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Physics Assignment Help| Combination of Simple Harmonic

Motion|www.expertsmind.com
C CO OM MB BI IN NA AT TI IO ON N O OF F S SI IM MP PL LE E H HA AR RM MO ON NI IC C M MO OT TI IO ON N
We have previously learnt about the simple harmonic motion of a body. A body may, sometimes, possess
two or more simple harmonic motions simultaneously. Take the case of a simple pendulum suspended
from a stand placed in a boat. If the bob of the pendulum is set into vibrations when the boat is tossing
sideways, the bob is having its own S.H.M. and is also sharing the S.H.M. of the boat and moves at any
moment in the direction of the resultant of these two motions. We shall now discuss the methods of
finding the resultant of such simultaneous motions. Let us first take the case of two simple harmonic
motions in the same direction when they have the same periodic time. Their resultant can be found either
graphically or analytically.
(i) Graphical method of finding the resultant of two S.H.M.s in the same direction when they
have the same periodic time: Suppose that a particle N possesses simultaneously two simple
harmonic motions about O in the direction YOY' or the Y axis and the periodic time of each equals T.
Let the amplitudes of the two simple harmonic motions be a
1
and a
2
and their epoch angles
1
o and
2
o respectively. With O as centre and radii = a
1
and a
2
, draw circles A
1
B
1
C
1
D
1
and A
2
B
2
C
2
D
2
cutting
the axes of X and Y at the points shown in figure. Take the points P
1
and P
2
on the circumferences of
the two circles such that ZP
1
OX = o
1
and ZP
2
OX = o
2
. From P
1
and P
2
draw P
1
N
1
and P
2
N
2
perpendiculars on YOY' and P
1
M
1
and P
2
M
2
perpendiculars on XOX'. Then ON
1
and ON
2
denote the component displacements y
1
and
y
2
of the particle N at the start. With OP
1
and OP
2
as sides, complete the parallelogram OP
1
P
3
P
2
and join OP
3
. Draw P
3
N
3
and P
3
M
3
perpendiculars on YOY' and XOX' respectively. The resultant
displacement of the particle N on Y-axis at the start is given by ON
3
. Let this be denoted by y.
Since N
2
N
3
= ON
1
= y
1
y = ON
3
= ON
2
+N
2
N
3
= y
2
+y
1
With O as centre and radius = OP
3
, draw the circle A
3
B
3
C
3
D
3
. Since the components having simple
harmonic vibrations have the same periodic time T, the angular velocities OP
1
and OP
2
will be same
2
T
t |
=
|
' .
and the resultant OP
3
will also rotate with the same angular velocity as OP
1
or
OP
2
. Thus P
3
will always lie on the circumference A
3
B
3
C
3
D
3
. The resultant motion of the particle N being
the projection of uniform circular motion of P
3
will therefore, be simple harmonic motion about O
along YOY' with periodic time T. The amplitude of the resultant is given by the diagonal of the
parallelogram.
a =
2 2 2
3 1 2 1 2 2 1
OP OP OP 2OPOP cos P OP = + + Z
= ,
2 2
1 2 1 2 2 1
a a 2a a cos + + o o
The epoch angle of the resultant = o = P
3
OX is given by
tano =
3 3
3
P M
OM
=
3 1 2
1 1 3 1 2
ON y y
OM MM OM OM
+
=
+ +
=
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
a sin a sin
a cos a cos
o + o
o + o
We, therefore, find that the resultant of two simple
harmonic motions of equal period in the same direction is
another simple harmonic motion of the same period, but of
amplitude given by compounding the component
amplitudes according to the Parallelogram law.
C3
C2 C1
N1
N2
N3
B2
B1
B3
P3
P2
P1
A1
A2
A3 X
1
2

M2M1
M3 O
D1
D2
D3
Y'
X'
Y
Special Cases
(i) When o
1
= o
2
= |, i.e. the two simple harmonic vibrations are in the same phase o
2
o
1
= 0 and
a
2
=
2 2
1 2 1 2
a a 2a a + + = (a
1
+ a
2
)
2
or a = a
1
+ a
2
and tano =
,
,
1 2
1 2
a a sin
tan
a a cos
+ |
= |
+ |
o = |
The resultant vibration has, therefore, in this case, amplitude equal to the sum of the amplitudes
of component vibrations and is in phase with each of them.
(ii) When o
2
o
1
= 180or component vibrations are opposite in phase then
a
2
=
2 2
1 2 1 2
a a 2a a + + (1) =
2 2
1 2 1 2
a a 2a a + = (a
1
a
2
)
2
or a = a
1
a
2
and tano =
,
,
1 1 2 1
1 1 2 1
a sin a sin 180
a cos a cos 180
o + + o
o + + o

1 1 2 1
1 1 2 1
a sin a sin
a cos a cos
o o
o o
=
,
,
1 2 1
1
1 2 1
a a sin
tan
a a cos
o
= o
o
or o = o
1
or 180 + o
1
.
The resultant vibration has thus amplitude equal to the difference of amplitudes of component
vibrations and is in phase with one of the component vibrations the one with the bigger
amplitude.
(ii) Analytical method of finding the resultant of two simple harmonic motions in the same
direction when they have the same periodic time.
The two S.H.Ms having the same periodic time can be represented by the equations
y
1
= a
1
sin(et o
1
) or y
2
= a
2
sin(et o
2
)
Since the displacement y
1
and y
2
are in the same point, the resultant distance y at any time t is
obtained by their algebraic addition, or
y = y
1
+ y
2
= a
1
sin(et o
1
) + a
2
sin(et o
2
)
= a
1
sinet coso
1
a
1
coset sino
1
) + a
2
sinet coso
2
a
2
coset sino
2
)
= sinet(a
1
coso
1
+ a
2
cos o
2
) a
2
coset (a
1
sino
1
+ a
2
sino
2
)
Now take an angle | as shown in figure such that a
acos| = a
1
cos o
1
+ a
2
coso
2
and a sin| = a
1
sino
1
+ a
2
sin o
2
Then, y = asinet cos| a coset sin|
= asin(et |),

a
a1sin1 +a2sin2
a1cos1 +a2cos2
This represents a simple harmonic motion of the same periodic time as the component motions and
having an amplitude = a and epoch angle = |. From figure a is given by the relation
a
2
= (a
1
sino
1
+ a
2
sin o
2
)
2
+ (a
1
cos o
1
+ a
2
coso
2
)
2
=
2
1
a (sin
2
o
1
+ cos
2
o
1
) +
2
2
a (sin
2
o
2
+ cos
2
o
2
) + 2a
1
a
2
(sino
1
sino
2
+ coso
1
coso
2
)
=
2 2
1 2 1 2
a a 2a a + + cos(o
1
o
2
) And | is given by the relation
tan| =
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
a sin a sin
a cos a cos
o + o
o + o
The results are the same as those obtained graphically in the previous article.
Proceeding in a similar manner as given, it can be given that, for a number of simple harmonic
motions acting on a point in the same direction when their periodic times are same, amplitude of
the resultant speed is shown by,
a
2
= (asino)
2
+ (acoso)
2
,
The epoch of the resultant is shown by, tan| =
asin
acos
o
o
In case of superposition of two SHM's:
(a) In the similar direction and of same frequency.
,
1 1
2 2
x A sin t
x A sin t , then resultant displacement
= e
= e + |
, ,
1 2 1 2
x x A sin t A sin t Asin t + = e + e + u = e + |
If 0 u = , both SHM's are in phase and
1 2
A A A = +
If u = t , both SHM's are out of phase and
1 2
A A A =
The resultant value due to superposition of two or more than two SHM's of this case can also be
found by phases diagram also.
(b) In same direction but are of different parts.
1 1 1
2 2 2
x A sin t
x A sin t
= e
= e
then resultant displacement
1 2 1 1 2 2
x x x A sin t A sin t = + = e e
(c) In two perpendicular directions
,
x Asin t
y Bsin t
= e
= e + |
Case (i) if , 0 or then y B/ A x, u = t = so path will be straight line & resultant
displacement will be
, ,
1/ 2 1/ 2
2 2 2 2
r x y A B sin t = + = + e
Case (ii) if then.
2
t
u =
x A sin t = e
, y Bsin t / 2 Bcos t = e + t = e
So, resultant will be
2 2
2 2
x y
1
A B
+ = . i.e. equation of an ellipse and if A = B, then the resultant will be
circle.
(iii) Composition of two simple harmonic motions at right angles to each other Lissajous' figures.
Imagine a simple pendulum suspended from a stand placed in a boat and set into simple harmonic
vibrations along the directions of the length of the boat. Let the boat also toss sideways. The bob of the
pendulum is now under the influence of two simple harmonic vibrations - its own along the directions of
the length of the boat and another in a direction perpendicular to this due to the tossing of the boat. As a
consequence the bob in this case moves along the direction of the resultant of these two simple harmonic
motions and describes a curve known as Lissajous; figures. The Lissajous' figure may thus be described as a
curve which represents the resultant of two simple harmonic vibrations at right angles to each other. The
actual shape of the curve depends upon the relative periodic times, amplitude and phase of two
component vibrations.
The resultant of two simple harmonic motions at right angles to each other may be obtained by
any of the two methods, viz., (i) graphic method and (ii) Analytical method.
GRAPHIC METHOD FOR GETTING THE RESULTANT OF TWO SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTIONS AT
RIGHT ANGLES TO EACH OTHER
10 11 12 1 2
9 8 7 6 5 4 3
B
B
A
D
C
B
A
D
C
O

