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# System Model Representation

Configuration Form (Second-Order Matrix Form)
State-Space Representation
Input/Output Equation
Transfer Function

Given: Differential Equations (assume multi-
degree-of-freedom and zero initial conditions)
1 1 1 2 1
2 1 2
2 0
x x x x f
x x x
+ + − =
− + =
&& &
&

1. Second-Order Matrix Form
1 1 1 1 n n n n n n n n n n × × × × × × ×
m x + b x + k x = f && &

1 1 1 1
2 2 2
1 0 1 0 1 1
0 0 0 1 2 1 0
x x x f
x x x
− ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ ( ( ( ¦ ¹
+ + =
´ ` ´ ` ´ ` ´ `
( ( (

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¹ ) ¹ ) ¹ ) ¹ )
m b k
&& &
&& &
123 123 14243

2. State-Space Representation
Step 1: Select state variables and identify
inputs

Step 2: Solve for the first-order time
derivative of each state variable and write
it in terms of state variables and inputs
only.

Similarly, write outputs (usually given) in
terms of state variables and inputs only.

Step 3: Write state-variable equations and
output equations in matrix form.
1 1 1
1 1
1
n n n n n m m
n p m p n m
p
× × × × ×
× × × ×
×
x = A x + B u
y = C x + D u
& &

Step 1:
1 1
2 1
3 2
z x
z x
z x
=
=
=
&
1
u f =
Step 2:
1 1 2
2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 3
3 2 1 2 1 3
2 2
z x z
z x x x x f z z z u
z x x x z z
= =
= = − − + + = − − + +
= = − = −
& &
&& & &
& &

Assume
1
x and
2
x to be outputs.
1 1 1
2 2 3
y x z
y x z
= =
= =

Step 3:
1 1
2 2
3 3
0 1 0 0
1 1 1 1
2 0 1 0
z z
z z u
z z
¦ ¹ ( ¦ ¹ (
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
( (
= − − +
´ ` ´ `
( (
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
( ( −
¹ ) ¸ ¸ ¹ ) ¸ ¸
&
&
&

1
1
2
2
3
1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
z
y
z u
y
z
¦ ¹
¦ ¹ ( ( ¦ ¦
= +
´ ` ´ `
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¹ )
¦ ¦
¹ )

3. Input/Output Equations
Step 1: Write differential equations in
second-order matrix form (see Part 1).
Step 2: Take Laplace transform.

Step 2: Apply Cramer’s rule.

Step 3: Take inverse Laplace transform.

Step 1:
2
1 1 1 1
2
2 2 2
1 0 1 0 1 1
0 0 0 1 2 1 0
sX X F s X
sX X s X
− ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ ( ( ( ¦ ¹
+ + =
´ ` ´ ` ´ ` ´ `
( ( (

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¹ ) ¹ ) ¹ ) ¹ )

or
2
1 1
2
( ) ( ) 1 1
( ) 0 2 1
X s F s s s
X s s
( + + − ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹
=
´ ` ´ ` (
− +
¹ ) ¹ ) ¸ ¸

Step 2:
1
1 3 2
( 1) ( )
( )
2 2 1
s F s
X s
s s s
+
=
+ + −

1
2 3 2
2 ( )
( )
2 2 1
F s
X s
s s s
=
+ + −

Step 3:
1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 1
2 2
2 2 2
x x x x f f
x x x x f
+ + − = +
+ + − =
&
&&& && &
&&& && &

4. Transfer Matrix
Follow Step 1 and Step 2 in Part 3.
Step 3: Write transfer function for each
pair of input and output.
( )
( )
( )
i
ij
j
Y s
G s
U s
=
Write them in matrix form.
11 1
1
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
m
p pm
p m
G s G s
G s
G s G s
×
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
L
M O M
L

Step 3:
1
3 2
1
( ) 1
( ) 2 2 1
X s s
F s s s s
+
=
+ + −

2
3 2
1
( ) 2
( ) 2 2 1
X s
F s s s s
=
+ + −

in matrix form
3 2
3 2
1
2 2 1
( )
2
2 2 1
s
s s s
G s
s s s
+ (
(
+ + −
= (
(
(
+ + − ¸ ¸

Given: State-Space Representation
1 1 1
1 1
1
n n n n n m m
n p m p n m
p
× × × × ×
× × × ×
×
x = A x + B u
y = C x + D u
& &

Find: Transfer Function or Transfer Matrix

11 1
1
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
m
p pm
p m
G s G s
G s
G s G s
×
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
L
M O M
L

Method:
-1
( ) ( ) G s = C sI - A B+ D
Example: Recall Part 2
1
3 2
3 2
0 0 0 1 0 0
1 0 0 0
( ) 0 0 1 1 1 1
0 0 1 0
0 0 2 0 1 0
1
2 2 1
2
2 2 1
s
G s s
s
s
s s s
s s s

| | ( ( (
( ( |
( ( (
= − − − +
( ( |
( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
|
( ( ( −
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ \ ¹
+ (
(
+ + −
= (
(
(
+ + − ¸ ¸

Given: Input/Output Equation (with time-derivatives of
input)
( ) ( 1) ( ) ( 1)
1 0 1
n n n n
n n
y a y a y b u bu b u
− −
+ + + = + + + L L
or Transfer Function
1
0 1
1
1
( )
( )
n n
n
n n
n
b s b s b Y s
U s s a s a

+ + +
=
+ + +
L
L

4 2 3 2 y y y y u u + + + = + &&& && & &
or
3 2
( ) 2 1
( ) 4 2 3
Y s s
U s s s s
+
=
+ + +

Find: State-Space Representation
Method:
1
1 2 1
0 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 1 0
1
n
n n
x
x
a a a a

( (
( (
¦ ¹
( (
¦ ¦
( ( = = =
´ `
( (
¦ ¦
¹ ) ( (
( (
− − − −
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
x A B
L
L
M M M M M M
L
L

[ ]
0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0

n n n n
b a b b a b b a b D b
− −
= − + − + − + = C L
Note:
0
0 b = ,
1
0 b = ,
2
2 b = ,
3
1 b =
and
0
1 a = ,
1
4 a = ,
2
2 a = ,
3
3 a =
1 1
2 2
3 3
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
3 2 4 1
x x
x x u
x x
¦ ¹ ( ¦ ¹ (
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
( (
= +
´ ` ´ `
( (
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
( ( − − −
¹ ) ¸ ¸ ¹ ) ¸ ¸
&
&
&

[ ]
1
2
3
1 2 0 0
x
y x u
x
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
= + ⋅
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )