonders of nature.

Pelion Mountain GENERAL If you thought there was no part of Greece that had remained undiscovered, then think again! The quiet beauty of the Pelion will seep into your very soul as you soak up the spectacular and rugged scenery, with its archetypal mountain hamlets and traditional coastal fishing villages, where local folk earn their living in time-honoured fashion. According to Greek mythology, even the Gods of Olympus chose the Pelion as their summer playground, and it was said to be home to the legendary half man-half horse Centaur. Situated on the eastern side of mainland Greece, the Pelion stretches southwards like a slender, beckoning finger, with an impressive spinal mountain range dividing the peninsular into east and west - both sides having their own distinctive character. In the north of the peninsular the area is dominated by Mount Pelion, rising to a height of 1,600 metres above sea level, with wooded slopes stretching all the way to the coast. This peninsular is full of natural beauty, the hillsides densely cloaked with oak, chestnut, pine, plane and fir trees, crystal clear waters bursting from underground springs, apple and pear orchards and panoramic views from the giddy heights of mountain roads. However, as the peninsular is little more than 10 miles wide in most places, even in the mountains you are not far from the sea and the coast offers some spectacular scenery of its own, together with some first class beaches. Back in the Peliot Mountains, the ambiance is made quite unique by the distinctly different architecture to be found there. The terracotta roof-tiled, blue and white painted houses to be found in coastal areas and reminiscent of the Greek islands, gives way to traditionally stone built house, with overhanging upper floors, wooden supports and grey slate roofs. This whole area is perfect for nature lovers, ramblers and ornithologists, as well as die-hard Grecophiles in search of the real Greece. The Pelion is home to many bird species and being on a central Greek migratory route, migrating birds add to the many

different species that can be spotted, including egrets, bitterns, white storks, rock thrushes, kingfishers, scops owls and bee-eaters - among others! So dont forget to pack your binoculars. For tourists (not generally the Greeks), hiking and walking are popular pursuits and the Pelion has its own walking club (Footprints - the North East Pelion Walking Club!) as well as locally organized treks and nature trails, many based upon the Mouresi area. Mostly dis-used stone-paved mule tracks aid the pursuit of hiking throughout the area. In addition, Pelions high peaks give the area a versatility that other places do not possess - winter brings an alpine atmosphere and enough snow to keep the ski enthusiasts happy. The Agriolefkes Ski Centre (approximately 18 miles from Volos) is there to accommodate your wintry desires. What is more, the Pelion is now readily accessible during the summer in the year 2000, charter airlines started direct flights from the UK to the small regional airport just south of the city of Volos so keep it quietssshhh. VOLOS Volos is located on the eastern side of mainland Greece, almost half way between Athens and Thessalonika, beneath the awesome heights of Mount Pelion. As far as facts and figures go, this sprawling modern town is the fourth largest in Greece, has a large, booming port second only to Pireaus and Patras, has the status of being the regional capital and is the gateway to the Pelion peninsular. Volos is ideally situated on the northern end of a deep horseshoe-shaped bay in the Pagasitikos Gulf. These sheltered waters have been a major contributing factor to the rise of Volos as a thriving, modern, commercial port and a major departure point for ferries to the Sporades and other Greek Islands. The town is believed to be built on the site of the ancient city of Iolkos, which was once the home of Jason the Argonaut, and is reputed to be the port from which he set sail on his legendary quest to find the Golden Fleece. In 1957 an earthquake destroyed a large portion of the town and when reconstruction took place, the building emphasis was more on serviceability than architectural beauty. However, it is relatively easy to find your way around, as the town was rebuilt on a grid system, similar to that of Thessalonika. Volos has all the amenities of any large town with banks, supermarkets, cinemas, chemists, doctors, a wide variety of shops selling all types of consumer goods. It also has theatres, discos, nightclubs, plus its own cathedral and University. There are some excellent souvenir shops if you are willing to hunt them out, selling local artefacts such as woodcarvings, wall hangings, worry beads and attractive decorated ceramics. Without a doubt, the main attraction of the town is Voloss expansive waterfront. It has a long wide boulevard and is the towns focal point, with a bustling ferry quay, new marina and vibrant atmosphere. This

whole area is brimming with caf bars, authentic tavernas, local restaurants and tsipouradikos - the latter being small bars selling tsipouro (a clear alcoholic beverage guaranteed to blow your head off!) and mezes (small plates of food to soak up the alcohol). The harbour is located in the centre of the waterfront close to the remaining old town and within walking distance of the rail and bus stations (though not with heavy suitcases!). Both the Town Hall and the Greek Tourist Information office are opposite the harbour. On the eastern side of the waterfront is the lovely church of Agios Konstandinos and continuing on along the waterfront is Voloss Archaeological Museum with some very interesting exhibits from the Neolithic and Hellenistic periods. Particularly of note are the stelae, beautifully engraved tombstones dating from the 5th Century BC. Also noted for its tombs dating from the Mycenaen period and a length of Neolothic wall, is the ancient archaeological site of Dimini, located some 2 miles to the west of the town. Volos even has two reasonable beaches either side of the town for those wishing to spend more than a day here.

Being a regional capital, Volos has excellent transport links to the rest of Greece, on a year round basis as opposed to a seasonal one. There is a frequent, regular coach service to Athens, operating in excess of 10 times daily, as well as a good rail service to Athens, stopping at Larissa, another major town in central Greece. In addition there are good links to Thessalonika, by both road and rail, with coach services on a daily basis. The rail network feeds directly onto the ferry quay in Volos, with the main train station to the west of the harbour and the main coach terminal approximately 200 metres from the train station. There is a bus service from Patras, the major ferry port on the western Peloponnese, to Volos. Ferry services operate throughout the year (to a greater or lesser degree depending on season and weather) to the Sporades islands and also to Lesbos. EASTERN PELION The eastern side of the peninsular is particularly precipitous with mountains plunging straight into the depths of the deep blue Aegean. Across the mountains from Volos, the road winds precariously down around hairpin bends, to the Aegean Sea and the northeastern coastal resort (or at least the closest thing to a resort that the Pelion has) called Agios Ioannis (St Johns). Agios Ioannis sits beneath a scenic backdrop of wooded hillsides and the towering Mount Pelion. This resort is traditional and relaxing - proving popular with Greeks, especially in the high season. The village itself fronts on to a long stretch of fine beach with a variety of water sports available in high season. To the south is another stretch of fine sand and shingle beach at Papa Nero and to the north of the village under the cliffs, there is yet another beach to choose from, at Plaka. On the approach