2
1
12
11
10
9
3
4
5
6
7
8
O

A
10
11
12.0
1
2
3
5
6
8
O
B
A
D
C
2
1
12
11
10
9
3
4
5
6
7
8
O

A
11
12.0
3
8
D
10 11 12 1 2
9 8 7 6 5 4 3
B
A
C
O

O
4
6
7
9 10
11
0, 12
2
N
P
M
L
(i) When they have the same periodic time, equal amplitudes and no phase difference: Let the two
simple harmonic motions occur along two perpendicular directions A"B" and A'B' represented in
figure. Let A'B'C'D' with centre O' and A"B"C"D" with centre O" be their respective circles of
reference. Since the two vibrations have equal amplitudes, the two circles will have equal radii.
Divide the circumference of each circle into 12 equal parts and from each point of divisions, draw a
perpendicular on the respective diameters A'B' or A"B" and produce it as shown in the figure.
Since there is no phase difference between the two simple harmonic motions, the starting
positions of the component motion may be represented by O' and O" on the two diameters' A'O'B'
and A"O"B". The resultant starting position is represented by O, the point of intersection of the
perpendiculars on A'B' and A"B" at the points O' and O". The points of intersection of the
perpendiculars on A'B' and A"B" viz., 1, 2, 3 . . . . . . . 12, represent the resultant positions of the
particle having the two simple harmonic motions after intervals of
T
12
. The curve obtained by
joining these points gives the resultant path of the particle which, in this case, will be seen to be a
straight line inclined at 45 to the direction of the component vibrations.
(ii) When the two simple harmonic motions have the same periodic time, equal amplitudes and a
phase difference =
2
t
: The resultant curve may be obtained in this case in the same manner as in
(i) above. While the starting point for one S.H.M. is O', the starting point of the other is B"; the
phase difference between these two being
2
t
. The starting point of resultant is M. see in figure. As
clear from the figure, the resultant curve or the Lissajous figure will be a circle in this case.
(iii) When the two simple harmonic
motions have the same periodic time but
different amplitude and a phase
difference = /2: The resultant curve may
be obtained graphically as above. Since the
two vibrations have different amplitudes, the
radii of the two component circles will be
different in this case. The resultant will be an
ellipse with axes along the direction of the
component vibrations.
4
t
or
4
7t
Zero
2
t
or
2
3t
4
3t
or
4
3t
Phase
Diff.
(iv) When the two simple harmonic motions have different amplitudes and also differ in phase
but they have the same periodic time : The resultant curve may be obtained graphically in the
above manner. Its shape will be found to differ with different phase differences as shown in figure.
It is to be noted that the resultant value' figure in this case is generally an ellipse, the eccentricity
and the inclination of which depend on the two amplitudes and the phase difference. When the
phase difference is zero or t, the ellipse changes to a straight line.
(v) When the component simple harmonic motions have different periodic times: The resultant
curve may be obtained in this case by dividing the circumferences of the two circles of reference
into parts in the ratio of the periodic times, so that the projections of the parts on respective
diameters give the displacements due to the individual simple harmonic motions in equal intervals
of time.
- The slope of the tangent drawn on the U versus X graph gives us the value of the restoring
force acting on the block.
- The graph can be used to obtain the value of PE stored in the spring at any stage.
- If we place a small ball in the U versus X graph then oscillatory motion of the ball will help
us in understanding the motion of the block.
- We can use this graph to find out the total energy of the oscillating system.
- Consider the U versus X graph to be is given as
2
U aX bX c, = + where a > 0. If a particle of
mass M oscillates in this potential field then we have to find out the time period and
analyze the motion.
In such a phase, first of all you have to find out the equilibrium position by setting
dU/ dX 0. = we get,
0
X b/ 2a = to be the stable equilibrium.
We also know that F dU/ dX 2aX b. = =
The displacement from the mean position is
2
X X . Let us writing
, ,
0
F 2a X b / 2a 2a X X . = + = Hence, the force constant of the system is "2a". (This is
equivalent to the spring constant). The time period of oscillation will be equal to

1/ 2
2 M/ 2a . t
- In the above example, if the body oscillates between
o 0
X A X X A < < + ,
then find out the energy of oscillation. Observe the graph for better
understanding.
U
X
o
A A
N
- Should realize that by shifting the parabola from the origin we do not change its original shape.
The restoring force and the time period of oscillation depend on the shape of the parabola and
not on its position in the coordinate plane. Students should also know that the shape of the
parabola is decided by the coefficient of X
2
. Therefore, if any question is asked to get the time
period, then we should only look at the value of 'a'.