Are you sure?
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Configuration Form (SecondOrder Matrix Form)
StateSpace Representation
Input/Output Equation
Transfer Function
Given: Differential Equations (assume multi
degreeoffreedom and zero initial conditions)
1 1 1 2 1
2 1 2
2 0
x x x x f
x x x
+ + − =
− + =
&& &
&
1. SecondOrder Matrix Form
1 1 1 1 n n n n n n n n n n × × × × × × ×
m x + b x + k x = f && &
1 1 1 1
2 2 2
1 0 1 0 1 1
0 0 0 1 2 1 0
x x x f
x x x
− ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ ( ( ( ¦ ¹
+ + =
´ ` ´ ` ´ ` ´ `
( ( (
−
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¹ ) ¹ ) ¹ ) ¹ )
m b k
&& &
&& &
123 123 14243
2. StateSpace Representation
Step 1: Select state variables and identify
inputs
Step 2: Solve for the firstorder time
derivative of each state variable and write
it in terms of state variables and inputs
only.
Similarly, write outputs (usually given) in
terms of state variables and inputs only.
Step 3: Write statevariable equations and
output equations in matrix form.
1 1 1
1 1
1
n n n n n m m
n p m p n m
p
× × × × ×
× × × ×
×
x = A x + B u
y = C x + D u
& &
Step 1:
1 1
2 1
3 2
z x
z x
z x
=
=
=
&
1
u f =
Step 2:
1 1 2
2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 3
3 2 1 2 1 3
2 2
z x z
z x x x x f z z z u
z x x x z z
= =
= = − − + + = − − + +
= = − = −
& &
&& & &
& &
Assume
1
x and
2
x to be outputs.
1 1 1
2 2 3
y x z
y x z
= =
= =
Step 3:
1 1
2 2
3 3
0 1 0 0
1 1 1 1
2 0 1 0
z z
z z u
z z
¦ ¹ ( ¦ ¹ (
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
( (
= − − +
´ ` ´ `
( (
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
( ( −
¹ ) ¸ ¸ ¹ ) ¸ ¸
&
&
&
1
1
2
2
3
1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
z
y
z u
y
z
¦ ¹
¦ ¹ ( ( ¦ ¦
= +
´ ` ´ `
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¹ )
¦ ¦
¹ )
3. Input/Output Equations
Step 1: Write differential equations in
secondorder matrix form (see Part 1).
Step 2: Take Laplace transform.
Step 2: Apply Cramer’s rule.
Step 3: Take inverse Laplace transform.
Step 1:
2
1 1 1 1
2
2 2 2
1 0 1 0 1 1
0 0 0 1 2 1 0
sX X F s X
sX X s X
− ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ ( ( ( ¦ ¹
+ + =
´ ` ´ ` ´ ` ´ `
( ( (
−
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¹ ) ¹ ) ¹ ) ¹ )
or
2
1 1
2
( ) ( ) 1 1
( ) 0 2 1
X s F s s s
X s s
( + + − ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹
=
´ ` ´ ` (
− +
¹ ) ¹ ) ¸ ¸
Step 2:
1
1 3 2
( 1) ( )
( )
2 2 1
s F s
X s
s s s
+
=
+ + −
1
2 3 2
2 ( )
( )
2 2 1
F s
X s
s s s
=
+ + −
Step 3:
1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 1
2 2
2 2 2
x x x x f f
x x x x f
+ + − = +
+ + − =
&
&&& && &
&&& && &
4. Transfer Matrix
Follow Step 1 and Step 2 in Part 3.
Step 3: Write transfer function for each
pair of input and output.
( )
( )
( )
i
ij
j
Y s
G s
U s
=
Write them in matrix form.
11 1
1
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
m
p pm
p m
G s G s
G s
G s G s
×
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
L
M O M
L
Step 3:
1
3 2
1
( ) 1
( ) 2 2 1
X s s
F s s s s
+
=
+ + −
2
3 2
1
( ) 2
( ) 2 2 1
X s
F s s s s
=
+ + −
in matrix form
3 2
3 2
1
2 2 1
( )
2
2 2 1
s
s s s
G s
s s s
+ (
(
+ + −
= (
(
(
+ + − ¸ ¸
Given: StateSpace Representation
1 1 1
1 1
1
n n n n n m m
n p m p n m
p
× × × × ×
× × × ×
×
x = A x + B u
y = C x + D u
& &
Find: Transfer Function or Transfer Matrix
11 1
1
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
m
p pm
p m
G s G s
G s
G s G s
×
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
L
M O M
L
Method:
1
( ) ( ) G s = C sI  A B+ D
Example: Recall Part 2
1
3 2
3 2
0 0 0 1 0 0
1 0 0 0
( ) 0 0 1 1 1 1
0 0 1 0
0 0 2 0 1 0
1
2 2 1
2
2 2 1
s
G s s
s
s
s s s
s s s
−
  ( ( (
( ( 
( ( (
= − − − +
( ( 
( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

( ( ( −
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ \ ¹
+ (
(
+ + −
= (
(
(
+ + − ¸ ¸
Given: Input/Output Equation (with timederivatives of
input)
( ) ( 1) ( ) ( 1)
1 0 1
n n n n
n n
y a y a y b u bu b u
− −
+ + + = + + + L L
or Transfer Function
1
0 1
1
1
( )
( )
n n
n
n n
n
b s b s b Y s
U s s a s a
−
−
+ + +
=
+ + +
L
L
4 2 3 2 y y y y u u + + + = + &&& && & &
or
3 2
( ) 2 1
( ) 4 2 3
Y s s
U s s s s
+
=
+ + +
Find: StateSpace Representation
Method:
1
1 2 1
0 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1 0
1
n
n n
x
x
a a a a
−
( (
( (
¦ ¹
( (
¦ ¦
( ( = = =
´ `
( (
¦ ¦
¹ ) ( (
( (
− − − −
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
x A B
L
L
M M M M M M
L
L
[ ]
0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0
n n n n
b a b b a b b a b D b
− −
= − + − + − + = C L
Note:
0
0 b = ,
1
0 b = ,
2
2 b = ,
3
1 b =
and
0
1 a = ,
1
4 a = ,
2
2 a = ,
3
3 a =
1 1
2 2
3 3
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
3 2 4 1
x x
x x u
x x
¦ ¹ ( ¦ ¹ (
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
( (
= +
´ ` ´ `
( (
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
( ( − − −
¹ ) ¸ ¸ ¹ ) ¸ ¸
&
&
&
[ ]
1
2
3
1 2 0 0
x
y x u
x
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
= + ⋅
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?