to the village there is a small stream, which needs fording in early and late season when the mountain springs gush with water. Agios Ioannis has an assortment of shops, restaurants, tavernas and coffee bars mostly serving authentic Greek cuisine. The nightlife revolves around a good meal and good bottle of wine, drunk slowly whilst the sun sets. Whilst the Aegean Sea on the eastern side is clear and inviting it can be choppier than the more sheltered western side, so it may not be ideal for non-swimmers, but is particularly good for windsurfers and can offer some lively sailing together with cooling breezes in the height of summer. A few kilometres to the south of Agios Ioannis, the other side of Papa Nero Beach, is the small fishing hamlet of Damouchari. Damouchari is a car free zone, with a parking area just outside the village, so that locals and visitors alike can wander through the villages stone walled pathways with no pollution from traffic. This is a lovely, peaceful place, with a natural harbour used by local fishing boats, a couple of mini-markets and simple tavernas, plus a caf bar or two. There are no other facilities, shops or banks so money should be exchanged in larger villages prior to arriving in Damouchari. The hamlet has its own sand and shingle beach and there is a pathway across the headland to Papa Nero beach. This area is perfect for walking and hiking; the coastal path leads on from Papa Nero beach all the way to Agios Ioannis, a walk of approximately 1 hour. Other walks can be taken up into the mountains behind Damouchari, for example to Mouressi, a traditional mountain village, in the heart of the hillside forests. The distance of this walk is approximately 5 kilometres by road or less if you take one of the old mule tracks. Mouressi has freshwater springs nearby and is known locally as the Village of Flowers after the colourful blooms surrounding the village, particularly in springtime. Here you can rest in one of a handful of local tavernas before winding your way back to Damouchari. Lower down on the eastern side of the peninsular is the small attractive hamlet of Katiorgis, which looks out across the Aegean to the nearby island of Skiathos. In high season a local speedboat offers a taxi service across to Agia Eleni (better known as Banana beach) on Skiathos (see Skiathos brief), taking about 10 minutes each way. Katiorgis itself is a fishing hamlet that sits on a lovely sandy beach and is the epitome of the get-away-from-it-all holiday. There are a handful of traditional beach side tavernas, a caf bar, a couple of mini markets and a small collection of private houses, some of which are rented out during the summer season. Forget public transport because you would need to hire a car from one of the larger resorts or the airport if you wish to explore this area and there are some nice local walks if you feel like being energetic. A little over 6 kilometres away is the beautifully unspoilt beach at

Mourtias known for its fascinating rock configurations that stand in the shallows like strange roughly hewn statues. As the finger at the bottom end of the peninsular bends around, you arrive at Platanias, the largest fishing village of the Pelion. Located on the southern end of the peninsular, it has more great views across the Aegean to Skiathos. Platanias is a beach lovers paradise, enjoying some of the best sandy beaches in the area. The main beach is a long swathe of sand (with the odd pebble here and there), which curves away from the village, and is a mere stroll from the centre. A coastal path leads round to another superb sandy beach called Mikro Beach and further along is another wonderful beach at Kastri. Usually in high season there are local water taxis to take you around to Mikro and Kastri beaches and sometimes even on to Katiorgis. There is a small harbour where the local fishing boats bob up and down and a sample of their daily catch can be eaten in the evening at one of the waterfront tavernas. As Platanias is so close to Skiathos, day trips are popular and in high season there is a daily flying dolphin that goes to Skiathos town in the morning and returns in the evening. There are also occasional ferries which go across to the popular sandy beach of Koukounares on Skiathos, and some that travel further afield to the islands of Skopelos and Alonissos.

Booking the hotel A: Fairway Hotel. Can I help you? B: Hello, I would like a room for tonight. Friday, August 15th/the 20th through the 23rd. A: What kind of room would you like? B: Id like a single room, please. A: Hold on, please... Im afraid all our single rooms are reserved. The only room we have available is a twin. B: How much for the twin room? A: Sixty dollars including tax. (excluding tax / before tax) B: Does that include breakfast? A: No, but breakfast is available in our dining room. B: OK, Ill take a room for tonight (only). A: Ill need to get your credit card information to guarantee your room. Checking in A: B: A: B: Hi, my name is Suzuki and I have a reservation for tonight. Let me check. OK, yes. A twin room for one night. Thats right. You are in room 408. How would you like to pay for the room?

A: Do you take American Express Travelers Checks? B: Certainly, are they in American funds? Copyright Inter Ed Consultants 2003 A: No, in Canadian. Is that OK? B: Yes, no problem. With the exchange, that comes to 83.76 dollars Canadian. A: Do I pay now or when I check out. B: In advance, please. A: Here you go. B: The elevator is just around the corner. Do you need any help with your bags? A: No thanks. I can manage myself. B: Is there anything else we can do to help you enjoy your stay? A: Can you give me a wake-up call at 7:00? B: We dont do that from here. You can use the clock radio in the room, or you can program the telephone in your room to ring at 7:00. A: Oh, yes. I have a meeting downtown tomorrow. Does this hotel have a shuttle bus? B: No, Im afraid we dont, but we will be happy to call a taxi for you if you provide us with the details. A: No, that wont be necessary. I can call from my room. B: There are no charges for local calls.

Calling the front desk B: Front desk. A: Hi, Im in 408 and my TV doesnt seem to be working. B: We will send someone up to take a look at it in a few minutes. How is everything else? A: Everything else with the room is great. Do the rooms come equipped with irons? B: No, but they are available free of charge here at the front desk. A: Can you send it up with the person who is going to look at my TV? B: Certainly. Tom should be up there by 2:00. A: Thanks. What should I do with the iron when Im finished? B: You can keep it in your room. If you dont hear back from me before 9 tonight, just leave it on your desk and the cleaning staff will pick it up in the morning. A: OK, thanks for everything.

B: Enjoy your stay, and dont hesitate to call if there is something else I can do for you. Making a reservation A: I need a room for a few days. B: That won't be a problem. Could you please tell me your name? A: John Sandals. That's S A N D A L S. B: Sir, I'm Michelle, and I run the front desk. Please tell me the days you'll be here. A: I'll be there in April: Friday through Monday, the 14th through the 17th. B: We recently changed many things here, sir, including our prices. Do you mind, sir? A: Possibly. What's the actual price? B: The price will be $308 a night. A: $308! That's not bad. B: Very good. Now, Mr. Sandals, about the room, smoking or nonsmoking? A: Nonsmoking, definitely! B: Most of our clients prefer nonsmoking. Now, does a queen sound okay? A: Yes, that'll be just fine. B: One more second, sir. Your reservation is now verified, so all I need is your phone number. A: It's 626-555-1739. B: Let me repeat that: 626-555-1739. Okay, sir, we look forward to seeing you in April! A: I need a hotel room. B: That's no problem at all. May I have your name, please? A: Certainly. My name is John Sandals. B: It's a pleasure, Mr. Sandals. My name is Michelle. What days will you need a room? A: Friday afternoon, April 14 through Monday morning, April 17. B: One minor problem, sir. Our prices are now slightly higher. Is that acceptable, sir? A: Please tell me the price, so I can make a decision. B: It'll be $308 nightly. A: That's a reasonable price. B: Good! Now, sir, do you have a preference for smoking or nonsmoking? A: I quit smoking, so nonsmoking. B: I hear you, sir. Nonsmoking. Now, about the bed, is a queen-size okay? A: A queen sounds great. B: Okay, sir, let me reserve those dates, there. Now, if you'll just tell me your phone number. A: That would be 626-555-1739. B: That's 626-555-1739. Thank you so much for choosing our hotel, sir! A: My name is John Sandals, and I've got a reservation. B: May I see some identification, sir, please?

A: Sure. Here you are. B: Thank you so much. Have you got a credit card, Mr. Sandals? A: I sure do. How about American Express? B: Unfortunately, at the present time we take only MasterCard or VISA. A: No American Express? Okay, here's my VISA. B: Thank you, sir. You'll be in room 507, nonsmoking, with a queen-size bed. Do you approve, sir? A: Yes, that'll be fine. B: That's great. This is your key, sir. If you need anything at all, anytime, just dial zero. A: I've got a reservation here. My name is John Sandals. B: Mr. Sandals, may I see your ID, please? A: One second, please, while I dig it out here. B: Now, sir, do you have a credit card? A: Yes, I do. Do you accept American Express? B: I'm sorry, Mr. Sandals, but we accept only MasterCard or VISA. A: That's okay, I've got plenty of cards. Here's my VISA. B: Okay. You're in room 507. It's a single queen-size bed, spacious, and nonsmoking. Is that suitable? A: Yes, that's just what I wanted. B: Here's your key, sir. If you need anything, just dial 0 on your room phone. Making a complaint A: My amenities bill says that I owe $10 for a movie, but I never ordered one. B: Let's see. It says that you were charged Monday at 9:00 p.m. for the movie "Titanic." A: That's absolutely wrong! I was out exploring the city Monday night. B: Okay, let me see what I can do. A: Thank you. I didn't think it would be this simple. B: I can take the $10 off your bill, but I need to charge you $2 for the service. A: Are you serious? I have to pay $2 for a movie I never watched? B: Unfortunately, sir, it's how the computer is programmed. A: This is outrageous! I'm never coming back to this hotel again! B: I'm sorry, sir. Perhaps you'd like to write a letter to headquarters. A: Why am I being charged $10 for a movie that I never ordered? B: Sir, according to your file, you spent Monday evening watching "Titanic." A: The file is wrong. I was at a great concert that night. B: Well, this wouldn't be the first time that a file was wrong. Just a moment, please. A: Thank you for taking care of it so quickly. B: Sir, when I deleted the $10, the program automatically added a $2

service charge. A: You can't do that! You can't charge me for a mistake that you made! B: Sometimes you can't win for losing, sir. A: Now I've seen it all! What a rip-off this place is! B: I don't blame you, sir. Two dollars is a lot of money. Checking out A: I am checking out. Here is the key to my room. B: Thank you. I'll just print out your receipt, and then you're free to go. Here you go! A: Thanks. B: If you don't mind me asking, how did you enjoy your stay at New York Hotel? A: This hotel could use some insecticide, but my time in New York was thoroughly delightful. B: That's very honest of you. Rest assured that this hotel will have no insects next time. A: I'm leaving. Here is my key. B: Just one second, sir, and I'll give you your receipt. Here you go. A: Thank you very much. B: Sir, did you enjoy your stay here? A: Most of my time here was pleasant. And New York itself is fantastic. B: I'm glad you enjoyed the city, anyway. But please don't think too unkindly of us. A: I'm calling to cancel a reservation I made earlier in the week. B: To cancel your reservation, I need your name, phone number, and date of trip, please. A: Rudy Randolph, 818-555-1234. My reservation begins on the second Monday of April. B: I see your reservation on my computer. Let me just cancel it, and you'll be all set! A: Thanks. I'll call again when things get better at home. B: You're welcome. Cancelling a reservation A: I made a reservation earlier this week, but I have to cancel it. B: No problem, sir. Just tell me your name, phone number, and date of reservation. A: Great! I'm Rudy Randolph, 818-555-1234, and my reservation was for April 9 to 15. B: Sir, let me hit the delete button, and your reservation will be cancelled. A: That was nice and fast. Thanks. B: Not at all.

Reporting a problem A: I have a little problem with room 507. B: What exactly seems to be the problem, Mr. Sandals? A: I found cockroaches in my room. B: Cockroaches, sir? That's unbelievable. A: I've seen at least nine different cockroaches in my room. B: Sir, are you sure you haven't seen the same silverfish nine times? A: There are nine cockroaches in my room. I don't have time for your disbelief! B: I apologize. One moment, please, while I transfer you to my supervisor. A: There's a major problem with room 507. B: I'm sorry to hear that. Please tell me the exact problem. A: This room is overrun with cockroaches. B: There has been an occasional silverfish in the hotel, sir. A: I stopped counting at nine. B: Sir, this hotel just passed a thorough insect inspection with flying colors. A: Your inspector needs spectacles. The fact is that cockroaches are running rampant. B: I apologize, sir. Just a second, while I transfer you to my supervisor. A: I'm quite upset! I want a new room and a refund for tonight. B: Forgive me, sir, I haven't been told what the problem is. A: I'm about to be swept away by millions of cockroaches! B: My apologies, sir. We'll transfer you to a new room at once and give you a full refund. A: Thank you. I didn't want to have to take this to court. B: Sir, we never want a guest to stay here mad or unhappy. A: I want to change rooms. In fact, I want a refund for tonight! B: If you tell me the exact problem, I can be more helpful. A: Cockroaches have declared war on my room! B: Allow me to apologize. I'll give you another room right now, and a full refund for tonight. A: Thank you for not asking me to collect the roaches in a jar as evidence. B: Sir, only your mother wants to please you more than we do. Asking for internet access A: How do I get online with my laptop? B: Just plug the Ethernet cable into your computer, and you'll be online in a heartbeat. A: I see the cable. But my computer runs on wireless only. B: No problem. I'll tell you about our alternatives. A: Yes, I'd love to hear what the alternatives are. B: Our state-of-the-art computer lab is on the first floor.

A: Great! But is it free? B: Sir, the computers are free to guests, but you do have to pay a nominal printing fee. A: You said there were other alternatives? B: Just use your computer here in the lobby. It's set up for wireless. A: That sounds like a winner. Now if I need to print something in the lobby? B: We might have a printer here next month. But for now, you'll have to go to the lab. A: I'd like to order broadband internet for my laptop. B: Just plug the Ethernet cable into your computer, and a prompt will tell you the payment options. A: I don't have an Ethernet port. My computer runs entirely on wireless service. B: That's too bad. But there are several alternatives, if you want to hear them. A: Yes, please! Tell me about the alternatives. B: We run a fully equipped computer lab on the first floor. A: Very good. How much does that cost? B: The service is free to hotel patrons. However, printing costs ten cents per page. A: I see. And the other alternatives? B: Alternatively, we do offer wireless in our lobby. You can bring your laptop down here. A: Great! What if I need to print something in the lobby? B: You would have to use the computer lab. I'm sorry for the inconvenience. Asking for more amenities A: I'd like to request some more amenities. B: Amenities? What do you mean by amenities, sir? A: The free stuff, you know, the soap, lotion, shampoo, etc. B: I see. Sir, if I may ask: Have you used up all the amenities in your room? A: Not at all. I still have enough for the next few days. B: Then what is the problem, sir? A: I need some to keep as souvenirs! B: Souvenirs? A: Yes, souvenirs. Trinkets to remember my trip by! B: We do have a souvenir shop on the first floor, sir. A: That's not the same. I never pay for hotel souvenirs! B: I'll call housekeeping. Someone will be up with more amenities shortly. A: How do I get more amenities? B: I'm sorry, sir. I'm not sure I understand. A: I'm talking about the free stuff, like soap and shampoo. B: Oh, I see. So, you're saying that you've already run out of your

amenities. A: No, no. I've got plenty left. B: Now I'm confused again! What is the problem? A: What am I going to do about souvenirs? B: Oh, I get it! You want souvenirs! A: Yes, I've got enough soap for my use, but no extra soap for souvenirs. B: Sir, our souvenir shop carries all those items, and as a guest you get a discount. A: Please! Free souvenirs are the only true souvenirs. B: I understand completely, sir. Housekeeping will bring you souvenirs in just a moment. Asking for help A: Get a doctor here, immediately! B: What's the problem, sir? A: My wife is on the floor, she's unconscious! B: Sir, could you calm down a little bit, please? A: Calm down?! My wife is unconscious, and you're telling me to calm down?! B: Hold on just a second, sir. I'm dialing 911. A: Hurry up, please. B: I'm connecting you now, sir. A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A doctor! I need a doctor! Give me some details, sir. Something is wrong with my wife. She's lying on the floor. Sir, if you don't calm down, you might have a stroke yourself. You're right, I'm beside myself with worry. Hold on, sir. I'm connecting you with 911. Time is critical. Hurry up! I hope everything turns out well, sir. Here's 911.

Asking for sightseeing advice A: I need some sightseeing advice. B: I'd suggest that you start at the Statue of Liberty. A: You know, I've already been there. Can you suggest another place? B: Maybe. Tell me what you like to do in your spare time. A: When I have some free time, I often spend it running or at museums. B: Well, have you ever been to either Central Park or the Museum of Modern Art? A: No, but I sure would like to. B: Central Park is great for just about everything outdoors. Then you can visit the Museum of Modern Art. A: Both places sound great. I'll try to do that today. B: Enjoy the views at both places. A: I need some sightseeing advice. What would you suggest that I visit

first? B: How about starting at the Statue of Liberty? Many people like to begin there. A: The last time I was here, I visited the Statue. So do you have another place in mind? B: I think so. Tell me what interests you. A: I'm big on running, although maybe I like art even more than running. B: Then you must go to Central Park and the Museum of Modern Art! Have you been to either one? A: No. I haven't had a chance to go to either of them. B: Both places are usually crowded with natives and tourists. You'll love the Park and the Museum. A: Thank you. That's great advice. B: This might be the best day of your visit.

EverydayDialogues
A:Welcome,Ron,comeonin! B:Hi,Malia!Whatanicehome! A:Weenjoyittoo! B:Howlonghaveyoulivedhere? A:Aboutfouryearsnow. B:Well,itisverybeautiful. A:Ron,haveaseatandI'llgetussomethingtodrink. B:Good!Iamreallythirsty.Youknowitreallyishotoutside! A:Ihavelemonade,icedtea,andmangojuice. B:Mangojuicewouldbeperfect.Thankyou! A:Hi,Ihaven'tseenyouinawhile. B:Yes,ithasbeenalongtime! A:Howlonghasitbeensincewelastsaweachother? B:Ithinkthatwelastsaweachothertwoyearsago. A:Whathaveyoubeendoingforthepasttwoyears? B:IhavebeengoingtograduateschoolatUSC. A:Whatareyoumajoringin? B:Iamstudyinginternationalcommunications. A:Youshouldeasilybeabletofindajobwiththatmajor. B:Iamcountingonbeingabletogetagoodjob. A:Hey,Robert,whatareyoudoingthisweekend? B:Ididn'thaveanybigplans. A:WeareputtingtogetherabirthdaypartyforMary. B:Thatsoundslikefun.Wherewillitbe? A:WethoughtitwouldbefuntohaveapoolpartyatJay'shouse. B:Ohgood!CanIbringanything? A:Wewillbeprovidinghotdogs,hamburgers,andcake,butpeoplecan bringsidedishes.

B:Iamassumingthatthedressiscasual. A:Dresscasuallyandbringyourbathingsuit! B:Wonderful.JustemailmethetimeanddateandI'llbethere. A:It'sanuglydaytoday. B:Iknow.Ithinkitmayrain. A:It'sthemiddleofsummer,itshouldn'traintoday. B:Thatwouldbeweird. A:Yeah,especiallysinceit'sninetydegreesoutside. B:Iknow,itwouldbehorribleifitrainedanditwashotoutside. A:Yes,itwouldbe. B:Ireallywishitwasn'tsohoteveryday. A:Metoo.Ican'twaituntilwinter. B:Ilikewintertoo,butsometimesitgetstoocold. A:I'dratherbecoldthanhot. B:Metoo. A:Iwishitwasanicerdaytoday. B:Thatistrue.Ihopeitdoesn'train. A:Itwouldn'traininthemiddleofthesummer. B:Itwouldn'tseemrightifitstartedrainingrightnow. A:Itwouldbeweirdifitstartedraininginninetydegreeweather. B:Anyrainrightnowwouldbepointless. A:That'sright,itreallywouldbe. B:Iwantittocooldownsome. A:Iknowwhatyoumean,Ican'twaituntilit'swinter. B:Winterisgreat.Iwishitdidn'tgetsocoldsometimesthough. A:Iwouldratherdealwiththewinterthanthesummer. B:Ifeelthesameway. A:Isn'titaniceday? B:Itreallyis. A:Itseemsthatitmayraintoday. B:Hopefullyitwill. A:Howcome? B:Ilikehowcleartheskygetsafteritrains. A:Ifeelthesameway.Itsmellssogoodafteritrains. B:Iespeciallylovethenightairwhenitrains. A:Really?Why? B:Thestarslooksomuchcloserafteritrains. A:Ireallywantittoraintoday. B:Yeah,sodoI. A:Iwouldliketotakeatriptothebeachthisweekend. B:Atriptothebeachwouldbefun.Howistheweathergoingtobe?

A:Theforecastsaysthatitwillbewarmontheweekend. B:Sodoyouthinkit'llbeperfectweatherforthebeach? A:Itsoundslikeitwillbe. B:Ireallyhopeitdoesn'tgetcold. A:Thatwouldruinthings,Iwanttogosobadly. B:TheweatherinCaliforniaisunpredictable,soyouneverknow. A:Thatistrue.Theweatherisconstantlychanging. B:Itwouldbeniceiftheweatherwouldneverchange. A:Thatwouldbegreat,thenwecouldplanthingssooner. B:True.Predictableweatherwouldmakelifeeasier. A:HiJoe,iseverythinggoingOKwithyou? B:Thingsaregreat.Mary,IamhavingapartyonFridaynightandwaswonderingif youwouldbeavailable? A:Iwouldlovetocometoyourparty! B:Iamgladyouarefree.Doyouknowhowtogettomyhouse? A:Ifyouwouldemailmeyouraddress,thatwouldhelp. B:Sure,noproblem.CanyouthinkofanyoneelseIcaninvitetotheparty? A:MyfriendJakeisintown,andIwouldlikeitifIcouldbringhim. B:Sure,bringJakealong.Themorethemerrier! A:CanIbringanything? B:IfthereissomethingspecialthatyouandJakewouldliketodrink, bringthatalong.

BBC Cyprusbailout:FeelingunlovedinGermany
ByStephenEvans/BBCNews,Berlin InGermany,thecitizensfeelaggrieved.Theyperceivetheircountryasagenerous donorofhardearnedcashtopeopleswhohavelettheirfinancesgotoruin. German taxpayers donate, the argument runs, to help those less ........................ (INDUSTRY) than themselves. And what, they wonder, do they get in return? Nothing but .......................... (UNGRATEFUL) and insult. So it seems to some Germans. Outside the country, on the other hand, it does not seem like that at all. .......................... (PERCEIVE) are inverted. Instead of gratitude for the gifts donated, Germans feel the .......................... (COLD) of ingratitude for the strings attached.

Ortheheatofangryinsult.TheSpanishdailyElPaispublished(andthenapologised for)apiecewhichsaidthat.........................(CONSERVE)ChancellorAngelaMerkel "likeHitler,hasdeclaredwarontherestofthecontinent". Antiausterity protests south of the Alps routinely feature placards depicting swastikasandpicturesofGermanpoliticianswithaddedmoustaches. InBritain,theDailyMailnewspapertalkedofthewaytheeventsinCypruswere handledas"oneofthenastiestandmost.........................(MORAL)politicalactsin moderntimes".It..........................(LIKE)Germanytoacommoncriminalbecauseof thewaythedepositsof.......................(SAVE)wereinitiallytargeted:"Peoplewhorob oldladiesinthestreet,orholdupsecurityvans,arebrandedasthieves." TheUK'sDailyTelegraphalludedtoanewGermanempireor"Imperium"asitput it. The way Germany dealt with the crisis in Cyprus was "the authentic tone of an.........................(EMPIRE)power.TodaythatpowerisGermany.Wehaveheard enoughlies,theGermansaresayinghaughtilytotheCypriots,nowshutupanddo whatwewant." So how are the Germans taking it? With shock sometimes. They ......................... (VARY)objectstronglytotheuseofNazisymbolsafterall,theirdisplay,whether theswastikaortheraisedarm,isillegalinGermany. 'Ithurts' WhentheBBCtalkedtopeopleattheBrandenburgGate,wheretouristsfromallover Germanygather,manysaidtheywereveryupsetwhentheysawpicturesofsuch symbolsonthestreetsofNicosiaorMadridorAthens. OneyoungwomanfromBavariasaid:"WhenyouseeGreekpeoplemakethatHitler greeting,it'snotgood.Itisn'tallowedinGermanyanditshouldn'tbeallowedin othercountries.Weareshocked.TheyaregettingalotofmoneyfromGermanyso whydon'ttheylikeus?" Amiddleagedmansaid:"It'snotokaywhenpeoplesayAdolfHitlerandAngela Merkelarethesame.Welivein2013andnotin1945." AnoldermansaidhedidnotunderstandwhyGermanywasblamedfortryingto help:"Ithurts,becausewethinkwearegivingmoneyandwetrytohelp.Thisis somethingwedon'tunderstand." Thatsenseofhurtis............................(UNIVERSE).JanSchaefer,theeconomicseditor of Bild, the most popular newspaper in Germany, told the BBC that pictures comparingGermanytotheNazistatewereobnoxious.

"Ifyougoback70yearstosolveaproblemtoday,youcan'tdothat.Soformeandfor myfamily,it'sjuststupid.IlookatthepicturesandIjusthavetolaugh.Theyareso dumb.Really,reallydumbandstupid." Butheaddedastinginthetailofhis.....................(RAGE),bysayingthatopinionin Germany might ....................... (HARD) against further bailouts because of the ingratitudeoverpreviousones. "ThemorethatprotesterscompareMrsMerkelwithAdolfHitler,themorepeopleare goingtogetangryandtheymightsay'WemighthavetaxesrisinghereinGermany becauseofthebailoutofothercountries,sowhyareyoumadatusandcompareour chancellortoAdolfHitler?'"hesaid. "There'snocomparison.Andwehelpyou,sowhyareyouyellingandshoutingand protestingagainstus?" Atthemoment,thissenseof......................(UNJUST)inGermanyisunformedan inchoatefeelingfromthegutthatemergeswhenyoutalktoordinaryGermans. 'Politicalprice' Some politicians are indicating an unease at the ....................... (REACT) Foreign MinisterGuidoWesterwelle,forexample,saidafterthedealoverCypruswasdone thatitmighthavebeenhandleddifferently.Helamentedthe"shrillslogansinthe publicarenaandthemediathatwereoftenunjustand.....................(HURT)". Part of Germany's difficulty is that this is an election year, which means that no politician wants to appear soft when it comes to giving away the money of...........................(TAX)whoarealsovoters. SowhenGermany'sFinanceMinister,WolfgangSchaeuble,wentontelevisionfora domestic audience, it might have sounded better at home than abroad when he likenedthosecomplainingaboutGermanytochildrenwhodonotdoverywellin exams:"It'slikeinschoolwhenyougetbettergradesandthosehavingahardertime getalittlejealous." Similarly, when Chancellor Merkel told a meeting of MPs from her Christian Democrat(CDU)partythatCyprus'sbusinessmodelwasbroken,thatwouldhave playedwellintheprivatemeetingbutbadlybeyondGermany'sborders(including in neighbouring Luxembourg, where the foreign minister accused Germany of "strivingforhegemony"). Some in Germany are aware of the dangers of the country being disliked as its economic power grows. "Careful, careful," said the Sueddeutsche Zeitung. "If the

countrycontinuestobesocoldhearteditwillpayan.............................(MEASURE) politicalprice." ButtoughnesspaysdividendsinsideGermany,evenasithasitspriceoutsidethe country.The............................(INDICATE)arethatGermansremainweddedtothe eurobytwotoone,accordingtomostpolls.ThereisanostalgiafortheDeutschmark, butnotamajorityinfavourofareturntoit. EventheleadersofanewEuroscepticpartyconcedethat.ProfessorBerndLucke,a professor of economics in Hamburg who founded Alternative fuer Deutschland, reckonsthatabout25%ofGermanvoterswouldvoteforanantieuroparty. "Mypartyfightsforthe..........................(DISOLVE)oftheeuroarea,"hetoldtheBBC. He citesthe usualsuspects (Italy,Spain,Greece andPortugal) butalso Franceas beingincompatiblewithasinglecurrencythatincludesGermany. "WewitnesseverincreasingtransferpaymentstosouthernEuropeancountries,and weseethattheproblemsinthesecountriesarenotbeingsolved,butaggravatedmore andmore,"hesaid. Thatisacommon,thoughnotunanimous,sentimentinGermanybutthatdoesnot mean Germans will vote in droves for the new party in the federal elections in September. Merkel'schallenge Nobody expects them to be a large party in the Bundestag (lower house), and perhapsnoteventopassthethresholdtogetany...............................(REPRESENT). Whatthenewpartymaydo,though,istoskimvotesfromMrsMerkel'sCDUandits alliesingovernment,somakingiteasierforthe............................(OPPOSE) Social Democrats(SPD)andGreenstoformagovernment. MrsMerkelremainsheadandshouldersaboveanyotherGermanpoliticianinterms ofpopularity.ShebestridestheGermanpoliticalstage. Butshealsohasan.............................(INCREASE)thinlinetotreadbetweenthose whoaregrowingsickandtiredofwhattheyseeasingratitudeoutsideGermanyand, ontheotherhand,thosewhoremainfullycommittedtotheeuroandtoGerman effortstopreserveit. Andbehindallthisisabiggerquestion:cananeconomicgiantremainapolitical lightweight? And if it cannot, how does it cope with any resentment? Maybe Germanyhasgottogetusedtonotbeingloved.

BBC News How much gold is there in the world? By Ed Prior / 1 April 2013 Imagine if you were a super-villain who had taken control of all the world's gold, and had decided to melt it down to make a cube. How long would the sides be? Hundreds of metres, thousands even? Actually, it's ....................... (LIKELY) to be anything like that size. Warren Buffett, one of the world's richest ...................... (INVEST), says the total amount of gold in the world - the gold above ground, that is - could fit into a cube with sides of just 20m (67ft). But is that all there is? And if so, how do we know? A figure that is .................... (WIDE) used by investors comes from Thomson Reuters GFMS, which produces an annual gold survey. Their latest figure for all the gold in the world is 171,300 tonnes - which is almost exactly the same as the amount in our super-villain's ......................... (IMAGINE) cube. A cube made of 171,300 tonnes would be about 20.7m (68ft) on each side. Or to put it another way, it would reach to 9.8m above ground level if exactly covering Wimbledon Centre Court. But not everyone agrees with the GFMS figures. Estimates range from 155,244 tonnes, ......................... (MARGIN) less than the GFMS figure, to about 16 times that amount - 2.5 million tonnes. That bigger figure would make a cube of sides 50m (166ft) long, or a column of gold towering 143m above Wimbledon centre court. So why are the figures so different? Part of the reason is that gold has been mined for a very long time - more than 6,000 years, according to gold ...................... (HISTORY) Timothy Green. The first gold coins were minted in about 550 BC under King Croesus of Lydia - a province in modern-day Turkey - and quickly became accepted ....................... (PAY) for merchants and mercenary soldiers around the Mediterranean. Up until 1492, the year Columbus sailed to America, GFMS estimates that 12,780 tonnes had been extracted. But one investor who looked at the research done in this area, James Turk, the founder of Gold Money, discovered what he regarded as a series of over-estimates. He believes that the primitive .................. (MINE) techniques used up to the Middle Ages mean that this figure is much too high, and that a more .................... (REAL) total is just 297 tonnes. Tonnes of gold

Pre-1492 Post-1492 Total

GFMS 12,780 158,520 171,300

James Turk 297 154,947 155,244

His figure for the overall amount of gold in the world is 155,244 tonnes 16,056 tonnes, or 10% less, than the .................... (ASSESS) by Thompson Reuters GFMS. A .................... (RELATE) small disparity, perhaps, but one that at today's prices comes to more than $950bn. His .................... (CONCLUDE) are accepted by some investors but such is the feeling between rival ...................... (ANALYSE) that one competitor described Turk's figures as an alternative to the GFMS's "in the same way that Jedi is an alternative to Christianity". But there are others who think both sets of figures are too low. "In Tutankhamen's tomb alone they found that his coffin was made from 1.5 tonnes of gold, so imagine the gold that was found in the other tombs that were ransacked before records were taken of them," says Jan Skoyles of gold ....................... (INVEST) firm The Real Asset Company. While James Turk makes only minor ................... (ADJUST) to the GFMS figure for the amount of gold mined after 1492, Skoyles points out that even today China is "not ......................... (PARTICULAR) open" about how much gold it is mining. And in some countries, such as Colombia, "there's a lot of illegal mining going on", she says. She doesn't have an exact figure to offer, but one organisation that has tried to do some maths is the Gold Standard Institute. Its experts believe that if we emptied our bank vaults and jewellery boxes, we'd find no less than 2.5 million tonnes of gold - though they admit that the evidence is somewhat sparse and the figure is a bit speculative. So who's right? Well, we don't know. In the end, all these numbers are made up of estimates added to estimates added to yet more estimates. Maybe they're all way off. The good news is that we are not likely to run out of gold any time soon. The US Geological Survey estimates there are 52,000 tonnes of minable gold still in the ground and more is likely to be discovered. The bad news is that the way we use gold is starting to change. Up to now it has never gone away. It has always been ..................... (CYCLE). "All the gold that has been mined throughout history is still in .................... (EXIST) in the above-ground stock. That means that if you have a gold watch, some of the gold in that watch could have been mined by the Romans 2,000 years ago," says James Turk. The way gold is being used in the technology industry, however, is different. The British Geological Survey states that about 12% of current

world gold production finds its way to this sector, where it is often used in such small quantities, in each individual product, that it may no longer be .................. (ECONOMY) to recycle it. In short, gold may be being "consumed" for the first time.

BBC

The Great British class calculator


3 April 2013 privileged extent savings defined predominantly sample fragmented conventional immigration extreme online sophisticated deprived urban middling apathy prosperous gregarious simplistic outdated People in the UK now fit into seven social classes, a major survey conducted by the BBC suggests. It says the traditional categories of working, middle and upper class are ........................, fitting 39% of people. It found a new model of seven social classes ranging from the elite at the top to a "precariat" - the poor, precarious proletariat - at the bottom. More than 161,000 people took part in the Great British Class Survey, the largest study of class in the UK. Class has traditionally been ...................... by occupation, wealth and education. But this research argues that this is too ......................, suggesting that class has three dimensions - economic, social and cultural. The BBC Lab UK study measured economic capital - income, ......................, house value - and social capital - the number and status of people someone knows. The study also measured cultural capital, defined as the ................... and nature of cultural interests and activities. The new classes are defined as: 1. Elite - the most ........................... group in the UK, distinct from the other six classes through its wealth. This group has the highest levels of all three capitals 2. Established middle class - the second wealthiest, scoring highly on all three capitals. The largest and most ....................... group, scoring second highest for cultural capital

3. Technical middle class - a small, distinctive new class group which is ........................ but scores low for social and cultural capital. Distinguished by its social isolation and cultural ....................... 4. New affluent workers - a young class group which is socially and culturally active, with ....................... levels of economic capital 5. Traditional working class - scores low on all forms of capital, but is not completely ........................ . Its members have reasonably high house values, explained by this group having the oldest average age at 66 6. Emergent service workers - a new, young, ..................... group which is relatively poor but has high social and cultural capital 7. Precariat, or precarious proletariat - the poorest, most deprived class, scoring low for social and cultural capital The researchers said while the elite group had been identified before, this is the first time it had been placed within a wider analysis of the class structure, as it was normally put together with professionals and managers. At the opposite ...................... they said the precariat, the poorest and most deprived grouping, made up 15% of the population. The sociologists said these two groups at the extremes of the class system had been missed in ....................... approaches to class analysis, which have focused on the middle and working classes. Methodology Professor of sociology at Manchester University, Fiona Devine, said the survey really gave a sense of class in 21st Century Britain. "What it allows us is to understand is a more ......................., nuanced picture of what class is like now. It shows us there is still a top and a bottom, at the top we still have an elite of very wealthy people and at the bottom the poor, with very little social and cultural engagement. It's what's in the middle which is really interesting and exciting, there's a much more fuzzy area between the traditional working class and traditional middle class. There's the emergent workers and the new affluent workers who are different groups of people who won't necessarily see themselves as working or middle class. The survey has really allowed us to drill down and get a much more complete picture of class in modern Britain." The researchers also found the established middle class made up 25% of the population and was the largest of all the class groups, with the traditional working class now only making up 14% of the population. They say the new affluent workers and emergent service workers appear to be the children of the "traditional working class," which they say has

been ......................... by de-industrialisation, mass unemployment, ........................... and the restructuring of urban space. BBC Lab UK worked with Prof Mike Savage of the London School of Economics and Prof Devine on the study. The findings have been published in the Sociology Journal and presented at a conference of the British Sociological Association on Wednesday. Researchers asked a series of questions about income, house value, savings, cultural and leisure activities and the occupations of friends. They were able to determine a person's economic, social and cultural capital scores from the answers and analysed the scores to create its class system. The GBCS was launched .......................... in January 2011, but data showed participants were .......................... drawn from the well-educated social groups. To overcome this a second identical survey was run with a survey company GFK, with a ...................... of people representing the population of the UK as a whole, using the information in parallel.

The Guardian

North Korea advises evacuation foreigners in South Korea in new threat

for

Regime says visitors might get hurt if war starts, while workers boycott joint factories and missile test talk heightens
Justin McCurry in Seoul / Tuesday 9 April 2013 As the world waits to see if North Korea launches a ballistic missile, the regime ..................... (attempt) to raise tensions further, warning foreigners ................... (live) in South Korea to make evacuation plans because the peninsula is on the brink of war. "We ......................... (not/wish) harm on foreigners in South Korea should

there be a war," the official KCNA news agency quoted an official from a North Korean organisation calling itself Korea Asia-Pacific Peace Committee as ..................... (say). The KCNA report did not offer details and there are reportedly no signs of a military buildup near the border dividing the Korean peninsula, located less than 40 miles from the South Korean capital, Seoul. Analysts noted that Pyongyang .................... (issue) similar threats in the past, ..................... (add) that this latest warning ........................ (design) to elicit aid and political concessions from Seoul and Washington. Amid the bluster of recent weeks during which the North ......................... (threaten) to launch a nuclear attack on the US the regime appears to have made good on its threat ......................... (withdraw) its workers from the Kaesong industrial complex. None of the 53,000 North Korean workers at the site, located just north of the border, arrived for work on Tuesday morning a day after Pyongyang accused the South of turning the jointly run zone into "a hotbed of war". The suspension of all operations at the site momentarily shifted attention from North Korea's east coast where, according to reports, preparations ........................... (make) to test launch at least one mediumrange missile, possibly as early as Wednesday. In response, Japan deployed PAC-3 missile interceptors in Tokyo on Tuesday. Japan's self-defence forces are under orders to shoot down any incoming North Korean missiles; Tokyo ........................ (also/deploy) two Aegis destroyers equipped with sea-based interceptor missiles in the Sea of Japan. The two missiles, thought to be the untested Musudan, have a maximum range of 2 485 miles, putting South Korea, Japan and US bases on Guam within reach. The prime minister, Shinzo Abe, said his government would take "every possible measure ......................... (protect) the lives and safety of the Japanese people". The closure of Kaesong, the last symbol of rapprochement between the two Koreas, marks a serious deterioration in cross-border ties. The move is also a sign of how far the North's leader, Kim Jong-un, may be prepared to go to foment crisis on the peninsula, given that a prolonged closure would deprive his regime of an important source of hard currency. South Korea's president, Park Geun-hye, described the suspension as "very disappointing" and said investors .......................... (now/shun) the North.

"Investment is all about ....................... (be) able to anticipate results and trust and when you have the North breaking international regulations and promises like this and suspending Kaesong while the world ....................... (watch), no country in the world ....................... (invest) in the North," Park told a cabinet meeting. "North Korea should stop ......................... (behave) in this way and make the right choice for the future of the Korean nation." South Korean firms ................................ (invest) an estimated $500m (327m) in the site since it opened in 2004. The complex generates about $96m for the North Korean economy every year. About 475 South Korean workers and factory managers remain in Kaesong, with 77 expected ............................. (return) across the border on Tuesday. The warning to foreign residents in the South comes a week after North Korea told overseas embassies in Pyongyang that they should consider evacuating staff, warning their safety could not be guaranteed if war ..................... (break) out. No embassies are thought ............................ (act) on the advice.

TheEconomist

Politicsthisweek
Apr6th2013 Taliban coalition spree successor inconclusive embezzlement inflation rookie plea injunction coexist The shortcomings ousted stringent prop levy mapping opposition toll infrastructure laundering flash subpoenaed

AsenseofuneasespreadacrosstheKoreanpeninsulaas NorthKoreabecameever more bellicose. It said it was preparing for a state of war with South Korea; threatenedtorestartitsYongbyonnuclear reactor;andstoppedworkersfromthe SouthenteringtheKaesongindustrialpark,whichisintheNorthbutsupervisedby bothgovernments.TheUnitedStatesandSouthKoreaboostedtheirdefences and warnedthe....................dictator,KimJongUn,oftheconsequencesofanyattack.

Asuicidebombandgunbattleatacourthouseinwestern Afghanistankilledatleast 50peopleandinjured90,thedeadliestattackinthecountrysinceDecember2011. HamidKarzai,thepresident,hadjustreturnedfromvisitingQatar,whereheonce againcalledonthe....................toagreetopeacetalks. Malaysias prime minister, Najib Razak, dissolved parliament ahead of a general election.MrNajibsruling.........................,theBarisanNasional,haswoneverypoll sinceindependencein1957,yetdespiterobustgrowththeresultthisyearisinsome doubt.The.......................alliance,PakatanRakyat,isledagainbyAnwarIbrahim. Japans central bank outlined a new phase of monetary easing, including expanding its bondbuying programme to purchases of longerterm debt. Shinzo Abe, theprimeminister, campaigned forelectionlastyear by urging theBank of Japan to take more action to end 15 years of deflation and has told it to do everythingpossibletoreachan...................targetof2%withintwoyears. Over6,000peoplewerekilledin SyriainMarch,accordingtotheSyrianObservatory forHumanRights,agroupbased inBritain,makingitthedeadliest monthsince protestsbeganmorethantwoyearsago.Theoveralldeath................hasprobably nowexceeded70,000. KenyasSupremeCourtconfirmedUhuruKenyattaselectionaspresident,intheface of petitions by the runnerup, Raila Odinga, who expressed dismay at........................intheconductofthepoll.MrKenyattastillfaceschargesofcrimes againsthumanityattheInternationalCriminalCourtin.....................Hague. The ........................ president of the Central African Republic, Franois Boziz, accusedChadofhelpingrebelstooverthrowhim.MichelDjotodia,arebelleader, declaredhimselfpresidentinstead.PresidentJacobZumaofSouthAfrica,whichlost 13soldiersinaneffortto.....................upMrBoziz,flewtoanemergencysummitin Chadamidsharpcriticismbackhome.AllSouthAfricantroopswould,hesaid,be withdrawn. Campaigning for Venezuelas presidential election on April 14th formally began, with Nicols Maduro (right), the chosen ...................... of Hugo Chvez, the late president,promisingtotacklecrime,anissuethatwasignoredbyChvez. Mexicospresident,EnriquePeaNieto,signedalawmodifyingtheuseofaspecial type of ........................ The measure is intended to prevent firms, especially in telecoms,fromevadingregulatorymeasures. InArgentina,heavyrainscaused....................floodinginBuenosAiresandLaPlata, killingmorethan50people.

Michalis Sarris quit as the Cypriot finance minister, hours after approving a 10 billion ($13 billion) bailout with officials from the European Union and IMF. Meanwhile,NicosAnastasiades,thepresidentof Cyprus,rejectedclaimsthatsomeof his relatives had moved millions out of the countrys banks shortly before a controversial.....................ondepositswasannounced(andlaterabandoned). AftertalkssponsoredbytheEU,leadersfrom SerbiaandKosovoleftBrusselswith no deal on how to ........................ peacefully. Catherine Ashton, the EUs foreign affairschief,hadmadeabigefforttoreachanagreementandleftthedooropenfor furthernegotiations. InFranceJrmeCahuzac,whoresignedasFranoisHollandesbudgetministerlast month,askedforforgivenessforthedamageIcausedafteradmittingtohavingan undeclared Swiss bank account, something he had consistently denied before parliament. He was placed under formal investigation for suspected money........................... Giorgio Napolitano, the president of Italy, asked for ideas to end the impasse in forminganewgovernment,andchosetenwisementoworkontheproblemafter political parties failed again to agree on a coalition following Februarys .......................... election. Mr Napolitanos announcement ended speculationthathemightresign. PrincessCristina,theyoungestdaughterofSpainsKingJuanCarlos,wassummoned toappearincourttoanswerquestionsaboutherhusbandsalleged.........................of public funds. It is the first time aSpanishroyalhas been ..................... in modern times. BarackObamaannouncedanewprogrammetoconductresearchinto......................... the human brain and to help find cures for diseases such as Alzheimers. The programmewillbecoordinatedbythreegovernmentagencies,witharequestfor fundingof$100m. MrObamaalsourgedCongresstopassproposalstoimproveAmericas......................, suchascreatinganinfrastructurebankandencouragingmoreprivateinvestment. Hemadehis......................intheportofMiami,whichisbeingrejuvenatedwitha mixtureofprivateandpublicmoney. DemocratsandRepublicansinConnecticutagreedona.....................packageofgun controllawsandaregistryofpeopleconvictedofseriousguncrimes.InDecember20 childrenandsixadultswerekilledinashooting......................ataschoolinthestate.